Essays on Liberty, Civil and Religious, and Other Important Subjects
By John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon
Introduction by Jon Roland
Note on dates
NO. 1. Reasons to prove that we are in no Danger of losing
NO. 2. The fatal Effects of the South-Sea Scheme, and the Necessity
of punishing the Directors.
NO. 3. The pestilent Conduct of the South-Sea Directors, with the
reasonable Prospect of publick Justice.
NO. 4. Against false Methods of restoring publick Credit.
NO. 5. A further Call for Vengeance upon the South-Sea Plunderers;
with a Caution against false Patriots.
NO. 6. How easily the People are bubbled by Deceivers. Further
Cautions against deceitful Remedies for the publick Sufferings from the
wicked Execution of the South-Sea Scheme.
NO. 7. Further Cautions about new Schemes for publick Redress.
NO. 8. The Arts of able guilty Ministers to save themselves. The
wise and popular Conduct of Queen Elizabeth towards publick Harpies; with
NO. 9. Against the projected Union of the Three Great Companies; and
against remitting to the South-Sea Company any Part of their Debt to the
NO. 10. The Iniquity of late and new Projects about the South-Sea
considered. How fatally they affect the Publick.
NO. 11. The Justice and Necessity of punishing great Crimes, though
committed against no subsisting Law of the State.
NO. 12. Of Treason: All Treasons not to be found in Statutes. The
Right of the Legislature to declare Treasons.
NO. 13. The Arts of misleading the People by Sounds.
NO. 14. The unhappy State of despotick Princes, compared with the
happier Lot of such as rule by settled Laws. How the latter, by abusing
their Trust, may forfeit their Crown.
NO. 15. Of Freedom of Speech;
That the same is inseparable from publick Liberty.
NO. 16. The Leaders of Parties, their usual Views. Advice to all
Parties to be no longer misled.
NO. 17. What Measures are actually taken by wicked and desperate
Ministers to ruin and enslave their Country.
NO. 18. The terrible Tendency of publick Corruption to ruin a State,
exemplified in that of Rome, and applied to our own.
NO. 19. The Force of popular Affection and Antipathy to particular
Men. How powerfully it operates, and how far to be regarded.
NO. 20. Of publick Justice, how necessary to the Security and
Well-being of a State, and how destructive the Neglect of it to the
British Nation. Signal Instances of this.
NO. 21. A Letter from John Ketch, Esq. asserting his Right to the
Necks of the overgrown Brokers.
NO. 22. The Judgment of the People generally sound, where not
misled. With the Importance and Probability of bringing over Mr. Knight.
NO. 23. A memorable Letter from Brutus to Cicero, with an
NO. 24. Of the natural Honesty of the People, and their reasonable
Demands. How important it is to every Government to consult their
Affections and Interest.
NO. 25. Considerations on the destructive Spirit of arbitrary Power.
With the Blessings of Liberty, and our own Constitution.
NO. 26. The sad Effects of general Corruption, quoted from Algernon
NO. 27. General Corruption, how ominous to the Publick, and how
discouraging to every virtuous Man. With its fatal Progress whenever
NO. 28. A Defence of Cato against his Defamers.
NO. 29. Reflections occasioned by an Order of Council for
suppressing certain impious Clubs that were never discovered.
NO. 30. An excellent Letter from Brutus to Atticus; with an
NO. 31. Considerations on the
Weakness and Inconsistencies of human Nature.
NO. 32. Reflections upon Libelling.
NO. 33. Cautions against the
Encroachments of Power.
NO. 34. Of Flattery.
NO. 35. Of publick Spirit.
NO. 36. Of Loyalty.
NO. 37. Character of a good
and of an evil Magistrate, quoted from Algernon Sidney, Esq.
NO. 38. The Right and Capacity
of the People to judge of Government.
NO. 39. Of the Passions; that they are all alike good or all alike
evil, according as they are applied.
NO. 40. Considerations on the restless and selfish Spirit of Man.
