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Bouvier's Law Dictionary
1856 Edition


M. When persons were convicted of manslaughter in England, they were formerly marked with this letter on the brawn of the thumb.

2. This letter is sometimes put on the face of treasury notes of the United States, and signifies that the treasury note bears interest at the rate of one mill per centum, and not one per centum interest. 13 Peters, 176.

MACE-BEARER, Eng. law. An officer attending the court of session.

MACEDONIAN DECREE, civil law. A decree of the Roman senate, which derived its name from that of a certain usurer who was the cause of its being made, in consequence of his exactions. It was intended to protect sons who lived under the paternal jurisdiction, from the unconscionable contracts which they sometimes made on the expectations after their fathers' deaths; another, and perhaps, the principle object, was to cast odium on the rapacious creditors. It declared such contracts void. Dig. 14, 6, 1; Domat, Lois, Civ. liv. 1, tit. 6, 4; Fonbl. Eq . B. 1, c. 2, 12, note. Vide Catching bargain; Post obit.

MACHINATION. The act by which some plot or conspiracy is set on foot.

MACHINE. A contrivance which serves to apply or regulate moving power; or it is a tool more or less complicated, which is used to render useful natural instruments, Clef. des Lois Rom. h. t.

2. The act of congress gives to inventors the right to obtain a patent right for any new and useful improvement on any art, machine, manufacture, &c. Act of congress, July 4, 1836, s. 6. See Pet. C. C. 394; 3 Wash. C. C. 443; 1 Wash. C. C. 108; 1 Wash. C. C. 168; 1 Mason, 447; Paine, 300; 4 Wash. C. C. 538; 1 How. U. S., 202; S. C. 17 Pet. 228; 2 McLean, 176.

MADE KNOWN. These words are used as a return to a scire facias, when it has been served on the defendant.

MAGISTER. A master, a ruler, one whose learning and position makes him su- perior to others, thus: one who has attained to a high degree, or eminence, in science and literature, is called a master; as, master of arts.

MAGISTER AD FACULTATES, Eng. eccl. law. The title of an officer who grants dispensations; as, to marry, to eat flesh on days prohibited, and the like. Bac. Ab. Eccles. Courts, A 5.

MAGISTER NAVIS. The master of a ship; a sea captain. MAGISTER SOCIETATIS, Civil law. The principal manager of the business of a society or partnership.

MAGISTRACY, mun. law. In its most enlarged signification, this term includes all officers, legislative, executive, and judicial. For example, in most of the state constitutions will be found this provision; "the powers of the government are divided into three distinct departments, and each of these is confided to a separate magistracy, to wit: those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judiciary, to another." In a more confined sense, it signifies the body of officers whose duty it is to put the laws in force; as, judges, justices of the peace, and the like. In a still narrower sense it is employed to designate the body of justices of peace. It is also used for the office of a magistrate.

MAGISTRATE, mun. law. A public civil officer, invested with some part of the legislative, executive, or judicial power given by the constitution. In a narrower sense this term includes only inferior judicial officers, as justices of the peace.

2. The president of the United States is the chief magistrate of this nation; the governors are the chief magistrates of their respective states.

3. It is the duty of all magistrates to exercise the power, vested in them for the good of the people, according to law, and with zeal and fidelity. A neglect on the part of a magistrate to exercise the functions of his office, when required by law, is a misdemeanor. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 144; Ayl. Pand. tit. 22; Dig. 30, 16, 57; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 13 Pick. R. 523

MAGNA CHARTA. The great charter. The name of an instrument granted by King John, June 19, 1215, which secured to the English people many liberties which had before been invaded, and provided against many abuses which before rendered liberty a mere name.

2. It is divided into thirty-eight chapters,: 1. To the which relate as follows, namely: freedom of the church and ecclesiastical persons. 2. To the nobility, knights' service, &c. 3. Heirs and their being in ward. 4. Guardians for heirs within age, who are to commit no waste. 5. To the land and other property of heirs, and the delivery of them up when the heirs are of age. 6. The marriage of heirs. 7. Dower of women in the lands of their husbands. 8. Sheriffs and their bailiffs. 9. To the ancient liberties of London and other cities. 10. To distress for rent. 11. The court of common pleas, which is to be located. 12. The assise on disseisin of lands. 13. Assises of darein presentments, brought by ecclesiastics. 14. The amercement of a freeman for a fault. 15. The making of bridges by towns. 16. Provisions for repairing sea banks and sewers. 17. Forbids sheriffs and coroners to hold pleas of the crown. 18. Prefers the king's debt when the debtor dies insolvent. 19. To the purveyance of the king's house. 20. To the castleguard. 21. To the manner of taking property for public use. 22. To the lands of felons, which the king is to have for a year and a day, and afterwards the lord of the fee. 23. To weirs which are to be put down in rivers. 24. To the writ of praecipe in capite for lords against tenants offering wrong, &c. 25. To measures. 26. To inquisitions of life and member, which are to be granted freely. 27. To knights' service and other ancient tenures. 28. To accusations, which must be under oath. 29. To the freedom of the subject. No freeman shall be disseised of his freehold, imprisoned and condemned, but by judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land. 30. To merchant strangers, who are to be civilly treated. 31. To escheats. 32. To the power of selling land by a freeman, which is limited. 33. To patrons of abbeys, &c. 34. To the right of a woman to appeal for the death of her husband. 35. To the time of holding courts. 36. To mortmain. 37. To escuage and subsidy. 88. Confirms every article of the charter. See a copy of Magna Charta in 1 Laws of South Carolina; edited by Judge Cooper, p. 78. In the Penny Magazine for the year 1833, page 229, there is a copy of the original seal of King John, affixed to this instrument, and a specimen of a facsimile of the writing of Magna Charta, beginning at the passage, Nullus liber homo capietur vel imprisonetur, &c. A copy of both may be found in the Magazin Pittoresque, for the year 1834, p. 52, 53. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 423.

MAIDEN. The name of an instrument formerly used in Scotland for beheading criminals.

MAIL. This word, derived from the French malle, a trunk, signifies the bag, valise, or other contrivance used in conveying through the post office, letters, packets, newspapers, pamphlets, and the like, from place to place, under the authority of the United States. The things thus carried are also called the mail.

2. The laws of the United States have provided for the punishment of robberies or wilful injuries to the mail; the act of March 3, 1825, 3 Story's Laws U. S. 1985, provides-

22. That if any person shall rob any carrier of the mail of the United States, or other person entrusted, therewith, of such mail, or of part thereof, such offender or offenders shall, on conviction, be imprisoned not less than five years, nor exceeding ten years; and, if convicted a second time of a like offence, he or they shall suffer death; or if, in effecting such robbery of the mail, the first time, the offender shall wound the person having the custody thereof, or put his life in jeopardy, by the use of dangerous weapons, such offender or offenders shall suffer death. And if any person shall at- tempt to rob the mail of the United States, by assaulting the person having custody thereof, shooting at him, or his horse or mule, or, threatening him with dangerous weapons, and the robbery is not effected, every such offender, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment, not less than two years, nor exceeding ten years. And, if any person shall steal the mail, or shall steal or take from, or out of, any mail, or from, or out of, any post office, any letter or packet; or, if any person shall take the mail, or any letter or packet therefrom, or from any post office, whether with or without the consent of the person having custody thereof, and shall open, embezzle, or destroy any such; mail, letter, or packet, the same containing any articles of value, or evidence of any debt, due, demand, right, or claim, or any release, receipt, acquittance, or discharge, or any other articles, paper, or thing, mentioned and described in the twenty-first section of this act; or, if any person shall, by fraud or deception, obtain from any person having custody thereof, any mail, letter, or packet, containing any article of value, or evidence thereof, or either of the writings referred to, or next above mentioned, such offender, or offenders, on conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned not less than two, nor exceeding ten years. And if any person shall take any letter, or packet, not containing any article of value, or. evidence thereof, out of a post office, or shall open any letter or packet, which shall have been in a post office, or in custody of a mail carrier, before it shall have been de-livered to the person to whom it is directed, with a design to obstruct the correspondence, to pry into another's business or secrets; or shall secrete, embezzle, or destroy, any such mall, letter, or packet, such offender, upon conviction, shall pay, for every such offence, a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, and be imprisoned not exceeding twelve months.

3. - 23. That, if any person shall rip, cut, tear, burn, or otherwise injure, any valise, portmanteau, or other bag used, or designed to be used, by any person acting under the authority of the postmaster general, or any person in whom his powers are vested in a conveyance of any mail, letter packet, or newspaper, or pamphlet, or shall draw or break any staple, or loosen any part of any lock, chain, or strap, attached to, or belonging to any such valise, portmanteau, or bag, with an intent to rob, or steal any mail, letter, packet, newspaper, or pamphlet, or to render either of the same insecure, every such offender, upon conviction, shall, for every such offence, pay a sum, not less than one hundred dollars, nor exceeding five hundred-dollars, or be imprisoned not leas than one year, nor exceeding three years, at the discretion of the court before whom such conviction is had.

4. - 24. That every person who, from and after the passage of this act, shall procure, and advise, or assist, in the doing or perpetration of any of the acts or crimes by this act forbidden, shall be subject to the same pen-alties and punishments as the persons are subject to, who shall actually do or perpetrate any of the said acts or crimes, according, to the provision of this act.

5.- 25. That every person who shall be imprisoned by a judgment of court, under and by virtue of the twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third, or, twenty-fourth sections of this act, shall be kept at hard labor during the period of such imprisonment.

MAILE, ancient English law. A small piece of money; it also signified a rent, because the rent was paid with maile.

MAIM, pleadings. This is a technical word necessary to be introduced into all indictments for mayhem; the words "feloniously did maim," must of necessity be inserted, because no other word, or any circumlocution, will answer the same purpose. 4 Inst. 118; Hawk. B. 2, c. 23, s. 17, 18, 77; Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s, 55; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *244.

TO MAIM, crim. law. To deprive a person of such part of his body as to ren- der him less able in fighting or defending himself than he would have otherwise been. Vide Mayhem.

MAINE. One of the new states of the United State's of America. This state was admitted into the Union by the Act of Congress of March 3, 1820, 3 Story's L. U . S. 1761, from and after the fifteenth day of March, 1820, and is thereby declared to be one of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states in all respects whatever.

2. The constitution of this state was adopted October 29th, 1819. The powers of the government are vested in three distinct departments, the legislative, executive and judicial.

3. - 1. The legislative power is vested in two distinct branches, a house of representatives and senate, each to have a negative on the other, and both to be styled The legislature of Maine. 1. The house of representatives is to consist of not less than one hundred, nor more than two hundred members; to be apportioned among the counties according to law; to be elected by the quali-fied electors for one year from the next day preceding the annual meeting of the legislature. 2. The senate consists of not less than twenty, nor more than thirty-one members, elected at the same time, and for the same term, as the representatives, by the qualified electors of the districts into which the state shall, from time to time, be divided. Art. 4, part 2, s. 1. The veto power is given to the governor, by art. 4, part 3, s. 2.

4. - 2. The supreme executive power of the state is vested in a governor, who is elected by the qualified electors, and holds his office one year from the first Wednesday of January in each year. On the first Wednesday of January annually, seven persons, citizens of the United States, and resident within the state, are to be elected by joint ballot of the senators and representatives in convention, who are called the council. This council is to advise the governor in the executive part of government, art. 5, part 2, s. 1 and 2.

5. - 3. The judicial power of the State is distributed by the 6th article of the constitution as follows:

6. - 1. The judicial power of this state shall be vested in a supreme judicial court, and such other courts as the legislature shall, from time to time, establish.

7. - 2. The justices of the supreme judicial court shall, at stated times, receive a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office, but they shall receive no other fee or reward.

8. - 3. They shall be obliged to give their opinion upon important questions of law, and upon solemn occasions, when required by the governor, council, senate, or house of representatives.

9. - 4. All judicial officers; except justices of the peace, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, but not beyond the age of seventy years.

10. - 5. Justices of the peace and notaries public shall hold their offices during seven years, if they so long behave themselves well, at the expiration of which term, they may be re-appointed, or others appointed, as the public interest may require.

11. - 6. The justices of the supreme judicial court shall bold no office under the United States, nor any state, nor any other office under this state, except that of justice of the peace. For a history of the province of Maine, see 1 Story on the Const. 82.

MAINOUR, crim. law. The thing stolen found in the hands of the thief who has stolen it; hence when a man is found with property which he has stolen, he is said to be taken with the mainour, that is, it is found in his hands.

2. Formerly there was a distinction made between a larceny, when the thing stolen was found in the hands of the criminal, and when the proof depended upon other circumstances not quite so irrefragable; the former properly was termed pris ove maynovere, or ove mainer, or mainour, as it is generally written. Barr. on the Stat. 315, 316, note:

MAINPERNABLE. Capable of being bailed; one for whom bail may be taken; bailable.

MAINPERNORS, English law. Those persons to whom a man, is delivered out of custody or prison, on their becoming bound for his appearance.

2. Mainpernors differ from bail: a man's bail may imprison or surrender him up before the stipulated day of appearance; mainpernors can do neither, but are merely sureties for his appearance at the day; bail are only sureties that the party be answerable for all the special matter for which they stipulate; mainpernors are bound to produce him to answer all charges whatsoever. 3. Bl. Com. 128; vide Dane's Index, h. t.

MAINPRISE, Engl. law. The taking a man into friendly custody, who might otherwise be committed to prison, upon security given for his appearance at a time and place assigned. Wood's Inst. B. 4, c. 4.

2. Mainprise differs from bail in this, that a man's mainpernors are barely his sureties, and cannot imprison him themselves to secure his appearance, as his bail may, who are looked upon as his gaolers, to whose custody he is committed.. 6 Mod. 231; 7 Mod. 77, 85, 98; Ld. Raym. 606; Bac. Ab. Bail in Civil Cases; 4 Inst. 180. Vide Mainpernors. Writ of Mainprise; and 15 Vin. Ab. 146; 3 Bl. Com. 128.

MAINTENANCE, crimes. A malicious, or at least, officious interference in a suit in which the offender has no interest, to assist one of the parties to it against the other, with money or advice to prosecute or defend the action, without any authority of law. 1 Russ. Cr. 176.

2. But there are many acts in the nature of maintenance, which become justifiable from the circumstances under which they are done. They may be justi-fied, 1. Because the party has an interest in the thing in variance; as when he has a bare contingency in the lands in question, which possibly may never come in esse. Bac. Ab. h. t. 2. Because the party is of kindred or affinity, as father, son, or heir apparent, or husband or wife. 3. Because the relation of landlord and tenant or master and servant subsists between the party to the suit and the person who assists him. 4. Because the money is given out of charity. 1 Bailey, S. C. Rep. 401. 5. Because the person assisting the party to the suit is an attorney or counsellor: the assistance to be rendered must, however, be strictly professional, for a lawyer is not more justified in giving his client money than another man. 1 Russ. Cr. 179. Bac. Ab Mainte-nance: Bro. Maintenance. This offence is punishable by fine and imprisonment. 4 Black Com. 124; 2 Swift's Dig. 328; Bac. Ab. h. t. Vide 3 Hawks, 86; 1 Greenl. 292; 11 Mass. 553 , 6 Mass. 421; 5 Pick. 359; 5 Monr. 413; 6 Cowen, 431; 4 Wend. 806; 14 John. R. 124; 3 Cowen, 647; 3 John. Ch. R. 508 7 D. & R. 846; 5 B. & C. 188.

MAINTENANCE, quasi contracts. The support which one person, who is bound by law to do so, gives to another for his living; for example, a father is bound to find maintenance for his children; and a child is required by law to main-tain his father or mother when they cannot support themselves, and he has ability to maintain them. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 284-6.

MAINTAINED, pleadings. This is a technical word, indispensable in an indict- ment for maintenance, which no other word or circumlocution will supply. 1 Wils. 325.

MAINTAINORS, criminal law. Those who maintain or support a cause depending between others, not being retained as counsel or attorney. For this they may be fined and imprisoned. 2 Swift's Dig. 328; 4 Bl. Com. 124; Bac. Ab. Barrator.

MAISON DE DIEU. House of God. In England the term, borrowed from the French, signified formerly a hospital, an almshouse, a monastery. 39 Eliz. c. 5.

MAJESTY. Properly speaking, this term can be applied only to God, for it signifies that which surpasses all things in grandeur and superiority. But it is used to kings and emperors, as a title of honor. It sometimes means power, as when we say, the majesty of the people. See, Wolff, 998.

MAJOR, persons. One who has attained his full age, and has acquired all his civil rights; one who is no longer a minor; an adult.

MAJOR. Military language. The lowest of the staff officers; a degree higher than captain.

MAJOR GENERAL. A military officer, commanding a division or number of regi- ments; the next in rank below a lieutenant general.

MAJORES. The male ascendant beyond the sixth degree were so called among the Romaus, and the term is still used in making genealogical tables.

MAJORITY, persons. The state or condition of a person who has arrived at full age. He is then said to be a major, in opposition to minor, which is his condition during infancy.

MAJORITY, government. The greater number of the voters; though in another sense, it means the greater number of votes given in which sense it is a mere plurality. (q. v.)

2. In every well regulated society, the majority has always claimed and exercised the right to govern the whole society, in the manner pointed out by the fundamental laws and the minority are bound, whether they have assented or not, for the obvious reason that opposite wills cannot prevail at the same time, in the same society, on the same subject. 1 Tuck. Bl. Com. App. 168, 172; 9 Dane's Ab. 37 to 43; 1 Story, Const. 330.

3. As to the rights of the majority of part owners of vessels, vide 3 Kent, Com. 114 et seq. As to the majority of a church, vide 16 Mass. 488.

4. In the absence of all stipulations, the general rule in partnerships is, that each partner has an equal voice, and a majority acting bonafide, have the right to manage the partnership concerns, and dispose of the partnership property, notwithstanding the dissent of the minority; but in every case when the minority have a right to give an opinion, they ought to be notified. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1954.

5. As to the majorities of companies or corporations, see Angel, Corp. 48, et seq.; 3 M. R. 495. Vide, generally, Rutherf. Inst. 249; 9 Serg. & Rawle, 99; Bro. Corporation, pl. 63; 15 Vin. Abr. 183, 184; and the article Authority; Plurality; Quorum.

TO MAKE. English law. To perform or execute; as to make his law, is to per- form that law which a man had bound himself to do; that is, to clear himself of an action commenced against him, by his oath, and the oaths of his neighbors. Old Nat. Br. 161. To make default, is to fail to appear in proper time. To make oath, is to swear according to the form prescribed by law.

MAKER. This term is applied to one who makes a promissory note and promises to pay it when due. He who makes a bill of exchange is called the drawer, and frequently in common parlance and in books of Reports we find the word drawer inaccurately applied to the maker of a promissory note. See Promissory note.

MAKING HIS LAW. A phrase used to denote the act of a person who wages his law. Bac. Ab. Wager of law, in pr.

MALA FIDES. Bad faith. It is opposed to bona fides, good faith.

MALA PRAXIS, crim. law. A Latin expression, to signify bad or unskilful practice in a physician or other professional person, as a midwife, whereby the health of the patient is injured.

2. This offence is a misdemeanor (whether it be occasioned by curiosity and experiment or neglect) because, it breaks the trust which the patient has put in the physician, and tends directly to his destruction. 1 Lord Raym. 213. See forms of indictment for mala praxis, 3 Chitty Crim. Law, 863; 4 Wentw. 360; Vet. Int. 231; Trem. P. C. 242. Vide also, 2 Russ. on Cr. 288; 1 Chit. Pr. 43; Com. Dig. Physician; Vin. Ab. Physician.

3. There are three kinds of mal practice. 1. Wilful mal practice, which takes place when the physician purposely administers medicines or performs an operation which he knows and expects will result in danger or death to the individual under his care; as, in the case of criminal abortion.

4. - 2. Negligent mal practice, which comprehends those cases where there is no criminal or dishonest object, but gross negligence of that attention which the situation of the patient requires: as if a physician should administer medicines while in a state of intoxication, from which injury would arise to his patient.

5. - 3. Ignorant mal practice, which is the administration of medicines, calculated to do injury, which do harm, and which a well educated and scientific medical man would know were not proper in the case. Besides the public remedy for mal practice, in many cases the party injured may bring a civil action. 5 Day's R. 260; 9 Conn. 209. See M. & Rob. 107; 1 Saund. 312, n. 2; l Ld. Raym. 213; 1 Briand, Med. Leg. 50; 8 Watts, 355; 9 Conn. 209.

MALA PROHIBITA. Those things which are prohibited by law, and therefore unlawful.

2. A distinction was formerly made in respect of contracts, between mala prohibita and mala in se; but that distinction has been exploded, and, it is now established that when the provisions of an act of the legislature have for their object the protection of the public, it makes no difference with respect to contracts, whether the thing be prohibited alsolutely or under a penalty. 5 B. & A 5, 340; 10 B. & C. 98; 3 Stark. 61; 13 Pick. 518; 2 Bing. N. C. 636, 646.

MALE. Of the masculine sex; of the sex that begets young; the sex opposed to the female. Vide Gender; Man; Sex; Worthiest of blood.

MALEDICTION, Eccles. law. A curse which was anciently annexed to donations of lands made to churches and religious houses, against those who should violate their rights.

MALEFACTOR. He who bas been guilty of some crime; in another sense, one who has been convicted of having committed a crime.

MALEFICIUM, civil law. Waste, damage, torts, injury. Dig. 5, 18, 1.

MALFEASANCE, contracts, torts. The unjust performance of some act which the party had no right, or which he had contracted not to do. It differs from mis- feasance, (q. v.) and nonfeasance. (q. v.) Vide 1 Chit. Pr. 9; 1 Chit. Pl. 134.

MALICE, crim. law. A wicked intention to do an injury. 4 Mason, R. 115, 505: 1 Gall. R. 524. It is not confined to the intention of doing an injury to any particular person, but extends to an evil design, a corrupt and wicked notion against some one at the time of committing the crime; as, if A intended to poison B, conceals a quantity of poison in an apple and puts it in the way of B, and C, against whom he had no ill will, and who, on the contrary, was his friend, happened to eat it, and die, A will be guilty of murdering C with malice aforethought. Bac. Max. Reg. 15; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 727; 3 Chit. Cr. Law,. 1104.

2. Malice is express or implied. It is express, when the party evinces an intention to commit the crime, as to kill a man; for example, modern duelling. 3 Bulstr. 171. It is implied, when an officer of justice is killed in the discharge of his duty, or when death occurs in the prosecution of some unlawful design.

3. It is a general rule that when a man commits an act, unaccompanied by any circumstance justifying its commission, the law presumes he has acted advisedly and with an intent to produce the consequences which have ensued. 3 M. & S. 15; Foster, 255; 1 Hale, P. C. 455; 1 East, P. C. 223 to 232, and 340; Russ. & Ry. 207; 1 Moody, C. C. 263; 4 Bl. Com. 198; 15 Vin. Ab. 506; Yelv. 105 a; Bac. Ab. Murder and Homicide, C 2. Malice aforethought is deliberate premedi-tation. Vide Aforethought.

MALICE, torts. The doing any act injurious to another without a just cause.

2. This term, as applied to torts, does not necessarily mean that which must proceed from a spiteful, malignant, or revengeful disposition, but a conduct injurious to another, though proceeding from an ill-regulated mind not sufficiently cautious before it occasions an injury to another. 11 S. & R. 39, 40.

3. Indeed in some cases it seems not to require any intention in order to make an act malicious. When a slander has been published, therefore, the pro-per question for the jury is, not whether the intention of the publication was to injure the plaintiff, but whether the tendency of the matter published, was so injurious. 10 B. & C. 472: S. C. 21 E. C. L. R. 117.

4. Again, take the common case of an offensive trade, the melting of tallow for instance; such trade is not itself unlawful, but if carried on to the annoyance of the neighboring dwellings, it becomes unlawful with respect to them, and their inhabitants may maintain an action, and may charge the act of the defendant to be malicious. 3 B. & C. 584; S. C. 10 E. C. L. R. 179.

MALICE AFORETHOUGHT, pleadings. In an indictment for murder, these words, which have a technical force, must be used in charging the offence; for without them, and the artificial phrase murder, the indictment will be taken to charge manslaughter only. Fost. 424; Yelv. 205; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *242, and the authorities and cases there cited.

2. Whenever malice aforethought is necessary to constitute the offence, these words must be used in charging the crime in the indictment. 2 Chit. Cr. Law, *787; 1 East, Pl. Or. 402. 2 Mason, R. 91.

MALICIOUS. With bad, and unlawful motives; wicked.

MALICIOUS ABANDONMENT. The forsaking without a just cause a husband by the wife, or a wife by her husband. Vide Abandonment, Malicious.

MALICIOUS MISCHIEF, This expression is applied to the wanton or reckless de- struction of property, and the wilful perpetration of injury to the person. Alis. Prin. 448; 3 Dev. & Batt. 130; 8 Leigh, 719; 5 Ired. R. 364; 8 Port. 447; 2 Metc. 21; 3 Greenl. 177.

MALICIOUS PROSECUTION, or MALICIOUS ARREST, torts, or remedies. These terms import a wanton prosecution or arrest, made by a prosecutor in a criminal proceeding, or a plaintiff in a civil suit, without probable cause, by a regular process and proceeding, which the facts did not warrant, as appears by the result.

