RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE AMERICAN MANUAL.

Extracts from Letters, &c., received by the Publishers.

From Rev H. Galphin, Principal of the High School at Eastville, Northampton County, Virginia.

� My scholars have fallen in love with the American Manual and their improvement delightfully corresponds. If I do not mistake, it will be appreciated and introduced into Schools just in proportion as it becomes known. It ought to be in every family and in every library.

From Dr. J. Patrick, President of Madison College, Pa. � The questions and marginal notes are of incalculable service to the pupil; while at the same time the author's exposition combines the utmost perspicuity, precision, and clearness, making very attractive the study of those great principles which are the soul of the charter of our liberties.

The effects of the extensive use of the American Manual must be to elevate our national character, by preparing the American boy to act the part of a sovereign citizen, either in the place of authority as an officer, or as a private individual; and the American girl for enunciating at the fireside the principles of true patriotism and virtue �Baltimore Patriot.

The principles inculcated are sound, and tend to the improvement of the heart as well as the enlightenment of the mind � Lutheran Observer, Baltimore.

This Manual of Mr. Burleigh's is, in our opinion, the most valuable school book that has issued from the prolific American press for many years. Its value is greatly increased by the fact that numerous questions are given in an unique marginal arrangement, by which the skill of the pupils is much exercised in mentally tracing the analogy of synonymy, thus rendering perfect their knowledge of the language. � Gazette of the Union.

The conciseness and beauty of the style, the unequalled excellence of the marginal exercises in drawing out the mind, and thoroughly disciplining the mental powers, and training the pupils to reason with accuracy and precision, renders it in my opinion, the best school-book extant. I shall introduce it into the female seminary over which I preside, at the commencement of next session. D. R. ASHTON, Fifth street below Arch, Philadelphia.

I have examined the American Manual and heartily concur with Professor Ashton in regard to its merits, and shall introduce it into the French seminary over which I preside.

C. PICOT, No. 15 Washington Square.

I have critically examined the American Manual. Having taken much pains in ascertaining the true tenor of the republican institutions of my adopted country, I had previously read the leading authors on government with much satisfaction, but I have not met with any work, in any language, that so clearly, so concisely, and so beautifully conveys to the mind the principles of political science. The marginal exercises afford much invaluable assistance to the foreigner in acquiring a knowledge of the English language. The exercises also afford to the mental powers a similar discipline that is obtained in studying the ancient classics. A FREITAG, L.L.D.

Professor of German in St. Mary's College, Baltimore.

A text-book prepared by a man so distinguished for scholarship, experience, and success in teaching, as President Burleigh, cannot fail to secure universal favor. The general arrangement of the work is regular. The marginal exercises and questions placed at the foot of each page, greatly facilitate the labor both of the teacher and scholar, and serve to interest the mind of the latter, in the acquisition of knowledge. The appendix serves as a key to the whole work, which renders it complete. It is a book which, in my opinion, should be placed in the hands of every American citizen. ROBERT KERR, Principal of West. Female High School, Baltimore,

The arrangement of the book is such as greatly to facilitate the labor of instruction, and no candid mind can look over its pages without coming to the conclusion, that the work is the best of any yet published to promote among pupils generally an exact and thorough knowledge of the principles of republican government.

WM. M. CREERY, M. CONNOLLY, M. M'CONKY, E. ADAMS, R CONNOLLY, and many other principals of Public Schools in Baltimore.

From Professor Lewis W. Burnet. � I have examined the American Manual, by President Bur-

leigh, and find it to be just the book that is wanted in our schools, and I may add, in every private library. While all proclaim that our existence, as a free nation, depends on the intelligence of the people, little comparatively is doing to reduce this idea to practice in our schools.

From Hon. L. G. Edwards, Pres. of the Bd. of Pub. School Commissioners for Norfolk Co. Va.

I consider the American Manual a desideratum which had not been before supplied, and respectfully recommend that it be used generally in every District Free School in this county.

At a meeting of the Controllers of Public Schools, First District of Pennsylvania, held at the Controllers' Chamber, on Tuesday, December 10th, 1850, the following resolution was adopted: �

Resolved, That the American Manual, by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, be introduced as a class-book into the Grammar Schools of this District. ROBERT J. HEMPHILL, Sec.