NO. 41. The Emperor Galba's Speech to Piso, with an Introduction.
NO. 42. Considerations on the
Nature of Laws.
NO. 43. The natural Passion of Men for Superiority.
NO. 44. Men not ruled by Principle, but by Passion.
NO. 45. Of the Equality and Inequality of Men.
NO. 46. Of the false Guises which Men put on, and their ill Effect.
NO. 47. Of the Frailty and Uncertainty of human Judgment.
NO. 48. The general unhappy State of the World, from the Baseness
and Iniquity of its Governors in most Countries.
NO. 49. Of the Power of Prejudice.
NO. 50. An Idea of the Turkish Government, taken from Sir Paul
NO. 51. Popularity no Proof of Merit.
NO. 52. Of Divine Judgments; the Wickedness and Absurdity of
applying them to Men and Events.
NO. 53. Dr. Prideaux's Reasoning about the Death of Cambyses,
examined; whether the same was a Judgment for his killing the Egyptian God
NO. 54. The Reasoning of Dr. Prideaux about the Fate of Brennus the
Gaul, and of his Followers, examined; whether the same was a Judgment for
an Intention to plunder the Temple of Delphos.
NO. 55. The Lawfulness of killing Julius Caesar considered, and
defended, against Dr. Prideaux.
NO. 56. A Vindication of Brutus, for having killed Caesar.
NO. 57. Of false Honour, publick and private.
NO. 58. Letter from a Lady, with an Answer, about Love, Marriage,
NO. 59. Liberty proved to be
the unalienable Right of all Mankind.
NO. 60. All Government proved
to be instituted by Men, and only to intend the general Good of Men.
NO. 61. How free Governments
are to be framed so as to last, and how they differ from such as are
NO. 62. An Enquiry into the
Nature and Extent of Liberty; with its Loveliness and Advantages, and the
vile Effects of Slavery.
NO. 63. Civil Liberty produces
all Civil Blessings, and how; with the baneful Nature of Tyranny.
NO. 64. Trade and Naval Power the Offspring of Civil Liberty, and
cannot subsist without it.
NO. 65. Military Virtue produced and supported by Civil Liberty
NO. 66. Arbitrary Government proved incompatible with true Religion,
whether Natural or Revealed..
NO. 67. Arts and Sciences the Effects of Civil Liberty only, and
ever destroyed or oppressed by Tyranny.
NO. 68.. Property and Commerce secure in a free Government only;
with the consuming Miseries under simple Monarchies.
NO. 69. Address to the Freeholders, &c. about the Choice of
NO. 70. Second Address to the Freeholders, &c. upon the same
NO. 71. Polite Arts and Learning naturally produced in free States,
and marred by such as are not free.
NO. 72. In absolute Monarchies the Monarch seldom rules, but his
Creatures instead of him. That Sort of Government a Gradation of Tyrants.
NO. 73. A Display of Tyranny, its destructive Nature, and Tendency
to dispeople the Earth.
NO. 74. The Vanity of Conquerors, and the Calamities attending
NO. 75. Of the Restraints
which ought to be laid upon publick Rulers.
NO. 76. The same Subject
NO. 77. Of superstitious Fears, and their Causes natural and
NO. 78. The common Notion of Spirits, their Power and Feats,
NO. 79. A further Detection of the vulgar Absurdities about Ghosts
NO. 80. That the two great Parties in England do not differ so much
as they think in Principles of Politicks.
NO. 81. The Established Church
of England in no Danger from Dissenters.
NO. 82. The Folly and Characters of such as would overthrow the
NO. 88. The vain Hopes of the Pretender and his Party.
NO. 84. Property the first Principle of Power. The Errors of our
Princes who attended not to this.
NO. 85. Britain incapable of any Government but a limited Monarchy;
with the Defects of a neighbouring Republick.
NO. 86. The terrible Consequences of a War to England, and Reasons
against engaging in one.