2. This definition will be analysed by considering, 1. The nature of the prosecution or arrest. 2. Who is liable under it. 3. What are malice and probable cause. 4. The proceedings. 5. The result of the prosecution and afterwards, 6. The remedy.

3. - 1. Where the defendant commenced a criminal prosecution wantonly and in other respects against law, he will be responsible. Addis. R. 270; 12 Conn. 219. The prosecution of a civil suit, when malicious, is a good cause of action, even when there has been no arrest. 1 P. C. C. 210; 11 Conn. 582; 1 Wend. 345. But no action lies for commencing a civil action, though without sufficient cause. 1 Penns. R. 235.

4. - 2. The action lies against the prosecutor and even against a mere informer, when the proceedings are malicious. 5 Stew. & Port. 367. But grand jurors are not liable to an action for a malicious prosecution, for information given by them to their fellow jurors, on which a prosecution is founded. Hardin, 556. Such action lies against a plaintiff in a civil action who ma- liciously sues out the writ and prosecutes it; 16 Pick. 453; but an action does not lie against an attorney at law for bringing the action, when regularly employed. 16 Pick. 478. See 6 Pick. 193.

5. - 3. There must be malice and want of probable cause. 1 Wend. 140, 345; 7 Cowen, 281; 2 P. A. Browne, Appx. xlii; Cooke, 90; Litt. Sel. Cas. 106; 4 Litt. 334; 3 Gil. & John. 377; 1 N. & M. 36; 12 Conn. 219; 3 Call. 446; 2 Hall, 315; 3 Mason, 112, 2 N. & M. 54,143. See Malice; Probable cause.

6. - 4. The Proceedings under which the original prosecution or action was held, must have been regular, in the ordinary course of justice, and before a tribunal having power to ascertain the truth or falsity of the charge, and to punish the supposed offender, the now plaintiff. 3 Pick. 379, 383. When the proceedings are irregular, the prosecutor is a trespasser. 3 Blackf. 210 . See Regular and irregular process.

7. - 5. The malicious prosecution or action must be ended, and the plain-tiff must show it was groundless, either by his acquittal or by obtaining a final judgment in his favor in a civil action. 1 Root, R. 553; 1 N. & M. 36; 2 N. & M. 54, 143; 7 Cowen, 715; 2 Dev. & Bat. 492.

8. - 6. The remedy for a malicious prosecution is an action on the case to recover damages for the injury sustained. 5 Stew. & Porter, 367; 2 Conn. 700; 11 Mass 500; 6 Greenl. 421; 3 Gill. & John. 377. See Case; Regular and irregular process.

See, generally, Bull. N. P. 11; 1 Saund. 228; 12 Mod. 208; 1 T. R. 493 to 551; Bac. Ab. Actions on the case, H; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

MALUM IN SE. Evil in itself.

2. An offence malum in se is one which is naturally evil, as murder, theft, and the like; offences at common law are generally mala in sese.

3. An offence malum prohibitum, on the contrary, is not naturally an evil, but becomes so in consequence of its being forbidden; as playing at games, which being innocent before, have become unlawful in consequence of being forbidden. Vide Bac. Ab. Assumpsit, A, note; 2 Rolle's Ab. 355.

MALVEILLES. Ill-will. In some ancient records this word signifies malicious practices, or crimes and misdemeaners.

MALVERSATION, French law. This word is applied to all punishable faults committed in the exercise of an office, such as corruptions, exactions, extortions and larceny. Merl. Repert. b. t.

MAN. A human being. This definition includes not only the adult male sex of the human species, but women and children; examples: "of offences against man, some are more immediately against the king, other's more immediately against the subject." Hawk. P. C. book 1, c. 2, s. 1. Offences against the life of man come under the general name of homicide, which in our law signifies the killing of a man by a man." Id. book 1, c. 8, s. 2.

2. In a more confined sense, man means a person of the male sex; and sometimes it signifies a male of the human species above the age of puberty. Vide Rape. It was considered in the civil or Roman law, that although man and person are synonymous in grammar, they had a different acceptation in law; all persons were men, but all men, for example, slaves, were not persons, but things. Vide Barr. on the Stat. 216, note.

MANAGER. A person, appointed or elected to manage the affairs of another, but the term is more usually applied to those officers of a corporation who are authorized to manage its affairs. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 190.

2. In banking corporations these officers are commonly called directors, and the power to conduct the affairs of the company, is vested in a board of directors. In other private corporations, such as railroad companies, canal, coal companies, and the like, these officers are called managers. Being agents, when their authority is limited, they have no power to bind their principal beyond such authority. 17 Mass. R. 29; 1 Greenl. R. 81.

3. The persons appointed on the part of the house of representatives to prosecute impeachments before the senate, are called managers.

MANBOTE. In a barbarous age, when impunity could be purchased with money, the compensation which was paid for homicide was called manbote.

MANCIPATIO, civil law. The act of transferring things called res mancipi. (q. v.) This is effected in the presence of not less than five witnesses, who must be Roman citizens and of the age of puberty, and also in the presence of another person of the same condition, who holds a pair of brazen scales, and hence is called Libripens. The purchaser (qui mancipio accipit) taking hold of the thing, says I affirm that this slave (homo) is mine, ex jure quiritium, and he is purchased by me with this piece of money (sas) and brazen scales. He then strikes the scales with the piece of money and gives it to the seller as a symbol of the price (quasi pretii loco.) The purchaser or person to whom the mancipatio was made did not acquire the possession of the mancipatio; for the acquisition of possession was a separate act. Gaius. 1, 119; Id. iv. 181.

Both mancipatio and in jure cessio existed before the twelve tables. Frag. Vat. 50. Mancipation no longer existed in the code of Justinian, who took away all distinction between res mancipi and nec mancipi. Smith's Dict. Gr. & Rom. Antiq. Verb. Mancipium; Coop. Jus. 442.

MANDAMUS, practice. The name of a writ, the principal word of which when the proceedings were in Latin, was mandamus, we command.

2. It is a command issuing in the name of the sovereign authority from a superior court having jurisdiction, and is directed to some person, corporation, or, inferior court, within the jurisdiction of such superior court, requiring them to do some particular thing therein specified, which appertains to their office and duty, and which the superior court has previously determined, or at least supposes to be consonant to right and justice. 20 Pick. 484; 21 Pick. 258; Dudley, 37; 4 Humph. 437.

3. Mandamus is not a writ of right, it is not consequently granted of course, but only at the discretion of the court to whom the application for it is made; and this discretion is not exercised in favor of the applicant, unless some just and useful purpose may be answered by the writ. 2 T. R. 385; 1 Cowen's R. 501; 11 Shepl. 151; 1 Pike, 11.

4. This writ was introduced io prevent disorders from a failure of justice; therefore it ought to be used upon all occasions where the law has established no specific remedy, and where in justice and good government there ought to be one. 3 Burr. R. 1267; 1 T. R. 148, 9.; 2 Pick. 414; 4 Pick. 68; 10 Pick. 235, 244; 7 Mass; 340; 3 Binn. 273; 5 Halst. 57; Cooke, 160; 1 Wend. 318; 5 Pet. 190; 1 Caines, R. 511; John. Cas. 181; 12 Wend. 183; 8 Pet. 291; 12 Pet. 524; 2 Penning. 1024; Hardin, 172; 7 Wheat. 534; 5 Watts. 152; 2 H. & M. 132; 3 H. & M. 1; 1 S. & R. 473; 5 Binn. 87; 3 Conn. 243; 2 Virg. Cas. 499; 5 Call. 548. Mandamus will not lie where the law has given another specific remedy. 1 Wend. 318; 10 John. 484; 1 Cow. 417; Coleman, 117; 1 Pet. 567; 2 Cowen, 444; 2 M'Cord, 170; Minor, 46; 2 Leigh, 165; Const. Rep. 165, 175, 703.

5. The 13th section of the act of congress of September, 24, 1789, gives the supreme court power to issue writs of mandamus in cases warranted by the principles and usages of law, to any courts appointed or persons holding office, under the authority of the United States. The issuing of a mandamus to courts, is the exercise of an appellate jurisdiction, and, therefore constitutionally vested in the supreme court; but a mandamus directed to a public officer, belongs to original jurisdiction, and by the constitution, the exercise of original jurisdiction by the supreme court is restricted to certain specified cases, which do not comprehend a mandamus. The latter clause of the above section, authorizing this writ to be issued by the supreme court, to persons holding office under the authority of the United States, is, therefore, not warranted by the constitution, and void. 1 Cranch, R. 175.

6. The circuit courts of the United States may also issue writs of mandamus, but their power in this particular, is confined exclusively to those cases in which it may be necessary to the exercise of their jurisdiction. 7 Cranch, R. 504; 8 Wheat. R. 598; 1 Paine's R. 453. Vide, generally, 3 Bl. Com. 110; Com. Dig. h. t; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Vin. Ab. h. t.; Selw. N. P. h. t.; Chit. Pr. h. t.; Serg. Const. Index, h. t.; Ang. on Corp. Index, h. t.; 3 Chit. Bl. Com. 265 n. 7; 1 Kent. Com. 322; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 6 Watts & Serg. 386, 397; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; and the article "Courts of the United States."

MANDANT. The principal in the contract of mandate is so called. Story, Ag. 337.

MANDATARIUS. One who is entrusted with and undertakes to perform a mandate. This word is used by the civilians in the same sense that we use mandatary. Poth. du Mandat, n. 1.

MANDATARY, contracts. One who undertakes to perform a mandate. Jones' Bailm. 53; Story on Bailm. 38. Dr. Halifax calls him mandatee. Halif. Anal. Civ. Law, 70, 16, 17.

2. It is the duty of a mere mandatory, it is said, to take ordinary care of the property entrusted to him. Vide Negligence. But it has been held that he is liable only for gross negligence. 14 S. & R. 275; 2 Hawks, R. 145; 2 Murph. R. 373; 3 Dana, R. 205; 3 Mason, R. 132; 11 Wend, R. 25; Wright, R. 598; 1 Bouv. 1st. n. 1073.

MANDATE, practice. A judicial command or precept issued by a court or magi- trate, directing the proper officer to enforce a judgment, sentence or decree. Jones'. Bailm. 52; Story on Bailm. 137.

MANDATE. Mandatum or commission, contracts. Sir William Jones defines a mandate to be a bailment of goods without reward, to be carried from place to place, or to have some act performed about them. Jones' Bailm. 52; 2 Ld. Raym. 909, 913. This seems more properly an enumeration of the various sorts of mandates than a definition of the contract. According to Mr. Justice Story, it is a bailment of personal property, in regard to which the bailee engages to do some act without reward. Bailm. 137. And Mr. Chancellor Kent defines it to be when one undertakes, without recompense, to do some act for the other in respect to the thing bailed. Comm. 443. See, for other definitions, Story on Bailm. 137; Pothier, Pand. lib. 17, tit. 1; Wood's Civ. Law, B. 3, c. 5, p. 242; Halifaz's Anal. of the Civ. Law, 70,; Code of Louis. art. 2954; Code Civ. art. 1984; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1068.

2. From the very term of the definition, three things are necessary to create a mandate. First, that there should exist something which should be the matter of the contract; secondly, that it should be done gratuitously; and thirdly, that the parties. should voluntarily intend to enter into the contract. Poth. Pand. Lib. 17, tit. 1, p. 1, 1; Poth. Contr. de Mandat, c. 1, 2.

3. There is no particular form or manner of entering into the contract of mandate, prescribed either by the common law, or by the civil law, in order to give it validity. It may be verbal or in writing; it may be express or implied it may be in solemn form or in any other manner. Story on Bailm. 160. The contract may be varied at the pleasure of the parties. It may be absolute or conditional, general or special, temporary or permanent. Wood's Civ. Law, 242; 1 Domat, B. 1. tit. 15, 1, 6, 7, 8; Poth. Contr. de Mandat, c. 1, 3, n. 34, 35, 36.

4. As to the degree of diligence which the mandatory is bound to exercise, see Mandatory; Negligence; Pothier, Mandat, h. t; Louis. Code, tit. 15 Code Civ. t. 13, c. 2 Story on Bailm. 163 to 195; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1073.

5. As to the duties and obligations of the mandator, see Story on Bailm. 196 to 201; Code Civ. tit. 13, c. 3; Louis. Code, tit. 15, c. 4; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1074.

6. The contract of mandate may be dissolved in various ways: 1. It may be dissolved by the mandatary at any time before he has entered upon its execution; but in this case, as indeed in all others, where the contract is dissolved before the act is done which the parties intended, the property bailed is to be restored to the mandator.

7. - 2. It may be dissolved by the death of the mandatory; for, being founded in personal confidence, it is not presumed to pass to his representatives, unless there is some special stipulation to that effect. But this principally applies to cases where the mandate remains wholly unexecuted; for if it be in part executed, there may in some cases, arise a personal obligation on the part of the representatives to complete it. Story on Bailm. 202.; 2 Kent's Com. 504, 4; Pothier, Mandat, c. 4, 1, n. 101.

8. Whenever the trust is of a nature which requires united, advice, confidence and skill of all, and is deemed a joint personal trust to all, the death of one joint mandatary dissolves the contract as to all. See Story on Bailm. 202; Co. Litt. 112, b; Id. 181, b; Com. Dig. Attorney, C 8; Bac. Abr. Authority, C; 2 Kent's Com. 504 7 Taunt. 403.

9. The death of the mandator, in like manner, puts an end to the contract. See 2 Mason's R. 342; 8 Wheat. R. 174; 2 Kent's Com. 507; 1 Domat, B. 1, tit. 15, 4, n. 6, 7, 8; Pothier, Contract de Mandat, c. 4, 2, n. 103. But although an unexecuted mandate ceases with the death of the mandator, yet, if it be executed in part at that time, it is binding to that extent, and his representatives must indemnify the mandatory. Story on Bailm. 204, 205.

10. - 3. The contract of mandate may be dissolved by a change in the state of the parties; as if either party becomes insane, or, being a woman, marries before the execution of the mandate. Story on Bailm. 206; 2 Roper, Husb. and Wife, 69, 73; Salk. 117; Bac. Abr. Baron and Feme, E; 2 Kent's Com. 506,

11. - 4. It may be dissolved by a revocation of the authority, either by operation of law, or by the act of the mandator.

12. It ceases by operation of law when the power of the mandator ceases over the subject-matter; as, if he be a guardian, it ceases, as to his ward's property, by the termination of the guardianship. Pothier, Contract de Mandat, c. 4, 4, n. 112.

13. So, if the mandator sells the property, it ceases upon the sale, if it be made known to the mandatory. 7 Ves. jr. 276; Story on Bailm. 207.

14. By the civil law the contract of mandate ceases by the revocation of the authority. Story on Bailm. 208; Code Civ. art. 2003 to 2008; Louis, Code, art. 2997.

15. At common law, the party giving an authority is generally entitled to revoke it. See 5 T. R. 215; Wallace's R. 126; 5 Binn. 316. But, if it be given as a part of a security, as if a letter of attorney be given to collect a debt, as a security for money advanced, it is irrevocable by the party, although revoked by death. 2 Mason's R. 342; 8 Wheat. 174; 2 Esp. R. 365; 7 Ves. 28; 2 Ves. & Bea. 51; 1 Stark. R. 121; 4 Campb. 272.

MANDATE, civil law. Mandates were the instructions which the emperor addressed to public functionaries, which were to serve as rules for their conduct. 2. These mandates resembled those of the pro-consuls, the mandata jurisdictio, and were ordinarily binding on the legates or lieutenants of the emperor of the imperial provinces, and, there they had the authority of the principal edicts. Sav. Dr. Rom. ch. 3, 24, n. 4

. MANDATOR, contracts. The person employing another to perform a mandate. Story on Bailm. 138; 1 Brown, Civ. Law, 382; Halif. Anal. Civ. Law, 70.

MANDAVI BALLIVO, English law. The return made by a sheriff, when he has committed the execution of a writ to a bailiff of a liberty, who has the right to execute the writ.

MANHOOD. The ceremony of doing homage by the vassal to his lord was de- nominated homagium or manhood, by the feudists. The formula used was devenio vester homo, I become you Com. 54. See Homage.

MANIA, med. jur. This subject will be considered by examining it, first, in a medical point of view; and, secondly, as to its legal consequences.

2. - 1. Mania may be divided into intellectual and moral.

1. Intellectual mania is that state of mind which is characterised by certain hallucinations, in which the patient is impressed with the reality of facts or events which have never occurred, and acts in accordance with such belief; or, having some notion not altogether unfounded, carries it to an ex- travagant and absurd length. It may be considered as involving all or most of the operations of the understanding, when it is said to be general; or as be-ing confined to a particular idea, or train of ideas, when it is called partial.

3. These will be separately examined. 1st. General intellectual mania is a disease which presents the most chaotic confusion into which the human mind, can be involved, and is attended by greater disturbance of the functions of the body than any other. According to Pinel, Traite d'Alienation Mentale, p. 63, "The patient sometimes keeps his head elevated and his looks fixed on. high; he speaks in a low voice, or utters cries and vociferations without any apparent motive; he walks to and fro, and sometimes arrests his steps as if fixed by the sentiment of admiration, or wrapt up in profound reverie. Some insane persons display wild excesses of merriment, with immoderate bursts of laughter. Sometimes also, as if nature delighted in contrasts, gloom and taciturnity prevail, with involuntary showers of tears, or the anguish of deep sorrow, with all the external signs of acute mental suffering. In certain cases a sudden reddening of the eyes and excessive loquacity give presage of a speedy explosion of violent madness and the urgent necessity of a strict confinement. One lunatic, after long intervals of calmness, spoke at first with volubility, uttered frequent shouts of laughter, and then shed a torrent of tears; experience had taught the necessity of shutting him up immediately, for his paroxysms were at such times of the greatest violence. "Sometimes, however, the patient is not altogether devoid of intelligence; answers some questions very appropriately, and is not destitute of acuteness and ingenuity. The derangement in this form of mania is not confined to the intellectual facul-ties, but not unfrequently extends to the moral powers of the mind.

4. - 2d. Partial intellectual mania is generally known by the name of monomania. (q. v.) In its most usual and simplest form, the patient has conceived some single notion contrary to common sense and to common experience, generally dependent on errors of sensation; as, for example, when a person believes that he is made of glass, that animals or men have taken their abode in his stomach or bowels. In these cases the understanding is frequently found to be sound on all subjects, except those connected with the hallucination. Sometimes, instead of being limited to a single point, this disease takes a wider range, and there is a class of cases, where it involves a train of morbid ideas. The patient then imbibes some notions connected with the various relations of persons, events, time, space, &c., of the most absurd and unfounded nature, and endeavors, in some measure, to regulate his conduct accordingly; though, in most respects, it is grossly inconsistent with his delusion.

5. Moral mania or moral insanity, (q. v.) is divided into, first, general, where all the moral faculties are subject to a general disturbance and secondly, partial, where one or two only of the moral powers are perverted.

6. These will be briefly and separately examined. 1st. It is certain that many individuals are living at large who are affected, in a degree at least, by general moral mania. They are generally of singular habits, wayward temper, and eccentric character; and circumstances are frequently attending them which induce a belief that they are not altogether sane. Frequently there is a hereditary tendency to madness in the family; and, not seldom, the individual himself has at a previous period of life sustained an attack of a decided character: his temper has undergone a change, he has become an altered man, probably from the time of the occurrence of something which deeply affected him, or which deeply affected his bodily constitution. Sometimes these alterations are imperceptible, at others, they are sudden and immediate. Individuals afflicted with this disease not unfrequently "perform most of the common duties of life with propriety, and some of them, indeed, with scrupulous exactness, who exhibit no strongly marked features of either temperament, no traits of superior or defective mental endowment, but yet take violent an- tipathies, harbor unjust suspicions, indulge strong propensities, affect singularity in dress, gait, and phraseology; are proud, conceited, and ostentatious; easily excited and with difficulty appeased; dead to sensi- bility, delicacy, and refinement; obstinately riveted to the most absurd opinions; prone to controversy, and yet incapable of reasoning; always the hero of their own tale, using hyperbolic, high flown language to express the most simple ideas, accompanied by unnatural gesticulation, inordinate ac- tion, and frequently by the most alarming expression of countenance. On some occasions they suspect sinister intentions on the most trivial grounds; on others are a prey to fear and dread from the most ridiculous and imaginary sources; now embracing every opportunity of exbibiting romantic courage and feats and hardihood, then indulging themselves in all manner of excesses. Persons of this description, to the casual observer, might appear actuated by a bad heart, but the experienced physician knows it is the head which is defective. They seem as if constantly affected by a greater or less degree of stimulation from intoxicating liquors, while the expression of countenance furnishes an infallible proof of mental disease. If subjected to moral re- straint, or a medical regimen, they yield with reluctance to the means proposed, and generally refuse and resist, on the ground that such means are unnecessary where no disease exists; and when, by the system adopted, they are so far recovered, as to be enabled to suppress the exhibition of their former peculiarities, and are again fit to be restored to society, the physician, and those friends who put them under the physician's care, are generally ever after objects of enmity, and frequently of revenge." Cox, see cases of this Pract. Obs. on Insanity, kind of madness cited in Ray, Med. Jur. 112 to 119; Combe's Moral Philos. lect. 12.

7 .- 2d. Partial moral mania consists in the derangement of one or a few of the affective faculties, the moral and intellectual constitution in other respects remaining in a sound state. With a mind apparently in full possession of his reason, the patient commits a crime, without any extraordinary temptation, and with every inducement to refrain from it, he appears to act without a motive, or in opposition to one, with the most perfect consciousness of the impropriety, of his conduct, and yet he pursues perseveringly his mad course. This disease of the mind manifests itself in a variety of ways, among which may be mentioned the following: 1. An irresistible propensity to steal. 2. An inordinate propensity to lying. 3. A morbid activity of the sexual propensity. Vide Erotic Mania. 4. A morbid propensity to commit arson. 5. A morbid activity of the propensity to destroy. Ray, Med. Jur. ch. 7.

8. - 2. In general, persons laboring under mania are not responsible nor bound for their acts like other persons, either in their contracts or for their crimes, and their wills or testaments are voidable. Vide Insanity; Moral Insanity. 2 Phiilim. Ecc. R. 69; 1 Hagg. Cons: R. 414; 4 Pick. R. 32; 3 Addams, R. 79; 1 Litt. R. 371.

MANIA A POTU. Insanity arising from the use of spirituous liquors. Vide Delirium Tremens.

MANIFEST, com. law. A written instrument containing a true account of the cargo of a ship or commercial vessel.

2. The Act of March 2, 1799, s. 23, requires that when goods, wares, or mer- chandise, shall be brought into the United States, from any foreign port or place, in any ship or vessel, belonging, in whole or in part to a citizen or inhabitant of the United States, the manifest shall be in writing, signed by the master of the vessel, and that it shall contain the names of the places where the goods in such manifest mentioned, shall have been respectively taken on board, and the places within the United States, for which they are respec tively consigned, particularly noticing the goods destined for each place, respectively; the name, description, and build of such vessel, and her true admeasurement or tonnage, the place to which she belongs, with the name of each owner, according to her register, the name of her master, and a just and particular account of the goods so laden on board, whether in package or stowed loose, of any kind whatsoever, with the marks and numbers on each package, the numbers and descriptions of the packages in words at length, whether leaguer, pipe, butt, puncheon, hogshead, barrel, keg, case, bale, pack, truss, chest, box, bandbox, bundle, parcel, cask, or package of any kind, describing each by its usual denomination; the names of the persons to whom they are respectively consigned, agreeably to the bills of lading, unless when the, goods are consigned to order, when it shall be so expressed; the names of the several passengers on; board, distinguishing whether cabin or steerage passengers, or both, with their baggage, specifying the number and description of packages belonging to each, respectively; together with an account of the remaining sea stores, if any. And if any merchandise be imported, destined for different districts, or ports, the quantities and packages thereof shall be inserted in successive order in the manifest; aud all spirits, wines aud teas, constituting the whole or any part of the cargo of any vessel, shall be inserted in successive order, distinguishing the ports to which they may be destined, and the kinds, qualities and quantities thereof; and if merchandise be imported by citizens or inhabitants of the United States, in vessels other than of the United States, the manifests shall be of the form and shall contain the particulars aforesaid, except that the vessel shall be specially described as provided by a form in the act. 1 Story's Laws, 593, 594.

3. The want of a manifest, where one is required, or when it is false, is severely punished.

MANIFEST, evidence. That which is clear and requires no proof; that which is noto- rious. See Notoriety.

MANIFESTO. A solemn declaration, by the constituted authorities of a nation, which contains the reasons for its public acts towards another.

2. On the declaration of war, a manifesto is usually issued in which the nation declaring the war, states the reasons for so doing. Vattel, liv. 3, c. 4, 64; Wolff, 1187. See Anti-Manifesto.

MANKIND. Persons of the male sex; but in a more general sense, it includes persons of both sexes; for example, the statute of 25 Hen. VIII., c. 6, makes it felony to commit, sodomy with mankind or beast. Females as well as males axe included under the term mankind. Fortesc. 91; Bac. Ab. Sodomy. See Gender.

