Human Auditory System Response
To Modulated Electromagnetic Energy
ALLAN H. FREY
General Electric Advanced Electronics Center
Ithaca, New York
TRANSCRIPTION, Courtesy of MindNet Archives, Mike Coyle
posted at http://www.morethanconquerors.simplenet.com/MCF/
Frey, Allan H., Human Auditory system response to modulated
electromagnetic energy. J. Appl. Physiol. 17(4): 689-692. 1962.
(*) Asterisks indicate unreadable characters in the original copy.
NOTE: In 1962, frequencies were expressed as kiloCYCLES,
megaCYCLES, etc., with abbreviations being kc, mc
--The intent of this paper is to bring a new phenomena to the
attention of physiologists. Using extremely low average power
densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was
induced in normal and deaf humans. The effect was induced several
hundred feet from the antenna the instant the transmitter was turned
on, and is a function of carrier frequency and modulation. Attempts
were made to match the sounds induced by electromagnetic energy and
The closest match occurred when the acoustic amplifier was driven by
the rf transmitter's modulator. Peak power density is a critical
factor and, with acoustic noise of approximately 80 db, a peak power
density of approximately 275 mw / rf is needed to induce the
perception at carrier frequencies 125 mc and 1,310 mc. The average
power density can be at rf as low as 400 _u_w/cm2. The evidence for
the various positive sites of the electromagnetic energy sensor are
discussed and locations peripheral to the cochlea are ruled out.
Received for publication 29 September 1961.
A significant amount of research has been conducted with the effects
of radio-frequency (rf) energy on organisms (electro- magnetic energy
between 1 kc and ** Gc). Typically, this work has been concerned with
determining damage resulting from body temperature increase. The
average power densities used have been on the order of 0.1-t w/cm2
used over many minutes to several hours.
In contrast, using average power densities measured in microwatts per
square centimeter, we have found that ****r effects which are
transient, can be induced with rf energy. Further, these effects
occur the instant the transmitter is turned on. With appropriate
modulation, the perception of different sounds can be induced in
physically deaf, as well as normal, in human subjects at a distance
of inches up to thousands of feet from the transmitter. With
somewhat different transmission parameters, you can induce the
perception of severe buffeting of the head, without such apparent
vestibular symptoms as dizziness or nausea. Changing transmitter
parameters down, one can induce a "pins-and-needles" sensation.
Experimental work with these phenomena may yield information on
auditory system functioning and, more generally, in the nervous
system function. For example, this energy could possibly be used as
a tool to explore nervous system coding, possibly using Neider and
Neff's procedures (1), and for stimulating the nervous system without
the damage caused by electrodes.
Since most of our data have been obtained of the "rf sound" and only
the visual system has previously been shown to respond to
electromagnetic energy, this paper will be concerned only with the
auditory effects data. As a further restriction, only data from
human subjects will be reported, since only this data can be
discussed meaningfully at the present time. The long series of
studies we performed to ascertain that we were dealing with a
biological significant phenomena (rather than broadcasts from sources
such as loose fillings in the teeth) are summarized in another paper
(2), which also reports on the measuring instruments used in this
The intent of this paper is to bring this new phenomenon to the
attention of physiologists. The data reported are intended to
suggest numerous lines of experimentation and indicate necessary
Since we are dealing with a significant phenomenon, we decided to
explore the effects of a wide range of transmitter parameters to
build up the body of knowledge which would allow us to generate
hypotheses and determine what experimental controls would be
necessary. Thus, the numbers given are conservative; they should not
be considered precise, since the transmitters were never located in
ideal laboratory environments. Within the limits of our
measurements, the orientation of the subject in the rf field was of
Most of the transmitters used to date in the experimentation have
been pulse modulated with no information placed on the signal. The
rf sound has been described as being a buzz, clicking, hiss, or
knocking, depending on several transmitter parameters, i.e., pulse
width and pulse-repetition rate (PRF). The apparent source of these
sounds is localized by the subjects as being within, or immediately
behind the head. The sound always seems to come from within or
immediately behind the head no matter how the subjects twists or
rotates in the rf field.
Our early experimentation, preformed using transmitters with very
short square pulses and high pulse-repetition rates, seemed to
indicate that we were dealing with harmonics of the PRF. However,
our later work has indicated that this is not the case; rather, the
rf sound appears to be incidental modulation envelope on each pulse,
as shown in Fig 1.
Some difficulty was experienced when the subjects tried to match the
rf sound to ordinary audio. They reported that it was not possible
to satisfactorily match the rf sound to a sine wave or to white
noise. An audio amplifier was connected to a variable bypass filter
and pulsed by the transmitter pulsing mechanism. The subjects, when
allowed to control the filter, reported a fairly satisfactory match.
The subjects were fairly well satisfied with all frequencies below
5-kc audio were eliminated and the high- frequency audio was extended
as much as possible. There was, however, always a demand for more
high-frequency components. Since our tweeter has a rather good
high-frequency response, it is possible that we have shown an
analogue of visual phenomenon in which people see farther into the
ultraviolet range when the lenses is eliminated from the eye. In
other words, this may be a demonstration that the mechanical
transmission system of the ossicles cannot respond to as high a
frequency as the rest of the auditory system. Since the rf bypasses
the ossicle system and the audio given the subject for matching does
not, this may explain the dissatisfaction of our subjects in the
FIG. 1. Oscilloscope representation of transmitter output over
TRANSMITTER ELECTRONIC NOISE
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
--- --------------- -----------
ON OFF ON OFF
FIG. 2. Audiogram of deaf subject (otosclerosis) who had a "normal"
rf sound threshold.
| | | | | | | | | | | |
0|----|----|----|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--| A = RIGHT BONE
| | A | | | | | | | | |
|----|----B----A--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--| B = LEFT BONE
| | | B | A | | | | | | |
LOSS(db) 20|----|----|----B--B--AB-B--B--B--AB-|--| C = LEFT AIR
| | | | | | | A | | | |
|----|----|----|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--| D = RIGHT AIR
| | | | | | | | | | | C
| | C C C | | | | | C | |
| | D | D | | D | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
TABLE 1. Transmitter parameters
Trans- Frequency, Wave- Pulse Width, Pulses Sec. Duty Cy.
mitter mc length, cm _u_sec
A 1,310 22.9 6 244 .0015
B 2,982 10.4 1 400 .0004
C 425 70.6 125 27 .0038
D 425 70.6 250 27 .007
E 425 70.6 500 27 .014
F 425 70.6 1000 27 .028
G 425 70.6 2000 27 .056
H 8,900 3.4 2.5 400 .001
FIG. 3. Attenuation of ambient sound with Flent antinoise stopples
(collated from Zwislocki (3) and Von Gierke (4).
| | | | | | | ||| | | | |||
|----|---|--|--|-|-|-|||----|---|--|-||| A = FLENTS
| | | | | | | ||| | | | |||
10|----|---|--|--|-|-|-|||----|---|--|-||| B = THEORETICAL LIMIT
| | | | | | | ||| | | | ||| OF ATTENUATION BY
FUNCTION(db) |----|---|--|--|-|-|-|||----|---|--|-||| EAR PROTECTORS
A | | | | | | ||| | | | |||
B | A A A | A AAA A| | | |||
| | | | B | | ||| | A | | |||
| | | | | | | ||| | | A |A|
| | | | | | | ||| B | | | |||
| | | | | | | ||| B | | B||
| | | | | | | ||| | B | | |||
| | | | | | | ||| | | | |||
| | | | | | | ||| | | | |||
100 1000 10000
TABLE 2. Theshold for perception of rf sound (ambient noise level 70-
Avg Peak Peak Magnetic
Power Power Electric Field
Trans- Frequency, Duty Cy. Density, Density Field amp.
mitter mc mw, cm2 mw, cm2 v cm turns, m
A 1,310 .0015 0.4 267 14 4
B 2,982 .0004 2.1 5,250 63 17
C 425 .0038 1.0 263 15 4
D 425 .007 1.9 271 14 4
E 425 .014 3.2 229 13 3
F 425 .028 7.1 254 14 4
FIG. 4. Threshold energy as a function of frequency of electromagnetic
energy (ambient noise level 70-90 db).
(mw/cm2) | | | * |
| | | * |
| | | * |
| | | * |
| | | * |
| | * | |
| * * * * * * * | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
200 1000 2000 3000
FIG. 5. Microwave power distribution in a forehead model neglecting
resonance effects and considering only first reflections
(from Nieset et al. (5), modified).
| REFLECTED ABSORBED
1.5|--- FREQUENCIES FREQUENCIES
| * *
| * * * = 10% OF INCIDENT
CENTIMETERS |Cortical * POWER
| * @ = 20% OF INCIDENT
1.0|--- * POWER
| * *
| * *
0.5|--- * @ @ @ *
|Muscle * @ @
|Fat @ @ *
|Skin @ @ @
0 100 1000 10000 100000
FIG. 6. Area most sensitive to electromagnetic energy (shaded portion).
* * * * * *
* * :::::: *
* * ::::::::: *
* O * :::::::: *
* * * *
* * *
* * *
*** ** *
* * *
* * * * *
* * * * * * * * *
At one time in our experimentation with deaf subjects there seemed to
be a clear relationship between the ability to hear audio above 5 kc
and the ability to hear rf sounds. If a subject could hear above 5
kc, either by bone or air conduction, then he could hear the rf
sounds. For example, the threshold of the subject whose audio gram
appears in Fig. 2 was the same average power density as our normal
subjects. Recently, however, we have found people with a notch
around 5 kc who do not perceive the rf sounds generated by at least
one of our transmitters.
As shown in Table 1, we have used a fairly wide range of transmitter
parameters. We are currently experimenting with transmitters that
radiate energy at frequencies below 425 mc, and are using different
types of modulation, e.g., pulse-repetition rates as low as 3 and
In the experimentation reported in this section, the ordinary noise
level was 70-90 db (measured with a General Radio Co. model 1551-B
sound level meter.) In order to minimize the rf energy used in the
experimentation, subjects wore Flent antinoise ear stoppers whenever
measurements were made. The ordinary noise attenuation of the Flents
is indicated in Fig. 3. Although the rf sounds can be heard without
the use of Flents, eventhough they have an ambient noise evel of 90
db, it appears that the ambient noise to some extent "masked" the rf
Table 2 gives the thresholds for the perception of the sounds. It
shows fairly clearly that the critical factor in the perception of
the rf sound is the peak power density, rather than the average power
density. The relatively high value for transmitter B was expected
and will be discussed below. Transmitter G has been omitted from the
table since the 20-mw/cm2 reading for it can be considered only
approximate. The field-strength-measuring instruments used in that
experiment did not read high enough to give an accurate reading. The
energy from transmitter H was not perceived, even when the peak power
density was as high as 25 w/cm2.
When the threshold energy is plotted as a function of the rf energy
(Fig. 4), a curve is obtained which is suggestive of the curve of
penetration of rf energy into the head. Figure 5 shows the
calculated penetration, by frequency of rf energy, into the head. Our
data indicate that the calculated penetration curve may well be
accurate at the higher frequencies but the penetration at the lower
frequencies may be greater than that calculated on this model.
As previously noted, the thresholds were obtained in a high ambient
noise environment. This is an unusual situation as compared to
obtaining thresholds of regular audio sound. One recent
experimentation leads us to believe that, if the ambient noise level
were not so high, these threshold fields strengths would be much
lower. Since one purpose of this paper is to suggest experiments, it
might be appropriate to theories as to what the rf sound threshold
might be if we assumed that the subject is in an anechoic chamber.
It is also assumed that there is no transducer noise.
Given: As a threshold for the rf sound, a peak power density of 275
mw/cm2 determined in an ambient noise environment of 80 db. Earplugs
attenuate the ambient noise 30 db.
If: 1 mw/cm2 is set equal to o db, then 275 mw/cm2 is equal to 24 db.
Then: We can reduce the rf energy 50 db to -26 db as we reduce the
noise level energy from 50 db to o db. We found that -26 db rf
energy is approximately 3 _u_w/cm2.
Thus: If an anechoic room, rf sound could theoretically be induced
by a peak power density of 3 _u_w/cm2 measured in free space. Since
only 10% of this energy is likely to penetrate the skull, the human
auditory system and a table radio may be one order of magnitude apart
in sensitivity to rf energy.
Up to Contents
RF DETECTOR IN AUDITORY SYSTEM
One possibility that seems to have been ruled out in our
experimentation is that of a capacitor-type effect with the tympanic
membrane and oval window acting as plates of a capacitor. It would
seem possible that these membranes, acting as plates of a capacitor,
could be set in motion by rf energy. There are, however, three
points of evidence against this possibility. First, when one rotates
a capacitor in an rf field, a rather marked change occurs in the
capacitor as a function of its orientation in the field. When our
subjects rotate or change the positions of their heads in the field,
the loudness of the rf sound does not change appreciably. Second,
the distance between these membranes is rather small, compared with
the wavelengths used. As a third point, we found that one of our
subjects who has otosclerosis heard the rf sound.
Another possible location for the detecting mechanism is in the
cochlea. We have explored this possibility with nerve-deaf people,
but the results are inconclusive due to factors such as tinnitus. We
are currently exploring this possibility with animal preparations.
The third likely place for the detection mechanism is the brain. Burr
and Mauro (6) presented evidence that indicates that there is an
electrostatic field about neurons. Morrow and Sepiel (7) presented
evidence that indicates the existence of a magnetic field about
neurons. Becker (personal communication) has done some work
indicating that there is longitudinal flow of charged carriers in
neurons. Thus, it is reasonable to suspect that possibly the
electromagnetic field could interact with neuron fields. As yet,
evidence of this possibility is inconclusive. The strongest point
against it is that we have not found visual effects although we have
searched for them. On the other hand, we have obtained other
nonauditory effects and have found that the sensitive area for
detecting rf sounds is a region over the temporal lobe of the brain.
One can shield, with a 2-in.2 piece of fly screen, a portion of the
stippled area shown in Fig. 6 and completely cut off the rf sound.
Another possibility should also be considered. There is no good
reason to assume that there is only one detector site. On the
contrary, the work of Jones et al. (8), in which they placed
electrodes in the ear and electrically stimulated the subject, is
sufficiently relevant to suggest the possibility of more than one
detector site. Also, several sensations have been elicited with
properly modulated electromagnetic energy. It is doubtful that all
of these can be attributed to one detector.
As mentioned earlier, the purpose of this paper is to focus the
attention of physiologists on an unusual area and stimulate
additional work on which interpretations can be based.
Interpretations have been deliberately omitted from this paper since
additional data are needed before a clear picture can emerge. It is
hoped that the additional exploration will also result in an increase
in our knowledge of nervous system functions.
Neider, P.C. and W.D. Neff. Science 133: 1010, 1961.
Frey, A.H. Aero Space Med. 32: 1140, 1961.
Zwislocki, J. Noise Control 4:42, 1958.
Von Gierke, H. Noise Control 2:37, 1956.
Nifset, R., Pinneo R. Baus J. Fleming, & R. McAfee. Ann. Rept. USAF
Rome Air Development Command, TR-61-65, 1961.
Burr, H., & J. Seipel, J. Wash Acad. Sci. 21: 455, 1949.
Morrow, R., & J. Seipel. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 30: 1, 1969.
Jones, R.C., S.S. Stevens, & M.H. Laurie. J. Acoust. Sci. Am. 12:
Up to Contents
APPENDIX PM3 - NASA ARTICLE
TITLE: Effects of low power microwaves on the local cerebral blood flow of
Original web link, folded for readability
Eleanor White's inserted note:
See the ITALIC text below. This abstract has implications
FAR beyond "rats"
Document ID: 19810004209 N (81N12720) File Series: NASA Technical Reports
Report Number: AD-A090426
Sales Agency & Price: CASI Hardcopy or Microfiche
Oscar, K. J. (Army Mobility Equipment Command)
Published: Jun 01, 1980
Army Mobility Equipment Command (Fort Belvoir, VA, United States)
Contract Number: None
NASA Subject Category: LIFE SCIENCES (GENERAL)
A decoy and deception concept presently being considered is to
remotely create the perception of noise in the heads of personnel by
exposing them to low power, pulsed microwaves. When people are
illuminated with properly modulated low power microwaves the
sensation is reported as a buzzing, clicking, or hissing which seems
to originate (regardless of the person's position in the field)
within or just behind the head. The phenomena occurs at average power
densities as low as microwatts per square centimeter with carrier
frequencies from 0.4 to 3.0 GHz. By proper choice of pulse
characteristics, intelligible speech may be created. Before this
technique may be extended and used for military applications, an
understanding of the basic principles must be developed. Such an
understanding is not only required to optimize the use of the concept
for camouflage, decoy and deception operations but is required to
properly assess safety factors of such microwave exposure.
Major Subject Terms:
Minor Subject Terms:
Language Note: English
NASA Access Help Desk
Eleanor White's comments: I have received this report in it's
entirety and I find that the article itself is about the title:
Cerebral blood flow in rats. We involuntary experimentees are
extremely lucky that the authors mentioned the success of microwave
voice to skull transmission in this official document.
Below I have extracted some of the references to the full document
which appear to be more promising and specific. This sub-list is
guesswork since the references omit article titles, but any articles
by Frey or Justesen are potentially useful.
1. Frey, A.H., Messenger, R. and Eichert, E.,
National Technical Information Service,
Doc. No. AD747684 (1972)
5. Justesen, D.R., IEEE Spectrum 16, 67-68 (1979)
7. Frey, A.H., Feld, S.R., & Frey, B. Annals of
N.Y. Academy of Science, 247, 433-439 (1975)
18. Frey, A.H., & Messenger, R., Science 181,
25. Frey, A.H., & Feld, S.R., Journal of Comp.
Physiology and Psychology, 89, 183-188
27. King, N.W., Justesen, D.R., & Clarke, R.L.,
Science 172, 398-401 (1977)
Up to Contents
APPENDIX PM4 - SEA/KOHN'S PROJECTS
Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect
Awarding Agency: Department of Defense
SBIR Contract Number: F41624-95-C-9007
Title: Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect
Principal Investigator: Mr. Brian Kohn
Science & Engineering Assoc, Inc.