NO. 87. Gold and Silver in a Country to be considered only as
NO. 88. The Reasonableness and Advantage of allowing the Exportation
of Silver and Gold, with the Impossibility of preventing the same.
NO. 89. Every Man's true Interest found in the general Interest. How
little this is considered.
NO. 90. Monopolies and exclusive Companies, how pernicious to Trade.
NO. 91. How exclusive Companies influence and hurt our Government.
NO. 92. Against the Petition of the South-Sea Company, for a
Remittance of Two Millions of their Debt to the Publick.
NO. 93. An Essay upon Heroes.
NO. 94. Against standing
NO. 95. Further Reasonings
against standing Armies.
NO. 96. Of Parties in England; how they vary, and interchange
Characters, just as they are in Power, or out of it, yet still keep their
NO. 97. How much it is the Interest of Governors to use the Governed
well; with an Enquiry into the Causes of Disaffection in England.
NO. 98. Address to the Members of the House of Commons.
NO. 99. The important Duty of Attendance in Parliament, recommended
to the Members.
NO. 100. Discourse upon Libels.
NO. 101. Second Discourse upon Libels.
NO. 102. The Contemptibleness of Grandeur without Virtue.
NO. 103. Of Eloquence, considered politically.
NO. 104. Of Eloquence, considered philosophically.
NO. 105. Of the Weakness of the human Mind; how easily it is misled.
NO. 106. Of Plantations and Colonies.
NO. 107. Of publick Credit and Stocks.
NO. 108. Inquiry into the Source of moral Virtues.
NO. 109. Inquiry into the Origin of Good and Evil.
NO. 110. Of Liberty and Necessity.
NO. 111. The same Subject continued.
NO. 112. Fondness for Posterity nothing else but Self-love. Such as
are Friends to publick Liberty, are the only true Lovers of Posterity.
NO. 113. Letter to Cato, concerning his many Adversaries and
NO. 114. The necessary Decay of Popish States strewn from the Nature
of the Popish Religion.
NO. 115. The encroaching
Nature of Power, ever to be watched and checked.
NO. 116. That whatever moves and acts, does so mechanically and
NO. 117. Of the Abuse of Words, applied more particularly to the
covetous Man and the Bigot.
NO. 118. Free States vindicated from the common Imputation of
NO. 119. The same Subject continued.
NO. 120. Of the proper Use of Words.
NO. 121. Of good Breeding.
NO. 122. Inquiry concerning the Operations of the Mind of Man, and
those of other Animals.
NO. 123. Inquiry concerning Madness, especially religious Madness,
NO. 124. Further Reasonings upon Enthusiasm.
NO. 125. The Spirit of the Conspirators, Accomplices with Dr.
Atterbury, in 1723, considered and exposed.
NO. 126. Address to those of the Clergy who are fond of the
Pretender and his Cause.
NO. 127. The same Address continued.
NO. 128. Address to such of the Laity as are Followers of the
disaffected Clergy, and of their Accomplices.
NO. 129. The same Address continued.
NO. 130. The same Address continued.
NO. 131. Of Reverence true or false.
NO. 132. Inquiry into the Doctrine of Hereditary Right.
NO. 133. Of Charity and Charity-Schools.
NO. 134. What small and foolish Causes often misguide and animate
NO. 135. Inquiry into the indelible Character claimed by some of the
NO. 136. The Popish Hierarchy deduced in a great Measure from that
of the Pagans.
NO. 137. Of the different and absurd Notions which Men entertain of
NO. 138. Cato's Farewell.
Advertisement to the Reader.
AN APPENDIX CONTAINING ADDITIONAL LETTERS BY CATO
NO. 1. That ambitious Princes rule and conquer only for their own
Sakes; illustrated in a Dialogue between Alexander the Great and a
NO. 2. Considerations upon the Conditions of an absolute Prince.
NO. 3. The same Subject continued.
NO. 4. The same Subject continued.
NO. 5. Considerations upon the Conditions of Prime Ministers of
NO. 6. The same Subject continued.