MANNER AND FORM, pleading. After traversing any allegation in pleading, it is usual to say "in manner and form as he has in his declaration in that behalf alleged," which is as much as to include in the traverse, not only the mere fact opposed to it, but that in the manner and form in which it is stated by the other party. These words, however, only put in issue the substantial statement of the manner of tho fact traversed, and do not extend to the time, place, or other circumstances attending it, if they were not originally material and necessary to be proved as laid. 3 Bouv. Inst. p. 297. See Modo et forma.

MANNOPUS. An ancient word which signifies goods taken in the hands of an ap- prehended thief.

MANOR, estates. This word is derived from the French manoir, and signifies, a house, residence, or habitation. At present its meaning is more enlarged, and includes not only a dwelling-house, but also lands. Vide Co. Litt. 58, 108; 2 Roll. Ab. 121 Merl. Repert. mot Manoir. See Serg. Land Laws of Pennsyl. 195.

2. By the English law, a manor is a tract of land originally granted by the king to a person of rank, part of which was given by the grantee to his followers, and the rest lie retained under the name of his demesnes; that which remained uncultivated was called the lord's waste, and served for public roads and common of pasture for the lord and his tenants.

MANSION. This term is synonymous with house. (q. v.) 1 Chit. Pr. 167; 2 T. R. 502; 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 215, n. 35; 9 B. & C. 681; S. C. 17 E. C. L. R. 472, and the cases there cited; Com. Dig. Justices, P 5; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 199. A portion only of a building may come under the description of a mansion-house. 1 Leach, 89, 428; 1 East, P. C. C. 15, s. 19. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1571, note.

MANSLAUGHTER, crim. law. The unlawful killing of another without malice either express or implied. 4 Bl. Com. 190 1 Hale, P. C. 466. The distinctions between manslaughter and murder, consists in the following. In the former, though the act which occasions the death be unlawful, or likely to be attended with bodily mischief, yet the malice, either express or implied, which is the very essence of murder, is presumed to be wanting in manslaughter. 1 East, P. C. 218 Foster, 290.

2. It also differs from murder in this, that there can be no accessaries before the fact, there having been no time for premeditation. 1 Hale, P. C. 437; 1 Russ. Cr. 485. Manslaugbter is voluntary, when it happens upon a sudden heat; or involuntary, when it takes place in the commission of some unlawful act.

3. The cases of manslaughter may be classed as follows those which take place in consequence of, 1. Provocation. 2. Mutual combat. 3. Resistance to public officers, &c.

4. Killing in the prosecution of an unlawful or wanton act. 5. Killing in the prosecution of a lawful act, improperly performed, or performed without lawful authority.

4. - 1. The provocation which reduces the killing from murder to manslaughter is an answer to the presumption of malice which the law raises in every case of homicide; it is therefore no answer when express malice is proved. 1 Russ. Cr, 440; Foster, 132; 1 East, P. C. 239; and to be available the provocation must have been reasonable and recent, for no words or slight provocation will be sufficient, and if the party, has had time to cool, malice will be inferred.

5. - 2. In cases of mutual combat, it is generally manslaughter only when one of the parties is killed. When death ensues from duelling the rule is different, and such killing is murder.

6. - 3. The killing of an officer by resistance to him while acting under lawful authority is murder; but if the officer be acting under a void or illegal authority, or out of his jurisdiction, the killing is manslaughter, or excusable homicide, according to the circumstances of the case. 1 Moody, C. C. 80, 132; 1 Hale, P. C. 458; 1 East, P. C. 314; 2 Stark. N. P. C. 205; S. C. 3 E. C. L. R. 315.

7. - 4. Killing a person while doing an act of mere wantonness, is manslaughter as, if a person throws down stones in a coal-pit, by which a man is killed, although the offender was only a trespasser. Lewin, C. C. 179.

8. - 5. When death ensues from the performance of a lawful act, it may, in consequence of the negligence of the offender, amount to manslaughter. For instance, if the death has been, occasioned by negligent driving. 1 East, P. C. 263; 1 C. & P. 320 S. C. 9 E. C. L. R. 408; 6 C. & P. 629; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 569. Again, when death ensues, from the gross negligence of a medical or surgical practitioner, it is manslaughter. 1 Hale, P. C. 429; 3 C. & P. 632; S. C. 14 E, C. L. R. 495.

MANSTEALING. This word is sometimes used synonymously with kidnapping. The latter is more technical. 4 Bl. Com. 219.

MANU FORTI. With strong hand. (q. v.) This term is used in pleading in cases of forcible entry, and no other words are of equal import. Dane's Ab. ch. 132, a. 6; ch. 203, a. 12.

MANU OPERA. This has the same meaning with mannopus. (q. v.)

MANUAL. That which is employed or used by the hand, of which a present profit may be made. Things in the manual occupation of the owner cannot be distrained for rent. Vide Tools.

MANUCAPTIO, practice. In the English law it is a writ which lies for a man taken on suspicion of felony and the like, who cannot be admitted to bail by the sheriff, or others having power to let to mainprise. F. N. B. 249.

MANUCAPTORS. The same as mainpernors. (q. v.)

MANUFACTURE. This word is used in the English and American patent laws. This term includes two classes of things; first, all machinery which is to be used and is not the object of sale; and, secondly, substances (such, for example, as medicines) formed by chemical processes, when the vendible substance is the thing produced, and that which operates preserves no permanent form. In the first class, the machine, and, in the second the substance produced, is the subject of the patent. 2 H. Bl. 492. See 8 T. R. 99; 2 B. & A. 349; Day. Pat. Cas. 278; Webst. on Pat. 8; Phil. on Pat. 77; Perp. Manuel des Inv. c. 2, s. 1; Renouard, c. 5, s. 1; Westminster Review, No. 44, April 1835, p. 247; 1 Bell's Com., B. 1, part 2, c. 4, s. 1, p. 110, 6th ed.

MANUMISSION, contracts. The agreement by which the owner or master of a slave sets him free and at liberty; the written instrument which contains this agreement is also called a manumission.

2. In the civil law it was different from emancipation, which, properly speaking, was applied to the liberation of children from paternal power. Inst. liv. 1, t. 5 & 12; Co. Litt. 137, a; Dane's Ab. h. t.

MANURE, Dung. When collected in a heap, it is considered as personal property, but, when spread, it becomes a part of the land and acquires the character of real estate. Alleyn, 31; 2 Ired. R. 326.

MANUS. Anciently signified the person taking an oath as a compurgator. The use of this word probably came from the party laying his hand on the New Testament. Manus signifies, among the civilians, power, and is frequently used as synonymous with potestas. Lec. El. Dr. Rom. 94.

MANUSCRIPT. A writing; a writing which has never been printed.

2. The act of congress securing to authors a copyright passed February 3, 1831, sect. 9, protects authors in their manuscripts, and renders any person who shall unlawfully publish a manuscript liable to an action, and authorizes the courts to enjoin the publisher. See Copyright. The right of the author, to his manuscripts, at common law, cannot be contested. 4 Burr. 2396; 2 Eden, Ch. R. 329; 2 Story, R. 100; 2 Atk. 342; Ambl. 694; 2 B. & A. 290; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 943; Eden, Inj. 322; 2 B. & A. 298; 2 Bro. P. C. (Toml ed.) 138; 4 Vin. Ab. 278; 2 Atk. 342; 2 Ves. & B. 23. These rights will be considered as abandoned if the author publishes his manuscripts, without securing the copyright under the acts of congress. See Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Copyright.

MARAUDER. One who, while employed in the army as a soldier, commits a larceny or robbery in the neighborhood of the camp, or while wandering away from the army. Merl. Repert. h. t.

MARC-BANCO. The name of a coin. The marc-banco of Hamburg, as money of account, at the custom-house, is deemed and taken to be of the value of thirty-five cents. Act of March 3, 1843.

MARCHES, Eng. law. This word signifies the limits, or confines, or borders. Bac. Law Tracts, tit. Jurisdiction of the. Marches, p. 246. It was applied to the limits between England and Wales or Scotland. In Scotland the term marches is applied to the boundaries between private properties.

MARETUM. Marshy ground overflowed by the sea or great rivers. Co. Litt. 5.

MARINARIUS. An ancient word which signified a mariner or seaman; in England marinarius capitaneus, was the admiral or warden of the ports.

MARINE. Whatever concerns the navigation of the sea, and forms the naval power of a nation is called its marine.

MARINE CONTRACT. One which relates to business done or transacted upon the sea and in sea ports, and over which the courts of admiralty have jurisdiction concurrent with the courts of common law; such contracts include according to civilians and jurists among other things, charter parties, affreightments, marine hypothecations, contracts for the marine service in the building, re-pairing, supplying and navigating ships; contracts and quasi contracts respec- ting averages, contributions and jettisons, and policies of insurance. 2 Gall. R. 398, where Judge Story gave a very learned opinion on the subject.

MARINE INSURANCE, contracts. A contract by which one party, for a stipulated premium, undertakes to indemnify the other, against all perils or sea risks, to which his ship; freight or cargo, or some of them, may be exposed, during a certain voyage or fixed period of time. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1175, et seq. See Insurance Marine.

MARINE INTEREST, contracts. A compensation paid for the use and risk of money loaned on respondentia and bottomry; provided the money be loaned and put in risk, there is no limit as to the amount which may be lawfully charged by the lender. 2 Marsh. Ins. 749; Hall on Mar. Loans; Pothier, Pret a. la Grosse, n. 19; 1 Stuart's (L. C.) R. 130.

MARINE LEAGUE. A measure equal to the twentieth part of a degree. Bouch. Inst. n. 1845, not. Vide Cannon Shot; Sea.

MARINER. One whose occupation is to navigate vessels on the sea. Vide Seamen Shipping articles.

2. By act of congress, 1 Story, Laws of U. S., ch. 56, s. 4, p. 109, it is provided, that no sum exceeding one dollar shall be recovered from any seaman or mariner (in the merchant service,) by any person, for any debt contracted during the time such seaman or mariner shall actually belong to any ship or vessel, until the voyage for which such seaman or mariner engaged, shall be ended.

MARITAGIUM. Anciently that portion which was given with a daughter in marriage.

2. During the existence of the feudal law, it was the right which the lord of the fee had, under certain tenures, to dispose of the daughters of his vassal in marriage. By this word was also understood marriage. Beames' Glanv. 138, n; Bract. 21 a; Spelm. Gl. ad voc.; 2 Bl. Com. 69; Co. Litt. 21 b, 76 a.

MARITAL. That which belongs to marriage; as marital rights, marital duties.

2. Contracts made by a feme sole with a view to deprive her intended husband of his marital rights, with respect to her property, are a fraud upon him, and may be set aside in equity. By the marriage, the husband assumes the duty of paying her debts, contracted previous to the coverture, and of supporting her during its existence; and he cannot, therefore, be fraudulently deprived, by the intended wife, of those rights which enable him to perform the duties which attach to him. 2 Cha. R. 42; Newl. Contr. 424; 1 Vern. 408; 2 Vern. 17; 2 P. Wms. 357, 674; 2 Bro. C. C. 345; 1 Ves. jr. 22; 2 Cox, R. 28; 2 Beav. 528; 2 Ch. R. 81; White's. L. C. in Eq. *277; 1 Hill, Ch. R. 1, 4; 13 Maine, R. 124; 1 McMull. Eq. R. 237 3 Iredell's Eq. R. 487; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 224.

MARITAL PORTION. In Louisiana, this name is given to that part of a deceased husband's estate, to which the widow is entitled. Civil Code, 334, art. 55; 3 Mart. N. S. 1.

MARITIME. That which belongs to or is connected with the sea.

MARITIME CAUSE. Maritime causes are those arising from maritime contracts, whether made at sea or on land, that is, such as relate to the commerce, business or navigation of the sea; as, charter parties, affreightments, marine loans, hypothecations, contracts for maritime service in building, repairing, supplying and navigating ships, contracts and quasi contracts respecting averages, contributions and jettisons; contracts relating to marine insurance, and those between owners of ships. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2621.

2. There are maritime causes also for torts and injuries committed at sea.

3. In general, the courts of admiralty have a concurrent jurisdiction with courts of law, of all maritime causes: and in some cases they have exclusive jurisdiction.

MARITIME CONTRACT. One which relates to the navigation of the sea.

2. The admiralty has jurisdiction in case of the breach of such contract, whether it has been entered into on land or at sea. 4 Wash. C. C. R. 453; see 2 Gallis. 465; 2 Sumn. 1; Gilp. 529.

MARITIME LAW. That system of law which relates to the affairs of the sea, such as seamen, ships, shipping, navigation, and the like.

MARITIME LOAN. A contract or agreement by which one, who is the lender, lends to another, who is the borrower, a certain sum of money, upon condition that if the thing upon which the loan has been made, should be lost by any peril of the sea, or vis major, the lender shall not be repaid, unless what remains shall be equal to the sum borrowed; and if the thing arrive in safety, or in case it shall not have been injured, but by its own defects or the fault of the master or mariners, the borrower shall be bound to return the sum borrowed, together with a certain sum agreed upon as the price of the hazard incurred. Emer. Mar. Loans, c. 1, s. 2; Poth. h. t. Vide Bottomry; Gross Adventure; Interest, maritime; Respondentia.

MARITIME PROFIT, mar. law. The French writers use the term maritime profit to signify any profit derived from a maritime lean. Vide Interest maritime.

MARK. This term has several acceptations. 1. It is a sign traced on paper or parchment, which stands in the place of a signature, usually made by persons who cannot write. 2 Cart. R. 324; M. & M. 516; 12 Pet. 150; 7 Bing. 457; 2 Ves. 455; 1 V. & B. 362; 1 Ves., jr. 11. A mark is now held to be a good signature, though the party was able to write. 8 Ad. & El. 94; 3 Nev. & Per. 228; 3 Curt. 752; 5 John. 144. Vide Subscription.

2. - 2. It is the sign, writing or ticket put upon manufactured goods to distinguish them from others. Poph. R. 144; 3 B & C. 541; 2 Atk. R. 485; 2 V. & B. 218; 3 M. & C. 1; Ed. Inj. 814. Vide Trade Marks.

3. - 3. Mark or marc, denotes a weight used in several parts of Europe, and for several commodities, especially gold and silver. When gold and silver are sold by the mark, it is divided into twenty-four carats.

4. - 4. Mark is also in England a money of accounts, and in some other countries a coin. The English marc is two-thirds of a pound sterling, or 13s. 4d., and the Scotch mark is of equal value in Scotch money of account. Encyc. Amer. h. t.

MARKET. A public place appointed by public authority, where all sorts of things necessary for the subsistence, or for the conveniences of life, are sold.

2. Markets are generally regulated by local laws.

3. By the term market is also understood the demand there is for any particular article; as, the cotton market in Europe is dull. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 42; Com. Dig. h. t.

MARKET OVERT, Engl. law. Market overt is an open or public market; that is, a place appointed by law or custom for the sale of goods and chattels at stated times in public.

2. In London, every day except Sunday, is market day. In the country, particular days are fixed for market days. 2 Bl. Com. 449.

3. It is a general rule that sales of vendible articles made in market overt, are good not only between the parties, but are also binding on all those who have any property or right therein. Id. 2 Chitt. Com. Law, 148 to 154; Com. Dig. Market, E; Bac. Abr. Fairs and Market, E; 5 B. & A. 624; Dane's Abr. chap. 45, a 2.

4. There is no law recognizing the effect of a sale in market overt in Pennsylvania. 3 Yeates R. 347; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 130; in New York; 1 Johns, 480; in Massachusetts; 8 Mass. R. 521; 14 Mass. R. 500; in Ohio; 5 Ohio, R. 203; nor in Vermont. 1 Tyl. R. 341; nor indeed in any of the United States. 10 Pet. 161.

MARLEBRIDGE, STATUTE OF. The name of a statute passed the 52 Hen. III, A. D. 1267, so called because it was enacted at Marlebridge. Barr. on Stat. 58.

MARQUE AND REPRISAL. The name given to a commission granted by the supreme power of a state to a private person for the purpose of seizing the property of a foreign state or its subjects. Wheat. Law of Nations, 340. Vide Letters of Marque.

MARRIAGE. A contract made in due form of law, by which a free man and a free woman reciprocally engage to live with each other during their joint lives, in the union which ought io exist between husband and wife. By the terms freeman and freewoman in this definition are meant, not only that they are free and not slaves, but also that they are clear of all bars to a lawful marriage. Dig. 23, 2, 1; Ayl. Parer. 359; Stair, Inst. tit. 4, s. 1; Shelford on Mar. and Div. c. 1, s. 1.

2. To make a valid marriage, the parties must be willing to contract, Able to contract, and have actually contracted.

3. - 1. They must be willing to contract. Those persons, therefore, who have no legal capacity in point of intellect, to make a contract, cannot legally marry, as idiots, lunatics, and infant; males under the age of fourteen, and females under the age of twelve, and when minors over those ages marry, they must have the consent of their parents or guardians.

4. There is no will when the person is mistaken in the party whom he intended to marry; as, if Peter intending to marry Maria, through error or mistake of person, in fact marries Eliza; but an error in the fortune, as if a man marries a woman whom he believes to be rich, and he finds her to be poor; or in the quality, as if he marry a woman whom he took to be chaste, and whom he finds of an opposite character, this does not invalidate the marriage, because in these cases the error is only of some quality or accident, and not in the person. Poynt. on Marr. and Div. ch. 9.

5. When the marriage is obtained by force or fraud, it is clear that there is no consent; it is, therefore, void ab initio, and may be treated as null by every court in which its validity may incidentally be called in question. 2 Kent, Com. 66; Shelf. on Marr. and Div. 199; 2 Hagg. Cons. R. 246; 5 Paige, 43.

6. - 2. Generally, all persons who are of sound mind, and have arrived to years of maturity, are able to contract marriage. To this general rule, however, there are many exceptions, among which the following may be enumerated.

7. - 1. The previous marriage of the party to another person who is still living.

8. - 2. Consanguinity, or affinity between the parties within the prohibited degree. It seems that persons in the descending or ascending line, however remote from each other, cannot lawfully marry; such marriages are against nature; but when we come to consider collaterals, it is not so easy to fix the forbidden degrees, by clear and established principles. Vaugh. 206; S. C. 2 Vent. 9. In several of the United States, marriages within the limited degrees are made void by statute. 2 Kent, Com. 79; Vide Poynt. on Marr. and Div. ch. 7.

9. - 3. Impotency, (q. v.) which must have existed at the time of the marriage, and be incurable. 2 Phill. Rep. 10; 2 Hagg. Rep. 832.

10. - 4. Adultery. By statutory provision in Pennsylvania, when a person is convicted of adultery with another person, or is divorced from her husband, or his wife, he or she cannot afterwards marry the partner of his or her guilt. This provision is copied from the civil law. Poth. Contr. de Mariage, part 3, c. 3, art. 7. And the same provision exists in the French code civil, art. 298. See 1 Toull. n. 555.

11. - 3. The parties must not only be willing and able, but must have actually contracted in due form of law.

12. The common law requires no particular ceremony to the valid celebration of marriage. The consent of the parties is all that is necessary, and as marriage is said to be a contract jure gentium, that consent is all that is needful by natural or public law. If the contract be made per verba de presenti, or if made per verba de futuro, and followed by consummation, it amounts to a valid marriage, and which the parties cannot dissolve, if otherwise competent; it is not necessary that a clergyman should be present to give validity to the marriage; the consent of the parties may be declared before a magistrate, or simply before witnesses; or subsequently confessed or acknowledged, or the marriage may even be inferred from continual cohabitation, and reputation as husband and wife, except in cases of civil actions for adultery, or public prosecutions for bigamy. 1 Silk. 119; 4 Burr. 2057; Dougl. 171; Burr. Settl. Cas. 509; 1 Dow, 148; 2 Dow, 482; 4 John. 2; 18 John. R. 346; 6 Binn, 405; 1 Penn. R. 452; 2 Watts, R. 9. But a promise to marry at a future time, cannot, by any process of law, be converted into a marriage, though the breach of such promise will be the foundation of an action for damages.

13. In some of the states, statutory regulations have been made on this subject. In Maine and Massachusetts, the marriage must be made in the presence, and with the assent of a magistrate, or a stated or ordained minister of the gospel. 7 Mass. Rep. 48; 2 Greenl. Rep. 102. The statute of Connecticut on this subject, requires the marriage to be celebrated by a clergyman or magistrate, and requires the previous publication of the intention of marriage, and the consent of parents; it inflicts a penalty on those who disobey its regulations. The marriage, however, would probably be considered valid, although the regulations of the statutes had not been observed. Reeve's Dom. Rel. 196, 200, 290. The rule in Pennsylvania is, that the marriage is valid, although the directions of the statute have not been observed. 2 Watts, Rep. 9; 1 How. S. C. R. 219. The same rule probably obtains in New Jersey; 2 Halsted, 138; New Hampshire; 2 N. H. Rep. 268; and Kentucky. 3 Marsh. R. 370. In Louisiana, a license must be obtained from the parish judge of the parish in which at least one of the parties is domiciliated, and the marriage must be celebrated before a priest or minister of a religious sect, or an authorized justice of the peace; it must be celebrated in the presence of three witnesses of full age, and an act must be made of the celebration, signed by the person who celebrated the marriage, by the parties and the witnesses. Code, art. 101 to 107. The 89th article of the Code declares, that such marriages only are recognized by law, as are contracted and solemnized according to the rules which it prescribes. But the Code does not declare null a marriage not preceded by a license, and not evidenced by an act signed by a certain number of witnesses and the parties, nor does it make such an act exclusive evidence of the marriage. The laws relating to forms and ceremonies are directory to those who are authorized to celebrate marriage. 6 L. R. 470.

14. A marriage made in a foreign country, if good there, would, in general, be held good in this country, unless when it would work injustice, or be contra bonos mores, or be repugnant to the settled principles and policy of our laws. Story, Confl. of Laws, 87; Shelf. on M. & D. 140; 1 Bland. 188; 2 Bland. 485; 3 John. Ch. R. 190; 8 Ala. R. 48.

15. Marriage is a contract intended in its origin to endure till the death of one of the contracting parties. It is dissolved by death or divorce.

16. In some cases, as in prosecutions for bigamy, by the common law, an actual marriage must be proved in order to convict the accused. See 6 Conn. R. 446. This rule is much qualified. See Bigamy.

17. But for many purposes it may be proved by circumstances; for example, cohabitation; acknowledgment by the parties themselves that they were married; their reception as such by their friends and relations; their correspondence, on being casually separated, addressing each other as man and wife; 2 Bl. R. 899; declaring, deliberately, that the marriage took place in a foreign country; 2 Moo. & R. 503; describing their children, in parish registers of baptism, as their legitimate offspring; 2 Str. 1073; 8 Ves. 417; or when the parties pass for husband and wife by common reputation. 1 Bl. R. 639; S. C. 4 Burr. 2057; Dougl. 174; Cowp. 594; 3 Swans. R. 400; 8 S. & R. 159; 2 Hayw. R. 3; 1 Taylor, R. 121; 1 H. & McH. 152; 2 N. & McC. 114; 5 Day, R. 290; 4 R. & M. 507; 9 Mass. R. 414; 4 John. 52; 18 John. 346. After their death, the presumption is generally conclusive. Cowp. 591; 6 T. R. 330.

18. The civil effects of marriage are the following: 1. It confirms all matrimonial agreements between the parties.

19. - 2. It vests in the husband all the personal property of the wife, that which is in possession absolutely, and choses in action, upon the condition that he shall reduce them to possession; it also vests in the husband right to manage the real estate of the wife, and enjoy the profits arising from it during their joint lives, and after her death, an estate by the curtesy when a child has been born. It vests in the wife after the husband's death, an estate in dower in the husband's lands, and a right to a certain part of his personal estate, when he dies intestate. In some states, the wife now retains her separate property by statute.

20. - 3. It creates the civil affinity which each contracts towards the relations of the other.

21. - 4. It gives the husband marital authority over the person of his wife.

22. - 5. The wife acquires thereby the name of her husband, as they are considered as but one, of which he is the head: erunt duo in carne una.

23. - 6. In general, the wife follows the condition of her husband.

24. - 7. The wife, on her marriage, loses her domicil and gains that of her husband.

25. - 8. One of the effects of marriage is to give paternal power over the issue.

26. - 9. The children acquire the domicil of their father.

27. - 10. It gives to the children who are the fruits of the marriage, the rights of kindred not only with the father and mother, but all their kin.

28. - 11. It makes all the issue legitimate.

Vide, generally, 1 Bl. Com. 433; 15 Vin. Ab. 252; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. Baron and Feme, B; Id. Appx. b. t.; 2 Sell. Pr. 194; Ayl. Parergon, 359; 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 94; Rutherf. Inst. 162; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 334; Roper on Husband & Wife; Poynter on Marriage and Divorce; Merl. Repert. h. t.; Pothier, Traite du Contrat de Marriage; Toullier, h. t.; Chit. Pract. Index, h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t., Burge on the Confl. of Laws, Index, h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

MARRIAGE BROKAGE. By this expression is meant the act by which a person interferes, for a consideration to be received by him, between a man and a woman, for the purpose of promoting a marriage between them. The money paid for such service is also known by this name.

2. It is a doctrine of the courts of equity that all marriage brokage contracts are utterly void, as against public policy; and are, therefore, incapable of confirmation. 1 Fonb. Eq. B. 1, ch. 4, s. 10, note a; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 263; Newl. on Contr. 469.