6100 Uptown Blvd NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Telephone Number: 505-884-2300
Project Amount: $739,995
Research Category: Monitoring/Analytical
An innovative and revolutionary technology is described that offers a
means of low-probability-of-intercept Radio frequency (RF)
communications. The feasibility of the concept has been
established using both a low intensity laboratory system and a
high power RF transmitter. Numerous military applications exist in
areas of search and rescue, security and special operations.
Supplemental Keywords: small business, SBIR,
See also: http://www.seabase.com
Last Updated: November 17, 1997
BRIAN KOHN'S PROJECT, EARLIER STUDY:
Agency: AF Field
TOPIC Number: AF93-026
Control Number: 93AL -185
Contract Number: F41624-93-C-9013
Awarded In: 93
Award Amount: $37,806
Award Start Date: 17 MAY 93
Award Completion Date: 17 DEC 93
Proposal Title: Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect
Principal Investigator Name:Brian Kohn
Principal Investigator Phone:505-884-2300
Firm SCIENCE & ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
6100 Uptown Blvd NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Woman Owned: N
Minority Owned: N
Number of Employees: 95
MICROWAVE HEARING RF HEARING
BONE CONDUCTION THERMOELASTIC
In this research program, we plan to investigate a revolutionary new
form of communication based on the microwave auditory effect. This
proposed communication idea satisfies the requirements for an
innovative, natural interface requiring no learning or training for
efficient operation and effective communications. The purpose of the
program proposed here is to extend the results of a recent
feasibility study, performed for the Armstrong Laboratory/OEDR. The
study found that voice communications, via the microwave auditory
effect, are highly feasible. In Phase I of this SBIR, we propose to
investigate the range of potential applications for this radically
different form of voice communication and recommend hardware and
systems concepts suitable for laboratory and brassboard
demonstrations to be built under Phase II.
Up to Contents
APPENDIX PM5 - BIOLOGICAL AMPLIFICATION
Electromagnetic Interaction With Biological Systems
edited by Dr. James C. Lin, University of Illinois
1989 Plenum Press, New York
Proceedings of the Joint Symposium on Interactions of
Electromagnetic Waves with Biological Systems, held as part
of the Twenty-Second General Assembly of the International
Union of Radio Science, Aug 25 - Sept 2, 1987, in Tel Aviv,
Eleanor White's comments on this posting:
This book focusses on NON-ionizing radiation, and contains
detailed texts about NON-THERMAL effects. In other words,
"right up our alley".
The main use of this book is to show that it is easy for
electromagnetic signals to cause radio frequency hearing and other
effects at LOW power levels. This in turn can be used to explain why
DETECTION is so very difficult.
I don't understand the biological jargon, however, a few of the more
plain-language paragraphs STUNNINGLY verify that with careful choice
of signal frequency and modulation, not only can the body's cells
detect the modulation envelope of an incoming radio signal (i.e.
function as a "cellular crystal set") but even AMPLIFY these
carefully formed signals. (Amplification of other effects, such as
proneness to disease, is also covered in the book.)
"Detection", in terms of radio signal reception, means that some
portion of the reciever "rectifies", that is, turns the AC of the
incoming signal into varying DC. If this conversion is not done,
voice to skull wouldn't work.
The book touches also on ways in which cells communicate, and
shows that electromagnetic fields of relatively weak power levels
can affect intercellular communication, which is, as I understand
the subject, what the brain is "all about".
Bio-amplification is apparently why radio signals of very low average
power ("MICROwatts" per NASA) can still produce audio effects,
and no doubt plays a part in difficulties in detection.
When two more characteristics of voice to skull are factored in:
1. The carrier signal can be "hopped" continuously within the
bioeffective bandwidth, known as "spread spectrum" transmission,
2. The voice modulation most effective for undetectable hypnosis
is evidently a voice shifted just above normal hearing, but still
audible to the brain,
...you have a recipe for incredibly difficult signals to detect.
This book is a mainstream publication, very well suited to use
in our publicity and persuasion campaigns, and our dealings with
authorities who claim radio signals don't affect living tissue
except to heat it.
Finally, many thanks to Blanche Chavoustie for providing me
photocopies of this book - a saintly work!
At that time  excitatory mechanisms in nerver fibers
and nerve cells were grouped under a common rubric of ionic
equilibrium mechanisms. There was little interest in the
possibility that functional organization of mebranes of cell
bodies might involve threshhold sensitivities to both
oscillating EM fields and to molecular stimuli at energy
levels substantially lower than predicted by Hodgkin-
Huxley models, and substantially below typical threshholds
in nerve fibers.
Much recent research cited below has shown that imposed weak
low frequency fields (and radiofrequency fields amplitude-
modulated at ELF frequencies) that are many orders of
magnitude weaker in the pericellular fluid [fluid between
adjacent cells] than the membrane potential gradient [voltage
across the membrane] can modulate actions of hormone, anti-
body neurotransmitter and cancer-promoter molecules at their
cell surface receptor sites.
From their electrical characteristics, these sensitivities
appear to involve nonequilibrium and highly cooperative
processes that mediate a major amplification of initial
weak triggers associated with binding of these molecules at
their specific cell surface receptor sites.
(Adey, 1983, 1986, 1987; Adey and Lawrence, 1984; Lawrence
and Adey, 1982).
Cooperative Modification of Calcium Binding by RF Fields
at Cell Surfaces with Amplification of Initial Signals
Initial stimuli associated with weak perpindicular EM fields
and with binding of stimulating molecules at their membrane
receptor sites elicit a HIGHLY COOPERATIVE modification of
Ca++ binding to glycoproteins along the membrane surface.
As noted above, a longitudinal spread is consistent with
the direction of extracellular current flow associated with
physiological activity and imposed EM fields. This cooper-
ative modification of surface Ca++ binding is an
AMPLIFYING STAGE, with evidence from concurent initial molecular
binding events by imposed RF fields that there is a far greater
increase in Ca++ efflux than is accounted for in the events of
receptor-ligand binding (Bawin and Adey, 1976; Bawin et al,
1975; Liu-Liu and Adey, 1982).
Enzymes are protein molecules that function as catalysts,
initiating and enhancing chemical reactions that would not
otherwise occur at tissue temperatures. This ability resides
in the pattern of electrical charges on the molecular surface.
In the fashion of more familiar chemical catalysts, such as
the hydrocarbon oxidation systems which function only at very
high temperatures in automotive exhaust systems, a catalyst
emerges unchanged from these reactions and is thus able to
participate indefinitely in a specific reaction.
Activation of these enzymes and the reactions in which they
participate involve energies millions of times greater than
in the cell surface cell surface triggering events initiated
by the EM fields, emphasizing the MEMBRANE AMPLIFICATION
inherent in this trans-membrane signaling sequence.
Stimulus Amplification in Cooperative Systems
It is therefore clear that OBSERVED EM field interactions
with cells and tissues based on oscillating ELF tissue gradients
between 10 E-7 and 10 E-1 volts per centimeter would involve
cooperativity MANY ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE GREATER than envisaged in
the examples just cited.
In part this discrepancy appears to relate to far greater
sensitivities to low-frequency EM fields [EW: ELF, that is, the
"entrainment" frequencies] and to RF fields with low-frequency
amplitude-modulation [EW: this includes radar hearing signals]
than to imposed step functions or DC gradients [EW: common
with contact electrodes, not of interest in mind control at a
distance] used in many electrochemical experiments and models
to test levels of cooperativity in biological systems.
[EW: In plain language, both entrainment (ELF) fields and
pulsating radar-like (RF) fields are a hell of a lot more
influential on cells than some experimental work using DC
and electrode methods.]
[EW: This section is not part of the demonstration that EM
signals can be biologically amplified, as above. It's main
interest is that a magnetophosphene "gun" was under consider-
ation by the U.S. National Institute of Justice in 1993, along
with a "fever" gun and a "convulsion" gun, both using micro-
wave technology. As of 1999, nothing has been heard from NIJ
on this development, however, page 95 here suggests that such
a microwave weapon is feasible.]
An effect of time-varying magnetic fields on humans was first
described by d'Arsonval (1896) [EW: Anyone doubt there has
been some progress since 1896?] is the induction of a flicker-
ing illumination within the visual field field known as
magnetophosphenes. This phenomenon occurs as an immediate
response to stimulation by either pulsed or sinusoidal magnetic
fields with frequencies less than 100 Hz, and the effect is
completely reversible with no apparent influence on visual
acuity. The maximum visual sensitivity to sinusoidal magnetic
fields has been found at a frequency of 20 Hz in human subjects
with normal vision.
[EW: Radio signals are a combination of electric and magnetic
fields. To radiate a 20 Hz signal would require such huge
antennas that it is impractical to do so. I'd recommend that
if someone has the facilities and skills, I'd try some VHF (or
microwave) pulsing at 20 Hz on an RF carrier at, say, the 2-meter
(144-148 MHz) ham band with a duty cycle, say, of 20% pulse-ON
Up to Contents
APPENDIX PM6 - VOICE TO SKULL, 1974 SUCCESS
Microwaves and Behavior
Dr. Don R. Justesen
Laboratories of Experimental Neuropsychology
Veterans Administration Hospital
Kansas City, Missouri
as published in
Journal of the American Psychological Association
Volume 30, March 1975, Number 3
................ Eleanor's comments .........................
This LAYS TO REST ANY DOUBTS THAT VOICE TO SKULL
TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT EXIST OR IS "IN THE FUTURE"!
This article describes in precise terms how Dr. Joseph C.
Sharp and staff transmitted the WORDS for the digits 1 to 10
using a modulated version of an Allan Frey type pulsed
microwave transmitter. A detailed description of Frey
transmitters can be viewed at:
The relevant text is below.
The demonstration of sonic transduction of microwave energy
by materials lacking in water LESSENS the likelihood that a
thermohydraulic principle is operating in human perception
of the energy. Nonetheless, some form of thermoacoustic
transduction probably underlies perception. If so, it is
clear that simple heating is NOT a sufficient basis for the
Frey effect; the requirement for pulsing of radiations
appears to implicate a thermodynamic principle.
Frey and Messenger (1973) and Guy, Chou, Lin, and Christen-
sen (1975) confirmed that a microwave pulse with a slow rise
time is INeffective in producing an auditory response; only
if the rise time is SHORT, resulting in effect in a square
wave with respect to the leading edge of the envelope of
radiated radio-frequency energy, does the auditory response
[Eleanor's comment: This is why we don't "hear" ordinary
radio and TV signals.]
Thus the rate of change (the first derivative) of the
waveform of the pulse is a CRITICAL factor in perception.
Given a thermodynamic interpretation, it would follow that
information can be encoded in the energy and "communicated"
to the "listener".
Communication has in fact been demonstrated. A. Guy (Note
1), a skilled telegrapher, arranged for his father, a retired
railroad telegrapher, to operate a key, each closure and
opening of which resulted in a pulse of microwave energy.
By directing the radiations at his own head, complex mess-
ages via the Continental Morse Code were readily received
Sharp and Grove (note 2) found that appropriate modu-
lation of microwave energy can result in "wireless" and
"receiverless" communication of SPEECH. The recorded by
voice on tape each of the single-syllable words for digits
between 1 and 10. The electrical sine-wave analogs of each
word were then processed so that each time a sine wave
crossed ZERO REFERENCE IN THE NEGATIVE DIRECTION, a brief
pulse of microwave energy was triggered.
[Eleanor's comment: This is, in effect a form of what is
called pulse-RATE modulation.]
By radiating themselves with these "voice modulated"
microwaves, Sharp and Grove were READILY able to hear,
identify, and distinguish among the 9 words. [Typo?]
The sounds heard were not unlike those emitted by persons
with artificial larynxes.
Communication of more complex words and of sentences was
not attempted because the averaged densities of energy
required to transmit longer messages would approach the
current 10 milliwatts per square centimeter limit of safe
The capability of communicating directly with a human being
by "receiverless radio" has obvious potentialities both
within and without the clinic. But the hotly debated and
unresolved question of how much microwave radiation a human
being can safely be exposed to will probably forestall
applications within the near future.
Up to Contents
APPENDIX PM7 - U.S. GOVT DOCUMENT RE: RUSSIAN MIND CONTROL
A Warning to the World from Russian Psychotronic Researchers
Unclassified FOIA document, courtesy Cheryl Welsh, which is a bulletin
circulated among U.S. government agencies reviewing an October 6, 1995
Russian TV news segment titled "Man and Law" on the topic of mind
control technology. The images below complement another video produced
by German ZDF TV and shown on December 22, 1998. The 1998 video's
transcribed sound track, in English is posted at:
Here are the images of the FOIA document:
Up to Contents
APPENDIX PM8 - OAK RIDGE LABS AND OTHER BULLETINS
THE FOLLOWING SET OF ARTICLES HIGHLIGHTS OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABS'
RESEARCH INTO RADIO FREQUENCY WEAPONS. I HAVE PHONED THEM AND THE
1993 NEWS RELEASE BELOW IS GENUINE. E.W.
Date sent: Fri, 10 May 1996 17:52:55 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: MindNet Journal - Vol. 1, No. 73
V E R I C O M M / MindNet "Quid veritas est?"
The views and opinions expressed below are not necessarily the
views and opinions of VERICOMM, MindNet, or the editors unless
Permission is given to reproduce and redistribute, for
non-commercial purposes only, provided this information and the
copy remain intact and unedited.
Editor: Mike Coyle
Assistant Editor: Rick Lawler
Research: Darrell Bross
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES APPLICABLE TO DEVELOPMENT OF
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Physiological Responses Applicable to Development of
Sponsored by National Institute of Justice
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Less-than-lethal weapons have a variety of applications in law
enforcement, including rescuing hostages, stopping fleeing
felons, and quelling prison disturbances. The National Institute
of Justice is sponsoring a broad program to develop new
techniques for "friendly force" as an alternative to the use of
deadly force. As part of this program, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory (ORNL) is examining approaches based on known
physiological responses to certain types of stimuli. These
"weapons" would temporarily incapacitate an individual or a
group with no lasting physiological damage. These concepts are
based on ORNL's experience and expertise in biological-based
systems and biophysical responses, particularly in evaluating
the physical responses of humans to a variety of chemical,
physical and radiological agents. ORNL also has extensive
experience and expertise in risk analysis and in risk assessment
The ORNL less than-lethal weapons project sponsored by the
National Institute of Justice began in September 1993. The
following tasks are being performed:
* Locate and compile data from tests, accidents, medical
literature, etc. on biological and biophysical responses
to energetic stimuli (such as electromagnetic fields).
* Analyze the information and identify promising candidate
mechanisms for further development for a friendly force
* Evaluate the applicability of the proposed approaches to
several realistic scenarios (such as hostage rescue or riot
ORNL has already examined several possible concepts for
less-than-lethal weapons based on known physiological responses
to energetic stimuli, including a thermal gun, a seizure gun,
and a magnetophosphene gun. A thermal gun would have the
operational effect of heating the body to 105 to 107F, thereby
incapacitating any threat, based on the fact that even a slight
fever can affect the ability of a person to perform even simple
tasks. This approach is built on four decades of research
relating radio frequency exposure to body heating. A seizure gun
would use electromagnetic energy to induce epileptic-like
seizures in persons within the range of a particular
electromagnetic field. The magnetophosphene gun is designed
around a biophysical mechanism which evokes a visual response
and is thought to be centered in the retina, known as
magnetophosphenes. This effect is experienced when a person
receives a blow to the head and sees "stars". This same effect
can be produced with electromagnetic energy. While there are a
number of technical challenges to be overcome in building
devices of these types, less-than-lethal weapons based on
physiological responses to energetic stimuli would provide a
safe and effective means of dealing with a number of law
enforcement situations where use of deadly force is not
For further information contact:
Ray Downs, National Institute of Justice (202) 616-3509 Susan
Sherrow, Oak Ridge Special Projects Office (615) 576-8024
Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy
Laboratory Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
MindNet Journal Archive Filename: [mn173.txt]
To receive the MindNet Journal via email:
Send message: [subscribe mindnet] to: .
Send message: [unsubscribe mindnet] to: .
Back issues of the MindNet Journal are available at our=20
FTP Archive site:=20
MindNet Journal Publication Index: [mnindex.txt]
Submission of articles for publication within the MindNet
Journal on the subjects of mind control, directed-energy
weapons, non-lethal weapons, ritual abuse, UFO abductions,
bioelectromagnetics, hypnosis, and other related topics
will be accepted with the author's statement of permission
to publish. The editor reserves the right to accept or
reject for publication. The publisher disclaims all
responsibility to return unsolicited matter. Send articles
for submission to:
, or VERICOMM BBS 510.891.0303, or VERICOMM,
POB 32314, Oakland, CA 94604-2314 USA.
VERICOMM / MindNet and its agents disclaim any and all
responsibility or liability for any and all claims and/or
guarantees, express or implied, and delivery of products,
merchandise, and/or services offered for sale by
advertisers and/or authors within the MindNet Journal.
The MindNet mailing list is owned and maintained by Mike Coyle,
, VERICOMM / MindNet, POB 32314 Oakland, CA
The MindNet Journal is published by VERICOMM / MindNet in=20
cooperation with the Freedom Of Thought Foundation, POB 35072,
Tucson, AZ 85740-5072 USA.
Los Angeles Herald Examiner, Section A, November 22, 1976
Mind-Altering Microwaves: Soviets Studying Invisible Ray
A newly declassified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report
says extensive Soviet research into microwaves might lead to
methods of causing disoriented human behavior, nerve disorders,
and even heart attacks.
A copy of the study was provided by the agency to the Associated
Press in response to a request under the Freedom of Information
Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating
intercranially (within the head) can be induced by signal
modulation at very low average power densities, the study said.
One physiological effect which has been demonstrated is heart
seizure, the report said.
It said this has been accomplished experimentally in frogs
by synchronizing the pulses of a microwave signal with the
animal's heartbeat and beaming the radiation at the chest
Microwave News, January-February 1987
Six hundred scientists and engineers with security clearances
spend the first week of December at Kirtland Air Force Base in
New Mexico examining the potential of high-power microwaves to
zap enemy electronics...