The American Manual, by Joseph B. Burleigh, L.L.D., has, by order of the Trustees, been introduced into the Public Schools of the City of Washington. C. A. DAVIS, Sec'y B. T. P. C.

From the Hon. B. Everett Smith. � I doubt whether the ingenuity of man can ever devise a work better adapted to the purpose avowed by the author. I arose from the perusal of the American Manual, more deeply impressed than ever with my responsibility as a citizen, and with the absolute necessity of fostering sound virtue and political morality.


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DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON, OCT. 1, 1850. This is to certify, that Joseph Bartlett Burleigh's Script Edition of the U. S. Constitution with the Amendments, has been carefully collated with the originals in the Archives of this Department, and proved to be accurate in the CAPITALS,

ORTHOGRAPHY, TEXT, and PUNCTUATION.

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SECRETARY OF STATE.

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CHIEF CLERK.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON, OCTOBER 3, 1850.

I have carefully compared Burleigh's Script Edition of the American Constitution and the Amendments appended, with the original manuscript and the twelve Amendments, IN THE ORDER OF THEIR ADOPTION, and have found that it minutely delineates the original documents, with all their peculiarities.

It may be proper to add, that other Amendments have been proposed, but only the aforesaid twelve have been constitutionally ratified.

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KEEPER OF THE ARCHIVES.

WASHINGTON, D. C., SEPT 30, 1850

I have critically compared Burleigh's Script Constitution of the United States, and all its Amendments, with the original documents deposited at the Department of State, and have found them in every respect alike, even to the minutest particular.

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PROOF-READER IN THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE See the latter part of page 22 in the Introduction and also page 118.

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SEE ALSO THE FIRST PAGE OF THIS LEAF.

THE

AMERICAN MANUAL;

OR,

THE THINKER, (PART III., COMPLETE IN ITSELF.)

CONTAINING

AN OUTLINE OF THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF GOVERNMENT; THE NATURE OF LIBERTY, THE LAW OF NATIONS, A CLEAR EXPLANATION OF THE

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES,

AND OF THE DUTIES OF VOTERS, JURORS, AND CIVIL MAGISTRATES; WITH

SYNONYMOUS WORDS APPLIED AND PRACTICALLY ILLUSTRATED

IN SENTENCES, AND THE CENSUS OF 1850.

THE WHOLE

ARRANGED ON A NEW AND ORIGINAL PLAN;

DESIGNED TO IMPART AN ACCURATE KNOWLEDGE OF OUR SOCIAL AND

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS; TO AROUSE THE MINDS OF YOUTH,

AND INCULCATE PURE AND NOBLE PRINCIPLES.

ADAPTED, AS A READER, OR TEXT-BOOK, TO THE WANTS

OF ADVANCED PUPILS; ALSO TO THE USE OF

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES.

BY

JOSEPH BARTLETT BURLEIGH, LL.D.

PERMANENT STEREOTYPED EDITION.

PHILADELPHIA:

LIPPINCOTT, GRAMBO & CO.,

No. 20 NORTH FOURTH STREET. 1854.


Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by JOSEPH BARTLETT BURLEIGH,

in the clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for

the District of Maryland.

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PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.

THE publishers commit this work to the practical teachers of the United States, believing that it will greatly assist them in the discharge of their important duties, and reflect the highest honor on their profession. The Author is a laborious practical teacher, of twenty years' experience; he has travelled extensively in every section of the Union, with a view to ascertain the true condition and the real wants of the schools of the country. He has also made many and important improvements in the system of instruction, and we think nothing is hazarded in the assertion that none understand the true character of the schools of the whole Union better, or are more ardently and zealously devoted to the cause of universal education.

The work seems to be imperatively demanded. It has received the highest commendation from all who have carefully examined it. Many politicians from the leading parties of the country, and some of the ablest divines from the prevailing denominations of Christians in the Union, have given it their heartiest approval.

It is intended, both by us and the Author, that it shall contain no sentiment that will in the least militate against the view's of any denomination of Christians, or that shall conflict with the political opinions of the patriotic citizens of any party in our land.

On every page are inculcated principles that will tend to make the mind purer, and the heart better. The spirit of the entire work is of the most patriotic character; it advocates the rights and the privileges of the people. It sets forth in vivid light their duties, and the necessity of the universal dissemination of sound education, and the purest principles of patriotism and morality.