MARRIAGE PORTION. That property which is given to a woman on her marriage. Vide Dowry.

MARRIAGE, PROMISE OF. A promise of marriage is a contract entered into between a man and woman that they will marry each other.

2. When the promise is made between persons competent to contract matrimony, an action lies for a breach of it. Vide Promise of Marriage.

MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT. An agreement made by the parties in contemplation of marriage by which the title to certain property is changed, and the property to some extent becomes tied up, and is rendered inalienable. Rice's Eq. R. 315. See 2 Hill, Ch. R. 3; Ril. Ch. Cas. 76; 8 Leigh, 29; 1 Dev. & Bat. Eq. 389; 2 Dev. & Bat. Eq. 103; 1 Bald. 344; 15 Mass. 106; 1 Yeates, 221; 7 Pet. 348; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3947. Vide Settlement, Contracts.

MARSHAL. An officer of the United States, whose duty it is to execute the process of the courts of the United States. His duties are very similar to those of a sheriff.

2. It is enacted by the act to establish the judicial courts of the United States, 1 Story's L. U. S. 53, as follows:

27. That a marshal shall be appointed, in and for each district, for the term of four years, but shall be removable from office at pleasure whose duty it shall be to attend the district and circuit courts, when sitting therein, and also the supreme court in the district in which that court shall sit: and to execute throughout the district, all lawful precepts directed to him, and issued under the authority of the United States, and he shall have power to command all necessary assistance in the execution of his duty, and to appoint, as there shall be occasion, one or more deputies, who shall be removable from office by the judge of the district court, or the circuit court sitting within the district, at the pleasure of either. And before he enters on the duties of his office, he shall become bound for the faithful performance of the same, by himself and by his deputies, before the judge of the district court, to the United States jointly and severally, with two good and sufficient sureties, inhabitants and freeholders of such district, to be approved by the district judge, in the sum of twenty thousand dollars, and shall take before said judge, as shall also his deputies, before they enter on the duties of their appointment, the following oath of office: "I, A B, do solemnly swear or affirm, that I will faithfully execute alI lawful precepts directed to the marshal of the district of________under the authority of the United States, and true returns make; and in all things well and truly, and without malice or partiality, perform the duties of the office of marshal (or marshal's deputy, as the case may be) of the district of _________ during my continuance in said office, and take only my lawful fees. So help me God."

3. - 28. That in all causes wherein the marshal, or his deputy, shall be a party, the writs and precepts therein shall be directed to such disinterested person, as the court, or any justice or judge thereof may appoint, and the person so appointed is hereby authorized to execute and return the same. And in case of the death of any marshal, his deputy or deputies, shall continue in office unless otherwise specially removed; and shall execute the same in the name of the deceased, until another marshal shall be appointed and sworn: And the defaults, or misfeasances in office of such deputy or deputies in the mean time, as well as before, shall be adjudged a breach of the condition of the bond given, as before directed, by the marshal who appointed them; and the executor or administrator of the deceased marshal, shall have like remedy for the defaults and misfeasances in office of such deputy or deputies during such interval, as they would be entitled to if the marshal had continued in life, and in the exercise of his said office, until his successor was appointed, and sworn or affirmed: And every marshal, or his deputy, when removed from office, or when the term for which the marshal is appointed shall expire, shall have power, notwithstanding, to execute all such precepts as may be in their hands, respectively, at the time of such removal or expiration of office; and the marshal shall be held answerable for the delivery to his successors of all prisoners which may be in his custody at the time of his removal, or when the term for which he is appointed shall expire, and for that purpose may retain such prisoners in his custody, until his successor shall be appointed, and qualified as the law directs.

4. By the act making certain alterations in the act for establishing the judicial courts, &c. passed June 9, 1794, 1 Story's L. U. S. 865, it is enacted,

7. That so much of the act to establish the judicial courts of the United States, as is, or may be, construed to require the attendance of the marshals of all the districts at the supreme court, shall be, and the same is hereby repealed: And that the said court shall be attended, during its session, by the marshal of the district only, in which the court shall sit, unless the attendance of the marshals of other districts shall be required by special order of the said court.

5. The act of February 28, 1795, 1 Story's L. U. S. 391, directs,

9. That the marshals of the several districts, and their deputies, shall have the same powers, in executing the laws of the United States, as sheriffs and their deputies, in the several states, have by law in executing the laws of the respective states.

6. There are various other legislative provisions in relation to the duties and rights of marshals, which are here briefly noticed with reference to the laws themselves.

7. - 1. The act of May 8, 1792, s. 4, provides for the payment of expenses incurred by the marshal in holding the courts of the United States, the payment of jurors, witnesses, &c.

8. - 2. The act of April 16, 1817, prescribes the duties of the marshal in relation to the proceeds of prizes captured by the public armed ships of the United States and sold by decree of court.

9. - 3. The resolution of congress of March 3, 1791; the act of February 25, 1799, s. 5; and the resolution of March 3, 1821; all relate to the duties of marshals in procuring prisons, and detaining and keeping prisoners.

10. - 4. The act of April 10, 1806, directs how and for what, marshals shall give bonds for the faithful execution of their office.

11. - 5. The act of September 18, 1850, s. 5, prescribes the duties of the marshal in relation to obeying and executing all warrants and precepts issued under the provisions of this act, and the penalties he shall incur for refusing to receive and execute the said warrants when rendered, and for permitting the fugitive to escape after arrest, Vide Story's L. U. S. Index, h. t.; Serg. Const. Law, ch. 25; 2 Dall. 402; United States v. Burr, 365; Mason's R. 100; 2 Gall. 101; 4 Cranch, 96; 7 Cranch, 276; 9 Cranch, 86, 212; 6 Wheat. 194; 9 Wheat. 645; Minot, Stat. U. S. Index, h. t.

MARSHALLING SECURITIES, equity. When a party has two funds by which his debt is secured, and another creditor has a claim only on one of these funds, a court of equity will compel the creditor having a double security to resort to that fund which will leave the other creditor his security, this is called marshalling assets. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3788; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 633 Amb. 91; 8 Ves. 389; 9 Ves. 209.

2. Marshalling of assets respects two different funds, and two different sets of parties, where one set can resort to either fund, the other only to one. It is grounded on obvious equity. It does no prejudice to anybody, and it effectuates the testator's intent. It takes place in favor of simple contract creditors, and of legatees, devisees and heirs, and in a few other cases, but not in favor of the next of kin. 4 Bro. C. C. 411; 1 P. Wms. 680.

3. The cases in which a court of equity marshals real and personal assets for the payment of simple contract debts and legacies, may be classed as follows: 1. Where there are specialty and simple contract debts and legacies and lands left to descend. In this case if the specialty creditors take a satisfaction for their debts out of the personal estate, the simple contract creditors first, and then the legatees, shall stand in the place of the specialty creditors, for obtaining satisfaction out of the lands, to the amount of so much as was received by the specialty creditors out of the personal estate.

4. - 2. Where there are specialty and simple contract debts, and lands are specifically devised. In this case if the creditors take a satisfaction for their debts out of the personal estate, the simple contract creditors shall stand in the place of the specialty creditors for obtaining a satisfaction out of the lands to the amount of so much as was received by the specialty creditors out of the personal estate, but then there can be no relief for the legatees, because there is as much equity to support the, specific devise of the lands, as to support the bequest of the legatees.

5. - 3. Where the debts are charged upon the lands. Here the legatees shall have the personal estate towards their satisfaction, and if the creditors take it in payment or towards the discharge of their debts, the legatees shall stand in their place pro tanto to have a discharge out of the lands.

6. - 4. When simple contract debts and legacies are both charged on the land. In this case the land shall be sold and all paid equally. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 617.

MARSHALSEA, English law. The name of a prison belonging to the court of the king's bench.

MARTIAL LAW. Vide Law Martial.

MARYLAND. One of the original states of the United States of America. The province of Maryland was included in the patent of the Southern or Virginia company; and upon the dissolution of that company, it reverted to the crown. Charles the First, on the 20th of June, 1632, granted it by patent to Lord Baltimore. Under this charter Maryland continued to be governed, with some short intervals of interruption, down to the period of the American Revolution, by the successors of the original proprietor. 1 Chalmer's Annals, 203.

2. Upon the revolution of 1688, the government of Maryland was seised into the hands of the crown, and was not again restored to the proprietary until 1716; from that period no alteration occurred until the American Revolution. Bacon's Laws of Maryland, 1692, 1716.

3. The original constitution of this state was adopted on the 14th day of August, 1776. The present constitution was adopted in 1851.

4. The powers of the government are distributed into the legislative, the executive, and the judicial.

5. - 1st. The legislature shall consist of two distinct branches, a senate and a house of delegates, which shall be styled "The general assembly of Maryland." Art. III. s. 1.

6. - 2. The general assembly shall meet on the first Wednesday of January, 1852, on the same day, in the year 1853, and on the same day, 1854, and on the same day in every second year thereafter, and at no other time, unless convened by the proclamation of the governor. Art. III. s. 7.

7. - 3. The senate will be considered with reference to the qualification of the electors; the qualification of the members; the length of time for which they are elected; and the time of their election. 1. Every free white male person of twenty-one years of age or upwards, who shall have been one year next preceding the election a resident of the state, and for six months a resident of the city of Baltimore, or of any county in which he may offer to vote, and being at the time of the election, a citizen of the United States, shall be entitled to vote in the ward or election district in which he re-sides, in all elections hereafter to be held; an& at all such elections the vote shall be taken by ballot. And in case any county or city shall be so divided as to form portions of different electoral districts for the election of congressmen, senator, delegate or other officer or officers, then to en-title a person to vote for such officer, he must have been a resident of that part of the county or city which shall form a part of the electoral district in which he offers to vote for six months next preceding the election: but a person who shall have acquired a residence in such county or city, entitling him to vote at any such election, shall be entitled to vote in the election district from which he remoted, until he shall have acquired a residence in the part of the county or city to which he has removed. Art. I. s. 1. 2. No person shall be eligible as a senator who at the time of his election is not a citizen of the United States, and who bas not resided at least three years next preceding the day of his election, in this state, and the last year thereof in the county or city which he may be chosen to represent, if such county or city shall have been so long established, and if not, then in the county from which, in whole or in part, the same may have been formed; nor shall any person be eligible as a senator unless he shall have attained the age of twenty-five years. No member of congress, or person bolding any civil or military office under the United States, shall be eligible as a senator; and if any person, after his election as a senator, be elected to congress, or be appointed to any office, civil or military, under the government of the United States, his acceptance thereof shall vacate his seat. No minister or preacher of the gospel of any denomination, and no person holding any civil office of profit or trust under the state, except justices of the peace, shall be eligible as senator. Art. III. ss. 9, 10, 11. 3. Every county of the state, and the city of Baltimore, shall be entitled to elect one senator, who shall serve for four years from the day of their election. The first election shall take place on the first Wednesday of November, 1851, and an election for one-half the senators, as nearly as practicable, shall be held on the same day every second year thereafter. Art. III. 2, 3, 4, 5.

8. - 4. The house of delegates will be treated of in the same manner which has been observed in considering the senate. 1. The electors are qualified in the same manner as the electors of the senate. 2. No person shall be a delegate who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years; the other qualifications are the same as those for a senator. 3. The whole number of delegates shall never exceed eighty, nor be less than sixty-five, and shall be apportioned among the several counties according to the population of each, the city of Baltimore to have four more delegates than the most populous county; no county to have less than two delegates, the apportionment to be made after the returns of the national census in 1860 are published, and in like manner after each subsequent census. They are to serve two years from the day of their election, which takes place on the same day as that for senators.

9. - 1. The executive power of the state shall be vested in a governor, whose term of office shall commence on the second Wednesday of January next ensuing his election, and continue for four years, and until his successor shall have qualified.

10. - 2. The first election for governor under this constitution shall be held on the first Wednesday of November, in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-three, and on the same day and month in every fourth year thereafter, at the places of voting for delegates to the general assembly, and every person qualified to vote for delegates shall be qualified, and entitled to vote for governor; the election to be held in the same manner as the election of dele-gates, and the returns thereof, under seal, to be addressed to the speaker of the house of delegates, and enclosed and transmitted to the secretary of state, and delivered to the said speaker at the commencement of the session of the legislature next ensuing said election.

11. - 3. The speaker of the house of delegates shall then open the said returns in the presence of both houses, and the person having the highest number of votes, and being constitutionally eligible, shall be the governor, and shall qualify in the manner herein prescribed, on the second Wednesday of January next ensuing his election, or as soon thereafter as may be practicable.

12. - 4. If two or more persons shall have the highest and an equal number of votes, one of them shall be chosen governor by the senate and house of delegates; and all questions in relation to the eligibility of governor, and to the returns of said election, and to the number and legality of votes therein given, shall be determined by the house of delegates. And if the person or persons having the highest number of votes be ineligible, the governor shall be chosen by the senate and house of delegates. Every election of governor, by the legislature, shall be determined by a joint majority of the senate and house of delegates, and the vote shall be taken viva voce. But if two or more persons shall have the highest and an equal number of votes, then a second vote shall be taken, which shall be confined to the persons having an equal number; and if the votes should again be equal, then the election of governor shall be determined by lot between those who shall have the highest and an equal number on the first vote.

13. - 5. The state shall be divided into three districts. St. Mary's, Charles, Calvert, Prince George's, Anne Arundle, Montgomery, and Howard counties, and the city of Baltimore to be the first; the eight counties of the Eastern shore to be the second; and Baltimore, Harford, Frederick, Washington, Allegany, and Carroll counties, to be the third. The governor, elected from the third district in October last, shall continue in office during the term for which he was elected. The governor shall be taken from the first district, at the first election of governor under this constitution; from the second district at the second election, and from the third district at the third election, and in like manner, afterwards, from each district, in regular succession.

14. - 6. A person to be eligible to the office of governor, must have attained the age of thirty years, and been for five years a citizen of the United States, and for five years next preceding his election a resident of the state, and for three years a resident of the district from which he was elected.

15. - 7. In case of the death or resignation of the governor, or of his removal from the state, the general assembly, if in session, or if not, at their next session, shall elect some other qualified resident of the same district, to be the governor for the residue of the term for which the said governor had been elected.

16. - 8. In case of any vacancy in the office of governor during the recess of the legislature, the president of the senate shall discharge the duties of said office till a governor is elected as herein provided for; and in case of the death or resignation of said president, or of his removal from the state, or of his refusal to serve, then the duties of said office shall, in like manner, and for the same interval, devolve upon the speaker of the house of dele-gates, and the legislature may provide by law for the case of impeachment or inability of the governor, and declare what person shall perform the executive duties during such impeachment or inability; and for any vacancy in said office, not herein provided for, provision may be made by law, and if such vacancy should occur without such provision being made, the legislature shall be convened by the secretary of state for the purpose of filling said vacancy.

17. - 9. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the land and naval forces of the state, and may call out the militia to repel invasions, suppress insurrections, and enforce the execution of the laws; but shall not take the command in person without the consent of the legislature.

18. - 10. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

19. - 11. He shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, appoint all civil and military officers of the state, whose appointment or election is not otherwise herein provided for, unless a different mode of appointment be prescribed by the law creating the office.

20. - 12. In case of any vacancy during the recess of the senate, in any office which the governor has power to fill, he shall appoint some suitable person to said office, whose commission shall continue in force till the end of the next session of the legislature, or till some other person is appointed to the same office, whichever shall first occur, and the nomination of the person thus a pointed during the recess, or of some other person in his place, shall be made to the senate within thirty days after the next meeting of the legislature.

21. - 13. No person, after being rejected by the senate, shall be again nominated for the same office at the same seision, unless at the request of the senate; or be appointed to the same office during the recess of the legislature.

22. - 14. All civil officers appointed be the governor and senate shall be nominated to the senate within fifty days from the commencement of each regular session of the legislature; and their term of office shall commence on the first Monday of May next ensuing their appointment, and continue for two years (unless sooner removed from office) and until their successors, respectively, qualify according to law.

23. - 15. The governor may suspend or arrest any military officer of the state for disobedience of orders, or other military offence, and may remove him in pursuance of the sentence of a court-martial; and may remove for incompetency or misconduct, all civil officers, who receive appointments from the executive for a term not succeeding two years.

24. - 16. The governor may convene the legislature, or the senate alone, on extraordinary occasions; and whenever, from the presence of an enemy or from any other cause, the seat of government shall become an unsafe place for the meeting of the legislature, he may direct their sessions to be held at some other convenient place.

25. - 17. It shall be the duty of the governor semi-annually, and oftener if he deem it expedient, to examine the bankbook, account books, and official proceedings of the treasurer anA comptroller of the state.

26. - 18. He shall, from time to time, inform the legislature of the condition of the state, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may judge necessary and expedient.

27. - 19. He shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, except in cases of impeachment, and in cases in which he is prohibited by other articles of this constitution, and to remit fines and forfeitures for offences against the state; but shall not remit the principal or interest of any debt due to the state, except in cases of fines and forfeitures; and before granting a nolle prosequi, or pardon, he shall give notice, in one or more newspapers, of the application made for it, and of the day on or after which his decision will be given; and in every case in which he exercises this power, he shall report to either branch of the legislature. Whenever required, the petitions, recommendations and reasons which influence his decision.

28. - 20. The governor shall reside at the seat of government, and shall receive for his services an annual salary of thirty-six hundred dollars.

29. - 21. When the public interest requires it, he shall have power to employ counsel, who shall be entitled to such compensation as the legislature may allow in each case after the services of such counsel shall have been performed.

29. - 22. A secretary of state shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, who shall continue in office, unless sooner removed by the governor, till the end of the official term of the governor from whom he received his appointment, and shall receive an annual salary of one thousand dollars.

30. - 23. He shall carefully keep and preserve a record of all official acts an proceedings (which may, at all times, be inspected by a committee of either branch of the legislature,) and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law or as may properly belong to his office.

31. - 3d. The judicial power of this state shall be vested in a court of appeals, in circuit courts, in such courts for the city of Baltimore as may be hereinafter prescribed, and in justices of the peace.

32. - 2. The court of appeals shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be co-extensive with the limits of the state. It shall consist of a chief justice and three associate justices, any three of whom shall form a quorum, whose judgment shall be final and conclusive in all cases of appeals; and who shall have the jurisdiction which the present court of appeals of this state now has, and such other appellate jurisdiction as hereafter may be provided for by law. And in every case decided, an opinion, in writing, shall be filed, and provision shall be made, by law, for publishing reports of cases argued and determined in the said court. The governor, for the time being, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall designate the chief justice, and the court of appeals shall hold its sessions at the city of Annapolis, on the first Monday of June, and the first Monday of December, in each and every year.

33. - 3. The state shall be divided into four judicial districts: Allegany, Washington, Frederick, Carroll, Baltimore, and Harford counties, shall compose the first; Montgomery, Howard, Anne Arundel, Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles and Prince George's, the second; Baltimore city, the third; and Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Caroline, Dorchester, Somerset, ana Worcester, shall compose the fourth district. And one person from among those learned in the law having been admitted to practice in this this state at least, five years, and above the age of thirty years at the time of his election, and a resident of the judicial district, shall be elected from each of said districts by the legal and qualified voters therein, as a judge of the said court of appeals, who shall hold his office for the term of ten years from the time of his election, or until he shall have attained the age of seventy years, whichever may first happen, and be reeligible thereto until he shall have attained the age of seventy years, and not after, subject to removal for incompetency, wilful neglect of duty, or misbehaviour in office, on conviction in a court of law, or by the governor upon the address of the general assembly, two-thirds of the members of each house concurring in such address; and the salary of each of the judges of the court of appeals shall be two thousand five hundred dollars annually, and shall not be increased or diminished during their continuance in office; and no fees or perquisites of any kind, shall be allowed by law to any of the said judges.

34. - 4. No judge of the court of appeals shall sit in any case wherein he may be interested, or where either of the parties may be connected with him by affinity or consanguinity within such degrees as may be prescribed by law, or when he shall have been of counsel in said case; when the court of appeals, or any of its members shall be thus disqualified to bear and determine any case or cases in said court, so that by reason thereof no judgment can be rendered in said court, the same shall be certified to the governor of the state, who shall immediately commission the requisite number of persons learned in the law for the trial and determination of said case or cases.

35. - 5. All judges of the court of appeals, of the circuit courts, and of the courts for the city of Baltimore, shall, by virtue of their offices, be conservator's of the peace throughout the state.

36. - 6. All public commissions and grants shall run thus: "The State of Maryland," &c., and shall be signed by the governor, with the seal of the state annexed; all writs and process shall run in the same style, and be tested, sealed and signed as usual; and all indictments shall conclude "against the peace, government and dignity of the state."

37. - 7. The state shall be divided into eight judicial circuits, in manner and form following, to wit; St. Mary's, Charles, and Prince George's counties shall be the first: Anne, Arundel, Howard, Calvert and Montgomery counties shall be the second; Frederick and Carroll counties shall be the third; Washington and Allegany counties shall be the fourth; Baltimore city shall be the fifth; Baltimore, Harford and Cecil counties shall be the sixth; Kent, Queen Anne's, Talbot and Caroline counties shall be the seventh; and Dorchester, Somerset and Worcester counties shall be the eighth; and there shall be elec-ted, as hereinafter directed, for each of the said judicial circuits, except the fifth, one person from among those learned in the law, having been admitted to practice in this state, and who shall have been a citizen of this state at least five years, and above the age of thirty years at the time of his election, and a resident of the judicial circuit, to be judge thereof; the said judges shall be styled circuit judges, and shall respectively hold a term of their courts at least twice in each year, or oftener if required by law, in each county composing their respective circuits; and the said courts shall be called circuit courts for the county in which they may be held, and shall have and exercise in the several counties of this state, all the power, authority and jurisdiction which the county courts of this state now have and exercise, or which may hereafter be prescribed by law, and the said judges in their re-spective circuits, shall have and exercise all the power, authority and jurisdiction of the present court of chancery of Maryland; provided, nevertheless, that Baltimore county court may hold its sittings within the limits of the city of Baltimore, until provision shall be made by law for the location of a county seat within the limits of the said county proper, and the erection of a court house and all other appropriate buildings, for the convenient administration of justice in said court.

38. - 8. The judges of the several judicial circuits shall be citizens of the United States, and shall have resided five years in this state, and two years in the judicial circuit for which they may be respectively elected, next before the time of their election, and shall reside therein while they continue to act as judges; they shall be taken from among those who, having the other qualifications herein prescribed, are most distinguished for integrity, wisdom and sound legal knowledge, and shall be elected by the qualified voters of the said circuits, and shall hold their offices for the term of ten years, removable for misbehaviour, on conviction in a court of law or by the governor, upon the address of the general assembly, provided that two-thirds of the members of each house shall concur in such address, and the said judges shall each receive a salary of two thousand dollars a year, and the same shall not be increased or diminished during the time of their continuance in office; and no judge of any court in this state, shall receive any perquisite, fee, commission or reward, in addition thereto, for the performance of any judicial duty.

39. - 9. There shall be established for the city of Baltimore one court of law, to be styled "the court of common pleas," which shall have civil jurisdiction in all suits where the debt or damage claimed shall be over one hundred dollars, and shall not exceed five hundred dollars; and shall, also, have jurisdiction in all cases of appeal from the judgment of justices of the peace in the said city, and shall have jurisdiction in all applications for the benefit of the insolvent laws of this state, and the supervision and control of the trustees thereof.

40. - 10. There shall also be established, for the city of Baltimore, another court of law, to be styled the superior court of Baltimore city, which shall have jurisdiction over all suits where the debt or damage claimed shall exceed the sum of five hundred dollars, and in case any plaintiff or plain-tiffs shall recover less than the sum or value of five hundred dollars, he or they shall be allowed or adjudged to pay costs in the discretion of the court. The said court shall also have jurisdiction as a court of equity within the limits of the said city, and in all other civil cases which have not been heretofore assigned to the court of common pleas.

41. - 11. Each of the said two courts shall consist of one judge, who shall be elected by the legal and qualified voters of the said city, and shall bold his office for the term of ten years, subject to the provisions of this constitution, with regard to the election and qualification of judges and their removal from office, and the salary of each of the said judges shall be twenty-five hundred dollars a year; and the legislature shall, wherever it may think the same proper and expedient, provide, by law, another court for the city of Baltimore, to consist of one judge to be elected by the qualified voters of the said city, who shall be subject to the same constitutional provisions, hold his office for the same term of years, and receive the same compensation as the judge of the court of common pleas of the said city, and the said court shall have such jurisdiction and powers as may be prescribed by law.

42. - 12. There shall also be a criminal court for the city of Baltimore, to be styled the criminal court of Baltimore, which shall consist of one judge, who shall also be elected by the legal and qualified voters of the said city, and who shall have and exercise all the jurisdiction now exercised by Baltimore city court, and the said judge shall receive a salary of two thousand dollars a year, and shall be subject, to the provisions of this constitution with regard to the election and qualifications of judges, term of office, and removal therefrom.