... Many branches of the Department of Defense were represented,
including the Air Force, the Army and the Navy, together with
DARPA, DIA, and DNA. The Lawrence Livermore Labs were also
well represented, as were most of the big defense contractors -
General Dynamics, Physics International and TRW each have a
high-power microwave testing facility.
In addition to these sources, susceptibility and hardening,
there was one on biological effects: Dr. David Erwin and
Major Robert Downs represented the Air Force and Howard Bassen
and Dr. John D'Andrea described the Army and Navy programs,
respectively. Dr. Frank Barnes of the University of Colorado
in Boulder presented a poster paper on his and Dr. Howard
Wachtel's research on the effects of pulsed microwaves.
Chuck de Caro, a former correspondent for the Cable News Network,
considers the possibility that the U.S. is falling behind the
U.S.S.R. in microwave weapons in "The Zap Gap", to be published
in the March issue of "The Atlantic" (see also MWN November-
Microwave News, January-February 1996
RF WEAPONS - Disabling People and Electronics
The military continues to explore development of RF weapons
for the conflicts of the future. For instance, the "First
Directed Energy Warfare (DEW) Conference", held last year
at the Mitre Corp. in McLean VA, featured Dr. David Erwin
of the Armstrong Lab at Brooks AFB, San Antonio, TX, on
"Directed Energy Warfare RF Effects", and D.r Jose Pina of
the CIA on "Ground Combat Applications of RF". Other topics
included "Personnel Vulnerability" and Directed Energy
Warfare Biological Effects".
The June meeting was organized by the Association of Old
Crows, whose members are specialists in electronic warfare.
Conference participants had to have security clearances of
"Secret" or higher, as has been the case at similar meetings
in the past (See MWN, J-F 87 and N-D 93).
Public discussions of RF/MW weapons have focussed on dis-
rupting technology. But a recent Article in the Airpower
Journal revealed "for the first time that the military is
developing high-powered microwave weapons for use against
human beings", reports Peter Cassidy in the January 1996
"Progressive" (see p. 14).
RF/MW and EMF-based weapons are also being studied for
civilian law enforcement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory
(ORNL) in Oak Ridge TN will soon complete a literature
review for the National Insitute of Justice on the
feasibility of "thermal guns" which could heat the body to
105 to 107 degrees F and incapacitate the target; "seizure
guns" which would use EM energy to induce epileptic-like
seizures; and "magnetophosphene guns" which would cause
the target to "see stars".
The institute's Ray Downs in Washington cautioned that the
report may not be made public. ORNL's Dr. Clay Easterly
has said that some effects not associated with heating
could be useful in developing nonlethal weapons.
(See MWN, N-D 93.)
Microwave News, September-October 1996, page 19
Stop That Car or We'll Zap You
They're the sexiest gadgets in this year's action movies:
EMP weapons, which use electromagnetic pulses to zap
electronics. They have starring roles in Goldeneye, the
latest James Bond movie, as well as in Broken Arrow, Escape
From LA, and Eraser. And soon they may be coming to a
police car near you.
Law Enforcement News (September 30) reports that the U.S.
Army and the National Institute of Justice are running a
$500,000 field test to see if EMP guns can force a car to
stop by disabling its electrical systems. The plan is to
use EMP to do away with high speed chases (another Hollywood
staple). This is another example of the growing interest in
using nonlethal weapons developed by the military.
Up to Contents
APPENDIX US1 - SILENT SOUND
Eleanor White's comments:
This article shows clearly the military's intent to use
every possible thought-influencing technology. This technology
is largely classified but there are leaks, like this article.
We involuntary test subjects can tell you from first hand
experience that far more invasive devices now exist.
This article represents one of the two parallel "tracks" on
which thought-influencing technology is being used and
- Radio frequency signals, based on the WW II
phenomenon called "radar hearing"
- Ultrasound signals, which can be transmitted
through the air or piggybacked on to radio/TV
Volume 5, Issue 6
$25/6 issues/ 1 year
1998 Nexus New Times
EXCERPT: More in magazine.
Military Use of Mind Control Weapons
Judy Wall 1998
PSY-OPS WEAPONRY USED IN THE PERSIAN GULF WAR
For years, rumours have persisted that the United States Department
of Defense has been engaged in research and development of
ultra-sophisticated mind- altering technology. Confirmation of this
came to me recently in the form of two ITV News Bureau Ltd (London)
wire service bulletins.
The March 23, 1991 newsbrief, "High-Tech Psychological Warfare
Arrives in the Middle East", describes a US Psychological
Operations (PsyOps) tactic directed against Iraqi troops in Kuwait
during Operation Desert Storm. The manoeuvre consisted of a system
in which subliminal mind-altering technology was carried on
standard radiofrequency broadcasts. The March 26, 1991 newsbrief
states that among the standard military planning groups in the
centre of US war planning operations at Riyadh was "an unbelievable
and highly classified PsyOps program utilising 'silent sound'
The opportunity to use this method occurred when Saddam Hussein's
military command-and-control system was destroyed. The Iraqi troops
were then forced to use commercial FM radio stations to carry
encoded commands, which were broadcast on the 100 MHz frequency.
The US PsyOps team set up its own portable FM transmitter,
utilising the same frequency, in the deserted city of Al Khafji.
This US transmitter overpowered the local Iraqi station. Along with
patriotic and religious music, PsyOps transmitted "vague, confusing
and contradictory military orders and information".
Subliminally, a much more powerful technology was at work: a
sophisticated electronic system to 'speak' directly to the mind of
the listener, to alter and entrain his brainwaves, to manipulate
his brain's electroencephalograph ic (EEG) patterns and
artificially implant negative emotional states-feelings of fear,
anxiety, despair and hopelessness. This subliminal system doesn't
just tell a person to feel an emotion, it makes them feel it; it
implants that emotion in their minds.
I noticed that the ITV wire service was from outside the United
States. Readers of Resonance may recall that in the
Electromagnetic Weapons Timeline in issue no. 29, reference is made
to the documentary video, Waco: The Big Lie Continues, which
contained video footage of three EM weapons. This segment of the
film was from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). I
wondered if there was any significance to this.
At the library I pulled up back issues of my local newspaper for
the same time-period of the Gulf War to see what the American wire
services had said, if anything, about the use of this special
PsyOps weapon. There was nothing said about it directly, but three
news articles seemed related. In a news release from Associated
Press during the same timeframe of the Gulf War truce, I read:
"The American pilot who shot down the second Iraqi warplane in 48
hours said Friday that continued Iraqi flights suggested that US
warnings were not filtering down to Iraqi pilots~ez_hellip~ He said he hopes
Saddam gets the message now. 'It's really too bad that these
people have to die for their unwillingness to heed our warnings...
What I really think is, they don't communicate down to the people,'
he said. 'If they have a communications problem, I suggest they fix
That may have been coincidence but two earlier news articles, dated
March 1, 1991, apparently have a common origin with the ITV news
bulletin. The first article tells us that approximately 100
members of the US 101st Airborne Division, fluent in Arabic, talked
the enemy into surrendering. These soldiers rode in the Apache
helicopter gunships that were involved in the longest
helicopter-borne assault in history. They told the Iraqi troops
that they would be slaughtered if they didn't give up.
"They got the point," one soldier is quoted as saying.
This all sounds very unremarkable, except when you read the
editor's note: "The following dispatch was subject to US military
censorship." Now why would they want to censor such a mundane
tactic, except out of embarrassment that the US Army fighting
forces had fallen to the level of a cheer-leading squad?
... in which case they would have nixed the thing entirely.
But upon re-reading the article, we may pick out certain key
phrases (emphasised in italics):
"He [the soldier interviewed] was one of dozens of Arabic speakers
that played a key role in the allied ground attack against Iraq,
and part of an attempt by the US Army to use finesse, intelligence
work and tactics to complement brute strength."
If we fill in the missing blanks with such descriptions as "the
megaphone was used to direct psychoacoustic frequencies that
engaged the neural networks of the enemy's brain, causing him to
think any thought and feel any emotion that the Americans chose to
lay on him", then it starts to make sense. And it would no longer
seem so surprising that one soldier could talk 450 enemy soldiers
into surrendering. The possibilities are there, and, as the next
article documents, that is exactly what happened. Iraqi troops
gave up en masse.
We quote: "They were surrendering in droves, almost too fast for us
to keep up with..."; "...two Iraqi majors, both brigade commanders,
who gave up their entire units..."; and "...one of them gave up to
an RPV [remotely piloted vehicle). Here's this guy with his hands
up, turning in a circle to give himself up to a model airplane with
a camera in it."
Irrational? Not if there was also a voice being beamed into his
head from that little flying toy, saying, "Give up, give up!"
Otherwise, how do we account for the editor's note at the beginning
of the article: "The following is based on pool dispatches that
were subject to military censorship." Without that note, we could
smugly think that the Iraqi soldiers were cowards or crazy, but why
censor that idea?
MIND CONTROL WITH SILENT SOUNDS
The mind-altering mechanism is based on a subliminal carrier
technology: the Silent Sound Spread Spectrum (SSSS), sometimes
called "S-quad" or "Squad". It was developed by Dr Oliver Lowery of
Norcross, Georgia, and is described in US Patent #5,159,703,
"Silent Subliminal Presentation System", dated October 27, 1992.
The abstract for the patent reads:
"A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the
very low or very high audio-frequency range or in the adjacent
ultrasonic frequency spectrum are amplitude- or frequency-modulated
with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or
vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the
use of loudspeakers, earphones, or piezoelectric transducers. The
modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may
be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic, or
optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the
According to literature by Silent Sounds, Inc., it is now possible,
using supercomputers, to analyse human emotional EEG patterns and
replicate them, then store these "emotion signature clusters" on
another computer and, at will, "silently induce and change the
emotional state in a human being".
Silent Sounds, Inc. states that it is interested only in positive
emotions, but the military is not so limited. That this is a US
Department of Defense project is obvious.
Edward Tilton, President of Silent Sounds, Inc., says this about
S-quad in a letter dated December 13, 1996:
"All schematics, however, have been classified by the US Government
and we are not allowed to reveal the exact details... ... we make
tapes and CDs for the German Government, even the former Soviet
Union countries! All with the permission of the US State
Department, of course... The system was used throughout Operation
Desert Storm (Iraq) quite successfully."
The graphic illustration, "Induced Alpha to Theta Biofeedback
Cluster Movement", which accompanies the literature, is labelled
#AB 116-394-95 UNCLASSIFIED" and is an output from "the world's
most versatile and most sensitive electroencephalograph (EEG)
machine". It has a gain capability of 200,000, as compared to other
EEG machines in use which have gain capability of approximately
50,000. It is software-driven by the "fastest of computers" using a
noisenulling technology similar to that used by nuclear submarines
for detecting small objects underwater at extreme range.
The purpose of all this high technology is to plot and display a
moving cluster of periodic brainwave signals. The illustration
shows an EEG display from a single individual, taken of left and
right hemispheres simultaneously. Ile readout from the two sides
of the brain appear to be quite different, but in fact are the same
(discounting normal leftright brain variations).
CLONING THE EMOTIONS
By using these computer-enhanced EEGs, scientists can identify and
isolate the brain's low-amplitude "emotion signature clusters",
synthesise them and store them on another computer. In other words,
by studying the subtle characteristic brainwave patterns that occur
when a subject experiences a particular emotion, scientists have
been able to identify the concomitant brainwave pattern and can now
duplicate it. "These clusters are then placed on the Silent
Sound[TM] carrier frequencies and will silently trigger the
occurrence of the same basic emotion in another human being!"
Up to Contents
SYSTEM DELIVERY AND APPLICATIONS
There is a lot more involved here than a simple subliminal sound
system. There are numerous patented technologies which can be
piggybacked individually or collectively onto a carrier frequency
to elicit all kinds of effects.
There appear to be two methods of delivery with the system. One is
direct microwave induction into the brain of the subject, limited
to short-range operations. The other, as described above, utilises
ordinary radio and television carrier frequencies.
Far from necessarily being used as a weapon against a person, the
system does have limitless positive applications. However, the fact
that the sounds are subliminal makes them virtually undetectable
and possibly dangerous to the general public.
In more conventional use, the Silent Sounds Subliminal System might
utilise voice commands, e.g., as an adjunct to security systems.
Beneath the musical broadcast that you hear in stores and shopping
malls may be a hidden message which exhorts against shoplifting.
And while voice commands alone are powerful, when the subliminal
presentation system carries cloned emotional signatures, the result
Free-market uses for this technology are the common self-help
tapes; positive affirmation, relaxation and meditation tapes; as
well as methods to increase learning capabilities.
In a medical context, these systems can be used to great advantage
to treat psychiatric and psychosomatic problems. As a system for
remediating the profoundly deaf, it is unequalled. (Promises,
promises. This is the most common positive use touted for this
technology over the past 30 years. But the deaf are still deaf, and
the military now has a weapon to use on unsuspecting people with
perfectly normal hearing.)
In fact, the US Government has denied or refused to comment on
mindaltering weapons for years. Only last year, US News & World
Report ran an article titled "Wonder Weapons", basically a review of
the new so-called 'non-lethal' or 'less-than -lethal' weapons.' Not
one word about S-quad, although the technology had been used six
Excerpts from the article read:
"Says Charles Bernard, a former Navy weapons-research director: 'I
have yet to see one of these ray-gun things that actually works~ez_hellip~";
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) has come to us
every few years to see if there are ways to incapacitate the
central nervous system remotely,' Dr F. Terry Hambrecht, head of
the Neural Prostheses Program at NIH, told US News, 'but nothing
has ever come of it,' he said. 'That is too science-fiction and
It may sound "science fiction and far-fetched" but it is not.
However, that is just what the powers-that-be want you to believe,
so as to leave them alone in their relentless pursuit of...what?
The idea behind non-lethal weapons is to incapacitate the enemy
without actually killing them, or, in the case of riot control or
hostage situations, to disable the participants without permanent
injury, preferably without their knowing it. The electromagnetic
mind-altering technologies would all fall into this class of
weapons, but since they are all officially non-existent, who is to
decide when and where they will be used?
And why should selected companies in the entertainment industry
reportedly be allowed access to this technology when the very fact
of its existence is denied to the general public?
As recently as last month [February], this stonewall approach of
total denial or silence on the subject still held fast, even toward
committees of the US Congress!
- The Joint Economics Committee, chaired by Jim Saxton (R-NJ),
convened on February 25, 1998 for the "Hearing on Radio Frequency
Weapons and Proliferation: Potential Impact on the Economy".
Invited testimony included statements by several authorities from
- Dr Alan Kehs, of the US Army Laboratories, discussed the overall
- Mr James O'Bryon, Deputy Director of Operational Testing and
Director of live fire testing for the Office of Secretary of
Defense at the Pentagon, discussed the role of Live Fire Testing
and how it plays a role in testing military equipment with RF
- Mr David Schriner, Principal Engineer of Directed Energy Studies
with Electronic Warfare Associates and recently retired as an
engineer with a naval weapons testing facility, talked about the
difficulty in building an RF weapon and about the terrorist threat.
- Dr Ira Merritt, Chief of Concepts Identification and Applications
Analysis Division, Advanced Technology Directorate, Missile Defense
and Space Technology Center, Huntsville, Alabama, discussed the
proliferation of RF weapons primarily from the former Soviet Union.
Although these statements gave information of technical interest,
they are perhaps more important for the information they did not
give: information on the existence of radiofrequency weapons that
directly affect the human brain and nervous system.
This technology did not spring up overnight. It has a long history
of development and denials of development-by the US Government and
probably half of the other governments of the world as well.
We know that the former Soviet Union was actively engaged in this
type of research. In a previous article we reported that during the
1970s the Soviet KGB developed a Psychotronic Influence System
(PIS) that was used to turn soldiers into programmable 'human
weapons'. The system employed a combination of highfrequency
radiowaves and hypnosis. The PIS project was begun in response to a
similar training scheme launched in the US by President Carter,
according to Yuri Malin, former security adviser to USSR President
In my Electromagnetic Weapons Timeline I covered a period of 60
years of interest and development in EM weapons~ez_mdash~information
gathered from the many articles and news clippings sent in by
readers of Resonance. In my article on synthetic telepathy I
traced the development of the 'voice in your head' technology
dating back to 1961, all my references coming from the open
POWER OF THE MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
Jan Wiesemann has written an apt description of the situation which
now exists in the United States, about the 'forces that be' and how
the situation came about:
"During the Cold War the United States not only engaged in a
relatively open nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union, but also
engaged in a secret race developing unconventional weapons. As the
intelligence agencies (which prior to the Second World War had
merely played a supporting role within the government) continued to
increase their power, so did the funds spent on developing
techniques designed to outsmart each other.
"And as the US intelligence community began to grow, a secret
culture sprang about which enabled the intelligence players to
implement the various developed techniques to cleverly circumvent
the democratic processes and institutions...
"Like many other democracies, the US Government is made up of two
basic parts the elected constituency, i.e., the various governors,
judges, congressmen and the President; and the unelected
bureaucracies, as represented by the numerous federal agencies.
"In a well-balanced and correctly functioning democracy, the
elected part of the government is in charge of its unelected
bureaucratic part, giving the people a real voice in the agenda set
by their government.
"While a significant part of the US Government no doubt follows
this democratic principle, a considerable portion of the US
Government operates in complete secrecy and follows its own
unaccountable agenda which, unacknowledged, very often is quite
different from the public agenda. "
Jan goes on to quote one of the United States' most popular war
heroes: Dwight D. Eisenhower, who served as Supreme Commander of
Allied Forces during World War II and was later elected 34th
President of the United States. In his farewell address to the
nation in 1961, President Eisenhower said:
"...we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry
of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men
and women are directly engaged in the defence establishment. We
annually spend on military security more than the net income of all
United States corporations.