The proper use of the marginal exercises cannot fail to give the pupil an accurate use of words and an extensive command of language. It must tend to render the Teacher's Profession delightful, because the plan, carried out, will always be attended with success, and enable him. at the close of each day, to see that labor has not been spent in vain.

1*

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EXTRACTS FROM RESOLUTIONS, LETTERS, &C., RESPECTING THE THINKER, THE LEGISLATIVE GUIDE, AND THE AMERICAN MANUAL.

At a meeting of the Controllers of Public Schools, First District of Pennsylvania, held on Tuesday Nov l1th 1851 the following resolution was adopted �Resolved, That the "Thinker," by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh. be introduced as a class-book into the Public Schools of this District ROBERT J. HEMPHILL, Sec

At a meeting of the Board of School Commissioners for the city of Baltimore held on Tuesday, 10th February, 1852, the following resolution was unanimously adopted � Resolved, That the "Thinker" by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, L.L.D., be introduced as a class-hook into the Public Schools of Baltimore. J. W. TILYARD, Clerk Com. of Pub. Schools, Baltimore.

At a meeting of the Board of Public School Commissioners for the City of Baltimore, held on Tuesday, 10th February, 1852, the following resolution was unanimously adopted � Resolved. That the "Practical Spelling Book ' by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, L.L D., be introduced as a class book into the Public Schools of Baltimore.

J. W. TILYARD, Clerk Com. of Pub. Schools, Baltimore.

"The Practical Spelling Book" by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh. L.L.D., is happily calculated to teach the infant mind self reliance the want of which blights the prospect of so many youth. GEORGE S. GRAPE, WM. KERR, and many other principals of Public Schools in Baltimore.

The "Thinker" is one of the very best books that can be put into the hands of youth. Apart

from the morality which it inculcates, it cannot fail to secure a facility in the choice of words, a

command of language, and a familiarity with the construction and component parts of a sentence.

HIRAM JOHNSON, Prin. Pub. School No. 8, Baltimore.

From Ex Governor W. G. D. Worthington. � I have examined "Burleigh's Legislative Guide." and find as its name implies, that it is indispensable for every legislator who desires to establish a uniform system of rules for conducting public business throughout the United States. In my humble judgment, every State Legislature will immediately adopt it as their standard as soon as the merits of the work can be known. W. G. D. WORTHINGTON

I am convinced that the "Legislative Guide" will prove a valuable text-book for collegiate students, and will use it as such at St. Timothy's Hall, believing that every young American ought to be acquainted with the routine of order appropriate to legislative assemblies. St. Timothy's Hall, Catonsville, Md., Feb. 26, 1852. L. VAN BOHKELEN, Rector.

From Hon. J. C. Legrand, Ch. Justice, Court of Appeals, Md. � The plan of the "Legislative Guide" enables the student or legislator to discover, with facility, the rule and reason for it, in each particular instance, and must, therefore, be of great value to legislative and other deliberative bodies. JNO. CARROLL LEGRAND

At a meeting of the Board of Public School Commissioners for the City of Baltimore, held on Tuesday, 10th February, 1852, the following resolution was unanimously adopted � Resolved That the "American Manual" by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, L.L.D., be introduced as a class book into the Public Schools of Baltimore. J. W. TILYARD, Clerk Com. Pub. Sch. Baltimore.

We the undersigned, Teachers of the Public Schools in the city of Steubenville, find, on trial, that Burleigh's "American Manual" is the best book with which we are acquainted for waking up the mind of youth for training them to understand what they read, for leading them to investigate and reason for themselves, and thoroughly fitting them for the duties of after life. The school, the infallible test of the merits of a class-book, proves that its proper use need only be witnessed to receive the approbation of every friend of thorough education. FRANCIS TURNER, M. A. WALKER, M. KIDDO, M. HULL, T. BROWN, M. ALLEN, WM. McCAY, I. B. BUTLER, E. KELL, M. ORR.

The "American Manual" cannot fail to command general favor. � Baltimore Sun. From John B. Strange, A. M., and R. B. Tschudi, A. M., Principals of the Norfolk Academy, Va. � We do not hesitate to pronounce it (the American Manual) one of the best school-books we have ever examined, not only as regards the matter, but also the manner of communicating it. The Manual is adapted to the capacity of the youngest, and must prove highly interesting and instructive to the older pupils.