43. - 13. The qualified voters of the city of Baltimore, and of the several counties of the state, shall, on the first, Wednesday of November, eighteen hundred and fifty-one, and on the same day of the same month in, every fourth year forever thereafter, elect three men to be judges of the orphans' court of said city and counties respectively, who shall be citizens of the state of Maryland, and citizens of the city or county for which they may be severally elected at the time of their eiection. They shall have all the powers now vested in the orphans' courts of this state, subject to such changes therein as the legislature may prescribe, and each of said judges shall be paid at a per diem rate, for the time they are in session, to be fixed by the legislature, and paid by the said counties and city respectively.

44. - 14. The legislature, at its first session after the adoption of this constitution, shall fix the number of justices of the peace and constables for each ward of the city of Baltimore, and for each election district in the several counties, who shall be elected by the legal and qualified voters thereof respectively, at the next general election for delegates thereafter, and shall hold their offices for two years from the time of their election, and until their successors in office are elected and qualified; and the legislature may, from time to time, increase or diminish the number of justices of the peace and constables to be elected in the several wards and election districts, as the wants and interests of the people may require. They shall be, by virtue of their offices, conservators of the peace in the said counties and city respectively, and shall have such duties and compensation as now exist, or may be provided for by law. In the event of a vacancy in the office of a justice of the peace, the governor shall appoint a person to serve as justice of the peace, until the next regular election of said officers, and in case of a vacancy in the office of constable, the county commissioners of the county, in which a vacancy may occur, or the mayor and city council of Baltimore, as the case may be, shall appoint a person to serve as constable until the next regular election thereafter for said officers. An appeal shall lie in all civil cases from the judgment of a justice of the peace to the circuit court, or, to the court of common pleas of Baltimore city, as the case way be, and on all such appeals, either party shall be entitled to a trial by jury, according to the laws now existing, or which way be hereafter enacted. And the mayor and city council may provide, by ordinance, from time to time, for the creation and government of such temporary additional police, as they may deem necessary to preserve the public peace.

45. - 15. No judge shall sit in any case wherein he may be interested, or where either of the parties may be connected with him by affinity or consan-guinity, within such degrees as may be prescribed by law, or where he shall have been of counsel in the case and whenever any of the judges of the circuit courts, or of the courts for Baltimore city, shall be thus disqualified, or whenever, by reason of sickness, or any other cause, the said judges, or any of them, may be unable to sit in any cause, the parties may, by consent, appoint a proper person to try the said cause, or the judges, or any of them, shall do so when directed by law.

46. - 16. The present chancellor and the register in chancery, and, in the event of any vacancy in their respective offices, their successors in office respectively, who are to be appointed as at present, by the governor and senate, shall continue in office, with the powers and compensation as at present established, until the expiration of two years after the adoption of this constitution by the people, and until the, end of the session of the legislature next thereafter, after which the said offices of chancellor and register shall be abolished. The legislature shall, in the mean time, provide by law for the recording, safe-keeping, or other disposition, of the records, decrees and other proceedings of the court of chancery, and for the copying and attestation thereof, and for the custody and use of the great seal of the state, when required, after the expiration of the said two years, and for transmitting to the said counties, and to the city of Baltimore, all the cases and proceedings in said court then undisposed of and unfinished, in such manner, and under such regulations as may be deemed necessary and proper: Provided, that no new business shall originate in the said court, nor shall any cause be removed to the same from any other court, from and after the ratification of this constitution.

47. - 17. The first election of judges, clerks, registers of wills, and all other officers, whose election by the people is provided for in this article of the constitution, except justices of the peace and constables, shall take place throughout the state on the first Wednesday of November next after the ratification of this constitution by the people.

48. - 18. In case of the death, resignation, removal, or other disqualification of a judge of any of the courts of law, the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall thereupon appoint a person, duly quali-fied, to fill said office until the next general election for delegates thereafter; at which time an election shall be held as hereinbefore prescribed, for a judge, who shall hold the said office for ten years, according to the provisions of this constitution.

49. - 19. In case of the death, resignation, removal, or other disqualification of the judge of an orphans' court, the vacancy shall be filled by the appointment of the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate.

50. - 20. Whenever lands lie partly in one county, and partly in another or partly in a county and partly in the city of Baltimore, or whenever persons proper to be made defendants to proceedings in chancery, reside some in one county and some in another, that court shall have jurisdiction in which proceedings shall have been first commenced, subject to such rules, regulations and alterations as may be prescribed by law.

51. - 21. In all suits or actions at law, issues from the orphans' court or from any court sitting in equity, in petitions for freedom, and in all pre-sentments and indictments now pending, or which may be pending at the time of the adoption of this constitution by the people, or which may hereafter be instituted in any of the courts of law of this state, having jurisdiction thereof, the judge or judges thereof, upon suggestion in writing, if made by the state's attorney, or the prosecutor for the state, or upon suggestion in writing, supported by affidavit, made by any of the parties thereto, or other proper evidence, that a fair and impartial trial cannot be had in the court where such suit or action at law, issues or petitions, or presentment and indictment is depending, shall order and direct the record of proceedings in such suit or action, issues or petitions, presentment or indictment, to be transmitted to the court of any adjoining county; provided, that the removal in all civil causes be confined to an adjoining county within the judicial circuit, except as to the city of Baltimore, where the removal may be to an adjoining county, for trial, which court shall hear and determine the same in like manner as if such suit or action, issues or petitions, presentment or indictment, had been originally instituted therein; and provided also, that such suggestion shall be made as aforesaid, before or during the term in which the issue or issues may be joined in said suit or action, issues or petition, presentment or indictment, and that such further remedy in the premises may be provided by law, as the legislature shall from time to time direct and enact.

52. - 22. All election of judges, and other officers provided for by this constitution, shall be certified, and the returns made by the clerks of the respective counties to the governor, who shall issue commissions to the different persons for the offices to which they shall have been respectively elected; and in all such elections, the person having the greatest number of votes, shall be declared to be elected.

53. - 23. If, in any case of election for judges, clerks of the courts of law and registers of wills, the opposing candidates shall have an equal number of votes, it shall be the duty of the governor to order a new election; and in case of any contested election, the governor shall send the returns to the house of delegates, who shall judge of the election and qualification of the candidates at such election.

MASCULINE. That which belongs to the male sex.

2. The masculine sometimes includes the feminine, vide an example under the article Man, and see also the articles Gender, Worthiest of blood; Poth. Intr. au titre 16, des Testamens et Donations Testamentaires, n. 170; Ayl, Pand. 57; 4 C. & P. 216; S. C. 19 E. C. L. R. 551 3 Fred. Code, pr. 1, b. 1, t. 4, s. 3; 3 Brev. R. 9.

MASSACHUSETTS. One of the original states of the United States of America. The colony or province of Massachusetts was included in a charter granted by James the First, by which its territories were extended in breadth from the 40th to the 48th degree of north latitude, and in length by all the breadth aforesaid throughout the mainland from sea to sea. This charter continued until 1684. Holmes' Annals, 412; 1 Story, Const. 71. In 1691 William and Mary granted a new charter to the colony, and henceforth it became known as a province, and continued to act under this charter till after the Revolution. 1 Story, Const. 71.

2. The constitution of Massachusetts was adopted by a convention begun and held at Cambridge, on the first of September, 1779, and continued, by adjournment, to the second of March, 1780.

3. The style and name of the state is The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The government is distributed into a legislative, executive and judicial power.

4. - 1st. The department of legislation is formed by two branches, a senate and house of representatives, each of which has a negative on the other, and both are styled The General Court of Massachusetts. Part 2, c. 1, s. 1.

5. - 1. The senate is elected by the qualified electors, and is composed of forty persons to be counsellors and senators for the year ensuing their election. Part 2, c. 1, s. 2, art. 1.

6. - 2. The House of representatives is composed of an indefinite number of persons elected by the towns in proportion to their population. Part 2, c. 1, s. 3, art. 2.

7. - 2d. The executive power is vested in a governor, lieutenant governor and council.

8. - 1. The supreme executive magistrate is styled The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is elected yearly by the qualified electors. Part 2, c. 2, s. 1. He is invested with the veto power. Part 2, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2.

9. - 2. The electors are required to elect annually a lieutenant governer. When the office of governor happens to be vacant he acts as governor, and at other times he is a member of the council. Part 2, c. 2, s. 2, art. 2 and 3.

10. - 3. The council consists of nine persons chosen annually by the general court; they mast be taken from those returned for counsellors and senators, unless they will not accept the said office, when they shall be chosen from the people at large. The council shall advise the governor in the executive part of the government. Part 2, c. 2, s. 3, art. 1 and 2.

11. - 3d. The judicial power. The third chapter of part second of the constitution makes the following provisions in relation to the judiciary:
Art. 1. The tenure that all commissioned officers shall, by law, have in their office, shall be expressed in their respective commissions; all judicial officers, duly appointed, commissioned, and sworn, shall hold their offices during good behaviour; excepting such concerning whom there is different provision made in this constitution; Provided, nevertheless, the governor, with consent of the council, may remove them upon the address of both houses of the legislature.

12. - 2. Each branch of the legislature, as well as the governor and council, shall have authority to require the opinions of the justices of the supreme judicial court, upon important questions of law, and upon solemn occasions.

13. - 3. In order that the people may not suffer from the long continuance in place of any justice of the peace, who shall fail of discharging the important duties of his office with ability or fidelity, all commissions of jus-tices of the peace shall expire and become void in the term of seven years from their respective dates; and upon the expiration of any commission, the same may, if necessary, be renewed, or another person appointed, as shall most conduce to the well-being of the commonwealth.

14. - 4. The judges of probates of wills, and for granting letters of administration, shall hold their courts at such place or places, on fixed days, as the convenience of the people may require; and the legislature shall, from time to time hereafter, appoint such times and places: until which appointments, the said courts shall be holden at the times and places which the respective judges shall direct.

15. - 5. All causes of marriage, divorce, and alimony, and all appeals from the judges of probate, shall be heard and determined by the governor and council, until the legislature shall, by law, make other provision.

MASTER. This word has several meanings. 1. Master is one who has control over a servant or apprentice. A master stands in relation to his apprentices, in loco parentis, and is bound to fulfil that relation, which the law generally enforces. He is also entitled to be obeyed by his apprentices, as if they were his children. Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

2. - 2. Master is one who is employed in teaching children, known generally as a schoolmaster; as to his powers, see Correction.

3. - 3. Master is the name of an officer: as, the ship Benjamin Franklin, whereof A B is master; the master of the rolls; master in chancery, &c.

4. - 4. By master is also understood a principal who employs another to perform some act or do something for him. The law having adopted the maxim of the civil law, qui facit per alium facit per se; the agent is but an instrument, and the master is civilly responsible for the act of his agent, as if it were his own, when he either commands him to do an act, or puts him in a condition, of which such act is a result, or by the absence of due care and control, either previously in the choice of his agent, or immediately in the act itself, negligently suffers him to do an injury. Story, Ag. 454, note; Noy's Max. c. 44; Salk. 282; 1 East. R. 106; 1 Bos. & Pul. 404; 2 H. Bl. 267; 5 Barn. & Cr. 547; 2 Taunt. R. 314; 4 Taunt. R. 649; Mass. 364, 385; 17 Mass. 479, 509; 1 Pick. 47 5; 4 Watts, 222; 2 Harr. & Gill, 316; 6 Cowen, 189; 8 Pick. 23; 5 Munf. 483. Vide Agent; Agency; Driver; Servant.

MASTER AT COMMON LAW, Engl. law. An officer of the superior courts of law, who has authority for taking affidavits sworn in court, and administering a variety of oaths; and also empowered to compute principal and interest on bills of exchange and other engagements, on which suit has been brought; he has also the power of an examiner of witnesses going abroad, and the like.

MASTER IN CHANCERY. An officer of the court of chancery.

2. The origin of these officers is thus accounted for. The chancellor from the first found it necessary to have a number of clerks, were it for no other purpose, than to perform the mechanical part of the business, the writing; these soon rose to the number of twelve. In process of time this number being found insufficient, these clerks contrived to have other clerks under them, and then, the original clerks became distinguished by the name of masters in chancery. He is an assistant to the chancellor, who refers to him interlocu-tory orders for stating accounts, computing damages, and the like. Masters in chancery are also invested with other powers, by local regulations. Vide Blake's Ch. Pr. 26; 1 Madd. Pr. 8 1 Smith's Ch. Pr. 9, 19.

3. In England there are two kinds of masters in chancery, the ordinary, and the extraordinary..

4. - 1. The masters in ordinary execute the orders of the court, upon ref-erences made to them, and certify in writing in what manner they have executed such orders. 1 Sm. Ch. Pr. 9.

5. - 2. The masters extraordinary perform the duty of taking affidavits touching any matter in or relating to the court of chancery, taking the acknowledgment of deeds to be enrolled in the said court, and taking such recognizances, as may by the tenor of the order for entering them, be taken before a master extraordinary. 1 Sm. Ch. Pr. 19. Vide, generally, 1 Harg. Law Tr. 203, a Treatise of the Maister of the Chauncerie.

MASTER OF THE ROLLS. Eng. law. An officer who bears this title, and who acts as an assistant to the lord chancellor, in the court of chancery.

2. This officer was formerly one of the clerks in chancery whose duty was principally confined to keeping the rolls; and when the clerks in chancery became masters, then this officer became distinguished as master of the rolls. Vide Master in Chancery.

MASTER OF A SHIP, mar. law. The commander or first officer of a ship; a captain. (q. v.)

2. His rights and duties have been considered under the article Captain. Vide also, 2 Bro. Civ. Adm. Law, 133; 3 Kent, Com. 121; Wesk. Ins. 360; Park. on Ins. Index, h. t.; Com. Dig. Navigation, I 4.

MATE. The second officer on board of a merchant ship or vessel.

2. He has the right to sue in the admiralty as a common mariner for wages. 1. Pet. Adm. Dee. 246.

3. When, on the death of the master, the mate assumes the command, he succeeds to the rights and duties of the principal officer. 1 Sumn. 157; 3 Mason, 161; 4 Mason, 196; See 7 Conn. 239; 4 Mason, 641 4 Wash. C. C. 838.

MATER FAMILIAS, civil law. The mother of a family, and, by extension, the mistress of a family.

MATERIAL MEN. This name is given to persons who furnish materials for the purpose of constructing or erecting ships, houses, and other buildings.

2. By the common law material men have a lien on a foreign ship for supplies of materials furnished for such ship, which may be recovered in the admiralty. 9 Wheat. 409. But they have no lien for furnishing materials for repairs of domestic ships. Wheat. 438.

3. In several of the states, laws have been enacted giving material men a lien on houses and other buildings when they have furnished materials for constructing the same.

MATERIALITY. That which is important; that which is not merely of form but of substance.

2. When a bill for discovery has been filed, for example, the defendant must answer every material fact which is charged in the bill, and the test in these cases seems to be that when, if the defendant should answer in the affirmative, his answer would be of use to the plaintiff, the answer would be mate-rial, and it must be made. 4 Price, R. 364; 13 Price, R. 291; 2 Y. & J. 385.

3. In order to convict a witness of a perjury, it is requisite to prove that the matter he swore to was material to the question then depending. Vide 3 Chit. Pr. 233; 3 Dowl. 104; 10 Bing. 340; Perjury.

MATERIALS. Everything of which anything is made.

2. When materials are furnished to a workman he is bound to use them according to his contract, as a tailor is bound to employ the cloth I furnish him with, to make me a coat that shall fit me, for if he so make it that I cannot wear it, it is not a proper employment of the materials. But if the undertaker use ordinary skill and care, he will not be responsible, although the mate-rials may be injured; as, if a gem be delivered to a jeweler, and it is broken without any unskilfulness, negligence or rashness of the artisan, he will not be liable. Poth. Louage, n. 428.

3. The workman is to use ordinary diligence in the care of the materials entrusted with him, or to exercise that caution which a prudent man takes of his own affairs, and he is also bound to preserve them from any unexpected danger to which they may be exposed. 1 Gow. R. 30; 1 Camp. 138.

4. When there is no special contract between the parties, and the materials perish while in the possession of the workman or undertaker, without his default, either by inevitable casualty, by internal defect, by superior force, by robbery or by any peril not guarded against by ordinary diligence, he is not responsible. This is the case only when the material belongs to the em-ployer and the workman only undertakes to put his work upon it. But a distinction must be observed in the case when the employer has engaged a workman to make him an article out of his own materials, for in that case the employer has no property in it, until the work be completed, and the article be deli-vered to him; if, in the mean time, the thing perishes, it is the loss of the workman, who is wholly its owner, according to the maxim res perit domino. In the former case the employer is the owner; in the latter the workman; in the first case it is a bailment, in the second a sale of the thing in futuro. Domat. B. 1, t. 4, 7, n. 3; Id. B. 1, t. 4, 8, n. 10.

5. Another distinction must be made in the case when the thing given by the employer was to become the property of the workman, and an article was to be made out of similar materials, and before its completion it perished. In this case the title to the thing having passed to the workman, the loss must be his. 1 Blackf. 353; 7 Cowen, 752, 756, note; 21 Wend. 85; 3 Mason, 478; Dig. 19, 2, 31; 1 Bouv. Inst. 1006-7.

6. In some of the states by their laws persons who furnish materials for the construction of a building, have a lien against such building for the payment of the value of such materials. See Lien of Mechanics.

MATERNA MATERNIS. This expression is used in the French law to signify that in a succession the property coming from the mother of a deceased person, descends to his maternal relations.

MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line.

MATERNAL PROPERTY. That which comes from the mother of the party, and other ascendants of the maternal stock. Domat, Liv. Prel. tit. 3, s. 2, n. 12. MATERNITY. The state or condition of a mother.

2. It is either legitimate or natural. The former is the condition of the mother who has given birth to legitimate children, while the latter is the condition of her who has given birth to illegitimate children. Maternity is always certain, while the paternity (q. v.) is only presumed.

MATERTERA. Maternal aunt; the sister of one's mother. Inst. 3, 4, 3; Dig. 38, 10, 10, 14.

MATHEMATICAL EVIDENCE. That evidence which is established by a demonstration. It is used in contradistinction to moral evidence. (q. v.)

MATRICULA, civil law. A register in which are inscribed the names of persons who become members of an association or society. Dig. 50, 3, 1. In the ancient church there was matricula clericorum, which was a catalogue of the officiating clergy; and matricula pauperum, a list of the poor to be relieved; hence to be entered in the university is to be matriculated.

MATRIMONIAL CAUSES. In the English ecclesiastical courts there are five kinds of causes which are classed under this head. 1. Causes for a malicious jactitation. 2. Suits for nullity of marriage, on account of fraud, incest, or other bar to the marriage. 2 Hagg. Cons. Rep. 423. 3. Suits for restitution of conjugal rights. 4. Suits for divorces on account of cruelty or adultery, or causes which have arisen since the marriage. 5. Suits for alimony.

MATRIMONIUM. By this word is understood the inheritance descending to a man, ex parti matris. It is but little used.

2. Among the Romans this word was employed to signify marriage; and it was so called because this conjunction was made with the design that the wife should become a mother. Inst. 1, 9, 1.

MATRIMONY. See Marriage.

MATRINA. A godmother.

MATRON. A married woman, generally an elderly married woman.

2. By the laws of England, when a widow feigns herself with child, in order to exclude the next heir, and a supposititious birth is expected, then, upon the writ de ventre inspiciendo, a jury of women is to be, impanneled to try the question, whether with child or not. Cro, Eliz. 566. So when a woman was sentenced to death, and she declared herself to be quick with child, a jury of matrons is impanneled to try whether she be or be not with child. 4 Bl. Com. 395. See Pregnancy; Quick with child.

MATTER. Some substantial or essential thing, opposed to form; facts.

MATTER IN PAYS. Literally, matter in the country; matter of fact, as distinguished from matter of law, or matter of record. Steph. Pl. 197. Vide Country.

MATTER IN DEED. Matter in deed is such matter as may be proved or established by a deed or specialty. In another sense it signifies matter of fact, in contradistinction to matter of law. Co. Litt. 320; Steph. Pl. 197.

MATTER OF FACT, pleading. Matter which goes in denial of a declaration, and Dot in avoidance of it. Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. G 3; Hob. 127.

MATTER OF LAW, pleading. That which goes in avoidance of a declaration or other pleading, on the ground that the law does not authorize them. It does not deny the matter or fact contained in such pleading, but admitting them avoids them. Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. G 3. Matter of law, is that which is referred to the decision of the court; matter of fact that which is submitted to the jury.

MATTER OF RECORD. Those facts which may be proved by the production of a record. It differs from matter in deed, which consists of facts which may be proved by specialty. Vide Estoppel.

MATTER, IMPERTINENT, Equity pleading. That which is altogether irrelevant to the case, that does not appertain or belong to it; id est, qui ad rem non pertinet. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4163 . See Impertinent.

MATTER, SCANDALOUS, equity pleading. A false and malicious statement of facts, not relevant to the cause. But nothing which is positively relevant, however harsh or gross the charge may be, can be considered scandalous. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4163.

2. A bill cannot by the general practice, be referred for impertinence after the defendant has answered, or submitted to answer, but it may be referred for scandal at any time, and even upon the application of a stranger to the suit, for he has the right to prevent the records of the court from being made the vehicle of spreading slanders against himself. Id. n. 41f 64.

MATURITY. The time when a bill or note becomes due. In order to bind the endorsers such note or bill must be protested, when not paid, on the last day of grace. See Days of grace.

MAXIM. An established principle or proposition. A principle of law universally admitted, as being just and consonant With reason.

2. Maxims in law are somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1 Bl. Com. 68. They are principles and authorities, and part of the general customs or common law of the land; and are of the same strength as acts of parliament, when the judges have determined what is a maxim; which belongs to the judges and not the jury. Terms do Ley; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, c. 8. Maxims of the law are holden for law, and all other cases that may be applied to them shall be taken for granted. 1 Inst. 11. 67; 4 Rep. See 1 Com. c. 68; Plowd. 27, b.

3. The application of the maxim to the case before the court, is generally the only difficulty. The true method of making the application is to ascertain bow the maxim arose, and to consider whether the case to which it is applied is of the same character, or whether it is an exception to an apparently general rule.

4. The alterations of any of the maxims of the common law are dangerous. 2 Inst. 210. The following are some of the more important maxims.

A communi observantia non est recedendum. There should be no departure from common observance or usage. Co. Litt. 186.

A l'impossible nul n'est tenu. No one is bound to do what is impossible. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 601.

A verbis legis non est recedendum. From the words of the law there must be no departure. Broom's Max. 268; 5 Rep. 119; Wing. Max. 25.

Absentia ejus qui reipublicae causa abest, neque ei, neque alii damnosa esse debet. The absence of him who is employed in the service of the state, ought not to be burdensome to him nor to others. Dig. 50, 17, 140.

Absoluta sentetia expositore non indiget. An absolute unqualified sentence or proposition, needs no expositor. 2 Co. Inst. 533.

Abundans cautela non nocet. Abundant caution does no harm. 11 Co. 6.

Accessorius sequit naturam sui principalis. An accessary follows the nature of his principal. 3 Co. Inst. 349.

Accessorium non ducit sed sequitur suum principale. The accessory does not lead, but follow its principal. Co. Ltt 152.

Accusare nemo debet se, nisi coram Deo. No one ought to accuse himself, unless before God. Hard. 139.

Actio exteriora indicant interiora secreta. External actions show internal secrets. 8 Co. R. 146.

Actio non datur non damnificato. An action is not given to him who has received no damages.

Actio personalis moritur cum persona. A personal action dies with the person. This must be understood of an action for a tort only.

Actor qui contra regulam quid adduxit, non est audiendus. He ought not to be heard who advances a proposition contrary to the rules of law.

Actor sequitur forum rei. The plaintiff must follow the forum of the thing in dispute.

Actore non probante reus absolvitur. When the plaintiff does not prove his case, the defendant is absolved.

Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam. The act of God does no injury; that is, no one is responsible for inevitable accidents. 2 Blacks. Com. 122. See Act of God.

Actus incaeptus cujus perfectio pendet, ex voluntate partium, revocari potest; si autem pendet ex voluntate tertia personae, vel ex contingenti, revocari non potest. An act already begun, the completion of which depends upon the will of the parties, may be recalled; but if it depend on the consent of a third person, or of a contingency, it cannot be recalled. Bacon's Max. Reg. 20.

Actus me invito factus, non est meus actus. An act done by me against my will, is not my act.

Actus non reum facit, nisi mens sit rea. An act does not make a person guilty, unless the intention be also guilty. This maxim applies only to criminal cases; in civil matters it is otherwise. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2211.

Actus legitimi non recipiunt modum. Acts required by law to be done, admit of no qualification. Hob. 153.

Actus legis nemini facit injuriam, The act of the law does no one an injury. 5 Co. 116.

Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio, nisi impediatur sententia. The antecedent bears relation to what follows next, unless it destroys the meaning of the sentence.

Ad quaestiones facti non respondent judices; ad quaestione legis non respondent juratores. The judges do not answer to questions of fact; the jury do not answer to questions of law. Cu. Litt. 295.

Aestimatio praeteriti delicti ex postremo facto nunquam crescit. The estimation of a crime committed never increased from a subsequent fact. Bac. Max. Reg. 8.

Ambiguitas verborum latens verificatione suppletur; nam quod ex facto oritur ambiguum verificatione facti tollitur. A hidden ambiguity of the words is supplied by the verification, for whatever ambiguity arises concerning the deed itself is removed by the verification of the deed. Bacon's Max. Reg. 23.