"This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large
arms industry is new in the American experience. The total
influence-economic, political, even spiritual-is felt in every
city, every state house, every office of the federal government. We
recognise the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not
fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and
livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our
"In the councils of government, we must guard against the
acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought,
by the military -industrial complex. The potential for the
disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must
never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or
our democratic processes."
INTERNATIONAL CONCERNS OVER NEW WEAPONS
The United Nations was established in 1945 with the aim of "saving
succeeding generations from the scourge of war". In 1975 the
General Assembly considered a draft first proposed by .the Soviet
Union: "Prohibition of the Development and Manufacture of New Types
of Weapons of Mass Destruction and New Systems of Such Weapons".
In 1979 the Soviet Union added a list of some types of potential
weapons of mass destruction:
1) Radiological weapons (using radioactive materials) which could
produce harmful effects similar to those of a nuclear explosion;
2) Particle beam weapons, based on charged or neutral particles, to
affect biological targets;
3) Infrasonic acoustic radiation weapons;
4) Electromagnetic weapons operating at certain radio-frequency
radiations which could have injurious effects on human organs.
In response, the US and other Western nations stalled. They gave a
long, convoluted reason, but the result was the same.
In an article entitled "Non-Lethal Weapons May Violate
Treaties", the author notes that the Certain Conventional
Weapons Convention covers many of the non-conventional
weapons~ez_mdash~"those that utilize infrasound or electromagnetic energy
(including lasers, microwave or radiofrequency radiation, or
visible light pulsed at brainwave frequency) for their effects".
Harlan Girard, Managing Director of the International Committee
Against Offensive Microwave Weapons, told me he believes the
strategy behind the government's recent push for less-than-lethal
weapons is a subterfuge. The ones that are now getting all the
publicity are put up for scrutiny to get the public's approval. The
electromagnetic mind-altering technologies are not mentioned, but
would be brought in later under the umbrella of less-than- lethal
These weapons were recently transferred from the Department of
Defense over to the Department of Justice. Why? Because there are
several international treaties that specifically limit or exclude
weapons of this nature from being used in international warfare.
In other words, weapons that are barred from use against our
country's worst enemies (notwithstanding the fact that the US did
use this weapon against Iraqi troops!) can now be used against our
own citizens by the local police departments against such groups as
peaceful protestors of US nuclear policies.
TOWARDS GLOBAL MIND CONTROL
The secrecy involved in the development of the electromagnetic
mind-altering technology reflects the tremendous power that is
inherent in it. To put it bluntly, whoever controls this technology
can control the minds of men-all men.
There is evidence that the US Government has plans to extend the
range of this technology to envelop all peoples, all countries.
This can be accomplished, is being accomplished, by utilising the
nearly completed HAARP project[15,16] for overseas areas and the
GWEN network now in place in the US. The US Government denies all
Dr Michael Persinger is a Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
at Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada. You have met him before
in the pages of Resonance where we reported on his findings that
strong electromagnetic fields can affect a person's brain.
"Temporal lobe stimulation," he said, "can evoke the feeling of a
presence, disorientation, and perceptual irregularities. It can
activate images stored in the subject's memory, including
nightmares and monsters that are normally suppressed."
Dr Persinger wrote an article a few years ago, titled "On the
Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by
Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorithms". The
"Contemporary neuroscience suggests the existence of fundamental
algorithms by which all sensory transduction is translated into an
intrinsic, brain-specific code. Direct stimulation of these codes
within the human temporal or limbic cortices by applied
electromagnetic patterns may require energy levels which are within
the range of both geomagnetic activity and contemporary
communication networks. A process which is coupled to the narrow
band of brain temperature could allow all normal human brains to
be. affected by a subharmonic whose frequency range at about 10 Hz
would only vary by 0. 1 Hz."
He concludes the article with this:
"Within the last two decades a potential has emerged which was
improbable, but which is now marginally feasible. This potential is
the technical capability to influence directly the major portion of
the approximately six billion brains of the human species, without
mediation through classical sensory modalities, by generating
neural information within a physical medium within which all
members of the species are immersed.
"The historical emergence of such possibilities, which have ranged
from gunpowder to atomic fission, have resulted in major changes in
the social evolution that occurred inordinately quickly after the
implementation. Reduction of the risk of the inappropriate
application of these technologies requires the continued and open
discussion of their realistic feasibility and implications within
the scientific and public domain."
It doesn't get any plainer than that. And we do not have open
discussion because the US Government has totally denied the
existence of this technology.
I would like to give special thanks to: Jan Wiesemann for sending
the Silent Sounds[TM] statement and patents which were the keystone
of this article; Mike Coyle, whose computer search turned up many
more related patents; Harlan Girard, who has provided numerous
official government documents; and to the many who have provided
newsclippings and articles, moral and financial support to
Resonance, without which we'd have ceased publication long ago.
About the Author:
Judy Wall is Editor and Publisher of Resonance, the Newsletter of the
MENSA Bioelectromagnetics Special Interest Group. pp.11--13,15-16
Up to Contents
APPENDIX US2 ... ULTRASONIC MIND CONTROL COMMON, UNCLASSIFIED
AERIAL MIND CONTROL
The Threat to Civil Liberties
by Judy Wall, Editor/Publisher RESONANCE
Newsletter of the MENSA Bioelectromagnetics Special Interest Group
NEXUS Magazine, October-November 1999
Vol. 6, No. 6
Judy Wall can be contacted by mail at:
Judy Wall, Editor/Publisher
684 County Road 535
Eleanor White's comments: This hard hitting article by Judy Wall, who
is NOT a mind control victim and in fact avoids victim testimonials in favour
of only factual objective material, contains some POWERFUL items not widely
known among involuntary mind control experimentees.
The most important facet of this article is that Judy Wall presents evidence
unknown to most of the public IN SPITE OF ITS BEING UN-CLASSIFIED, and in
the public domain for the past two decades.
The main technology used is a mix of ultrasonic voice or brain entrainment,
mixed with microwave voice-to-skull or ordinary radio and TV signals,
described in detail in Appendix US1:
US1.....SILENT SOUND, BRITISH ITV & NEXUS MAGAZINE
The microwave voice-to-skull technology is described in the 1974 article
from American Psychologist magazine, Appendix PM6:
PM6.....DR. DON R. JUSTESEN'S REPORT: 1974 VOICE TO SKULL SUCCESS
USAF COMMANDO SOLO: AERIAL MIND CONTROL BROADCASTS
The United States Air Force uses aerial mind-control broadcasts against
civilian population as well as enemy troops. Some of these actions against
civilians are done with the intent of influencing public opinion and the
outcome of elections.
In a previous article, we examined mind-control technology, especially that
utilizing Silent Sound [TM], in which radio-frequency broadcasts carry
subliminal patterns that entrain the listener's brainwaves into a pre-
selected emotional state. According to ITV wire service reports, this
technology was used during Operation Desert Storm in 1991, as part of the
US Psychological Operations (PsyOps) directed against Iraqi troops. [1,2]
To the Desert Storm offensive we can now add several other incidents.
Alex Horvat, editor of The Probe, calls to our attention the 1998
video, Exotic Weapons of Mass Control, produced by Bob Fletcher.
"The excerpt played on Fletcher's video is from TLC (The Learning Channel)
and clearly states that Commando Solo was used in Haiti for what was called
Operation Uphold Democracy. As the general populace was violently
opposed to Aristide and most in favor of his ouster, it took nearly a year
of this clandestine counter-programming to get them to change their minds.
Instead of butchering a population physically, we can no manipulate them
mentally, virtually enslaving their thoughts with a criss-cross pattern
of flights by an EC-130 (which is just a C-130 heavily laden with electron-
ic hardware.) 
We were not at war with the citizens of Haiti, yet the U.S. Government
directed military weapons against this friendly, or at least neutral,
civilian population. The U.S. Government sanction the "rigging" of the
Haitian election by mental control of the people, programming them to cast
their votes for the Americans' favored candidate. And they had the nerve
to call it "Operation Uphold Democracy". Some sense of humor!
Stalin would have loved it. Hitler would have loved it. Why is the U.S.
Government doing this? Who is behind this flagrant violation of civil
liberties? Is it the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) which has a
long history of interfering in foreign government politics? Or has this
become standard military procedure?
The rationale is always the same: "to make the world safe for democracy".
Yet what is democracy if not freedom? Freedom to think your own thoughts;
freedom to express your own opinions; freedome to vote for the candidate
of your own choice.
Fletcher's video also mentions that the same technology was used against
the Bosnia population for a week to influence their election.  This
was probably done during Operation Joint Guard in 1995. 
The questions arise: If they have used mind-control broadcasts against
foreign civilian populations to influence elections, will they use them
against American citizens -- or have they already? What other countries
may be the recipients of this innovative technology?
Just what is this EC-130E Commando Solo? The United States Air Force has
helpfully published a fact sheet that describes the Lockheed built air-
craft.  This 1995 bulletin states that the "unit flyaway cost" is more
than US $100 million each, and that there are eight in the inventory. Its
primary function is "Psychological operations broadcasts". The crew
consists of four officers (pilot, copilot, navigator, control chief/EWO)
and seven enlisted members (flight engineer, loadmaster, five mission
According to the fact sheet:
"Air Force Mission: Commando Solo conducts psychological operations and
civil affairs broadcast missions in the standard AM, FM, HF, TV and
military communications bands. Missions are flown at maximum altitudes
possible to ensure optimum propagation patterns. The EC-130 flies during
either day or night scenarios with equal success, and is air refuealable.
A typical mission consists of a single ship orbit which is offset from the
desired target audience. The targets may be either military or civilian
"Secondary missions include command and control communications counter-
measures (C3CM) and limited intelligence gathering.
"Air Force Features: Highly specialized modifications have been made to
the latest version of the EC-130. Included in these modifications are
enhanced navigation systems, self-protection equipment, and the capability
of broadcasting color television on a multitude of world-wide standards
throughout the TV VHF/UHF ranges.
"Air Force Background: Air National Guard EC-130 aircraft flown by the
193rd Special Operations Group were deployed to both Saudi Arabia and
Turkey in support of Desert Storm. Their missions included broadcasts of
'Voice of the Gulf' and other programs intended to convince Iraqi soldiers
"The EC-130 was originally modified using the mission electronic equipment
from the EC-121, known at the time as the Coronet Solo. Soon after the
193rd SOG received its EC-130s, the unit participated in the rescue of US
citizens in Operation Urgent Fury, acting as an airborne radio station
informing those people on Granada of the US military action.
"Volant Solo, as the mission is now known, was instrumental in the success
of coordinated psychological operations in Operation Just Cause, again
broadcasting continuously throughout the initial phases of the operation."
Operation Just Cause? this is another propaganda name, applied to
the U.S. invasion of Panama to take out that country's leader, General
Noreiga, the CIA's erstwhile partner in drug smuggling. Apparently the
General had made someone mad -- how else to account for the massive in-
vasion of this tiny tourist country? To wit: "A superpower whipped the
poop out of 10 percent of the police force of a Third World nation. You
are supposed to be able to do that. It was done well, and I credit those
who did it. But it is important that we draw the right lessons from it"
according to an anonymous US Marine. 
Our Commander-in-Chief had another point of view: "...the roll call of
glory, the roster of great American campaigns -- Yorktown, Gettysburg,
Normandy, and now Panama."
--President George Bush, March 1990 
MILITARY PSYOPS AGAINST CIVILIANS
In a phone call to the USAF Special Operations Command Public Affairs
Office, I questioned the legitimacy of using these subliminal broadcasts
against civilian populations. 
[Judy Wall's article on Silent Sound for details.]
I was told that it was all perfectly legal, having been approved by the
U.S. Congress (!). It may be okay by Congress, but I sincerely doubt that
it would be approved by the recipient populations.
That conversation also elicited more information concerning the Commando
Solo units. For instance, the Air National Guard
of the individual states in the U.S. can also operate
Commando Solo aircraft, should the Governor of a state
request assistance. That means the PsyOps mind-control
technology can be directed against
The Commando Solo aircraft have participated in the following missions--
possibly more, as the early missions of Volant Solo 1 were not known to
- Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada, Oct-Nov 1983, Jan-Jun 1985)
- Operation Just Cause (Panama, late December 1989)
- Operation Desert Shield (Kuwait, Iraq, from August 1990)
- Operation Desert Storm (Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iraq, 1991)
- Operation Uphold Democracy (Haiti, 1994-1995)
- Operation Joint Guard (Part of a UN oepration in
- Operation Desert Thunder (part of a UN operation in Iraq)
- Operation Desert Fox (Iraq, 2 to 3 days in December 1998)
Other countries are known to have a similar aircraft, but the PR officer
declined to identify them, suggesting that I check out Jane's Defence
Weekly for such information. Not having access to that particular
publication, I searched through my copy of Jane's Radar and Electronic
Warfare Systems 1993094.  The Commando Solo unit was not listed,
but a browse through the book was informative as to the numerous types of
electronic offence and defence systems available. These include sta-
tionary and mobile land units (many housed in large trucks), shipboard and
airborne models as well as well as space-based technology. If the military
is spending US $100 million per airborne unit (times eight, we're talking
US $800 million here), I think it is safe to assume that they have tried
out mind control equipment with less expensive, roving land units (trucks),
but use the airplanes to cover wider areas and hard-to-reach locations of
And I might add, we can asume that they have tried out the efficacy of this
mind-control technology. Even the US military would not waste $800 million
on something unless it has been proven to work, and work effectively, even
under the adverse situation of military combat. This is an important
The initial research into mind control in the USA was conducted udner the
auspices of the CIA. The flagrant abuse of human rights in experimenting
on unsuspecting persons was based on the supposition that the veracity of
experiments would be compromised if a subject knew that he was participating
in an experiment. In the case of mind-control technology, tehis supposition
might very well be true. But that does not justify its use -- or so said
the Nuremburg Code, the tenets of which were used as a legal basis to pro-
secute Nazi scientists for war crimes. However the US seems to have
excused its own military and scientific community from adhering to that
MANIPULATING MIND AND BODY BY SATELLITE
The next logical step in mind control would be to incorporate this tech-
nology into satellite communications. Since other countries are known
to have similar capabilities, there could occur a sitution in which
electronic mind control warfare is waged against a civilian population,
receiving conflicting mental manipulation from both sides. What would be
the mental state of individuals so targetted? Would it cause a rise in
mental aberrations and schizophrenia? And what are the limits of mind
manipulations? Can people be forced to commit suicide? Can physical
ailments or psychosomatic illnesses be induced?
A March 1990 report from Bosnia-Herzegovina in the former Yugoslavia sug-
gests the latter may have already happened. The report concerns 2,990
ethnic Albanians who were admitted to hospital with complaints of lung and
skin problems for which doctors could find no physical cause. 
It is not a far step from manipulating a person's emotional state to influ-
encing bodily functions. Indeed, much of the literature on documenting
microwave effects on biological systems deals with precisely this phenom-
enon. In fact, studies of the physical effects of microwave exposure
(including radio frequencies) generally preceeded studies of mental effects.
A meeting sponsored by Defense & Foreign Affairs and the International
Strategic Studies Association was held in Washington DC in 1983. High-level
officials from many countries met for this conference. They discussed
psychological strategies related to government and policymaking. A summary
of the agenda reads: "The group will be discussing the essence of future
policymaking, for it msut be increasingly clear to all that the most effec-
tive tool of government and strategy is the mind... If it's any consolation
to the weapons-oriented among defense policymakers, the new technologies of
communications -- satellites, television, radio, and mind-control
beams -- are 'systems' which are more tangible than the more
philosophically based psychological strategies and operations.
[Eleanor White's comment: Anyone know where to get a copy?]
"But we should make no mistake; it will be the 'psychologically based'
systems which determine the world's fate in coming years: the condition of
the minds of populations and leaders. And we should not ignore the fact
that the USSR [this was in 1983] is working on electronic systems to
'beam' messages directly into the brain. What good, then, are conventional
systems if these types of weapons are not countered? And, on a more basic
level, what good is a weapon system if public opinion or political con-
straints prohibit its deployment?" 
It is obvious that they found the answer to that last question. If the
public does not know about a weapon system, it cannot prohibit its deploy-
ment. This is the situtation that applies to mind-control technology.
MIND CONTROL AGAINST 'POTENTIAL' ENEMIES
The US military is aware that certain actions or procedures may not be
acceptable to the American public. Metz and Kievit express these concerns
in their paper, "The Revolution in Military Affairs and Short Conflict War."
 "The use of new technology may also run counter to basic American
values. Information age -- and in particular, information warfare --
technologies cause concerns about privacy... American values also make the
use of directed-energy weapons ... morally difficult, perhaps unacceptable.
The advantage of directed-energy weapons over conventional ones is
"Against whom is such deniability aimed? ... deniability
must be aimed at the American people."
Later they state: "We must decide whether innovative military capabilities
are, in fact, acceptable and desirable. That can only happen through open
debate. The military must be a vital participant, but not the sole one."
But there has been no open debate.
On July 21, 1994, the US Department of Defense proposed that non-lethal
weapons be used not only against declared enemies, but against anyone
engaged in activities that the DOD opposed. That could include almost any-
body and anything. Note that the mind-control technology is classified
under non-lethal weapons. 
A 1998 news item states that US Air Force General John Jumper "predicts
that the military will have the tools to make potential enemies see, hear,
and believe things that do not exist" and that "The same idea was con-
tained in a 15-volume study by the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, issued
in 1996, on how to maintain US air and space superiority on the battle-
fields of the 21st century". [16,17]
It seems that, in miltary parlance, a "prediction" means: "Don't be
surprised when you find out we've already got this, but it's classified
and we can't admit to it just yet."
Notice that General Jumper predicts that mind control technology will be
used against potential enemies. The military and government
agencies may apply this term to any group or individual they perceive as
a threat to their own interests. Potential enemies may be counter-culture
individuals, those of opposing political viewpoints, economic or financial
competitors, biological undesirables, etc. It is part of the military
agenda to identify potential threats so as to be prepared to meet them.
Experience has shown that the US Government (the CIA and FBI, for example)
has moved against these people or groups, slandering, harassing, even
killing them, without adequate cause or legal sanction.
