Spinoza: Political Treatise

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.

1-3. Of the theory and practice of political science.

4. Of the author's design.

5. Of the force of the passions in men.

6, 7. That we must not look to proofs of reason for the causes and foundations of dominion, but deduce them from the general nature or condition of mankind.

CHAPTER II. OF NATURAL RIGHT.

1. Right, natural and civil.

2. Essence, ideal and real.

3-5. What natural right is.

6. The vulgar opinion about liberty. Of the first man's fall.

7-10. Of liberty and necessity.

11. He is free, who is led by reason.

12. Of giving and breaking one's word by natural right.

13. Of alliances formed between men.

14. Men naturally enemies.

15. The more there are that come together, the more right all collectively have.

16. Every one has so much the less right, the more the rest collectively exceed him in power.

17. Of dominion and its three kinds.

18. That in the state of nature one can do no wrong.

19-21. What wrong-doing and obedience are.

22. The free man.

23. The just and unjust man.

24. Praise and blame.

CHAPTER III. OF THE RIGHT OF SUPREME AUTHORITIES.

1. A commonwealth, affairs of state, citizens, subjects.

2. Right of a dominion same as natural right.

3-4. By the ordinance of the commonwealth a citizen may not live after his own mind.

5-9. Every citizen is dependent not on himself, but on the commonwealth.

10. A question about religion.

11, 12. Of the right of supreme authorities against the world at large.

13. Two commonwealths naturally hostile.

14-18. Of the state of treaty, war, and peace.

CHAPTER IV. OF THE FUNCTIONS OF SUPREME AUTHORITIES.

1-3. What matters are affairs of state.

4-6. In what sense it can, in what it cannot be said, that a commonwealth does wrong.

CHAPTER V. OF THE BEST STATE OF A DOMINION.

1. That is best which is ordered according to the dictate of reason.

2-6. The end of the civil state. The best dominion.

7. Machiavelli and his design.

CHAPTER VI. OF MONARCHY.

1-3. Of the causes of establishing a dominion.

4. Of conferring the authority on one man.

5-8. Of the nature of a monarchy. Of the foundations of a monarchical dominion.

9. Of cities.

10. Of the militia and its commanders.

11. Of dividing the citizens into clans.

12. Of lands and houses.

13, 14. Of the election of the king and of the nobles.

15, 16. Of the king's counsellors.

17-25. Of the supreme council's functions.

26-29. Of another council for administering justice.

30. Of other subordinate councils.

31. Of the payment of the militia.

32. Of the rights of foreigners.

33. Of ambassadors.

34. Of the king's servants and body-guard.

35. Of waging war.

36. Of the king's marriage.

37, 38. Of the heir to the dominion.

39. Of the obedience of the citizens.

40. Of religion.

CHAPTER VII. OF MONARCHY. PROOF OF THE FOUNDATIONS OF A MONARCHICAL DOMINION.

1. The monarch is not chosen unconditionally. The Persian kings. Ulysses.

2. Nature of our monarchy the best and true one.

3. It is necessary that the monarch have counsellors.

4. The counsellors must necessarily be representative.

5. The king's right is to select one of the opinions offered by the council.

6-11. The great advantages of this council.

12. The militia to be composed of citizens only.

13. How the counsellors are to be chosen.

14, 15. King's safety. Evidence of history.

16. Cities to be fortified.

17. Of mercenaries and military commanders.

18. Citizens to be divided into clans.

19. The soil to be the common property of the commonwealth.

20. None to be noble but the issue of kings.

21. Judges to be appointed for a term of years.

22. The militia to be given no pay.

23. Of foreigners and the king's kinsmen.

24. Of the dangers from the king's marriage. Evidence of history.

25. Of the right of succession to the kingdom.

26. Of the right of worshipping God.

27. All men's nature is one and the same.

28. Of the most durable dominion of all.

29. Of hardly concealing the plans of the dominion.

30. The example of the dominion of the Arragonese.

31. That the multitude may preserve under a king an ample enough liberty.

CHAPTER VIII. OF ARISTOCRACY.

1. What aristocracy is. Patricians.

2. An aristocracy should consist of a large number of patricians.

3. Difference between monarchy and aristocracy.

4-6. Aristocracy approaches nearer to absolutism than monarchy.

7. Is also fitter to maintain liberty. Foundations of an aristocracy where one city is head of a whole dominion.

8. Of fortifying towns.

9. Of the military and its leaders.

10. Of the sale of lands and farms.

11. Of the supreme council of patricians.

12. Of the causes of the destruction of an aristocracy.

13. The primary law of this dominion, to prevent its lapsing into oligarchy.

14, 15. Patricians to be chosen out of certain families.

16. Of the place and time of assembling.

17. Of the supreme council's functions.

18. Of the ruler or chief of the council.

19. Equality to be observed among patricians.

20-25. Of the syndics and their functions.

26, 27. Of the ministers of the dominion.

28. Voting to be by ballot.

29-33. Of the senate or second council.

34-36. Of the presidents of the senate and their deputies. Consuls.

37-41. Of the bench or college of judges.

42. Governors of cities and provinces. Right of the neighbouring cities.

43. Judges to be appointed in every city.

44. Ministers of dominion to be chosen from the commons.

45. Of the tribunes of the treasury.

46. Of freedom of worship and speech.

47. Of the bearing and state of the patricians.

48. Of the oath.

49. Of academies and liberty of teaching.

CHAPTER IX. OF ARISTOCRACY.

1. Of the aristocratic dominion held by more than one city.

2. Confederate cities.

3. Of points common to both kinds of aristocracy.

4. Of the common bond of the cities by a senate and tribunal.

5. Supreme council and senate.

6. Of assembling this council, of choosing generals and ambassadors, of the presidents of the orders, judges, &c.

7. Of commanders of battalions and military tribunes.

8. Of tributes.

9. Of the senators' emoluments and place of meeting.

10. Of the councils and syndics of the separate cities.

11. Consuls of cities.

12. Judges of cities.

13. Of dependent cities.

14, 15. This kind of aristocracy to be preferred to the other.

CHAPTER X. OF ARISTOCRACY.

1. Primary cause, why aristocracies are dissolved. Of a dictator.

2. Of the supreme council.

3. Of the tribunes of the commons among the Romans.

4. Of the authority of the syndics.

5. Sumptuary laws.

6, 7. Vices not to be forbidden directly, but indirectly.

8. Honours and rewards rejected.

9, 10. An aristocracy may be stable.

CHAPTER XI. OF DEMOCRACY.

1, 2. Difference between democracy and aristocracy.

3. Of the nature of democracy.

4. Women to be excluded from government.


Treatise 1677 Cover Page
Preface
Text Version

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