Aqua cedit solo. The water yields or accompanies the soil. The grant of the soil or land carries the water.

Aqua curit et debet currere. Water runs and ought to run. 3 Rawle, 84, 88.

Aequitas agit in personam. Equity acts upon the person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3733.

Aequilas sequitier legem. Equity follows the law. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 64.; 3 Wooddes. Lect. 479, 482.

Aequum et bonum, est lex legum. What is good and equal, is the law of laws. Hob. 224.

Affirmati, non neganti incumbit probatio. The proof lies upon him who affirms, not on him who denies.

Aliud est celare, aliud tacere. To conceal is one thing, to be silent another.

Alternatica petitio non est audienda. An alternate petition is not to be heard. 5 Co. 40.

Animus ad se omne jus ducit. It is to the intention that all law applies.

Animus moninis est anima scripti. The intention of the party is the soul of the instrument. 3 Bulstr. 67.

Apices juris non sunt jura. Points of law are not laws. Co. Litt. 304; 3 Scott, N. P. R. 773.

Arbitrium est judicium. An award is a judgment. Jenk Cent. 137.

Argumentum a majori ad minus negative non valet; valet e converso. An argument from the greater to the less is of no force negatively; conversely it is. Jenk. Cent. 281.

Argumentum a divisione est fortissimum in jure. An argument arising from a division is most powerful in law. 6 Co. 60.

Argumentum ab inconvenienti est validum in lege; quia lex non permittit aliquod inconveniens. An argument drawn from what is inconvenient is good in law, because the law will not permit any inconvenience. Co. Litt. 258.

Argumentum ab impossibili plurmum valet in lege. An argument deduced from authority great avails in law. Co. Litt. 92.

Argumentum ab authoritate est fortissimum in lege. An argument drawn from authority is the strongest in law. Co. Litt. 254.

Argumentum a simili valet in lege. An argument drawn from a similar case, or analogy, avails in law. Co. Litt. 191.

Augupia verforum sunt judice indigna. A twisting of language is unworthy of a judge. Hob. 343.

Bona fides non patitur, ut bis idem exigatur. Natural equity or good faith do no allow us to demand twice the payment of the same thing. Dig. 50, 17, 57.

Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdiction; that, his remedial authority. Chan. Prec. 329; 1 Wils 284; 9 M. & Wels. 818.

Boni judicis est causas litium derimere. It is the duty of a good judge to remove the cause of litigation. 2 Co. Inst. 304.

Bonum defendentis ex integra causa, malum ex quolibet defectu. The good of a defendant arises from a perfect case, his harm from some defect. 11 Co. 68.

Bonum judex secundum aequum et bonum judicat, et aequitatem stricto juri praefert. A good judge decides according to justice and right, and prefers equity to strict law. Co. Litt. 24.

Bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. Necessary good is not good beyond the bounds of necessity. Hob. 144.

Casus fortuitus non est sperandus, et nemo tenetur devinare. A fortuitous event is not to be foreseen, and no person is held bound to divine it. 4 Co. 66.

Casus omissus et oblivione datus dispositioni communis juris relinquitur. A case omitted and given to oblivion is left to the disposal of the common law. 5 Co. 37.

Catalla juste possessa amitti non possunt. Chattels justly possessed cannot be lost. Jenk. Cent. 28.

Catalla repuntantur inter minima in lege. Chattels are considered in law among the minor things. Jenk Cent. 52.

Causa proxima, non remota spectatur. The immediate, and not the remote cause, is to be considered. Bac. Max. Reg. 1.

Caveat emptor. Let the purchaser beware.

Cavendum est a fragmentis. Beware of fragments. Bacon, Aph. 26.

Cessante causa, cessat effectus. The cause ceasing, the effect must cease.

C'est le crime qui fait la honte, et non pas l'echafaud. It is the crime which causes the shame, and not the scaffold.

Charta de non ente non valet. A charter or deed of a thing not in being, is not valid. Co. Litt. 36.

Chirographum apud debitorem repertum praesumitur solutum. A deed or bond found with the debtor is presumed to be paid.

Circuitus est evitandus. Circuity is to be avoided. 5 Co. 31.

Clausula inconsuetae semper indicunt suspicionem. Unusual clauses always induce a suspicion. 3 Co. 81.

Clausula quae abrogationem excludit ab initio non valet. A clause in a law which precludes its abrogation, is invalid from the beginning. Bacon's Max. Reg. 19, p. 89.

Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per praesumptionem remotam vel causam, ex post facto non fulcitur. A useless clause or disposition is not supported by a remote presumption, or by a cause arising afterwards. Bacon's Max. Reg. 21.

Cogitationis poenam nemo patitur. No one is punished for merely thinking of a crime.

Commodum ex injuria sua non habere debet. No man ought to derive any benefit of his own wrong. Jenk. Cent. 161.

Communis error facit jus. A common error makes law. What was af first illegal, being repeated many times, is presumed to have acquired the force of usage, and then it would be wrong to depart from it. The converse of this maxim is communis error no facit just. A common error does not make law.

Confessio facta in judicio omni probatione major est. A confession made in court is of greater effect than any proof. Jenk. Cent. 102; 11 Co. 30.

Confirmare nemo potest priusquam just ei acciderit. No one can confirm before the right accrues to him. 10 Co. 48.

Confirmatio est nulla, ubi donum praecedens est invalidum. A confirmation is null where the preceding gift is invalid. Co. Litt. 295.

Conjunctio mariti et faeminae est de jure naturae. The union of a man and a woman is of the law of nature.

Consensus non concubitus facit nuptiam. Consent, not lying together, constitutes marriage.

Consensus facit legem. Consent makes the law. A contract is a law between the parties, which can acquire force only by consent.

Consensus tollit errorem. Consent removes or obviates a mistake. Co. Litt. 126.

Consentientes et agentes pari poena plectentur. Those consenting and those perpetrating are embraced in the same punishment. 5 Co. 80.

Consequentiae non est consequentia. A consequence ought not to be drawn from another consequence. Bacon, De Aug. Sci. Aph. 16.

Consilii, non fraudulenti, nulla est obligatio. Advice, unless fraudulent, does not create an obligation.

Constructio contra rationem introducta, potius usurpatio quam consuetudo appellari debet. A custom introduced against reason ought rather to be called an usurpation than a custom. Co. Litt. 113.

Construction legis non facit injuriam. The construction of law works not an injury. Co. Litt. 183; Broom's Max. 259.

Consuetudo debet esse certa. A custom ought to be certain. Dav. 33.

Consuetudo est optimus interpres legum. Custom is the best expounder of the law. 2 Co. Inst. 18; Dig. 1, 3, 37; Jenk. Cent. 273.

Consuetudo est altera lex. Custom is another law. 4 Co. 21.

Consuetudo loci observanda est. The custom of the place is to be observed. 6 Co. 67.

Consuetudo praescripta et legitima vincit legem. A prescriptive and legitimate custom overcomes the law. Co. Litt. 113.

Consuetudo semel reprobata non potest amplius induci. Custom once disallowed cannot again be produced. Dav. 33.

Consuetudo voluntis ducit, lex nolentes trahit. Custom leads the willing, law, law compels or draws the unwilling. Jenk. Cent. 274.

Contestio litis eget terminos contradictaris. An issue requires terms of contradiction; that is, there can be no issue without an affirmative on one side and a negative on the other.

Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. A contemporaneous exposition is the best and most powerful in the law. 2 Co. Inst. 11.

Contra negantem principia non est disputandum. There is no disputing against or denying principles. Co. Litt. 43.

Contra non volentem agere nulla currit praescriptio. No prescription runs against a person unable to act. Broom's Max. 398.

Contra veritatem lex numquam aliquid permittit. The law never suffers anything contrary to truth. 2 Co. Inst. 252. But sometimes it allows a conclusive presumption in opposition to truth. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061.

Contractus legem ex conventione accipiunt. The agreement of the parties makes the law of the contract. Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6.

Contractus ex turpi causa, vel contra bonos mores nullus est. A contract founded on a base and unlawful consideration, or against good morals, is null. Hob. 167; Dig. 2, 14, 27, 4.

Conventio vincit legem. The agreement of the parties overcomes or prevails against the law. Story, Ag. See Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6.

Copulatio verborum indicat acceptionem in eodem sensu. Coupling words together shows that they ought to be understood in the same sense. Bacom's Max. in Reg. 3.

Corporalis injuria non recipit aestimationem de futuro. A personal injury does no receive satisfaction from a future course of proceding. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 6.

Cuilibet in arte sua herito credendum est. Every one should be believed skilful in how own art. Co. Litt. 125. Vide Experts; Opinion.

Cujus est commodum ejus debet esse incommodum. He who receives the benefit should also bear the disadvantage.

Cujus est dare ejus est disponere. He who has a right to give, has the right to dispose of the gift.

Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consulto dati donatio est. Whoever pays by mistake what he does not owe, may recover it back; but he who pays, knowing he owes nothing; is presumed to give.

Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad caelum. He who owns the soil, owns up to the sky. Co. Litt. 4 a; Broom's Max. 172; Shep. To. 90; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 15, 70.

Cujus est divisio alterius est electio. Which ever of two parties has the division, the other has the choice. Co. Litt. 166.

Cujusque rei potissima pars principium est. The principal part of everything is the beginning. Dig. 1, 2, 1; 10 Co. 49.

Culpa tenet suos auctores. A fault finds its own.

Culpa est immiscere se rei ad se non pertinenti. It is a fault to meddle with what does not belong to or does not concern you. Dig. 50, 17, 36.

Culpa paena par esto. Let the punishment be proportioned to the crime.

Culpa lata aequiparatur dolo. A concealed fault is equal to a deceit.

Cui pater est populus non habet ille patrem. He to whom the people is father, has not a father. Co. Litt. 123.

Cum confitente sponte mitius est agendum. One making a voluntary confession, is to be dealt with more mercifully. 4 Co. Inst. 66.

Cum duo inter se pugnantia reperiuntur in testamento ultimum ratum est. When two things repugnant to each other are found in a will, the last is to be confirmed. Co. Litt. 112.

Cum legitimae nuptiae factae sunt, patrem liberi sequuntur. Children born under a legitimate marriage follow the condition of the father.

Cum adsunt testimonia rerum quid opus est verbis. When the proofs of facts are present, what need is there of words. 2 Buls. 53.

Curiosa et captiosa intepretatio in lege reprobatur. A curious and captious interpretation in the law is to be reproved. 1 Buls. 6.

Currit tempus contra desides et sui juris contemptores. Time runs against the slothful and those who neglect their rights.

Cursus curiae est lex curiae. The practice of the court is the law of the court. 3 Buls. 53.

De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quaestio; sed de scientia, sive error sit juris sive facti. Of the credit and duty of a judge, no question can arise; but it is otherwise respecting his knowledge, whether he be mistaken as to the law or fact. Bacon's max. Reg. 17.

De jure judices, de facto juratores, respondent. The judges answer to the law, the jury to the facts.

De minimis non curat lex. The law does not notice or care for trifling matters. Broom's Max. 333; Hob. 88; 5 Hill, N.Y. Rep. 170.

De morte hominis nulla est cunctatio longa. When the death of a human being may be the consequence, no delay is long. Col Litt. 134. When the question is on the life or death of a man, no delay is too long to admit of inquiring into facts.

De non apparentibus et non existntibus eadem est ratio. The reason is the same respecting things which do not appear, and those which do not exist.

De similibus ad similia eadem ratione procedendum est. From similars to similars, we are to proceed by the same rule.

De similibus idem est judicium. Concerning similars the judgment is the same. 7 Co. 18.

Debet esse finis litium. There ought to be an end of law suits. Jenk. Cent. 61.

Debet qui juri subjacere ubi delinquit. Every one ought to be subject to the law of the place where he offends. 3 Co. Inst. 34.

Debile fundamentum, fallit opus. Where there is a weak foundation, the work falls. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2068.

Debita sequuntur personam debitoris. Debts follow the person of the debtor. Story, Confl. of Laws, 362.

Debitor non praesumitur donare. A debtor is not presumed to make a gift. See 1 Kames' Eq. 212; Dig. 50, 16, 108.

Debitum et contractus non sunt nullius loci. Debt and contract are of no particular place.

Delegata potestas non potest delegari. A delegated authority cannot be again delegated. 2 Co. Inst. 597; 5 Bing. N. C. 310; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1300.

Delegatus non potest delegare. A delegate or deputy cannot appoint another. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1936; Story, Ag. 33.

Derativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva. The power which is derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.

Derogatur legi, cum pars detrahitur; abrogatur legi, cum prorsus tollitur. To derogate from a law is to enact something contrary to it; to abrogate a law, is to abolish it entirely. Dig. 50, 16, 102. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 91.

Designatio unius est exclusio alterius, et expressum facit cessare tacitum. The appointment or designation of one is the exclusion of another; and that expressed makes that which is implied cease. Co. Litt. 210.

Dies dominicus non est juridicus. Sunday is not a day in law. Co. Litt. 135 a; 21 Saund. 291. See Sunday.

Dies inceptus pro completo habetur. The day of undertaking or commencement of the business is held as complete.

Dies incertus pro conditione habetur. A day uncertain is held as a condition.

Dilationes in lege sunt odiosae. Delays in law are odious.

Disparata non debent jungi. Unequal things ought not to be joined. Jenk. Cent. 24. ,

Dispensatio est vulnus, quod vulnerat jus commune. A dispensation is a wound which wounds a common right. Dav. 69.

Dissimilum dissimiles est ratio. Of disimilars the rule is dissimilar. Co. Litt. 191.

Divinatio non interpretatio est, quae omnino recedit a litera. It is a guess not interpretation which altogether departs from the letter. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 3, p. 47.

Dolosus versatur generalibus. A deceiver deals in generals. 2 Co. 34.

Dolus auctoris non nocet successori. The fraud of a possessor does not prejudice the successor.

Dolus circuitu non purgator. Fraud is not purged by circity. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 1.

Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium. Every man's house is his castle. 5 Rep. 92.

Domus tutissimum cuique refugium atque receptaculum. The habitation of each one is an inviolable asylum for him. Dig. 2, 4, 18.

Donatio perficitur possesione accipientis. A gift is rendered complete by the possession of the receiver. See 1 Bouv. Innt. n. 712; 2 John. 52; 2 Leigh, 337.

Donatio non praesumitur. A gift is not presumed.

Donatur nunquam desinit possidere antequam donatarius incipiat possidere. He that gives never ceases to possess until he that receives begins to possess. Dyer, 281.

Dormiunt aliquando leges, nunquam moriuntur. The laws sometimes sleep, but neyer die. 2 Co. Inst. 161.

Dos de dote peti non debet, Dower ought not to be sought from dower. 4 Co. 122.

Duas uxores eodem tempore habere non potest. It is not lawful to have two wives at one time. Inst. 1, 10, 6.

Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere. Two cannot possess one thing each in entirety. Co. Litt. 368.

Duplicationem possibilitatis lex non patitur. It is not allowed to double a possibility. 1 Roll. R. 321.

Ea est accipienda interpretation, qui vitio curet. That interpretation is to be received, which will not intend a wrong. Bacon's Max. Reg. 3, p. 47.

Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat. The burden of the proof lies upon him who affirms, not he who denies. Dig. 22, 3, 2; Tait on Ev. 1; 1 Phil. Ev. 194; 1 Greenl. Ev. 74; 3 Louis. R. 83; 2 Dan. Pr. 408; 4 Bouv Inst. n. 4411.

Ei nihil turpe, cui nihil satis. To whom nothing is base, nothing is sufficient. 4 Co. Inst. 53.

Ejus est non nolle, qui potest velle. He who may consent tacitly, may consent expressly. Dig. 50, 17, 8.

Ejus est periculum cujus est dominium aut commodum. He who has the risk has the dominion or advantage.

Electa una via, non datur recursus ad alteram. When there is concurrence of means, he who has chosen one cannot have recourse to another. 10 Toull. n. 170.

Electio semel facta, et placitum testatum, non patitur regressum. Election once made, and plea witnessed, suffers not a recall. Co. Litt. 146.

Electiones fiant rite et libere sine interruptione aliqua. Elections should be made in due form and freely, without any interruption. 2 Co. Inst. 169.

Enumeratio infirmat regulam in casibus non enumeratis. Enumeration affirms the rule in cases not enumerated. Bac. Aph. 17.

Equality is equity. Francis' Max., Max. 3; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3725.

Equity suffers not a right without a remedy. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726.

Equity looks upon that as done, which ought to be done. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3729; 1 Fonbl. Eq. b. 1, ch. 6, s. 9, note; 3 Wheat. 563.

Error fucatus nuda veritate in multis est probabilior; et saepenumero rationibus vincit veritatem error. Error artfully colored is in many things more probable than naked truth; and frequently error conquers truth and reasoning. 2 Co. 73.

Error juris nocet. Error of law is injurious. See 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828.

Error qui non resistitur, approbatur. An error not resisted is approved. Doct. & Stud. c. 70.

Error scribentis nocere non debet. An error made by a clerk ought not to injure; a clerical error may be corrected.

Errores ad sua principia referre, est refellere. To refer errors to their origin is to refute them. 3 Co. Inst. 15.

Est autem vis legem simulans. Violence may also put on the mask of law.

Est boni judicis ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the part of a good judge to extend the jurisdiction.

Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio. The best interpration is made from antecedents and consequents. 2 Co. Inst. 317.

Ex diuturnitate temporis, amnia praesumuntur solemniter esse acta. From length of time, all things are presumed to have been done in due form. Co. Litt. 6; 1 Greenl. Ev. 20.

Ex dolo malo non oritur action. Out of fraud no action arises. Cowper, 343; Broom's Max. 349.

Ex facto jus oritur. Law arises out of fact; that is, its application must be to facts.

Ex malificio non oritur contractus. A contract cannot arise out of an act radically wrong and illegal. Broom's Max. 851.

Ex multitudine signorum, colligitur identitas vera. From the great number of signs true identity may be ascertained. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 25.

Ex nudo pacto non oritur action. No actions arises on a naked contract without a consideration. See Nudum Pactum.

Ex tota materia emergat resolutio. The construction or resolution should arise out of the whole subject matter.

Ex turpi causa non oritur action. No action arises out of an immoral consideration.

Ex turpi contractu non oritur actio. No action arises on an immoral contract.

Ex uno disces omnes. From one thing you can discern all.

Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus. A wrong in capital cases is excused or palliated which would not be so in civil matters. Bacon's Max. Reg. 7.

Exceptio ejus rei cujus petitiur dissolutio nulla est. There can be no plea of that thing of which the dissolution is sought. Jenk. Cent. 37.

Exceptio falsi omnium ultima. A false plea is the basest of all things.

Exceptio firmat regulam in contrarium. The exception affirms the rule in contrary cases. Bac. Aph. 17.

Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. The exception affirms the rule in cases not excepted. Bac. Aph. 17.

Exceptio nulla est versus actionem quae exceptionem perimit. There can be no plea against an action which entirely destroys the plea. Jenk. Cent. 106.

Exceptio probat regulam de rebus non exceptio. An exception proves the rule concerning things not excepted. 11 Co. 41.

Exceptio quoque regulam declarat. The exception also declares the rule. Bac. Aph. 17.

Exceptio semper ultima ponenda est. An exception is always to be put last. 9 Co. 53.

Executio est finis et fructus legis. An execution is the end and the first fruit ofthe law. Co. Litt. 259.

Executio juris non habet injuriam. The execution of the law causes no injury. 2 Co. Inst. 482; Broom's Max. 57.

Exempla illustrant non restringunt legem. Examples illustrate and do not restrict the law. Co. Litt. 24.

Expedit reipublicae ut sit finis litium. It is for the public good that there be an end of litigation. Co. Litt. 303.

Expressa nocent, non expressa non nocent. Things expressed may be prejudicial; things not expressed are not. See Dig. 50, 17, 195.

Expressio eorum quae tacite insunt nihil operatur. The expression of those things which are tacitly implied operates nothing.

Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another.

Expressum facit cessare tacitum. What is expressed renders what is implied silent.

Extra legem positus est civiliter mortuus. One out of the pale of the law, (an outlaw,) is civilly dead.

Extra territorium jus dicenti non paretur impune. One who exercises jurisdiction out of his territory is not obeyed with impunity.

Facta sunt potentiora verbis. Facts are more powerful than words.

Factum a judice quod ad ujus officium non spectat, non ratum est. An act of a judge which does not relate to his office, is of no force. 10 Co. 76.

Factum negantis nulla probatio. Negative facts are not proof.

Factum non dictur quod non perseverat. It cannot be called a deed which does not hold out or persevere. 5 Co. 96.

Factum unius alteri nocere non debet. The deed of one should not hurt the other. Co. Litt. 152.

Facultas probationum non est angustanda. The faculty or right of offering proof is not to be narrowed. 4 Co. Inst. 279.

Falsa demonstratio non nocet. A false or mistaken description does not vitiate. 6T. R. 676; see 2 Story's Rep. 291; 1 Greenl. Ev. 301.

Falsa ortho graphia, sive falsa grammatica, non vitiat concessionem. False spelling or false grammar do not vitiate a grant. 9 Co. 48; Sheph. To. 55.

Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus. False in one thing, false in everything. 1 Sumn. 356.

Fiat justitia ruat coelum. Let justice be done, though the heavens should fall.

Felonia implicatur in quolibet proditione. Felony is included or implied in every treason. 3 Co. Inst. 15.

Festinatio justitiae est noverca infortunii. The hurrying of justice is the stepmother of misfortune. Hob. 97.

Fiat prout, fieri consuerit, nil temere novandum. Let it be done as formerly, let nothing be done rashly. Jenk. Cent. 116.

Fictio est contra veritatem, sed pro veritate habetur. Fiction is against the truth, but it is to have truth.

Finis rei attendendus est. The end of a thing is to be attended to. 3 Co. Inst. 51.

Finis finem litibus imponit. The end puts an end to litigation. 3 Inst. 78.

Finis unius diei est principium alterius. The end of one day is the beginning of another. 2 Buls. 305.

Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis. The disposition of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man. Co. Litt. 102.

Flumina et protus publica sunt, ideoque jus piscandi omnibus commune est. Rivers and ports are public, therefore the right of fishing there is common to all.

Faemina ab omnibus officiis civilibus vel publicis remotae sunt. Women are excluded from all civil and public charges or offices. Dig. 50, 17, 2.

Forma legalis forma essentialis. Legal form is essential form. 10 Co. 100.

Forma non observata, inferiur adnullatio actus. When form is not observed a nullity of the act is inferred. 12 Co. 7.

Forstellarius est pauperum depressor, et totius communitatis et patriae publicus inimicus. A forestaller is an oppressor of the poor, and a public enemy to the whole community and the country. 3 Co. Inst. 196.

Fortior est custodia legis quam hominis. The custody of the law is stronger than that of man. 2 Roll. R. 325.

Fortior et potentior est dispositio legis quam hominis. The disposition of the law is stronger and more powerful than that of man. Co Litt. 234.

Fraus est celare fraudem. It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 1 Vern. 270.

Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed. Cro. Car. 550.

Fraus et dolus nemini patrocianari debent. Fraud and deceit should excuse no man. 3 Co. 78.

Fraus et jus numquam cohabitant. Fraud and justice never agree together. Wing. 680.

Fraus latet in generalibus. Fraud lies hid in general expressions.

Fraus meretur fraudem. Fraud deserves fraud. Plow. 100. This is very doubtful morality.

Fructus pendentes pars fundi videntur. Hanging fruits make part of the land. Dig. 6, 1, 44; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578. See Larceny.

Fructus perceptos villae non esse constat. Gathered fruits do not make a part of the house. Dig. 19, 1, 17, 1; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578.

Frustra est potentia quae numcquam venit in actum. The power which never comes to be exercised is vain. 2 Co. 51.

Frustra feruntur legis nisi subditis et obedientibus. Laws are made to no purpose unless for those who are subject and obedient. 7 Co. 13.

Frustra legis auxilium quaerit qui in legem committit. Vainly does he who offends against the law, seek the help of the law.

Frustra petis quoa statim alteri reddere cogeris. Vainly you ask that which you will immediately be compelled to restore to another. Jenk. Cent. 256.

Frustra probatur quod probatum non relevat. It is vain to prove that which if proved would not aid the matter in question.

Furiosus absentis loco est. The insane is compared to the absent. Dig. 50, 17, 24, 1.

Furiosus solo furore punitur. A madman is punished by his madness alone. Co. Litt. 247.

Furtum non est ubi initium habet detentionis per dominum rei. It is not theft where the commencement of the detention arises through the owner of the thing. 3 Co. Inst. 107.

Generale tantum valet in generalibus, quanium singulare singulis. What is general prevails or is worth as much among things general, as what is particular among things particular. 11 Co. 59.

Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general expression is to be construed generally. 8 co. 116.

Generale nihil certum implicat. A general expression implies nothing certain. 2 Co. 34.

Generalia sunt praeponenda singularibus. General things are to be put before particular things.

Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. General words are understood in a general sense. 3 Co. Inst. 76.

Generalis clausula non porrigitur ad ea quae antea specialiter sunt comprehensa. A general clause does not extend to those things which are previously provided for specially. 8 Co. 154.

Haeredem Deus facit, non homo. God and not man, make the heir.

Haeredem est nomen collectivum. Heir is a collective name.