A weapon that can be used in secret lends itself to abuse by unethical
individuals in positions of power. The military and secret services have
shown themselves often to be lacking in ethical constraints. After all,
the job of the military is war; it is killing people; and so,
just how this is accomplished may be considered irrelevant. Lesser evils,
like mind control, pale by comparison.
Of course, it can be argued that it is far more humane to brainwash a
person via mind control technology than it is to torture or kill them.
Others vehemently deny this. They'd rather be dead than a mental slave to
Big Brother! That is what revolutions are about. And if I recall
correctly, that is the idea behind the US Bill of Rights.
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT WARNS OF DANGERS
Awareness of the existence of mind-control technology, and hence its
dangers and possibility for misuse, seems to be more prevalent than in
Europe than in other areas. The European Parliament recently passed a
"Resolution on environment, security, and foreign policy".  This
document includes these articles:
"23. Calls on the European Union to seek to have the new 'non-lethal'
weapons technology and the development of new arms strategies also covered
and regulated by international conventions...
"27. Calls for an international convention introducing a global ban on
all developments and deployments of weapons which might enable any form
of manipulation of human beings."
The United States will ignore these resolutions, of course, as it has
other EP requests; for example, as mentioned in the same document:
"24. Considers HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project) by
virtue of its far-reaching impact on the environment to be a global concern
and calls for it's legal, ecological and ethical implcations to be exam-
ined by an international independent body before any further research and
testing; regrets the repeated refusal of the United States Administration
to send anyone in person to give evidence to the public hearing or any
subsequent meeting to be held by its competent committee into the environ-
mental and public risks connected with the HAARP programme currently being
funded in Alaska..."
One of HAARP's potential uses is a communications system. The military
officially acknowledges two communications-related applications: (1) to
replace the existing Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) submarine communica-
tions system now operating in Michigan and Wisconsin; (2) to provide a way
to wipe out communications over an extremely large area, while keeping the
miltary's own communications system working. 
As we have seen, the mind-control subliminal messages are carried on radio-
[Judy Wall's article on Silent Sound for details.]
The HAARP facility could be used to broadcast global mind-control messages,
or such messages could simply be inserted into existing systems.
Dr. Igor Smirnov, of the Institute of Psycho-correction in Moscow, says in
regard to this technology: "It is easily conceviable that some Russian
'Satan', or let's say Iranian [or any other 'Satan'], as long as he owns the
appropriate means and finances, can inject himself [intrude] into every con-
ceivable computer network, into every conceivable radio or television broad-
cast, with relative technological ease, even without disconnecting cables.
You can intercept the [radio] waves in the aether and then [subliminally]
modulate every conceivable suggestion into it. If this transpires over a
long enough time period, it accumulates in the heads of people. And even-
tually they can be artificially manipulated with other additional measure-
ments, to do that which this perpetrator wants [them to do]. This is why
[such technology] is rightfully feared." 
A WORLDWIDE MIND CONTROL MISSION
To return to the USAF Fact Sheet, it concludes: "In 1990 the EC-130 joined
the newly formed Air Force Special Operations Command and has since been
designated Commando Solo, with no change in mission. This one of a kind
aircraft is consistently improving its capabilities.
The next few years should see continued enhancements to the EC-130 and its
About the Author:
Judy Wall is the Editor of RESONANCE, the newsletter of the
Bioelectromagnetics Special Interest Group of American MENSA Ltd.
Viewpoints expressed here are her own personal views.
1. Wall, Judy, "Military Use of Mind Control Weapons", NEXUS,
5/06, Oct-Nov 1998
2. "Psychological operations" are defined as:
"Planned operations to convery selected information and
indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions,
motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior
of foreign governments, organizations, groups and individuals.
The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or
re-inforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the
originator's objectives. Also called PsyOps." From
"Joint Doctrine for Information Operations", Joint pub-
lication 3-13, 9 October 1998. Thanks to Harlan Girard
of the International Committee on Offensive Microwave
Weapons (PO Box 58700, Philadelphia PA 19102-8700, USA)
for the excerpt.
3. Horvat, Alex, "Commando Solo", The Probe, vol. 4,
No. 1, Winter 1998/99, p.44; available from PO Box 905,
St. Peters, MO 63376, USA.
4. Fletcher, Bob, Exotic Weapons of Mass Control;
video available from The Probe (see above) or
Global Insights, A675 Fairview Dr. #246, Carson City NV,
89701 USA, tel 1-800-729-4131.
5. An item of interest is that the US had a new type of
aerial reconnaissance plane positioned over the former
Yugoslavia from July 14, 1995, about six months before
the US officially intervened. The 10-million-dollar
unmanned saucer-shaped spy craft is nicknamed "Dark Star".
Information from C-Com (Classified Communications
3(12), Dec 1995; Erich A. Aggen, Jr., (editor), citing
CE Chronicles nos. 1 and 2 and Raising Awareness
6. Fact Sheet, dated March 1995. The address on the publication
is AF Special Operations Command Public Affairs Office,
100 Bartley Street, Hurlburt Field, FL 32544-5273, USA.
They no longer supply printed copies, but you can access
the document at http://www.hurlburt.af.mil
7. Morrison Taw, Jennifer, "Operation Just Cause: Lessons For
Operations Other Than War", Rand Corp., 1996, p. vii;
quoting from "Some Questions Whether the US Is Ready
for LIC", Navy News and Undersea Technology,
August 27, 1990, p.7.
8. Morrison Taw, Jennifer, ibid,. p.1.
9. Telephone conversation of February 26, 1999, with
AF Special Operations Command Public Affairs Office;
voice (850) 884-5515, email email@example.com
10. Blake, Bernard (ed.) Jane's Radar and Electronic
Warfare Systems 1993-94, Jane's Information Group
Inc., 1340 Braddock Place, Suite 300, Alexandria VA
22314-1651, USA; also Jane's Information Group,
Sentinel House, 163 Brighton Road, Couldson, Surrey
CR5 2NH, UK.
11. (a) "US Nullifies Nuremburg Law", Earth Island Journal,
Winter 1996-97. (b) Hightower, Jim, "Unregulated Experiments
on Humans", New Times, June 19-25, 1997; cites
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, "Unchecked Research People Raises
Concern on Medical Ethics", New York Times, May
14, 1997. (c) See "Ban on Medical Experiments Without
Consent is Relaxed", New York Times, November 5,
1996, p.1; copy available for 50 cents from David Park
Brooks, 3456 17th St., San Francisco CA 94110. (d) Also
see Senator John Glenn's bill S-193, "Human Subjects
Research Protection Act of 1997", Congressional Record,
US Senate, January 22, 1997. (e) "In 1994, a congress-
ional subcommittee found up to 500,000 Americans between
1940 and 1974 were endangered by secred defense-related
tests including radiation experiments, mustard gas, LSD
and biological agents." See Pitch Weekly, April
12. Schaefer, Paul, "Experimentation and Warfare", article
citing The Kansas City Star, between March 25
and 31, 1990.
13. Summary, The Perth Corporation, Defense & Foreign
Affairs, November 1983.
14. Metz, Steven, and James Kievit, "The Revolution in
Military Affairs and Conflict Short of War", US Army
War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050, USA,
pp. 15-16 and 29. [See also Krawczyk, Glenn, "Big
Brother's Recipe for 'Revolution in Military Affairs'",
NEXUS 2/26, June-July 1995.]
15. Schaefer, Paul, "Psyops: Invisible Warfare", Zuni
Mountain Citizen (precise date unknown, late 1998/
early 1999), p.5.
16. "Microwave Weapons", Microwave News, March/April
1998; Louis Slesin (editor), citing Aviation Week,
March 9, 1998.
17. Same article as above, citing Microwave News,
18. "Environment, Security, and Foreign Affairs", Resolution
A40005/99, Minutes of 28/01/99 - Provisional Edition,
European Parliament. For copy, thanks to Grattan Healy,
Advisor on Energy & Research, Green Group in the European
Parliament, LEO 2C35, Rue Wiertz Straat, B-1047 Bruxelles,
Belgium, email firstname.lastname@example.org
19. For more info on HAARP, see Begich, Nick and Jeanne
Manning, Angels Don't Play This HAARP, Earthpulse
Press, PO Box 201393, Anchorage AK 99520, USA, Tel. (907)
20. From a German documentary, "Geheimes Russland: Moskau -
Die Zombies dr roten Zaren" ("Secret Russia: Moscow -
The Zombies of the Red Czars") aired on German TV network
ZDF on December 22, 1998. Script translation by Jan
Weisemann. The full text is to be published in
Resonance, No. 35.
21. Reed, Chris, Lockheed C-130 Hercules and Its Variants,
Schiffer Publishing Ltd, Atglen, PA, 1999.
Up to Contents
APPENDIX US3 ... U.S. ARMY ULTRASOUND WEAPON PROJECT
TOPIC NUMBER: A97-003
SYNETICS Corporation http://www.synetics.com
George D. Hughes Jr.
Prametric Difference Waves for Low Frequency Acoustic Propagation
Prior research indicates that an array of ultrasonic sources operated
with an offset in frequency will produce infrasonic or very low
frequency energy. This energy is useful because it is omni-directional,
and it propagates well with little absorption. With sufficient energy,
the resulting infrasonic waves can be disabling or lethal. Synetics
proposes an approach toward developing infrasonic waves that can
ultimately be incorporated into future man-portable small arms weapon
systems. This approach utilizes modernized pneumatic technology which
produces an extremely high-powered ultrasonic source. The resulting
frequency generated is precisely controlled such that the desired high
power infrasound frequency can be generated at the target by beating two
focused ultrasonic sources.
The potential post applications of the parametric difference wave
generator include non-lethal crowd control, non-lethal self defense
units for police and personal use, and soot and crustacean removal
devices for commercial industries.
INFRASOUND GENERATION ULTRASONIC TUNING
ACOUSTIC WEAPON ULTRASONIC HIGH POWER
Up to Contents
APPENDIX US4 ... SILENT HYPNOSIS, VOICE-FM COMMERCIAL METHOD
Altered States Ltd commercial site clearly demonstrates the
very thin line between "subliminal learning" using "Voice FM",
and "silent hypnosis" as experienced by involuntary
The reader is invited to scan the sample phrases from these
so-called "learning tapes". Whether it's "learning" or
"hypnosis" is left for the reader to decide.
Image shows how voice is transformed to an inaudible signal.
ALTERED STATES LTD
Ph: +64-9-815-5095 or +64-9-815-5059
P.O.Box 68-344, Newton,
Auckland, New Zealand.
6A Western Springs Rd,
The original commerical link from which the text below was
copied on March 22, 2000 is:
Only your mind can hear. Your ears hear nothing but your mind
hears and accepts the powerful suggestions.
You can safely play these tapes anywhere - in a car, while
watching TV or listening to your favorite music, while working
or even as silent sleep programming.
Warning: Everyone within listening range of the tape will be
programmed by the suggestions. To assure yourself that strong
suggestions are recorded on the tape, take it to any Radio
Shack store, play it on their stereo and read the output with
a Radio Shack Sound Level Meter (Item 33-2050)
How To Use The Tapes: Increase the volume until it is just
below any tape noise. If your stereo deck has treble and bass
controls, you can boost the subliminal output by increasing
the treble and decreasing the bass. The player then emits a
strong but inaudible frequency - modulated 60 - 90 decibel
signal that is received and demodulated by the human ear.
Technical Information The Suggestions are delivered on a
carrier frequency of 14,800 cps, via a low-distortion sinewave
signal. This frequency is slightly above the audible hearing
range but the frequency-modulated (FM) signal is still
strongly impinging upon the diaphragm of the ear. The listener
can expect his subconscious mind to accept the suggestions
with repeated listening.
[EW: Note the similarity to Lowery patent, US 5,159,703]
How To Use The Tapes: Increase the volume until it is just
below any tape noise. If your stereo deck has treble and bass
controls, you can boost the subliminal output by increasing
the treble and decreasing the bass. The player then emits a
STRONG BUT INAUDIBLE frequency-modulated 60 to 90 decibel
signal that is received and demodulated by the human ear.
The Silent Subliminals is a new brain / mind technology
developed by an aerospace engineer. This new technique has
been licensed to Valley of the Sun Audio /
Video for this incredible new tape series. Patent pending.
Note: Because the frequency is beyond normal recording range,
the tape cannot be duplicated:
Examples of Suggestions:
- "Every day you become thinner and thinner"
- "You now lose weight and full fill your goals"
- "You attain your weight goals and the body you desire"
- "You have the power and ability to attain the perfect weight
and body you desire"
- "You have the self-discipline to lose all the weight you
- "You live a healthy lifestyle and eat a proper diet"
- "You now quit smoking because it serves you"
- "You lose all desire to smoke"
- "You accept that you now quit smoking"
- "You are a non-smoker"
- "Quit smoking. Quit smoking. Quit smoking"
- "You have the willpower to do anything you want to do"
- "You have great self- discipline and you use it to quit
- "Cigarettes disgust you"
- "You are very sure of yourself"
- "You accept that you have great inner courage"
- "You are self-reliant and self-confident"
- "You are full of independence and determination"
- "You have great inner courage"
- "Every day in every way, you become more and more
- "You feel good about yourself"
- "You project a very positive self-image"
- "You are relaxed and at ease"
- "You detach from worldly pressures and experience an inner
- "Negativity flows through you without affecting you"
- "You accept other people as they are"
- "You peacefully accept the things you cannot change, and
change the things you can"
- "You are at peace with yourself, the world and everyone in
- "Your mind is like calm water
- "You direct your time and energy to manifest your desires"
- "You have the self-discipline to accomplish your personal
and professional goals"
- "Every day, you increase your self-discipline"
- "You do what you need to do and stop doing what doesn't
- "You freely choose to do what you need to do"
- "You are assertive and feel good about yourself
- "You now focus your energy upon attaining success"
- "You know exactly what you want and you go for it"
- "You can accomplish whatever you set out to do"
- "Be ultra-successful. Be ultra-successful and become
- "Every day in every way, you become more successful"
- "Your creative thinking opens the door to monetary
- "You easily achieve and maintain a penile erection"
- "Your body performs perfectly during sex without thinking
- "A hard, firm erection is your natural response to sexual
- "You can make love for a long before you ejaculate"
- "Every day you feel better about your sexual prowess and
your ability to achieve and maintain a hard, firm erection
Up to Contents
US5....."ACOUSTIC SPOTLIGHT" CAN TARGET ONE PERSON IN CROWD
THIS IS THE TEXT PORTION ONLY OF THE ORIGINAL WEB PAGE
POSTED BY F. JOSEPH POMPEII, MIT MEDIA LAB. The image
below, posted by Eleanor White, describes nearly identical
techology being commerically developed by American
Technologies Corp., San Diego CA, (as of March 22, 2000):
The ORIGINAL LINK FOR THIS PAGE (As of March 22, 2000):
Machine Listening Group Digital Life Consortium
A beam of light can be controlled in many ways - it can be
aimed at one person in a crowd, spread to fill a room, or
projected to create rich, distant imagery.
We can now do these very same things with sound.
To my friends in the UK:
Thanks to those who have contacted me regarding the BBC piece;
I'm happy it was so well received. I recently had a very
polite British visitor, who seemed to enjoy the demonstration
a great deal... click the photo to see who it was.
The Audio SpotlightTM, invented and developed at the MIT Media
Lab, is a device which uses subtle nonlinear properties of the
air to create an extremely narrow Sound BeamTM. This beam of
sound behaves just like a beam of light - 'shining' it at a
specific listener allows only that person to hear it, and
projecting it against a surface creates an acoustic 'image' at
the point of reflection. It is the first device that provides
total control over both the location and distribution of high
quality sound, something impossible to achieve with
The circular transducer is very thin, and can be constructed
in a variety of sizes and configurations as needed. A typical
Audio Spotlight transducer has an active area of approximately
1 foot diameter, and, depending on size and frequency content,
projects an approximately three-degree wide beam of sound
audible to well over 100 meters. Harmonic distortion has been
reduced to close to that of a traditional loudspeaker, sound
level is quite appreciable (on the order of 80-90dBA) at
several meters, and frequency response, depending on size,
extends down to a few hundred Hertz, and upwards beyond the
range of hearing. Continued research is being conducted on all
facets of the technology.
While still under development, we are testing applications of
the device in collaboration with several of our Media Lab
Sponsors in preparation for eventual commercial release.
Put sound wherever you want it.TM
F. Joseph Pompei email@example.com
The Audio Spotlight can be used in two major ways: As
directed audio, sound is directed at a specific listener or
area, to provide a private or area specific listening space.
As projected audio, sound is projected against a distant
object, creating an audio image. This audio image is
literally a projected loudspeaker - sound appears to come
directly from the projection, just like light.
The Audio Spotlight consists of a thin, circular transducer
array and a specially designed signal processor and amplifier.
The transducer is about half an inch thick, nonmagnetic, and
lightweight. The signal processor and amplifier are
integrated into a unit about the same size as a traditional
audio amplifier, and has similar power requirements.
Because it is impossible to generate extremely narrow beams of
audible sound without extremely large loudspeaker arrays, we
instead generate the sound indirectly, using the nonlinearity
of the air to convert a narrow beam of ultrasound into a
highly directive, audible beam of sound.
The device transmits a narrow beam of ultrasound (blue),
which, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the air itself,
distorts (changes shape) very slightly as it travels. This
distortion creates, along with new ultrasonic frequencies,
audible artifacts (green) which can be mathematically
predicted, and therefore controlled. By constructing the
proper ultrasonic beam, this nonlinearity can be used to
create, within the beam itself, an audible sound beam
containing any sound desired. This is presently done in
real-time using low cost circuitry, a specially designed
amplifier, and transducers developed at MIT specifically for
The directivity, or narrowness, of an acoustic wave generated
by a circular transducer is proportional to the ratio of the
diameter of the transducer to the wavelength of the sound. So
a transducer much larger than the wavelength of the sound
creates a very narrow beam.