From Prof. S. C. Atkinson. � So far at my observation extends, no school book is so well calculated to enlarge and ennoble the mind of youth as the American Manual.

A lawyer by profession and a teacher from choice, Mr. Burleigh possesses at the same time a consciousness of what is needed and the ability to supply it � Frankford Herald.

We, the undersigned, teachers in the Public Schools of Pittsburg, have used Burleigh's American Manual with great satisfaction and delight. The plan of the work is in ill respects judicious. The marginal exercises are a novel and original feature, and are arranged with great accuracy and discrimination. Their use not only excites the liveliest interest among the pupils, but produces great, salutary, and lasting effects, in arousing the mental powers, and leading the scholars constantly to investigate, reason, and judge for themselves. The Manual is elegantly written, and must have the effect to give a taste to what is pure and lofty in the English language. Signed by B. M. KERR, J. WHITTIER,

and twenty three other principals of Public Schools in Pennsylvania.

From the Fredericksburg, Va. Herald � The American Manual possesses a kind of railroad facility in arousing the minds of youth, no one who is entrusted with the education of the rising generation should be ignorant of its contents, or a stranger to its thorough and efficient mode of imparting knowledge. It contains a condensed, lucid, exact and comprehensive view of our social and political institutions, and ought to be in every family.

From Hon. Wm. Roberts, President of the Bd. Pub. Sch. Com. of Princess Ann Co. Virginia � I consider The American Manual the best book for training the young mind, in the earlier stages of its education, I have ever seen.

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CONTENTS.

LESSON I.

Design of the Work � Marginal Exercises � Explanation of their Use and Advantage � Analyzation of Paragraphs � Marginal words to be spelled and their varied Definitions, Synonyms, Roots &c. given � Their Application in composing Simple Sentences � Progress of the Pupil � Pages 9-11.

LESSON II.

Definitions and Synonyms not found in the Margin to be given by the Scholar � Pains must be taken to arouse Thought and Investigation � Attention of a Class to be secured

� Mode of putting Questions to accomplish this End explained � Tact necessary m the Teacher � Method of Reading most advantageous to the Scholar � Pages 11-12.

LESSON III.

Marginal Exercises to be varied according to the Proficiency of the Pupils � Necessity of distinct Articulation and correct Pronunciation � The Instructor to commit Errors Purposely, in order that the Scholars may make Corrections � Each Feature to be made a leading Subject, until well understood � Anecdote of a Paris Rhetorician � Necessity for the Scholar to comprehend what he reads

� Paramount importance of the Reading Lesson � Pages 12-14.

LESSON IV.

An oral or written Account of the Reading Lesson to be given by the Pupil from Memory � Consequent Improvement of the Learner in Writing, Spelling, Application of Words, and Ease and Rapidity of Composition � Attention of the Scholar thus riveted � Habit of relating Incidents with Accuracy and Precision thus acquired � Immeasurable benefit thereby accruing to all the Sons and Daughters of the Land � Pages 14-15.

LESSON V.

Judgment of the Teacher to be used in simplifying, suppressing, or extending the Marginal Exercises, and in illustrating and varying the Lessons � Local Prejudices to be thus overcome � The same Plan will not suit every Part of the Union � Extended application of the Marginal Words � Suggestions � Marginal Terms to be employed in the construction of Literary and Scientific Themes � Nice shades of Distinction in the varied Use of the same Word pointed out by them � Pages 15-17.

LESSON VI.

Errors to be corrected by the Pupils � Easy Answers to be at first permitted � Further directions � Attractiveness of the System � Necessity of cultivating the Moral Powers � The young must rely upon themselves � Prevention better than Cure � Pages 17-19.

LESSON VII.

The Pupil's own Thoughts to be elicited � Attributes of the Mind to be exercised � Exer-

tion required in Educators � Opposition to be met by them, then final Success � Equal Benefit not derived by all from the same Book � Thoroughness necessary m Reading � Error sometimes printed � Some Books to be shunned � Reflections � Appeal on behalf of proper Education � The American Constitution � Pages 19-21.

LESSON VIII.

Our principles of Action formed in early Life from the Books studied in School � Extensive influence of Teachers on the Destiny of Mankind � Their Labors often inadequately rewarded � Plan of rigid Moral and Intellectual Training to be carried out � Enthusiasm for Critical Study thereby excited � Consequent Advantages to Society � Pages 21-24.

LESSON IX.