Haeris est nomen juris, filius est nomen naturae. Heir is a term of law, son one of nature.

Haeres est aut jure proprietatis aut jure representationis. An heir is either by right of property or right of representation. 3 Co. 40.

Haeres est alter ispe, et filius est pars patris. An heir is another self, and a son is a part of the father.

Haeres est eadem persona cum antecessore. The heir is the same person with the ancestor. Co. Litt. 22.

Haeres haeredis mei est meus haeres. The heir of my heir is my heir.

Haeres legitimus est quem nuptiae demonstrant. He is the lawful heir whom the marriage demonstrates.

He who has committed iniquity, shall not have equity. Francis' Max., Max. 2.

He who will have equity done to him, must do equity to the same person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3723.

Hominum causa jus constitutum est. Law is established for the benefit of man.

Id quod nostrum est, sine facto nostro ad alium transferi non potest. What belongs to us cannot be transferred to another without our consent. Dig. 50, 17, 11. But this must be understood with this qualification, that the government may take property for public use, paying the owner its value. The title to property may also be acquired, with the consent of the owner, by a judgment of a competent tribunal.

Id certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which may be rendered certain. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 929; 2 Bl. Com. 143; 4 Kernt com. 462; 4 Pick 179.

Idem agens et patiens esse non potest. One cannot be agent and patient, in the same matter. Jenk. Cent. 40.

Idem est facere, et nolle prohibere cum possis. It is the same thing to do a thing as not to prohibit it when in your power. 3 Co. Inst. 178.

Idem est non probari et non esse; non deficit jus, sed probatio. What does not appear and what is not is the same; it is not the defect of the law, but the want of proof.

Idem est nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere. It is the same thing to say nothing and not to say it sufficiently. 2 Co. Inst. 178.

Idem est scire aut scire debet aut potuisse. To be able to know is the same as to know. This maxim is applied to the duty of every one to know the law.

Idem non esse et non apparet. It is the same thing not to exist and not to appear. Jenk. Cent. 207.

Idem semper antecedenti proximo refertur. The same is always referred to its next antecedent. Co. Litt. 385.

Identitas vera colligitur ex multitudine signorum. True identity is collected from a number of signs.

Id perfectum est quod ex omnibus suis partibus constat. That is perfect which is complete in all its parts. 9 Co. 9.

Id possumus quod de jure possumus. We may do what is allowed by law. Lane, 116.

Ignorantia excusatur, non juris sed facti. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not ignorance of law. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not ignorance of law. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828.

Ignorantia facti excusat, ignorantia juris non excusat. Ignorance of facts excuses, ignorance of law does not excuse. 1 Co. 177; 4 Bouv. Inst. n 3828. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia judicis est calamitas innocentis. The ignorance of the judge is the misforture of the innocent. 2 Co. Inst. 591.

Ignorantia terminis ignoratur et ars. An ignorance of terms is to be ignorant of the art. Co. Litt. 2.

Illud quod alias licitum non est necessitas facit licitum, et necessitas inducit privilegium quod jure privatur. That which is not otherwise permitted, necessity allows, and necessity makes a privilege which supersedes the law. 10 Co. 61.

Imperitia culpae annumeratur. Ignorance, or want of skill, is considered a negligence, for which one who professes skill is responsible. Dig. 50, 17, 132; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1004.

Impersonalitas non concludit nec ligat. Impersonality neither concludes nor binds. Co. Litt. 352.

Impotentia excusat legem. Impossibility excuses the law. Co. Litt. 29.

Impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Impunity offers a continual bait to a delinquent. 4 Co. 45.

In alternativis electio est debitoris. In alternatives there is an election of the debtor.

In aedificiis lapis male positus non est removendus. A stone badly placed in a building is not to be removed. 11 Co. 69.

In aequali jure melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties have equal rights, the condition of the possessor is the better. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 215; Jer. Eq. Jur. 285; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 170; Dig. 50, 17, 128. Plowd. 296.

In commodo haec pactio, ne dolus praestetur, rata non est. If in a contract for a loan there is inserted a clause that the borrower shall not be answerable for fraud, such clause is void. Dig. 13, 6, 17.

In conjunctivis oportet utramque partem esse veram. In conjunctives each part ought to be true. Wing. 13.

In consimili casu consilile debet esse remedium. In similar cases the remedy should be similar. Hard. 65.

In contractibus, benigna; in testamentis, benignior; in restitutionibus, benignissima interpretatio facienda est. In contracts, the interpretation or construction should be liberal; in wills, more liberal; in restitutions, more liberal. Co. Litt. 112.

In conventibus contrahensium voluntatem potius quam verba spectari placuit. In the agreements of the contracting parties, the rule is to regard the intention rather than the words. Dig. 50, 16, 219.

In criminalibus, probationes bedent esse luce clariores. In criminal cases, the proofs ought to be clearer than the light. 3 Co. inst. 210.

In criminalibus sufficit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto paris gradus. In criminal cases a general intention is sufficient, when there is an act of equal or corresponding degree. Bacon's Max. Reg. 15.

In disjunctivis sufficit alteram partem esse veram. In disjunctives, it is sufficient if either part be true. Wing. 15.

In dubiis magis dignum est accipiendum. In doubtful cases the more worthy is to be taken. Branch's Prin. h.t.

In dubiis non praesumitur pro testamento. In doubtful cases there is no presumption in favor of the will. Cro. Car. 51.

In dubio haec legis constructio quam verba ostendunt. In a doubtful case, that is the construction of the law which the words indicate. Br. Pr. h. t.

In dubio pars melior est sequenda. In doubt, the gentler course is to be followed.

In dubio, sequendum quod tutius est. In doubt, the safer course is to be adopted.

In eo quod plus sit, semper inest et minus. The less is included in the greater. 50, 17, 110.

In facto quod se habet ad bonum et malum magis de bono quam de malo lex intendit. In a deed which may be considered good or bad, the law looks more to the good than to the bad. Co. Litt. 78.

In favorabilibus magis attenditur quod prodest quam quod nocet. In things favored what does good is more regarded than what does harm. Bac. Max. in Reg. 12.

In fictione juris, semper subsistit aequitas. In a fiction of law, equity always subsists. 11 Co. 51.

In judiciis minori aetati sucuritur. In judicial proceedings, infancy is aided or favored.

In judicio non creditur nisi juratis. In law none is credited unless he is sworn. All the facts must when established, by witnesses, be under oath or affirmation. Cro. Car. 64.

In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur. In law the proximate, and not the remote cause, is to be looked to. Bacon's Max. REg. 1.

In majore summa continetur minor. In the greater sum is contained the less. 5 Co. 115.

In maleficio ratihabitio mandato comparatur. He who ratifies a bad action is considered as having ordered it. Dig. 50, 17, 152, 2.

In mercibus illicitis non sit commercium. NO commerce should be in illicit goods. 3 Kent, Com. 262, n.

In maxima potentia minima licentia. In the greater power is included the smaller license. Hob. 159.

In obscuris, quod minimum est, sequitur. In obscure cases, the milder course ought to be pursued. Dig. 50, 17, 9.

In odium spoliatoris omnia praesumuntur. All things are presumed in odium of a despoiler. 1 Vern. 19.

In omni re nascitur res qua ipsam rem exterminat. In everything, the thing is born which destroys the thing itself. 2 Co. Inst. 15.

In omnibus contractibus, sive nominatis sive innominatis, permutatio continetur. In every contract, whether nominate or innominate, there is implied a consideration.

In omnibus quidem, maxime tamen in jure, aequitas spectanda sit. In all affairs, and principally in those which concern the administration of justice, the rules of equity ought to be followed. Dig. 50, 17, 90.

In omnibus obligationibus, in quibus dies non ponitar, praesenti die debutur. In all obligations when no time is fixed for the payment, the thing is due immediately. Dig. 50, 17, 14.

In praesentia majoris potestatis, minor potestas cessat. In the presence of the superior power, the minor power ceases. Jenk. Cent. 214.

In pari causa possessor potior haberi debet. When two parties have equal rights, the advantage is always in favor of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 128.

In pari causa possessor potior est. In an equal case, better is the condition of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 128; Poth. Vente, n. 320; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 952.

In pari delicto melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties are equally in the wrong, the condition of the possessor is better. 11 Wheat. 258; 3 Cranch 244; Cowp. 341; Broom's Max. 325; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3724.

In propria cuusa nemo judex. No one can be judge in his own cuase.

In quo quis delinquit, in eo de jure est puniendus. In whatever thing on offends, in that he is rightfully to be punished. Co. Litt. 233.

In repropria iniquum admodum est alicui licentiam tribuere sententiae. It is expremely unjust that any one should be judge in his own cause.

In re dubia magis inficiato quam affirmatio intelligenda. In a doubtful matter, the negative is to be understood rather than the affirmative. Godb. 37.

In republica maxime conservanda sunt jura belli. In the state the laws of war are to be greatly preserved. 2 Co. Inst. 58.

In restitutionem, non in paenam haeres succedit. The heir succeeds to the restitution not the penalty. 2 Co. Inst. 198.

In restitutionibus benignissima interpretatio facienda est. The most favorable construction is made in restitutions. Co. Litt. 112.

In suo quisque negotio hebetior est quam in alieno. Every one is more dull in his own business than in that of another. Co. Litt. 377.

In toto et pars continetur. A part is included in the whole. Dig. 50, 17, 113.

In traditionibus scriptorum non quod dictum est, sed quod gestum est, inscpicitur. In the delivery of writing, not what is said, but what is done is to be considered. 9 co. 137.

Incerta pro nullius habentur. Things uncertain are held for nothing Dav. 33.

Incerta quantitas vitiat acium. An uncertain quantity vitiates the act. 1 Roll. R. 465.

In civile est nisi tota sententia inspectu, de aliqua parte judicare. It is improper to pass an opinion on any part of a sentence, without examining the whole. Hob. 171.

Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius. The inclusion of one is the exclusion of another. 11 Co. 58.

Incommodum non solvit argumentum. An inconvenience does not solve an argument.

Indefinitum aequipolet universali. The undefined is equivalent to the whole. 1 Ventr. 368.

Indefinitum supplet locum universalis. The undefined supplies the place of the whole Br. Pr. h. t.

Independenter se habet assecuratio a viaggio vanis. The voyage insured is an independent or distinct thing from the voyage of the ship. 3 Kent, Com. 318, n.

Index animi sermo. Speech is the index of the mind.

Inesse potest donationi, modus, conditio sive causa; ut modus est; si conditio; quia causa. In a gift there may be manner, condition and cause; as, (ut), introduces a manner; if, (si), a condition; because, (quia), a cause. Dy. 138.

Infinitum in jure reprobatur. That which is infinite or endless is reprehensible in law. 9 Co. 45.

Iniquum est alios permittere, alios inhibere mercaturam. It is inequitable to permit some to trade, and to prohibit others. 3 Co. Inst. 181.

Iniquum est aliquem rei sui esse judicem. It is against equity for any one to be judge in his own cause. 12 Co. 13.

Iniquum est ingenuis hominibus non esse liberam rerum suarum alienationem. It is against equity to deprive freeman of the free disposal of their own property. Co. Litt. 223. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 455, 460.

Injuria non praesumitur. A wrong is not presumed. Co. Litt. 232.

Injuria propria non cadet in beneficium facientis. One's own wrong shall not benefit the person doing it.

Injuria fit ei cui convicium dictum est, vel de eo factum carmen famosum. It is a slander of him who a reproachful thing is said, or concerning whom an infamous song is made. 9 Co. 60.

Intentio caeca, mala. A hidden intention is bad. 2 Buls. 179.

Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni. Intentions ought to be subservient to the laws, not the laws to intentions. Co. Litt. 314.

Intentio mea imponit nomen operi meo. My intent gives a name to my act. Hob. 123.

Interest reipublicae ne maleficia remaneant impunita. It concerns the commonwealth that crimes do not remain unpunished. Jenk. Cent. 30, 31.

Interest reipublicae res judicatas non rescindi. It concerns the common wealth that things adjudged be not rescinded. Vide Res judicata.

Interest reipublicae quod homines conserventur. It concerns the commonwealth that we be preserved. 12 Co. 62. Interest reipublicae ut qualibet re sua bene utatur. it concerns the commonwealth that every one use his property properly. 6 Co. 37.

Interest reipublicae ut carceres sint in tuto. It concerns the commonwealth that prisons be secure. 2 Co. Inst. 589.

Interest reipublicae suprema hominum testamenta rata haberi. It concerns the commonwealth that men's last wills be sustained. Co. Litt. 236.

Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium. In concerns the commonwealth that there be an end of law suits. Co. Litt. 303.

Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus. To interpret and reconcile laws so that they harmonize is the best mode of construction. 8 Co. 169.

Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. That construction is to be made so that the subject may have an effect rather than none. Jenk. Cent. 198.

Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper fienda, ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum. In ambiguous things, such a construction is to be made, that what is inconvenient and absurd is to be avoided. 4 Co. Inst. 328.

Interruptio multiplex non tollit praescriptionem semel obtentam. Repeated interruptions do not defeat a prescription once obtained. 2 Co. Inst. 654.

Inutilis labor, et sine fructu, non est effectus legis. Useless labor and without fruit, is not the effect of law. Co. Lit. 127.

Invito beneficium non datur. No one is obligedto accept a benefit against his consent. Dig. 50, 17, 69. But if he does not dissent he will be considered as assenting. Vide Assent.

Ipsae legis cupiunt ut jure regantur. The laws themselves require that they should be governed by right. Co. Litt. 174.

Judex ante occulos aequitatem semper habere debet. A judge ought always to have equity before his eyes. Jenk. Cent. 58.

Judex aeuitatem semper spectare debet. A judge ought always to regard equity. Jenk. Cent. 45.

Judex bonus nihil ex arbitrio suo faciat, nec propositione domesticae voluntatis, sed juxta legis et jura pronunciet. A good judge should do nothing from his own judgment, or from the dictates of his private wishes; but he should pronounce according to law and justice. 7 co. 27.

Judex debet judicare secundum allegata et probata. The judge ought to decide according to the allegation and the proof.

Judex est lex loquens. The judge is the speaking law. 7 co. 4.

Judex non potest esse testis in propria causa. A judge cannot be a witness in his own cause. 4 Co. Inst. 279.

Judex non potest injuriam sibi datum punire. A judge cannot punish a wrong done to himself. 12 Co. 113.

Judex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur. The judge is condemned when the guilty are acquitted.

Judex non reddat plus quam quod petens ipse requireat. The judge does demand more than the plaintiff demands. 2 Inst. 286.

Judici officium suum excedenti non paretur. To a judge who exceeds his office or jurisdiction no obedience is due. Jenk. Cent. 139.

Judici satis paena est quod Deum habet ultorem. It is punishment enough for a judge that he is responsible to God. 1 Leon. 295.

Judicia in deliberationibus crebro naturescunt, in accelerato processu nunquam. Judgments frequently become matured by deliberation, never by hurried process. 3 Co. Inst. 210.

Judicia posteriora sunt in lege fortiora. The latter decisions are stronger in law. 8 Co. 97.

Judicia sunt tanquam juris dicta, et pro veritate accipiuntur. Judgments are, as it were, the dicta or sayings of the law, and are received as truth. 2 Co. Inst. 573.

Judiciis posterioribus fides est adhibenda. Faith or credit is to be given to the last decisions. 13 Co. 14.

Judicis est in pronuntiando sequi regulam, exceptione non probata. The judge in his decision ought to follow the rule, when the exception is not made apparent.

Judicis est judicare secudnum allegata et probata. A judge ought to decide according to the allegations and proofs. Dyer. 12.

Judicium a non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. A judgment given by an improper judge is of no moment. 11 Co. 76.

Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet. A judgment ought not to be illusory, it ought to have its consequence. 2 Inst. 341.

Judicium redditur in invitum, in praesumptione legis. In presumption of law, a judgment is given against inclination. Co. Litt. 248.

Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A judgment is always taken for truth. 2 Co. Inst. 380.

Jura sanguinis nullo jure civili dirimi possunt. The right of blood and kindred cannot be destroyed by any civil law. Dig. 50, 17, 9; Bacon's Max. Reg. 11.

Jura naturae sunt immutabilia. The laws of nature are unchangeable.

Jura eodem modo distruuntur quo constituuntur. Laws are abrogated or repealed by the same means by which they are made.

Juramentum est indivisibile, et non est admittendum in parte verum et in parte falsam. An oath is indivisible, it cannot be in part true and in part false.

Jurato creditur in judicio. He who makes oath is to be believed in judgment.

Jurare est Deum in testum vocare, et est actus divini cultus. To swear is to call God to witness, and is an act of religion. 3 Co. Inst. 165. Vide 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3180, note; 1 Benth. Rat. of Jud. Ev. 376, 371, note.

Juratores sunt judices facti. Juries are the judges of the facts. Jenk. Cent. 58.

Juris effectus in executione consistit. The effect of a law consists in the execution. Co. Litt. 289.

Jus accrescendi inter mercatores locum non habet, pro beneficio commercii. The right of survivorship does not exist among merchants for the benefit of commerce. Co. Litt. 182; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 682.

Jus accrescendi praefertur oneribus. The right of survivorship is preferred to incumbrances. Co. Litt. 185.

Jus accrescendi praefertur ultimae voluntati. The right of survivorship is preferred to a last will. Co. Litt. 1856.

Jus descendit et non terra. A right descends, not the land. Co. Litt. 345.

Jus est ars boni et aequi. Law is the science of what is good and evil. Dig. 1, 1, 1, l.

Jus et fraudem numquam cohabitant. Right and fraud never go together.

Jus ex injuria non oritur. A right cannot arise from a wrong. 4 Bing. 639.

Jus publicum privatorum pactis mutari non potest. A public right cannot be changed by private agreement.

Jus respicit aequitatem. Law regards equity. Co. Litt. 24.

Jus superveniens auctori accressit successors. A right owing to a possessor accrues to a successor.

Justicia est virtus excellens et Altissimo complacens. Justice is an excellent virtue and pleasing to the Most high. 4 inst. 58.

Justitia nemine neganda est. Justice is not to be denied. Jenk. Cent. 178.

Justitia non est neganda, non differenda. Justice is not to be denied nor delayed. Jenk. Cent. 93.

Justitia non novit patrem nec matrem, solum veritatem spectat justitia. Justice knows neither father nor mother, justice looks to truth alone. 1 Buls. 199.

La conscience est la plus changeante des regles. Conscience is the most changeable of rules.

Lata culpa dolo aequiparatur. Gross negligence is equal to fraud.

Le contrat fait la loi. The contract makes the law.

Legatos violare contra jus gentium est. It is contrary to the law of nations to violate the rights of ambassadors.

Legatum morte testatoris tantum confirmatur, sicut donatio inter vivos traditione sola. A legacy is confirmed by the death of the testator, in the same manner as a gift from a living person is by delivery alone. Dyer, 143.

Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. Subsequent laws repeal those before enacted to the contrary. 2 Rol. R. 410; 11 Co. 626, 630.

Leges humanae nascuntur, vivunt et moriuntur. Human laws are born, live and die. 7 co. 25.

Leges non verbis sed regus sunt impositae. Laws, not words, are imposed on things. 10 Co. 101.

Legibus sumptis disinentibus, lege naturae utendum est. When laws imposed by the state fail, we must act by the law of nature. 2 Roll. R. 298.

Legis constructio non facit injuriam. The construction of law does no wrong. Co. Litt. 183.

Legis figendi et refigendi consuetudo periculosissima est. The custom of fixing and refixing (making and annulling) laws is most dangerous. 4 Co. Ad. Lect.

Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The construction of law obtains the force of law.

Legislatorum est viva vox, rebus et non verbis, legem imponere. The voice of legislators is a living voice, to impose laws on things and not on words. 10 Co. 101.

Legis minister non tenetur, in executione officii sui fugere aut retrocedere. The minister of the law is not bound, in the execution of his office, neither to fly nor retreat. 6 Co. 68.

Legitime imperanti parere necesse est. One who commands lawfully must be obeyed. Jenk. Cent. 120.

Les fictions naissent de la loi, et non la loi des fictions. Fictions arise from the law, and not law from fictions.

Lex aliquando sequitur aequitatem. The law sometimes follows equity. 3 Wils. 119.

Lex aequitate guadet; appetit perfectum; est norma recti. The law delights in equity; it covets perfection; it is a rule of right. Jenk. Cent. 36.

Lex beneficialis rei consimili remedium praestat. A beneficial law affords a remedy in a similar case. 2 Co. Inst. 689.

Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quam publicum malum. The law would rather tolerate a private wrong than a public evil. Co. Litt. 152.

Lex de futuro, judex de praeterito. The law provides for the future, the judge for the past.

Lex deficere non potest in justitia exhibendaa. The law ought not to fail in dispensing justice. Co. Litt. 197.

Lex dilationes semper exhorret. The law always abhors delay. 2 Co. Inst. 240.

Lex est ab aeterno. The law is from everlasting.

Lex est dictamen rationis. Law is the dictate of reason. Jenk. Cent. 117.

Lex est norma recti. Law is a rule of right.

Lex est ratio summa, quae jubet quae sunt utilia et necessaria, et contraria prohibet. Law is the perfection of reason, which commands what is useful and necessary and forbids the contrary. Co. Litt. 319.

Lex est sanctio sancta, jubens honesta, et prohibens contraria. Law is a scared sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the contrary. 2 Co. Inst. 587.

Lex favet doti. The law favors dower.

Lex fingit ubi subsistit aequitas. Law feigns where equity subsists. 11 Co. 90.

Lex intendit vicinum vicini facta scire. The law presumes that one neighbor knows the actions of another. Co. Litt. 78.

Lex judicat de rebus necessario faciendis quasire ipsa factis. The law judges of things which must necessarily be done, as if actually done.

Lex necessitatis est lex temporis, i.e. instantis. The law of necessity is the law of time, that is, time present. Hob. 159.

Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutilia peragenda. The law forces no one to do vain or useless things.

Lex nemini facit injuriam. The law does wrong to no one. Lex nemini operatur iniquum, nemini facit injuriam. The law never works an injury, or does him a wrong. Jenk. Cent. 22.

Lex nil facit frustra, nil jubet frustra. The law does nothing and commands nothing in vain. 3 Buls. 279; Jenk. Cent. 17.

Lex non cogit impossibilia. The law requires nothing impossible. Co. Litt. 231, b; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 951.

Lex non curat de minimis. The law does not regard small matters. Hob. 88.

Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. The law forces not to impossibilities. Hob. 96.

Lex non praecipit inutilia, quia inutilis labor stultus. The law commands not useless things, because useless labor is foolish. Co. Litt. 197.

Lex non deficit in justitia exibenda. The law does not fail in showing justice.

Lex non intendit aliquid impossibile. The law intends not anything impossible. 12 Co. 89.

Lex non requirit verificare quod apparet curiae. The law does not require that to be proved, which is apparent to the court. 9 Co. 54.

Lex plus laudatur quando ratione probatur. The law is the more praised when it is consonant to reason.

Lex prospicit, non respicit. The law looks forward, not backward.

Lex punit mendacium. The law punishes falsehood.

Lex rejicit superflua, pugnantia, incongrua. The law rejects superfluous, contradictory and incongruous things.

Lex reprobat moram. The law dislikes delay.

Lex semper dabit remedium. The law always gives a remedy. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2411.

Lex spectat naturae ordinem. The law regards the order of nature. Co. Litt. 197.

Lex succurit ignoranti. The laws succor the ignorant.

Lex semper intendit quod convenit ratione. The law always intends what is agreeable to reason. Co. Litt. 78.

Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur. The law speaks to all with one mouth. 2 Inst. 184.

Libertas inaestimabilis res est. Liberty is an inestimable good. Dig. 50, 17, 106.

Liberum corpus aestimationem non recipit. The body of a freeman does not admit of valuation.

Licet dispositio de interesse furture sit inutilis, tamen potest fieri declaratio praecedens quae fortiatur effectum interveniente novo actu. Although the grant of a future interest be inoperative, yet a declaration precedent may be made, which may take effect, provided a new act intervene. Bacon's Max. Reg. 14.

Licita bene miscentur, formula nisi juris obstet. Things permitted should be well contrived, lest the form of the law oppose. Bacon's Max. Reg. 24.

Linea recta semper praefertur transversali. The right line is always preferred to the collateral. Co. Litt. 10.

Locus contractus regit actum. The place of the contract governs the act.

Longa possessio est pacis jus. Long possession is the law of peace. Co. Litt. 6.

Longa possessio parit jus possidendi, et tollit actionem vero domino. Long possession produces the right of possession, and takes away from the true owner his action. Co. Litt. 110.

Longum tempus, et longus usus qui excedit memoria hominum, sufficit pro jure. Long time and long use, beyond the memory of man, suffices for right. Co. Litt. 115.

Loquendum ut vulgus, sentiendum ut docti. We speak as the common people, we must think as the learned. 7 Co. 11.

Magister rerum usus; magistra rerum experientia. Use is the master of things; experience is the mistress of things. Co. Litt. 69, 229.

Manga negligentia culpa est, magna culpa dolus est. Gross negligence is a fault, gross fault is a fraud. Dig 50, 16, 226.

Magna culpa dolus est. Great neglect is equivalent to fraud. Dig. 50, 16, 226; 2 Spears, R. 256; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 646.