Audible sound contains wavelengths reaching lengths of several
feet, so a reasonably sized loudspeaker will always produce a
very wide, non-directional source at lower frequencies. The
Audio Spotlight, in contrast, outputs short, millimeter sized
ultrasonic waves, which form a very narrow beam even in a
small transducer, which in turn generates audible sound. The
nature of the nonlinear transformation also essentially
eliminates sidelobes in the resulting beam, and maintains
relatively uniform directivity across the entire audible
The figure to the right compares the directivity of the Audio
Spotlight (yellow) to that of an ordinary loudspeaker
(purple).at 400 Hz. Note that the directivity of the Audio
Spotlight is only three degrees, compared to the essentially
omnidirectional directivity of the loudspeaker.
In order to obtain such narrow directivity from a traditional
loudspeaker system, one would need a loudspeaker array fifty
A loudspeaker is like a light bulb, but the Audio Spotlight is
like a laser.
The use of nonlinear interaction of high frequency sound to
generate directive low frequency sound sources has been a well
researched subject in the field of underwater acoustics since
the early 1960's. Often misattributed to so-called "Tartini
Tones", the effect is more accurately described as a
parametric array, a term introduced by Westervelt . In the
past several decades, many underwater sonar researchers have
used the effect to both generate directive low frequency sonar
beams, detect underwater sound (parametric receiving array),
and extend the bandwidth of underwater transducers.
The first published demonstration of an airborne parametric
array was in 1975 by Bennett and Blackstock . Rather than
using inaudible ultrasound, they instead used very intense,
high frequency audible sound to produce simple difference
tones. While their goal was not a practical audio reproduction
device, they nonetheless effectively demonstrated that the
parametric array would work in air in addition to underwater.
In the early 1980's, several Japanese companies, such as
Nippon Columbia, Ricoh, and Matsushita, attempted to develop
the parametric array for the reproduction of broadband audible
sound. They typically deployed large arrays containing
hundreds of piezoelectric transducers, such as the one to the
right , to transmit simple AM modulated audible signals.
While successful in reproducing sound, tremendous problems
with cost, robustness, and extremely poor sound quality (up to
50% total harmonic distortion) caused them to abandon the
technology as unfeasible.
More recently in mid 1996, an American company produced their
own version of this device and proclaimed it 'a revolution' in
audio. In fact, this device, contrary to their claims and
unbeknownst to the popular press, was very similar to those
described in audio journals a decade earlier (shown to the
left), and of course suffered from the very same problems of
poor sound quality and lack of robustness that plagued the
earlier researchers . Since then, there has been no
published evidence of progress towards a practical device.
Since his days as a part-time musician and young acoustics
engineer at Bose in the early 1990's, Mr. Pompei recognized
that a key ingredient missing from audio reproduction was the
ability to reliably spatialize sound. While in a natural
environment, sound occurs all around us, giving us a
tremendously strong impression of our environment, the
reproduction of sound over loudspeakers, at best, provides a
very vague and limited spatial impression. Similarly, what
was missing from music, he decided, was the ability to
choreograph musical instruments in space, just as you would
While pursuing as a Master's student techniques related to '3D
Audio' technologies, he realized that this method would simply
not work in an uncontrolled acoustic environment - if the
listener moved out of the small 'sweet spot', the illusion
would vanish, and there were no practical remedies to this
problem, so long as traditional loudspeakers were used. The
solution, then, was to not rely on psychoacoustic illusions,
but instead to create sound independently of the loudspeaker.
One of several ideas he had at the time was the use of
interacting ultrasound beams to produce audible sound.
After briefly researching the idea, he discovered the numerous
papers describing the underwater parametric array and the
earlier attempts of its application as an audible sound
source. From these papers, he saw that there were two key
concepts which were overlooked in the previous attempts,
mitigating their success:
Earlier attempts used simple AM modulation to generate the
ultrasound signal, which does create audible byproducts, but
also substantial distortion. The nonlinear transformation
from ultrasound to audible sound is much more complex than AM
demodulation. Therefore, in order to reduce distortion, this
specific transformation needed to be mathematically modeled,
inverted, and then applied as a preprocessing algorithm. The
lowest-order preprocessing method, used in the earliest MIT
prototypes, was derived from a simple model  proposed in
The transducers used in previous attempts were common
piezoelectric transducers used for ultrasonic ranging. These
transducers are highly resonant, and do not have sufficient
bandwidth to reliably reproduce the preprocessed ultrasonic
signal. Thus, even with a preprocessing algorithm,
substantial distortion would continue to result until we
developed transducers capable of reliably reproducting the
broadband preprocessed signal.
As a side project during his Master's work, he continued his
development of these ideas, studying nonlinear wave
interactions and ultrasonic transducer design, eventually
deciding to pursue the area as the focus of a doctoral
dissertation. Of all the universities that he applied to, he
decided that the free-wheeling nature of the MIT Media Lab was
the ideal environment for developing the idea.
The first full size prototype was demonstrated in April 1998
to our Media Lab Sponsors, and performed beyond all
expectations. The first demonstration was a John Coltrane
solo, whose saxophone was heard loud and clear, projected like
a spotlight all around a movie theater, and flying right over
the audience. Power consumption was nominal (<30W),
construction was straightforward, and distortion had been
reduced by several orders of magnitude compared to all earlier
A paper  describing the results of the first prototype, as
well as a live demonstration, were presented at the 105th
Convention of the Audio Engineering Society in September,
1998, and received a standing ovation. While the parametric
array itself is not patentable, MIT has applied for patents on
key aspects of the technology which make it a practical
This directivity plot of a prototype clearly illustrates the
extreme narrowness of the beam. (Published in ). During
the summer of 1998, we compared distortion of prior devices
with our prototype. Note that distortion has been reduced
nearly to that of a traditional loudspeaker. (Published in
Since then, development has been remarkably productive, with
engineering and mathematical advances resulting in more sound
output, better sound quality, and reliable performance.
"Everything you do with light, you can now do with sound."TM
 Westervelt, P. J., J. Acoust. Soc. America, v35 535-537
 Bennett, M. B., and Blackstock, D. T., J. Acoust. Soc.
America, v57, 562-568 (1975)
 Yoneyama, M., et al., J. Acoust. Soc. America, v73,
 Blackstock, D. T., J. Acoust. Soc. America, v102 3106(A)
 Berktay, H. O., J. Sound Vib., v2, 435-461 (1965)
 Pompei, F. J., J. Audio Eng. Soc., v47, 726-731 (1999)
(originally in Proc. 105th AES Conv., Preprint 4853 (1998) )
About the Inventor:
Beginning his career in acoustics at 16 while in high school,
starting as the first high school co-op and becoming the
youngest engineer at Bose Corporation, Frank Joseph Pompei
continued working part-time and summers for Bose while earning
a degree in Electrical Engineering with an Electronic Arts
Minor from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Recognizing the
importance and underutilization of spatialized sound, he
decided to pursue research in psychoacoustics and application
of auditory localization at Northwestern University, earning a
Master's degree. Acutely aware of the limitations of
traditional loudspeakers, he had the idea of using ultrasound
as an acoustic projector, and is now developing such a device
at the MIT Media Lab, continuing his education in pursuit of a
Mr. Pompei is honored to have been chosen as a British Telecom
fellow for his second year in a row.
For More Information:
A technical paper  describing the basic device (along with
a live demo) was presented at the Audio Engineering Society's
105th Convention (September, 1998). Please contact them
directly with preprint requests. The same paper was just
published in the September 1999 issue of the Journal of the
Audio Engineering Society.
"Official" press/public inquiries: Contact our Communications
and Sponsor Relations team.
Or, you can email me.
All content (c) 1999 F. Joseph Pompei, MIT Media Lab, except
where noted. B&W photo of early parametric array (c) 1983
Acoustical Society of America. Reproduction, archiving,
and/or redistribution of any part of this document prohibited
without written permission from Mr. Pompei or the MIT Media
Lab. Patents Pending.
Up to Contents
APPENDIX TWR1 - THE LADS DEVICE
Tuesday, September 09, 1997 10:20:09 AM
VSE CORP. LIFE ASSESMENT DECTECTOR SYSTEM (LADS)
The Life Assessment Detector System (LADS), a microwave Doppler
movement measuring device, can detect human body surface motion,
including heartbeat and respiration, at ranges up to 135 feet
(41.15 meters). The primary function of the LADS is to provide a
reliable method by which medical and emergency personnel can
locate personnel buried in building collapses or injured on the
LADS can detect such signs of life as movement, heartbeat, or
** NOTE: The referenced image of the LADS device is no longer
available at the http://www.vsecorp.com web site. What it showed
was mainly a small dish antenna mounted on the top of a tripod.
(August 9, 1998)
Originally designed to detect heartbeat and respiration of military
personnel wearing chemical-biological warfare protective
overgarments, the LADS has been restructured, greatly increasing its
operational range and providing a means for eliminating
"nuisance alarms" which could mimic human life signs, such
as fans, wind drafts, or swaying trees. This is accomplished through
neural network technology, which "trains" the system to
recognize human motion and heartbeat/respiration functions. If these
functions are not detected, the reasonable assumption is that there
are no survivors. Operating under such an assumption, the rescue team
can now proceed without fear of further loss of life; i.e., rescue
and medical personnel and equipment can be deployed more effectively
The LADS consists of a sensor module, a neural network module, and
a control/monitor module. The sensor module is an x-band (10 GHz)
microwave transceiver with a nominal output power of 15 milliwatts,
operating in the continuous wave (CW) mode. The neural network module
device can store many complex patterns such as visual waveforms and
speech templates, and can easily compare input patterns to
previously "trained" or stored patterns.
The control/monitor module provides the LADS' instrument controls,
such as on-off switches, circuit breakers, and battery condition, as
well as motion, heartbeat waveform, pulse strength, and pulse rate
LADS provides life assessment capabilities for people who are:
- Trapped in building rubble;
- Battlefield casualties in a chemical/biological warfare environment;
- Victims of airline, train, or automobile crashes;
- Trapped in an avalanche or mud slide;
- Trapped on a mountain ledge;
- Trapped under a collapsed tent structure; or
- Hostages being held in a nonmetallic room.
For more information about the LADS, send E-mail to:
firstname.lastname@example.org (1998 info)
Up to Contents
APPENDIX TWR2 - THE RADAR FLASHLIGHT
Project Title: Radar Flashlight
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), through the Joint
(Justice-Defense) Program Steering Group (JPSG), is sponsoring
Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) in developing an inexpensive,
handheld, low-power radar that will enable law officers to detect
individuals through interior building walls. It works by sensing the
motion of an individual's chest when they breath.
GTRI is currently designing and refining the first prototype unit. A
laboratory test area has been constructed consisting of a section of
home siding and drywall, a wooden front door, and a section of brick
and mortar. The laboratory model shown here, was able to detect
individuals through each of these materials. It also demonstrated
the ability to detect an individual through the laboratory's cinder
block walls. GTRI is working to combine the two parts of this device
into a single unit. NIJ plans on demonstrating the Radar Flashlight
with law enforcement agencies through its National Law Enforcement
and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) (Southeast Regional
Center) before the end of 1999.
Dr. Pete Nacci
Tel: (703) 351-8821
Up to Contents
APPENDIX TWR3 - MILLIVISION RADAR
Current Millivision information at: http://www.millivision.com
PM: TECH UPDATE: Frisking From Afar: OCT 95 Popular Mechanics magazine
Millimeter-wave camera picks up both metallic and plastic concealed
DEERFIELD, MA-Between microwave and infrared lies the millimeter wave
band. This little-heralded portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
turns out to be perfect for "remote frisking." Millitech Corp. has
designed a camera to accomplish just that.
[MILLITECH HAS SOLD THE RIGHTS TO MILLIVISION, NORTHAMPTON MA]
The idea calls for measuring the time delay and intensity of
millimeter wave energy that radiates naturally. At millimeter
wavelengths, people are good emitters, while metals are very poor.
Dielectric objects, such as plastics, ceramics and powdered drugs,
are somewhere in between. Clothing and building materials, such as
wallboard, are virtually transparent.
Up to Contents
TWR4.....GROUND [**OR HOME/APT WALL**] PENETRATING RADAR
THIS IS TEXT EXCERPTED FROM GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR MANUFACTURER
PATRIOT SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION. THE PURPOSE OF INCORPORATING THIS
TEXT IS THAT GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR SYSTEMS OVERCOME THE PARTLY-
CONDUCTIVE-WALL BARRIER TO PASSIVE MILLIMETER WAVE THRU-WALL RADAR.
The original link for this text (as of March 22, 2000) is:
Patriot Scientific Corporation
Patriot Scientific Corporation has developed radar
technologies with a wide range of possible applications.
This description below will highlight possibilities for use in:
- Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
- Ordnance Detection
- Stealth Radar
The Demonstration System:
...is a diagram of the demonstration system. A pulse generator
is used to drive the transmit antenna. The pulse is a positive
spike going up to 100V then falling back to ground in one and
a half nanoseconds corresponding to a pulse transmit frequency
of 750 MHz.
The return signal is read by the receive antenna. At this
point some simple analog processing is done and the signal is
digitized at a resolution of 6 GHz, and sent to a PC.
The PC correlates the data into a conventional waveform, does
some processing, then transmits the data over an ethernet
cable to a Pentium workstation (not shown).
The Pentium workstation is used to apply different digital
filters, combine waveforms, and display the results. This
system can be used to demonstrate detection of small targets
buried in sand, people behind walls, and other targets.
Patriot has used its antenna system to demonstrate detection
of objects as small as a coke can buried in sand, through a
wall. Even small targets disturb the wavefront of the pulse,
producing reflections and modifing the field in measurable
Patriot will be testing this technology for suitability for
mine detection. We will be acquiring sample casings and
running further tests.
Advantages of Patriot's Impulse Radar System
The key to Patriot's Radar system is its ability to transmit
and receive pulses barely longer then single cycles at the
transmit frequency. The first waveform shown here is a pulse
generated by an earlier Patriot Design, based on "off the
shelf" antenna technology. The waveform on the bottom was
produced and received by Patriot's current Design.
The current Patriot antenna system produces a pulse at the
desired frequency with little leading or trailing noise. The
Patriot antenna system provides many advantages over
Patriot originally developed the impulse radar system to allow
time domain processing in Patriot's GPR systems. Because the
impulse is extremely short (3 nanoseconds), the time to return
can be used to gauge the distance traveled by the pulse.
Furthermore, the transmit and receive antenna's are very
directional, eliminating much of the multipath components of
the return signal.
The short pulse combined with the directional transmit and
receive to provide us with a number of important advantages:
- Very low average power during transmission
- Low interference from other transmitters
- Transmission invisible to conventional receivers
- High bandwidth digital data transmission possible
- Difficult detection by other impulse receivers
Interference with other sources and receivers is further
reduced by using directional antennas. The antenna design
shown is highly directional.
When penetrating the ground, we wish to eliminate as much of
the multipath signal as possible. The directional antennas
reduce the multipath signals detected to those that are
relatively inline with the wave path, and eliminate much of
the multipath signal that returns at odd angles.
Impulse radar uses low power inherently because the
transmissions occur in pulses separated by periods of no
transmission. The power of the pulses is offset by the dead
time between the pulses. The average output of the current
system is about 300 MICROwatts. THE LOW AVERAGE POWER OF AN
IMPULSE SYSTEM EFFECTIVELY HIDES THE TRANSMISSIONS FROM
Interference can be further reduced in an impulse system by
using random interval spacing. As long as the transmit and
receive antennas are in sync, the period between pulses can be
varied to prevent aliasing with other continuous- or
pulse-transmission systems that might be operating in the same
locale. Furthermore, if an impulse system is being used to
transmit data, varying the intervals between pulses prevents
other impulse systems from locking onto the signal. Patriot
Scientific's current GPR system does not use random interval
Up to Contents
APPENDIX TR1 - COMMERCIAL THOUGHT READING DEVICES
http://www.mindmouse.com/ The Cyberlink Mind Mouse:
Hands-Free, Brain-Wave Control for your Computer
The Cyberlink Mind Mouse
What is it?
The Cyberlink Mind Mouse is a revolutionary hands-free
computer controller which allows you to move and click a
mouse cursor, play video games, create music, and control
external devices, all without using your hands.
How does it work?
A headband with three sensors detects electrical signals on
the forehead resulting from subtle facial muscle, eye, and
brain activity. This headband connects to an interface box
which amplifies and digitizes the forehead signals and sends
them to your computer. The Cyberlink software decodes the
forehead signals into ten BrainFingers for continuous cursor
control. It also decodes eye motion and facial gestures into
mouse button clicks, keystrokes, and cursor resolution
control. With a little practice, most or all of these
commands can be mastered to operate virtually all computer
I can do what...?
By learning to change the energy levels of your BrainFingers,
you will be able to do just about anything on a computer,
except turn it on! The Cyberlink Mind Mouse supports
hands-free mouse, keyboard and joystick cursor control,
switch closure, video game control, and music and art
...and it works with my software?
The Cyberlink Mind Mouse features a Windows 95 Mouse Driver
for hands-free control of third party software like games,
business software, Internet browsers, and a range of
assistive technologies, such as the X-10 Home Controller and
special needs word- processing and communication software,
including WiVik2, Words Plus, and Clicker Plus.
What kind of computer does it take?
The Cyberlink Mind Mouse has the following PC requirements:
16 MB RAM
20 MB Disk Space
VGA or better Display
What comes with the Mind Mouse?
The Cyberlink Mind Mouse consists of the following
Cyberlink Interface Unit
Cyberlink Headband/Sensor Harness with 3 Sensors
Cyber Trainer Software
Windows 95 "Mouse" Driver
How much is it?
The Cyberlink Mind Mouse is priced at $1495.00 (US$) plus
shipping. Free upgrades are included for one year.
The Times, Sept 2, 1996 p14 (1)
Title:the power of thought (innovations for paraplegics)
Author: anjana ahuja
Peter Gannicott, 36 yr old UK paraplegic who cannot speak ,
as a result of a motorcycle accident in 1982 , might be able
to activate his computer and other devices by thinking if
neurosurgery is successful. London university's Emeritus
Professor of Physiology, giles Brindley, ad the Radcliffe's
Hospital 's chief neurosurgeon, Peter Teddy, have conceived a
way whereby signals produced by electrodes over the brain
should be able to operate a computer.