Maihemium est inter crimina majora minimum et inter minora maximum. Mayhem is the least of great crimes, and the greatest of small. Co. Litt. 127.

Mahemium est homicidium inchoatum. Mayhem is incipient homicide. 3 Inst. 118.

Major haeriditas venit unicuique nostrum a jure et legibus quam a parentibus. A greater inheritance comes to every one of us from right and the laws than from parents. 2 Co. Inst. 56.

Major numerus in se continet minorem. The greater number contains in itself the less.

Majore poena affectus quam legibus statuta est, non est infamis. One affected with a greater punishment than is provided by law, is not infamous. 4 Co. Inst. 66.

Majori continet in se minus. The greater includes the less. 19 Vin. Abr. 379.

Majus dignum trahit in se minus dignum. The more worthy or the greater draws to it the less worthy or the lesser. 5 Vin. Abr. 584, 586.

Majus est delictum seipsum occidare quam alium. It is a greater crime to kill one's self than another.

Mala grammatica non vitiat chartam; sed in expositione instrumentorum mala grammatica quoad fieri possit evitanda est. Bad grammar does not vitiate a deed; but in the construction of instruments, bad grammar, as far as it can be done, is to be avoided. 6 Co. 39.

Maledicta est expositio quae corrumpit textum. It is a bad construction which corrupts the text. 4 Co. 35.

Maleficia non debent remanere impunita, et impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Evil deeds ought not to remain unpunished, for impunity affords continual excitement to the delinquent. 4 Co. 45.

Malificia propositus distinguuntur. Evil deeds are distinguished from evil purposes. Jenk. Cent. 290.

Malitia est acida, est mali animi affectus. Malice is sour, it is the quality of a bad mind. 2 Buls. 49.

Malitia supplet aetatem. Malice supplies age. Dyer, 104. See Malice.

Malum hominun est obviandum. The malice of men is to be avoided. 4 Co. 15.

Malum non praesumitur. Evil is not presumed. 4 Co. 72.

Malum quo communius eo pejus. The more common the evil, the worse.

Malus usus est abolendus. An evil custom is to be abolished. Co. Litt. 141.

Mandata licita recipiunt strictam interpretationem, sed illicita latam et extensam. Lawful commands receive a strict interpretation, but unlawful, a wide or broad construction. Bacon's Max. Reg. 16.

Mandatarius terminos sobi positos transgredi non potest. A mandatory cannot exceed the bounds of his authority. Jenk. Cent. 53.

Mandatum nisi gratuitum nullum est. Unless a mandate is gratuitous it is not a mandate. Dig. 17, 1, 4; Inst. 3, 27; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1070.

Manifesta probatione non indigent. Manifest things require no proof. 7 Co. 40.

Maris et faeminae conjunctio est de jure naturae. The union of husband and wife is founded on the law of nature. 7 Co. 13.

Matrimonia debent esse libera. Marriages ought to be free.

Matrimonium subsequens tollit peccatum praecedens. A subsequent marriage cures preceding criminality.

Maxime ita dicta quia maxima ejus dignitas et certissima auctoritas, atque quod maxime omnibus probetur. A maxim is so called because its dignity is chiefest, and its authority most certain, and because universally approved by all. Co. Litt. 11.

Maxime paci sunt contraria, vis et injuria. The greatest enemies to peace are force and wrong. Co. Litt. 161.

Melior est justitia vere praeveniens quam severe pumens. That justice which justly prevents a crime, is better than that which severely punishes it.

Melior est conditio possidentis et rei quam actoris. Better is the condition of the possessor and that of the defendant than that of the plaintiff. 4 Co. Inst. 180.

Melior est causa possidentis. The cause of the possessor is preferable. Dig. 50, 17, 126, 2,.

Melior est conditio possidentis, ubi neuter jus habet. Better is the condition of the possessor, where neither of the two has a right. Jenk. Cent. 118.

Meliorem conditionem suum facere potest minor, deteriorem nequaquam. A minor can improve or make his condition better, but never worse. Co. Litt. 337.

Melius est omnia mala pati quam malo concentire. It is better to suffer every wrong or ill, than to consent to it. 3 Co. Inst. 23.

Melius est recurrere quam malo currere. It is better to recede than to proceed in evil. 4 Inst. 176.

Melius est in tempore occurrere, quam post causam vulneratum remedium quaerere. It is better to restrain or meet a thing in time, than to see a remedy after a wrong has been inflicted. 2 Inst. 299.

Mens testatoris in testamentis spectanda est. In wills, the intention of the testator is to be regarded. Jenk. Cent. 277.

Mentiri est contra mentem ire. To lie is to go against the mind. 3 Buls. 260.

Merx est quidquid vendi potest. Merchandise is whatever can be sold. 3 Metc. 365. Vide Merchandise.

Mercis appellatio ad res mobiles tantum pertinet. The term merchandise belongs to movable things only. Dig. 50, 16, 66.

Minima paena corporalis est major qualibet pecuniaria. The smallest bodily punishment is greater than any pecuniary one. 2 Inst. 220.

Minime mutanda sunt quae certam habuerent interpretationem. Things which have had a certain interpretation are to be altered as little as possible. Co. Litt. 365.

Minor ante tempus agere non potest in casu proprietatis, nec etiam convenire. A minor before majority cannot act in a case of property, nor even agree. 2 Inst. 291.

Minor minorem custodire non debet, alios enim praesumitur male regere qui seipsum regere nuscit. A minor ought not to be guardian of a minor, for he is unfit to govern others who does not know how to govern himself. Co. Litt. 88.

Misera est servitus, ubi jus est vagum aut incertum. It is a miserable slavery where the law is vague or uncertain. 4 Co. Inst. 246.

Mitius imperanti melius paretur. The more mildly one commands the better is he obeyed. 3 Co. Inst. 24.

Mibilia personam sequuntur, immobilia situm. Movable things follow the person, immovable their locality.

Modica circumstantia facti jus mutat. The smallest circumstance may change the law.

Modus et conventio vincunt legem. Manner and agreement overrule the law. 2 Co. 73.

Modus legel dat donationi. The manner gives law to a gift. Co. Litt. 19 a.

Moneta est justum medium et mensura rerum commutabilium, nam per meduim monetae fit omnium rerum conveniens, et justa aestimatio. Money is the just medium and measure of all commutable things, for, by the medium of money, a convenient and just estimation of all things is made. Dav. 18. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 922.

Mora reprobatur in lege. Delay is disapproved of in law.

Mors dicitur ultimum supplicium. Death is denominated the extreme penalty. 3 Inst. 212.

Mortuus exitus non est exitus. To be dead born is not to be born. Co. Litt. 29. See 2 Paige, 35; Domat, liv. prel. t. 2, s. 1, n. 4, 6; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1721 and 1935.

Multa conceduntur per obliquum quae non conceduntur de directo. Many things are conceded indirectly which are not allowed directly. 6 co. 47. Multa in jure communi contra rationem disputandi pro communi ultilitate introducta sunt. Many things have been introduced into the common law, with a view to the public good, whic are inconsistent with sound reason. Co. Litt. 70; Broom's Max. 67; 2 Co. R. 75. See 3 T. R. 146; 7 T. R. 252.

Multa multo exercitatione facilius quam regulis percipies. You will perceive many things more easily by practice than by rules. 4 Co. Inst. 50.

Multa non vetat lex. quae tamen tacite damnavit. The law forbids many things, which yet it has silently condemned.

Multa transeunt cum universitate quae non per se transeunt. Many things pass as a whole which would not pass separately.

Multi multa, non omnia novit. Many men know many things, no one knows everything. 4 Co. Inst. 348.

Multiplex et indistinctum parit confusionem; et questiones quo simpliciores, eo lucidiores. Multiplicity and indistinctness produce confusion; the more simple questions are the more lucid. Hob. 335.

Multiplicata transgressione crescat paenae inflictio. The increase of punishment shouldbe in proportion to the increase of crime. 2 Co. Inst. 479.

Multitudo errantium non parit errori patrocinium. The multitude of those who err is no excuse for error. 11 Co. 75.

Multitudo imperitorum perdit curiam. A multitude of ignorant practitioners destroys a court. 2 Co. Inst. 219.

Natura appetit perfectum, ita et lex. Nature aspires to perfection, and so does the law. Hob. 144.

Natura non facit saltum, ita nec lex. Nature makes no leap, nor does the law. Co. Litt. 238.

Natura no facit vacuum, nec lex supervacuum. Nature makes no vacuum, the law no supervacuum. Co. Litt. 79.

Naturae vis maxima, natura bis maxima. The force of nature is greatest; nature is doubly great. 2 Co. Inst. 564.

Necessarium est quod non potest aliter se habere. That is necessity which cannot be dispensed with.

Necessitas est lex temporis et loci. Necessity is the law of a particular time and place. 8 Co. 69; H. H. P. C. 54.

Necessitaas excusat aut extenuat delicium in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus. Necessity excuses or extentuates delinquency in capital cases, but not in civil. Vide Necessity.

Necessitas facit licitum quod alias non est licitum. Necessity makes that lawful which otherwise is unlawful. 10 Co. 61.

Necessitas inducit privililegium quoad jura privata. Necessity gives a preference with regard to private rights. Bacon's Max. REg. 5.

Necessitas non habet legem. Necessity has no law. Plowd. 18. See Necessity, and 15 Vin. Ab. 534; 22 Vin. Ab. 540.

Necessitas publica major est quam private. Public necessity is greater than private. Bacon's Max. in REg. 5.

Necessitas quod cogit, defendit. Necessity defends what it compels. H. H. P. C. 54.

Necessitas vincit legem. Necessity overcomes the law. Hob. 144.

Negatio conclusionis est error in lege. The negative of a conclusion is error in law. Wing. 268.

Negatio destruit negationem, et ambae faciunt affirmativum. A negative destroys a negative, and both make an affirmative. Co. Litt. 146.

Negatio duplex est affirmatio. A double negative is an affirmative.

Negligentia semper habet infortuniam comitem. Negligence has misfortune for a companion. Co. Litt. 246.

Neminem oportet esse sapientiorem legibus. No man ought to be wiser than the law. Co. Litt. 97.

Nemo admittendus est inhabilitare seipsum. No one is allowed to incapacitate himself. Jenk. Cent. 40. Sed vide "To stultify," and 5 Whart. 371.

Nemo agit in seipsum. No man acts against himself; Jenk. Cent. 40; therefore no man can be a judge in his own cause.

Nemo allegans suam turpitudinem, audiendus est. No one alleging his own turpitude is to be heard as a witness. 4 Inst. 279.

Nemo bis punitur por eodem delicto. No one can be punished twice for the same crime or misdemeanor. See Non bis in idem.

Nemo cogitur rem suam vendere, etiam justo pretio. No one is bound to sell his property, even for a just price. Sed vide Eminent Domain.

Nemo contra factum suum venire potest. No man can contradict his own deed. 2 Inst. 66.

Nemo damnum facit, nisi qui id fecit quod facere jus non habet. No one is considered as committing damages, unless he is doing what he has no right to do. Dig. 50, 17, 151.

Nemo dat qui non habet. No one can give who does not possess. Jenk. Cent. 250.

Nemo de domo sua extrahi debet. A citizen cannot be taken by force from his house to be conducted before a judge or to prison. Dig. 50, 17. This maxim in favor of Roman liberty is much the same as that "every man's house is his castle."

Nemo debet esse judex in propria causa. No one should be judge in his own cause. 12 Co. 113.

Nemo debet ex aliena jactura lucrari. No one ought to gain by another's loss.

Nemo debet immiscere se rei alienae ad se nihil pertinenti. No one should interfere in what no way concerns him.

Nemo debet rem suam sine facto aut defectu suo amittere. No one should lose his property without his act or negligence. Co. Litt. 263.

Nemo est haeres viventes. No one is an heir to the living. 2 Bl. Com. 107; 1 Vin. Ab. 104, tit. Abeyance; Merl. Rep. verbo Abeyance; Co. Litt. 342; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1694, 1832.

Nemo ex suo delicto melioroem suam conditionem facere potest. No one can improve his condition by a crime. Dig. 50, 17, 137.

Nemo ex alterius facto praegravari debet. No man ought to be burdened in consequence of another's act.

Nemo ex consilio obligatur. No man is bound for the advice he gives.

Nemo in propria causa testis ese debet. No one can be a witness in his own cause. But to this rule there are many exceptions.

Nemo inauditus condemnari debet, si non sit contumax. No man ought to be condemned unheard, unless he be contumacious.

Nemo nascitur artifex. No one is born an artist. Co. LItt. 97.

Nemo patriam in qua natus est exuere, nec ligeantiae debitum ejurare possit. No man can renounce the country in which he was born, nor abjure the obligation of his allegiance. Co. LItt. 129. Sed vide Allegiance; Expatriation; Naturalization.

Nemo plus juris ad alienum transfere potest, quam ispe habent. One cannot transfer to another a right which he has not. Dig. 50, 17, 54; 10 Pet. 161, 175.

Nemo praesens nisi intelligat. One is not present unless he understands. See Presence.

Nemo potest contra recordum verificare per patriam. No one can verify by the country against a record. The issue upon a record cannot be tried by a jury.

Nemo potest esse tenes et dominus. No man can be at the same time tenant and landlord of the same tenement.

Nemo potest facere per alium quod per se non potest. No one can do that by another which he cannot do by himself.

Nemo potest sibi devere. No one can owe to himself. See Confusion of Rights.

Nemo praesumitur alienam posteritatem suae praetulisse. No one is presumed to have preferred another's posterity to his own.

Nemo praesumitur donare. No one is presumed to give.

Nemo praesumitur esse immemor suae aeternae salutis, et maxime in articulo mortis. No man is presumed to be forgetful of his eternal welfare, and particularly at the point of death. 6 Co. 76.

Nemo praesumitur malus. No one is presumed to be bad.

Nemo praesumitru ludere in extremis. No one is presumed to trifle at the point of death.

Nemo prohibetur plures negotiationes sive artes exercere. No one is restrained from exercising several kinds of business or arts. 11 Co. 54.

Nemo prohibetur pluribus defensionibus uti. No one is restrained from using several defences. Co. Litt. 304.

Nemo prudens punit ut praeterita revocentur, sed ut futura praeveniantur. No wise one punishes that things done may be revoked, but that future wrongs may be prevented. 3 Buls. 173.

Nemo punitur pro alieno delicto. No one is to be punished for the crime or wrong of another.

Nemo punitur sine injuria, facto, seu defalto. No one is punished unless for some wrong, act or default. 2 Co. Inst. 287.

Nemo, qui condemnare potest, absolvere non potest. He who may condemn may acquit. Dig. 50, 17, 37.

Nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. No one is bound to accuse himself.

Nemo tenetur ad impossibile. No one is bound to an impossibility.

Nemo tenetur armare adversarum contra se. No one is bound to arm his adversary.

Nemo tenetur divinare. No one is bound to foretell. 4 Co. 28.

Nemo tenetur informare qui nescit, sed quisquis scire quod informat. No one is bound to inform about a thing he knows not, but he who gives information is bound to know what he says. Lane, 110.

Nemo tenetur jurare in suam turpitudinem. No one is bound to testify to his own baseness.

Nemo tenetur seipsam infortunis et periculis exponere. No one is bound to expose himself to misfortune and dangers. Co. Litt. 253.

Nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. No man is bound to accuse himself.

Nemo videtur fraudare eos qui sciunt, et consentiunt. One cannot complain of having been deceived when he knew the fact and gave his consent. Dig. 50, 17, 145.

Nihil dat qui non habet. He gives nothing who has nothing.

Nihil de re accrescit ei qui nihil in re quando jus accresceret habet. Nothing accrues to him, who, when the right accrues, has nothing in the subject matter. Co. Litt. 188.

Nihil facit error nominis cum de corpore constat. An error in the name is nothing when there is certainty as to the person. 11 Co. 21.

Nihil habet forum ex scena. The court has nothing to do with what is not before it.

Nihil infra regnum subditos magis conservat in tranquilitate et concordia quam debita legum administratio. Nothing preserves in tranquility and concord those who are subjected to the same government better than a due administration of the laws. 2 Co. Inst. 158.

Nihil in lege intolerabilius est, eandem rem diverso jure censeri. Nothing in law is more intolerable than to apply the law differently to the same cases. 4 Co. 93.

Nihil magis justum est quam quod necessarium est. Nothing is more just that what is necessary. Dav. 12.

Nihil perfectum est dum aliquid restat agendum. Nothing is perfect while something remains to be done. 2 co. 9.

Nihil possumus contra veritatem. We can do nothing against truth. Doct. & Stu. Dial. 2, c. 6.

Nihil quod est contra rationem est licitum. Nothing against reason is lawful. Co. Litt. 97.

Nihil quod inconveniens est licitum est. Nothing inconvenient is lawful.

Nihil simul inventum est et perfectum. Nothing is invented and perfected at the same moment. Co. Litt. 230.

Nihil tam naturale est, quam eo genere quidque dissolvere, quo colligatum est. It is very natural that an obligation should not be dissolved but by the same principles which were observed in contracting it. Dig. 50, 17, 35. See 1 Co. 100; 2 Co. Inst. 359.

Nihil tam conveniens est naturali aequitati, quam voluntatem domini voluntis rem suam in alium transferre, ratam haberi. Nothing is more conformable to natural equity, than to confirm the will of an owner who desires to transfer his property to another. Inst. 2, 1, 40; 1 Co. 100.

Nil tamere novandum. Nothing should be rashly changed. Jenk. Cent. 163.

Nil facit error nominis, si de corpore constat. An error in the name is immaterial, if the body is certain.

Nimia subtilitas in jure reporbatur. Too much subtlety is reprobated in law.

Nimium altercando veritas amiltitur. By too much altercation truth is lost. Hob. 344.

No man is presumed to do anything against nature. 22 Vin. Ab. 154.

No man shall take by deed but parties, unless in remainder.

No man can hold the same land immediately of two several landlords. Co. Litt. 152.

No man shall set up his infamy as a defence. 2 W. Bl. 364.

Necessity creates equity.

No one may be judge in his own cause.

Nobiliores et beniginores presumptiones in dubiis sunt praeferendae. When doubts arise the most generous and benign presumptions are to be preferred.

Nomen est quasi rei notamen. A name is, as it were, the note of a thing. 11 Co. 20.

Nomen non sufficit si res non sit de jure aut de facto. A name does not suffice if there be not a thing by law or by fact. 4 Co. 107.

Nomina si nescis perit cognitio rerum. If you know not the names of things, the knowledge of things themselves perishes. Co. Litt. 86.

Nomina sunt notae rerum. Names are the notes of things. 11 Co. 20.

Nomina sunt mutabilia, res autem immobiles. Names are mutable, but things immutable. 6 Co. 66.

Nomina sunt symbola rerum. Names are the symbols of things.

Non accipi debent verba in demonstrationem falsam, quae competunt in limitationem veram. Words ought not to be accepted to import a false demonstration which have effect by way of true limitation. Bacons' Max. REg. 13.

Non alio modo puniatur aliquis, quam secundum quod se habet condemnatio. A person may not be punished differntly than according to what the sentence enjoins. 3 Co. Inst. 217.

Non concedantur citationes priusquam exprimatur super qua ne fieri debet citatio. Summonses or citations should not be granted before it is expressed under the circumstances whether the summons ought to be made. 12 Co. 47.

Non auditor perire volens. One who wishes to perish ought not to be heard. Best on Evidence, 385.

Non consentit qui errat. He who errs does not consent. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 581.

Non debet, cui plus licet, quod minus est, non licere. He who is permitted to do the greater, may with greater reason do the less. Dig. 50, 17, 21.

Non decipitur qui scit se decipi. He is not deceived who knows himself to be deceived. 5 co. 60.

Non definitur in jure quid sit conatus. What an attempt is, is not defined in law. 6 Co. 42.

Non differunt quae concordant re, tametsi non in verbis iisdem. Those things which agree in substance though not in the same words, do not differ. Jenk. Cent. 70.

Non effecit affectus nisi sequatur effectus. The intention amounts to nothing unless some effect follows. 1 Roll. R. 226.

Non est arctius vinculum inter homines quam jusjurandum. There is no stronger link among men than an oath. Jenk. Cent. 126.

Non est disputandum contra principia negantem. There is no disputing against a man denying principles. Co. Litt. 343.

Non est recedendum a communi abservantia. There is no departing from a common observance. 2 Co. 74.

Non est regula quin fallat. There is no rule but what may fail. Off. Ex. 212.

Non est certandum de regulis juris. There is no disputing about rules of law.

Non faciat malum, ut inde veniat bonum. You are not to do evil that good may come of it. 11 Co. 74.

Non impedit clausula derogatoria, quo minus ab eadem potestate res dissolvantur a quibus constitutuntur. A derogatory clause does not prevent things or acts from being dissolved by the same power, by which they were originally made. Bacon's Max. Reg. 19.

Non in legendo sed in intelligendo leges consistunt. The laws consist not in being read, but in being understood. 8 co. 167.

Non licet quod dispendio licet. That which is permitted only at a loss, is not permitted to be done. Co. Litt. 127.

Non nasci, et natum mori, pari sunt. Not to be born, and to be dead born, is the same.

Non obligat lex nisi promulgata. A law is not obligatory unless it be promulgated.

Non observata forma, infertur adnullatio actus. When the form is not observed, it is inferred that the act is annulled. 12 Co. 7.

Non omne quod licet honestum est. Everything which is permitted is not becoming. Dig. 50, 17, 144.

Non omne damnum inducit injuriam. Not every loss produces an injury. See 3 Bl. Com. 219; 1 Smith's Lead. Cas. 131; Broom's Max. 93; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2211.

Non omnium quae a majoribus nostris constituta sunt ratio reddit potest. A reason cannot always be given for the institutions of our ancestors. 4 Co. 78.

Non potest adduci exception ejusdem rei cujus petitur dissolutio. A plea of the same matter, the dissolution of which is sought by the action, cannot be brought forward. Bacon's Max. Reg. 2. When an action is brought to annul a proceeding, the defendant cannot plead such proceeding in bar.

Non praestat impedimentum quod de jure non sortitur effectum. A thing which has no effect in law, is not an impediment. Jenk. Cent. 162.

Non quod dictum est, sed quod factum est, inspicitur. Not what is said, but what is done, is to be regarded. Co. Litt. 36.

Non refert an quis assensum suum praefert verbis, an rebus ipsis et factis. It is immaterial whether a man gives his assent by words or by acts and deeds. 10 Co. 52.

Non refert quid ex aequipolentibus fiat. What may be gathered from words of tantamount meaning, is of no consequence when omitted. 5 Co. 122.

Non refert quid notum sit judice si notum non sit in forma judici. It matters not what is known to the judge, if it is not known to him judicially. 3 Buls. 115.

Non refert verbis an factis fit revocatio. It matters not whether a revocation be by words or by acts. Cro. Car. 49.

Non solum quid licet, sed quidest conveniens considerandum, quia nihil quod inconveniens est licitum. Not only what is permitted, but what is proper, is to be considered, because what is improper is illegal. Co. Litt. 66.

Non sunt longa ubi nihil est quod demere possis. There is no prolixity where nothing can be omitted. Vaugh. 138.

Non temere credere, est nervus sapientae. Not to believe rashly is the nerve of wisdom. 5 Co. 114.

Non videtur quisquam id capere, quod ei necesse est alii restituere. One is not considered as acquiring property in a thing which he is bound to restore. Dig. 50, 17, 51.

Non videntur qui errant consentire. He who errs is not considered as consenting. Dig. 50, 17, 116.

Non videtur consensum retinuisse si quis ex praescripto minantis aliquid immutavit. He does not appear to have retained his consent, if he have changed anything through the means of a party threatening. Bacon's Max. Reg. 33.

Novatio non praesumitur. A novation is not presumed. See Novation.

Novitas non tam utilitate prodest quam novitate perturbat. Novelty benefits not so much by its utility, as it disturbs by its novelty. Jenk. Cent. 167.

Novum judicium non dat novum jus, sed declarat antiquum. A new judgment does not make a new law, but declares the old. 10 Co. 42.

Nul ne doit s'enrichir aux depens des autres. No one ought to enrich himself at the expense of others.

Nul prendra advantage de son tort demesne. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong.

Nulla impossibilia aut inhonesta sunt praesumenda. Impossibilities and dishonesty are not to be presumed. Co. Litt. 78.

Nulle regle sans faute. There is no rule without a fault.

Nulli enim res sua servit jure servitutis. No one can have a servitude over his own property. Dig. 8, 2, 26; 17 Mass. 443; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1600.

Nullum exemplum est idem omnibus. No example is the same for all purposes.

Nullum iniquum praesumendum in jure. Nothing unjust is presumed in law. 4 Co. 72.

Nullum simile est idem. No simile is the same. Co. Litt. 3.

Nullus commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong. Co. Litt. 148.

Nullus recedat e curia concellaria sine remedio. No one ought to depart out of the court of chancery without a remedy.

Nunquam fictio sine lege. There is no fiction without law.

Nuptias non concubitas, sed consensus facit. Cohabitation does not make the marriage, it is the consent of the parties. Dig 50, 17, 30; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 239; Co. Litt. 33.

Obedientia est legis essentia. Obedience is the essence of the law. 11 Co. 100.

Obtemperandum est con