Implants Can Now Allow Humans To Control Computers
By Nigel Hawkes
The Times (London)
AN AMERICAN scientist has entered the world of science
fiction by implanting electrodes in the brains of disabled
people so that they can control a computer by the power of
The implants have enabled two paralysed people to move the
cursor on the screen simply by thinking about moving part of
their body. They were able to convey messages such as "I'm
thirsty" or "please turn off the light" by pointing the
cursor at different icons.
The hope is that eventually patients will be able to
communicate complex ideas just by thinking about them. "If
you can run a computer, you can talk to the world," Dr Ray
Bakay of Emory University in Atlanta, whose team developed
the implants, said.
A number of laboratories around the world are working on
brain implants, but the only devices licensed for use so far
are bionic ears for the profoundly deaf and chips which can
control the tremor caused by Parkinson's disease.
The Emory implants go much further. They consist of two
hollow glass cones, each the size of a ballpoint pen tip,
placed into the brain's motor cortex, which controls body
movements. The cones are covered in chemicals that encourage
nerve growth, extracted from the patient's knees. Once
installed, nerve cells grow into the cones and attach
themselves to tiny electrodes inside.
The location of each cone is determined by monitoring the
patient's brain using scanners and identifying the most
active regions. Once the cones are in place and surrounded by
nerve cells, the patient is asked to think about moving some
part of the body, and signals from the electrodes are picked
up by a small transmitter-receiver, amplified, and used to
control a computer. Depending upon which nerves grow into the
cones, each patient may have to think about moving a
different part of the body to achieve the same effect.
They are trained by listening to a buzzer which becomes
faster and louder when they are thinking along the right
lines. Dr Bakay says that controlling the cursor soon
becomes second nature.
The first two patients, New Scientist reports, were a woman
with motor neuron disease, who was given the implants 18
months ago and has since died, and a 57-year-old man
paralysed by a stroke.
They were taught very simple commands, with one cone being
used to move the cursor up and down and the other from left
to right. If they could give more complex commands, disabled
people could use them to make the computer speak for them. Dr
Bakay warns that this could still be years off. But he has
secured funding from the US National Institutes of Health to
continue the research with three more patients.
The British Telecom laboratories near Ipswich have also done
research into implantable chips, including a possible memory
chip which would take data from the eye and store it for a
computer. "There is a raft of wonderful benefits to bringing
chips and circuits inside human beings," said Dr Peter
Cochrane, head of research.
Communicating with 'thought power'
"Bionic brain implants allowing a computer to be operated
by the power of thought, have been developed by American
scientists," reports BBC News. Read all about it here:
The BBC report states that "the [brain] implant becomes
naturally 'wired' into the patient's brain as neurones grow
into the cones and attach themselves to the electrodes
mounted inside," and that "An FM transmitter under the scalp
transmits the signal without wires, and...no batteries," to
operate the cursor on a computer... hard to believe!
Up to Contents
APPENDIX TR2 - RATS CONTROL DEVICES WITH THOUGHT
[Eleanor White comments: This article shows clearly that the reading
of minds is almost accomplished in the UNclassified world. Since
CLASSIFIED technology is always a decade or two ahead of the
unclassified world, imagine what exists now in the black areas of
defense contractors and government labs!]
Rats Control Robot by Thought Alone
By Maggie Fox
WASHINGTON (June 23) - It sounds like something out of science
fiction -- a rat with a small electrode sticking out of its head
decides it wants a drink and, without touching anything at all,
gets a robotic arm to bring it some water.
Still, a team of neurobiologists say their rats can control a
machine with brainpower alone, and they think their technology may
someday help paralyzed people.
''The people in the lab started calling the experiment the
'thinking about drinking experiment,' John Chapin of Hahnemann
Medical College in Philadelphia, who led the research, said in a
telephone interview. ''But we don't know whether rats think.''
Whatever the rats are doing, they are controlling the robotic arm
without touching anything, said Chapin, who worked with colleagues
at Duke University in North Carolina.
Reporting in the July issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience,
they said they implanted tiny electrodes, no thicker than a hair,
into the brains of six rats.
''It doesn't hurt the animal,'' Chapin said. ''All there is is a
little plug coming out of the animal's head. He runs around the
cage and everything.''
The electrode is recording the activity of neurons -- on average 46
-- which Chapin found was important to making the experiment work.
Earlier studies that recorded the activity of just one or a few
brain cells did not work.
''We trained the rat initially to put his paw on a lever and to
press the lever down. When the lever got pressed down there was a
robot arm that moved over to a water dropper and then brought the
water back to the animal's mouth,'' Chapin said.
The rats had to carefully control the lever -- if they only pushed
the lever halfway, it would only bring the arm halfway to them.
Chapin's team then recorded the brain activity associated with the
movement of pressing the lever.
''We have an electronic device that converted those patterns of
activity in the brain of the animal into a single electronic signal
that could move the robot arm,'' Chapin said.
Soon they disconnected the lever from the robot arm and hooked it
up to the converting device alone.
They found, as other researchers have, that the brain activity
controlling the movement came before the actual movement.
''When control of the robot arm was switched to the brain, the
robot arm went over and brought water to the animal's mouth before
the animal even started to move,'' Chapin said.
''After a couple of days, the animals began to recognize that and
they stopped actually pressing the lever.''
Chapin said if the technique can be proven safe and reliable in
animals such as monkeys, which have bigger and more complex brains
than rats, it might eventually be tested in people with severe
''If this really becomes a workable thing, I think there are a lot
of people that could use it,'' he said.
It is important to record the signals from many neurons and not
just a few, Chapin said. Of the six rats tested, he added, just
four could get the arm to work. ''Two rats would do it a few times
and then they would stop,'' he said.
''The reason was we were not recording enough neurons in those
animals. The robot arm would jerk around a lot and it wasn't
smooth. When the animal tried to get his mouth around it, it would
kind of bop him on the nose. They didn't like it.''
For complex movements, such as those made by an artificial limb,
even more neurons will be required, he said.
''In principle, it should be possible to tap this information and
control a prosthetic limb,'' Dr. Eberhard Fetz of the University of
Washington in Seattle wrote in a commentary on the findings.
REUTERS 11:01 06-23-99
Up to Contents
APPENDIX TR3 - THOUGHT READING BY RADIO SIGNAL
ELCTRONICS & BRAIN CONTROL
Popular Electronics Magazine
July 1973, Vol. 4, Number 1
by L. George Lawrence
Comments by Eleanor White: This article is excerpted mainly to
provide experimenters and researchers with leads toward much better
quality evidence that electronic mind control works. This article is
NOT rigorously enough referenced that it will stand as evidence by
Only those paragraphs which are of high relevancy have been
transcribed; the article is long and since it is not a courtroom-
ready document, I won't be adding to this transcription.
Items in square brackets [ ] are comments inserted by me to clarify
the original text.
It is time that we closely examined brain control now that scientists
are actively seeking to unravel the mysteries that shroud that miniature
bioelectric giant known as the human brain. Elements of brain control
can already be found in anti-collision radar technology involving birds.
It has also been substantiated that pumping energy in the gigahertz
range of frequencies through human heads, subjects can suddenly "hear"
without using their ears.
See Allan Frey's paper
It was during these [Frey] studies that a profoundly important discovery
was made: Deaf subjects often had the ability to hear radio frequency
sound. The clinical criterion was that, if a given person could hear audio
above 5 kHz [higher range of a piano] by bone or air conduction, then radio
frequency sound could be heard as well.
This and related work has resulted in the manufacture of radio frequency
[!!] type hearing aids for the deaf, one of which is made by LISTENING INC.,
6 Garden Street, Arlington, Mass., and is known as the Neurophone Model
GPF-1. [Not Flanagan's Neurophone] It operates at 100 kHz [about five
times the normal maximum hearing frequency] and employs crystal control.
These observations tie in with the fact that some individuals can detect
radio programs through fillings in their teeth. This phenomenon was
technically verified by interposing shields between respective
people who exhibited this effect and the modulated radio frequency sources.
["Modulation" means "changes" made to an otherwise steady signal.]
When the lower half of the head was covered, including the maxillary
dental area, the radio frequency sound was perceived. The sound ceased
on covering the top half of the head. While the mechanism responsible
for this phenomenon is only imperfectly understood, it can be assumed to be
the result of DIRECT cortical stimulation.
[In other words, even when the sound seems to be coming from the teeth, it
is actually being directly received and interpreted in the brain, not the
Brain-Wave Detection. Some 40-odd years ago, university professor
F. Cazzamalli started publishing papers on the subject of brain-wave
detection [using radio signals] and implied that he had detected radiations
from the mind. [See image above.]
As shown in Fig. 4, he placed his subjects in a shielded room (or Faraday
cage), emanated VHF radio waves through their heads, and claimed to have
recorded "beat frequencies" obtained with an untuned receiver consisting
of a galena crystal or diode tube [same thing for practical purposes],
a fixed capacitor, an antenna, and a sensitive light beam galvanometer.
[A "galvanometer" is a voltmeter; light beam types show up in physics
labs and are one of the most sensitive types of voltmeter.]
The trouble is that Cazzamalli never mentioned transmitter power in his
somewhat unprofessional papers [that's why we can't use this experiment
directly as standalone evidence]. His oscillograms meant to show variations
of the "beat" when his subjects were emotionally aroused or engaged in
creative tasks when they were in the Faraday cage. ["Beat" as used by
Cazzamalli refers to EEG-frequency, i.e. ELF, traces.]
Later he told an astounded world that his subjects would hallucinate when
under the influence of his "oscillatori telegrafica", it's frequency being
around 300 MHz at the time. [Aviation radios are in this range.]
Tom Jaski, a noted science writer and engineer duplicated some of
Cazzamalli's work with a modern low-power oscillator that was swept from
300 MHz to 600 MHz. [Cell phones start at over 900 MHz.]
His subjects could not see the dial. They were told to sound off as soon
as they felt something unusual. At a certain frequency range - varying
between 380 MHz adn 500 MHz - the subjects repeatedly indicated points
with exact accuracy in as many as 14 out of 15 trials. At these
...frequencies, the same subjects announced having experienced pulsing
sensations in the brain, ringing in the ears, and an odd desire to bite
the experimenters. [I'd like to do that anyway - preferably using a hungry
The oscillator's output power was only a few milliwatts, while the
oscillator itself was located several feet away from the subjects.
[Any experimenters out there want to try this? Milliwatts are quite
safe for short term expermiments. Kids' walkie talkies are 50 to 100
milliwatts, for example.]
Up to Contents
APPENDIX TR4 - ELECTRONICS SEES WHAT A CAT SEES
Eye's Visions Electronically Read And Displayed
Eleanor White's comments: Over decades of experience and among
around 300 involuntary neuro-electromagnetic experimentees, there have
been instances where two types of thought reading were evidently
performed by the experimenters:
- Electronic reading of thoughts "said to one's self"
- Electronic viewing through the eyes of the experimentee
This article is about picking up recognizable images from a living
brain (a cat's) and displaying those images on a screen. Keeping in
mind that classified projects can be 20 or more years ahead of
unclassified work (e.g. the SR-71 aircraft), the claims of the
involuntary experimentees become much closer to believable in light
of the unclassified work described below.
(** NOTE: While pondering the technology here, the reader should also
reflect on the apparent ease with which these experimenters can cut up
a cat's skull, restrain it, in obvious discomfort and extreme unwilling-
ness, to obtain this data. We 300 victims would like to point this out
to show the world that this same callous attitude is what enables
similar covert experimenters to torture us around the clock and complete-
ly shatter our lives.)
Issue 7.10 Subscribe to Wired.
A Cat's Eye Marvel
by Leander Kahney
3:00 a.m. 7.Oct.99.PDT
In a dramatic demonstration of mind reading, neuroscientists have
created videos of what a cat sees by using electrodes implanted in
the animal's brain. Garrett Stanley of Harvard, and Fei Li and
Yang Dan of the University of California, Berkeley, were able to
reconstruct in startling detail scenes flashed before a cat's eyes.
Read ongoing Med-Tech coverage
The reconstructed scenes clearly demonstrate the scientist's
ability to decode the language of the cat's visual system.
The researchers attached electrodes to 177 cells in an anesthetized
cat's thalamus, a region of the brain falling about half-way in the
visual processing pathway.
Having recorded patterns of firing as various scenes were flashed
before the cat's eyes, the team was able to reconstruct very
closely what the animal saw, which varied from people's faces to
scenes of a dark forest.
The research was applauded by other neuroscientists.
"The demonstration that you can reconstruct a movie from the
multiple cells in the thalamus is an important step in our
understanding of how signals are represented in the activity of
populations of cells," said Fred Rieke, an assistant professor of
physiology and biophysics at the University of Washington.
Stanley, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering, said the
research provides clues about how prosthetics may one day be wired
into the mammalian nervous system. By understanding the language of
the brain, scientists will be able to create devices that talk to
it, he said.
"Trying to understand how the brain codes information leads to the
possibility of replacing parts of the nervous system with an
artificial device," he said.
Stanley predicted that in the next couple of decades, as more and
more of the neural code is decoded, brain interfaces may start to
But he cautioned it may take a lot longer. He noted that the team
also recorded the activity of cells higher up in the cat's visual
pathway -- in the visual cortex -- but the results were not as
startling because of the greater complexity of the cells.
"So little is understood about thoughts, perceptions, dreams, it's
impossible to predict how much progress we'll make in understanding
them," he said.
However, Ken Miller, as associate professor at the University of
California, San Francisco, said researchers around the world are
using similar techniques to decode higher brain functions.
"These methods could be applied to further up the visual pathway,"
he said. "It will become more difficult ... but it's a promising
The experiments were reported in the September 99 issue of the Journal
BTW--the images they saw are posted
You can see the images here:
Up to Contents
TR5.....MIND SWITCH - THINK APPLIANCES ON, OFF, OR ADJUST
Original link (March 2000):
The Mind Switch refers to the technology that has been
developed which allows a person to turn on and off an
electrical appliance, such as a desk lamp or TV in 2-3 seconds
using EEG signals, without training. Proportional control,
such as turning up or down the volume of a radio is also
possible with the technology. This research is being carried
at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS).
BACKGROUND - General
Early in 1994 while studying the response of the brain to
environmental factors Professor Ashley Craig and Mr Paul
McIsaac of the Department of Health Sciences at UTS, noticed
an effect which appears to be common among all persons. That
effect is an increase in a particular brain signal when a
person closes his/her eyes for more than one second. The
important question that Ashley and Paul then asked was could
this effect be used to do something useful?, ie - could the
control of the brain signal be used, in turn, to control
At this stage Ashley contacted Professor Tony Moon, the Dean
of Science at UTS, to find out if anyone could help answer the
technical questions and design a system that might exploit the
apparent change in the signal level when a person closes
his/her eyes. Professor Moon introduced Ashley to Assoc Prof
Les Kirkup who is a associate professor in the department of
Applied Physics at UTS, who has experience in developing
electronics and instrumentation.
It was thought he could offer important input to the project.
He was initially sceptical that signals as small as those that
are present on the scalp, (where electrodes are placed to pick
up brain activity) could be detected reliably and analysed
sufficiently quickly to allow activation of an external
device, such as a lamp or TV. The data that had been gathered
on signal levels with eyes open and eyes closed showed that a
significant increase occurred in the 8-13Hz part of the 'brain
spectrum' commonly referred to as the 'alpha' region.
Les built a detection, discrimination and analysis system
based on Ashley and Paul's data and, much to his surprise at
least, the first person (Lucy) connected to the system showed
the capability of operating a switch which could control an
BACKGROUND - Technical
Serious work done on brain signals began with Berger in 1929
[Berger 1967]. Since that time the acquisition and analysis of
brain signals, referred to as Electroencephalography (EEG) has
advanced to such a state that EEG is regularly used to assist
in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, epilepsy and brain tumours.
[Geddes and Baker, 1989]. EEG has also been used in
biofeedback studies in which subjects may learn to modify
their EEG signals in response to visual representation of
their EEG signals.
This control usually take weeks or months to learn and is not
highly reliable. The system we have developed does NOT rely on
any learned skill by an individual. It simply requires a
person to close his/her eyes for more than 1 second to effect
sufficient change in the signals levels to allow for the
reliable operation of a switch. It turns out that it has been
known for many years that increase in signal level occur upon
eye closure, but this is the first example (to our knowledge)
of the recognition of its potential and the exploitation of
The system used to detect the change in signals consists of
amplifiers, filters and other signal processing elements (full
DETAILS ARE STILL CLASSIFIED at the moment!). As there are
other sources which can generate signals which can interfere
with brain signals (and hence cause intermittent switching on
and off of appliances) we have developed a noise suppression
system which eliminates the effect of those noise sources.
This feature is very important as we are currently developing
the technology for disabled persons (we have a three year
grant from the Motor Accident Authority of New South Wales,
MAA) and reliability is a major issue. The funding from MAA
has allowed us to appoint Mr Andrew Searle who has become a
key figure in the technical developments regarding the Mind
In addition Mr Perez Moses is developing new noise suppression
techniques to be applied in this work.
Berger, H. 1967. On the electroencephalogram of man (trans. by
P. Gloor).EEG Clin. Neurophysiol., Suppl. 28:1-350
Geddes, L. A. and Baker, L. E. 1989. Principles of applied
biomedical instrumentation 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York):
Up to Contents
APPENDIX IMP1 - PROMOTION OF HUMAN IMPLANTATION BY NIH
THIS TEXT WAS COPIED FROM THE ORIGINAL NIH/CNCT WEB SITE AT THIS
Center for Neural Communication Technology Organization
The NIH NCRR requires that its Centers have several basic components:
internal research projects, collaborative research projects, and
service to external investigators in the form of distribution and
training. The organization of the Center for Neural Communication
Technology (CNCT) will be described here with links to more details
on individual projects.
The underlying goal for all of the work conducted by the CNCT is to
make multichannel recording and stimulation devices available to
researchers which will enable them to more efficiently communicate
with the brain. Micromachined electrodes offer the potential to
extend small ensemble studies to tissue volume studies consisting of
dozens if not hundreds of cells.
Internal Research Projects
There are three internal research projects under the Center which are
designed to enhance the capability of the base technology:
Project 1, Extensions of Micromachined Microelectrode Technology:
Extend the basic structure of the device to include fluid
carrying channels for delivery of fluids to tissue volume,
and/or to lesion at recording/stimulation site locations.
Project 2, Biological Neural Networks:
Develop techniques for data acquisition from and analysis of
neural circuits in the volume surrounding arrays of recording
devices. The direction which has been proposed for this project
over the next grant period will be to study the relationships
between the physical characteristics of the devices and the
architecture of the neural tissue to rationalize the process of
design and experimentally explore and model the deterioration of
chronic implants over time to improve their behavior. A recent
poster presentation on data collected from the cochlear nucleus
can be seen [on the original site.]
Project 3, Morphological Visualization and Assessment:
Explore the envelope of tissue surrounding stimulation,
recording and/or chemical delivery probes for histological
evidence of deterioration of probe performance which has been
observed electrophysiologically in vivo.
Collaborative Research Projects
In addition to internal projects, there are multiple collaborative
research projects with investigators outside the Center.
Collaborators contribute significantly toward improving and expanding
the use of the technology in areas including optimization of device
designs, evaluation of chronic connectors, interconnects and cranial
chambers, improvement of implantation methods, development of
protocols for chronic electrode site maintenance, testing of advanced
devices, and exploration of new application areas.
Here are links to webpages of some of our collaborators (more to come.....):
Gyorgy Buzsaki, M.D., Ph.D., Rutgers University, Neural network
activity in the hippocampal formation
Steven Highstein, M.D. Ph.D., Washington University, Effects of
microgravity upon the labyrinth
David Martin, Ph.D., University of Michigan, Microstructure and
processing of bioactive protein polymers
John Middlebrooks, Ph.D., University of Michigan, Cortical
representation of auditory space
Service to investigators outside of the CNCT is provided in the forms
of distribution of probes, and training in their use.
Distribution has been a key component of the CNCT since its
inception. In fact, it provided the main motivation for applying for
the first NIH NCRR grant in 1994. To receive probes, we require that
investigators fill out an application. Details of the variety of
devices which we offer to the research public are outlined in a
catalog. Standard devices are provided packaged appropriate for acute
use. Prior to receiving additional batches of probes, we require the
submission of a feedback form so that we may track progress and use
the data to better understand and improve the technology.
The CNCT offers several training opportunities to provide education
and experience in the design, handling and application of
Up to Contents
APPENDIX IMP2 - ITALIAN DOCTOR REPORTS HUMAN IMPLANTATION
July 1999 Statement by an Italian Doctor Regarding Unusual Human Implants
This physician has requested anonymity but is well-known to the
involuntary human experimentation community and can be contacted
through some of us. Eleanor White
.................. statement by Italian physician .........................
"A physician of my acquaintance has repeatedly discovered metal objects
implanted into a number of residents - normal people, workers - of small
towns in the North-Western surroundings of Turin, towards the valley
ending in the French frontier.
"These devices, to the best of my knowledge, are not for any therapeutic
purpose. Knowing that people have been used for involuntary electronic
implantation experiments, these patients may have also been implanted in
this way. Further investigation would be needed to learn the truth
about these metallic implants."
Up to Contents
APPENDIX IMP3 - IMPLANT TRANSMITS PHYSIO- AND PSYCHO- PARAMETERS BY RADIO
Unclassified Read-by-Radio Implant Development Project
Eleanor White's comments on this posting: This posting describes
unclassified wireless telemetry of bodily functions, used for benign
and beneficial purposes. This is about monitoring BY RADIO.
The reason it is of interest to involuntary neuro-electromagnetic
experimentees (military and intelligence) is that development programmes
like this one show that both the WILL and the MEANS to track someone's
bodily functions by radio EXIST, and exist RIGHT NOW.
People seeking to discredit us will say that such technology could not
possibly be in use now, or in some cases, even exist. Keeping in mind
the typical 20-year spread between classified and unclassified technology,
as demonstrated by the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft, it is clear that
classified military and intelligence programmes have highly advanced
methods of tracking a target's body functions.
PROGRAM; SBIR (Small Business Initiative Research)
FIELD OFFICE; AL
TOPIC NUMBER; AF93-023
CONTROL NUMBER; 93AL-226
CONTRACT NUMBER; F41624-93-C-2005
AWARDED IN; 93
AWARD STSRT DATE; 11MAY93
AWARD COMPLETION DATE; 11DEC93
PROPOSAL TITLE; TELECTRODE SYSTEMS FOR UNOBSTRUSIVE
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR NAME; RICHARD L. HORST, PhD
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR PHONE; 301-596-4915
FIRM; MAN-MADE SYSTEMS CORP
4020 ARJAY CIRCLE
ELICOTT CITY, MD 21042
WOMAN OWNED; N
MINORITY OWNED; N
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES; 6
KEYWORDS; BIOTELEMETRY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY SENSORS
ABSTRACT; Biopotential recordings of human psycho-
physiological parameters are hampered in many field settings,
and some laboratory and clinic settings, by the sensor
[Eleanor White's comment: Take SPECIAL NOTE of that
word "PSYCHO-"... that has great significance for neuro-
Conventional electrodes which tether the subject to the
signal amplification and recording equipment, are cumbersome
to apply, often interfere with normal movements, are easily
dislodged, and induce electrical noise due to the movement of
the electrode wires carrying low level signals.
This project seeks to design essentially wireless electrode
recording systems that use radio frequency telemetry to
transmit the biopotential signal from the recording site to a
body-worn transceiver and then to a remotely located
[Eleanor White's comment: That means, radio signals
THROUGH THE FLESH to an externally worn transceiver. The
only difference between this UNclassified project and the
involuntary neuro-electromagnetic experimentees is distance,
which can be overcome with time.]
The present subcontractor has developed transceiver and
receiver technology that will be reviewed and customized as
needed for the present application. The focus here will be on
developimg a generic design for the sensor subsystem
("telectrodes") to include the transducer interface with the
skin, miniaturized amplifier and filter circuitry, an optimal
connection between the transducers providing differential
inputs to the amplifier, a longlasting but compact battery,
Phase I will consist of a design specification, development
of a bench-top engineering prototype, design trade-off
studies using the prototype, and the delineation of a detail
 Life Sciences Advanced BioTelemetry System (LS-ABTS)
Engineering Specification, January 11, 1995.
 "Monitoring the Mysteries of the Fetus", NASA-Ames
Research Center, Videotape 1996.
[3-10] Deleted as irrelvant to showing implants are being
actively designed and used. Eleanor White.
 J.W. Hines, C. J. Somps, et al., "Advanced Biotelemetry
Systems for Space Life Sciences: pH Telemetry", Procs. 13th
Annual International Symposium on Biotelemetry, Williamsburg,
Virginia, March 26-31, 1995, p. 37. 20
Up to Contents
APPENDIX IMP4 ... DR DELGADO'S "STIMOCEIVER"/HUMAN IMPLANT EXPERIMENTS
** THIS IS A BENEFICIAL EXPERIMENT, HOWEVER, *NO MODIFICATIONS* ARE NECESSARY
TO APPLY THIS TECHNOLOGY FOR CRIMINAL PURPOSES AND TORTURE
Electronic Control of Mind and Behavior
edited by Schwitzgebel and Schwitzgebel
published Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc.
[Each chapter is by a different author]
Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely Free Patients
Dr. Jose M. R. Delgado
[EW: An MKULTRA perpetrator, yet unpunished. Intracerebral = in the brain]
Diagnosis and treatment of focal brain dysfunction associated with behav-
ioral abnormalities are complex tasks which require more effective
exploratory techniques. Intracerebral electrodes, electrocorticographical
studies, and subsequent discrete neurosurgery have given the epileptologist
and stereotaxic surgeon new possibilities for clinical investigation which
as yet have been applied to only a small percentage of the patients suffer-
ing from neurological disorders including temporal-lobe epilepsy and related
episodic behavior problems.
In these therapeutic studies, recordings and stimulation of any chosen
cerebral structure can be performed over a period of days or weeks, and
neuronal sites identified as triggers for abnormal electrical patterns as-
sociated with behavioral disturbances can be destroyed by electrolysis or
Unfortunately in some patients episodic behavior disorders may be more dis-
abling than their epileptic seizures, and focal lesions may improve one
syndrome without modifying the other. Furthermore, recording and stimula-
tion are usually performed under conditions which qualify their usefulness,
because the patients' mobility is limited by connecting leads, and the
behavior is likewise altered by the stressful and artificial environment
of the recording room.
[Inset] Reprinted from The Journal of Nervous and Mental
Disease, copyright [copy unredable] by the Williams and
Wilkins Company, Vol. 147, No. 4. Reproduced by permission.
1 Research and instrumental development fro the construction
of the stimoceiver was supported by the United States Air
Force, 6571st Aeromedical Research Laboratory F 29600-67-C-
0058. Additional support for our research was provided by
the United States Public Health Service, M-2004, and the
Office of Naval Research, 609 (48).
The circuit for EEG recording is a modified version of the
unit described by Meehan (1965), and his help in providing
us with the information and one of his units is gratefully
acknowledged. The help of Mr. Per Ha...[unreadable]
developing telestimulation is also gratefully acknowledged.
During the last few years, methodology has been developed to stimulate
and record the electrical activity of the brain in completely unrestrained
monkeys and chimpanzees (Delgado, 1967; Delgado and Mir, in press). This
procedure should be of considerable clinical interest because it permits
exploration of the brain for unlimited periods without disturbing their
rest or normal spontaneous activities. [EW: Dr. Delgado, you are all heart!]
This paper reports instrumentation used and clinical application in four
patients with psychomotor epilepsy in whom electrodes had been implanted in
the temporal lobes. To our knowledge, this is the first use of intercereb-
ral radio stimulation and recording in man.
Implantation of electrodes
Electrodes were constructed and stereotaxically implanted according to
methods previously described (Mark & Ervin, 1969). The electrode assemblies
which were connected to a McPherson skull plug, consisted of a plastic
stylet, 1.2 mm in diameter, with 15 stainless steel ? mm wide contacts at
3 mm intervals, plus one thermistor and three other contacts at the tip.
Using a McPherson Type 2 stereotaxic machine (Mark & Ervin, 1969), electrode
assemblies were implanted ???laterally into the anterior medical amygdala
of each patient.
This system consists of two instruments: (1) the RF transmitter that
measures 30 cm x 25 cm x 15 cm and includes the circuitry for controlling
repetition rate, duration, and amplitude (intensity) of the stimulating
pulse. The repetition rate may be varied in steps between 10 and ?? Hz
and the duration between 0.1 and 1.5 millisec. Single pulses may also
Intensity control is accomplished by varying the frequency of the three
subcarrier oscillators that operate in the 100 to ?00 kHz frequency range.
A 100 MHz oscillator is turned on and off by the pulse train from the
subcarrier oscillators. The duration of this pulse is determined by the
pulse-duration switch. These bursts of 100 MHz RF energy are received
by (2) the receiver-stimulator which is carried ?? the subject, measures
3.7 cm x 3.0 cm x 1.4 cm, and weighs 20 grams.
The solid-state circuitry is encapsulated in epoxy resin which provides
it with very good mechanical strength and makes it waterproof. Space for
the ? volt mercury battery is included in the size mentioned above.
After RF detection, the resulting subcarrier frequency is demodulated into
an amplitude. This amplitude controls the current intensity of the
stimulation pulse by means of a constant current transistor in the output
circuit of the receiver. This method makes the pulse intensity independent
of biological impedance changes over a wide range. Under average stimu-
lation conditions, the battery life is approximately one week.
Operating range is up to 100 feet.
[EW: This is prototype equipment, unclassified, and operating sometime in
the 1970s. Imagine classified equipment at the end of the 20th century!]
Three channels of stimulation are available. The pulse intensity of each
channel can be controlled individually from the transmitter. The pulse
duration and repetition rate are the same for all three channels.
Encephalographic (EEG) Telemetry
A miniature FM-FM amplfier-transmitter combination and telemetry receiver
are used for this purpose. (1) The transmitting circuitry, carried by
the subject, consists of an EEG amplifier with a gain of 100, input imped-
ance of 2 megohms, frequency response from 2 to 200 Hz, and a voltage-
controlled oscillator (VCO) for each channel. The VCO operates in one of
the frequency bands assigned for subcarrier oscillators by the IRIG stan-
In these studies, a three-channel system was used which operated on IRIG
channels (Delgado & Hamlin, 1962; Delgado & Mir, in press; Fonberg and
Delgado, 1961). The outputs of all three subcarrier oscillators were
summed and connected to the single RF transmitter module.
The miniaturized RF transmitter operates at 216 MHz and it's range is
50 to 200 feet, depending on the environment. The size of the three chan-
nel unit, including the battery, is 4.5 cm x 4.5 cm x 1.5 cm and it weighs
The signals from the depth electrodes are received by the amplifier. The
output signal of the amplifier controls the frequency of the subcarrier
oscillator, and the oscillator output in turn controls the frequency of
(2) After amplification of the received signal from the transmitter has
been demodulated, the composit subcarrier signals are connected to the
inputs of the three discriminators, which then separate and demodulate
their respective subcarriers to obtain the telemetered analog information.
In the instrumentation used in this instance, a 100 microvolt signal at the
input of EEG amplifier resulted in a 1-volt output from the corresponding
discriminator in the receiver.
The analog output signals from the receiver were connected to the inputs of
an EEG recorder and a magnetic tape recorder.. A microphone was also
mounted in the room with the subjects and conversation was also recorded
along with the EEG on magnetic tape.
[EW: So much for the idea that human implantation and MILITARY PARTICIPATION
therein is only a myth.]
Up to Contents
APPENDIX IMP5 ... UNCLASSIFIED SATELLITE TRACKING HUMAN IMPLANT SYSTEM
World's First Satellite-Tracked Human Implant Device
Applied Digital Solutions, Inc.
Eleanor White's comments: This article clearly shows both availability
of technology, (the classified world has certainly had this for some time),
and intent to produce satellite-based human tracking implants.
PALM BEACH, FLORIDA - Applied Digital Solutions, Inc. today announced
that it has acquired the patent rights to a miniature digital
transceiver - which it has named "Digital Angel" -- that can be used
for a variety of purposes, such as providing a tamper-proof means of
identification for enhanced e-business security, locating lost or
missing individuals, tracking the location of valuable property and
monitoring the medical conditions of at-risk patients.
In the agreement signed last week, ADS acquired the right to develop
this unique product itself for all of its applications or to sublicense
the development of specific applications to other entities. A special
technology group has been formed within ADS to supervise the
development of the device.
The implantable transceiver sends and receives data and can be
continuously tracked by GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) technology.
The transceiver's power supply and actuation system are unlike anything
ever created. When implanted within a body, the device is powered
electromechanically through the movement of muscles, and it can be
activated either by the "wearer" or by the monitoring facility. A novel
sensation feedback feature will even allow the wearer to control the
device to some degree. The "smart" device is also small enough to be
hidden inconspicuously on or within valuable personal belongings and
priceless works of art.
Commenting on Digital Angel's many potential applications, Richard J.
Sullivan, Chairman and CEO of Applied Digital Solutions, Inc. (ADS),
said: "We believe its potential for improving individual and e-business
security and enhancing the quality of life for millions of people is
virtually limitless. Although we're in the early developmental phase,
we expect to come forward with applications in many different areas,
from medical monitoring to law enforcement. However, in keeping with
our core strengths in the e-business to business arena, we plan to
focus our initial development efforts on the growing field of
e-commerce security and user ID verification."
Sullivan added that the multi-purpose technology would enable ADS to
tap into a vast global market, through licensing and other commercial
arrangements, with an estimated total value in excess of $100 billion.
"The e-business to business security market alone could reach as high
as $10 to $12 billion in the near future," Sullivan added.
ADS is actively seeking joint venture partners to help develop and
market the unique technology. The company expects to create a working
prototype by the end of next year.
Applied Digital Solutions, Inc. is an e-business to business solutions
provider offering Internet, telecom, LAN and software services to a
wide variety of businesses throughout North America. For more
information, visit the Company's web site at:
Up to Contents
Advances in neuroscience 'may threaten human rights'
Nature Magazine - January 22, 1998
Paris. Neuroscience is being increasingly recognized as posing a
potential threat to human rights, just as another area of biology --
research in human genomics -- may lead to an excessive focus on
genetic determinism and raises the spectre of genetic discrimination.
This was one of the conclusions to emerge from the annual public
meeting of the French national bioethics committee held last week in
Paris on the theme of 'Science and Racism'.
Jean-Pierre Changeux, the chairman of the committee and a
neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told the meeting
that understanding the working of the human brain is likely to become
one of the most ambitious and rich disciplines of the future.
"But neuroscience also poses potential risks", he said, arguing that
advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy
immense. Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized,
it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance,
he predicted. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of
personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing. These are
far from being science-fiction concerns, said Changeux, and
constitute "a serious risk to society".
Denis Le Bihan, a researcher at the French Atomic Energy Commission,
told the meeting that the use of imaging techniques has reached the
stage where "we can almost read people's thoughts".
The national bioethics committee is taking such threats so seriously
that it is launching a study to consider the issues and recommend
possible precautions. The study will also cover more immediate issues
such as the legal question of whether criminals are responsible for
their actions; Changeux predicts an increase in defence arguments
based on irresponsibility due to a genetic predisposition to certain
types of behaviour.
In closing the meeting, Claude Allegre, the minister for national
education, research and technology, hinted at the creation of a
revamped parliamentary office of technology assessment, arguing that
the national bioethics committee's approach in the life sciences
needed to be applied to other areas of science.
Nature; Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1998
Registered No. 785998 England.
Up to Contents
Up to Contents
ALPHABETICAL Site index page
SUBJECT Site index page