Political Science in important Study � Excellencies of the National Constitution � Some knowledge of the Rise and Progress of the Science of Government necessary for all � Origin of Government � far reaching character of the Mosaic History � Only reliable account of the Antediluvian World � Momentous Events only related � Paternal Authority the Source of Government � Longevity of the Antediluvians � Consequent early dense Population of the World � Absolute Sway over Families formerly exercised by Fathers � Blessings at present enjoyed by us � Pages 24-29.

LESSON X.

Difference between Family Law and Law generally � Imperfection of early Governments � Prevalence of Licentiousness and Depravity � Wickedness destroyed by the Almighty through a Deluge � Reflections � Age of the World � Wise Laws enjoyed by but a small Portion of its Inhabitants � Noah and his Sons commanded to replenish the Earth � A Portion of Noah's Descendants regardless of the Almighty's commands, build the Tower of Babel to make themselves a Name � Futility of their Scheme � A Lesson for us � Confusion of Languages � Resolution of Society to its Primitive State � Result of Man's painful and long continued Efforts � Pages 29-34.

LESSON XI.

Early Governments not the result of Deliberation � Influence and Dominion acquired in Primitive Times by Men noted for Strength, Bravery and Skill � Nimrod founder of the first Empire � Primeval Governments despotic � Herodotus' account of the Election of the first Median king Dejoces � Early Crowns often elective � Circumscribed Dominions of the first Monarchs � Kings consequently numerous � Original divisions of Egypt, China, and Japan � Similar examples now existing m Africa � Rights of the Ruled disregarded as the power of Rulers increase � Rule, at first delegated, usurped and made hereditary. � Pages 34-40.

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8 CONTENTS.

LESSON XII.

Ceremonies of Marriage, regulation of Property, and punishment of Crimes, among the first Laws instituted � Penal Laws, at first extremely severe � Many Crimes punished with Death by the Mosaic Code � Its tenderness of the Irrational Creation � Is the Basis of our own Laws � Publicity necessary to authentic Engagements � Writing unknown, Laws transmitted to Posterity in oral Verse � Executive power needed � The early Ruler a Magistrate and Priest � Land assigned to every Family � Prohibition to remove Landmarks � Title to land gained by cultivation � Modern Changes in old Regulations � Pages 40-47.

LESSON XIII.

Laws of some Sort have always governed the whole human Race � Examples � The Universe pervaded by Law � All protected and restrained by it � Condition of Society in which human Restrictions would not be needed impossible under present Circumstances � Incorrectness of a common Assertion shown � Non-existence of natural Liberty � Human Laws defective and inadequate � Those of God perfect in all Respects � Even Americans are not governed by Laws of their own making � Demonstration � All are dependent � Reflections � An Appeal � Pages 47-57.

LESSON XIV.

Man created for Civil Society � Causes which bind Men together � Each Individual should relinquish the claim of Maintaining and Redressing Personal Rights and Wrongs, to Authorities delegated by the Community � The ablest Minds generally selected to establish Rules � Security and Happiness afforded by Christian Commonwealths � Law of Nations � Based upon Christianity � Not enforced by any Human Tribunal � No Courts for adjusting National disputes � Moral obligations disregarded by ancient Empires and Republics � The fame of Rome tarnished by her Perfidy � Superior Moral Character of Modern Nations � Additional Remarks � Pages 57-62.

LESSON XV.

Divisions of the Law of Nations � Necessary Law of Nations defined � Positive or International Law explained at large � Application of the two Divisions contrasted � Each Nation at liberty to legislate for itself, provided that by so doing it does not injure another � A State breaking the Law of Nations liable to attack from all the Rest � National rights of Navigation � Passports � National Agents � Ambassadors � Pages 63-68.

LESSON XVI.

Envoys � Plenipotentiaries � Ministers � Nature of the distinction between Ambassadors Envoys, Plenipotentiaries, and Resident Ministers � Charges d'Affaires � Consuls � Their Business � War � Its Formalities and Laws � Declaration of � The Tax payer a belligerent as well as the Soldier � Difference between Offensive and Defensive War � Dangers arising from Military Ambition and Renown � Pages 68-72.

LESSON XVII.

Nature and Effect of a Blockade � Truces and Armistices defined � Consequences of a Declaration of W ar � An Embargo � Letters of

Marque and Reprisal � Privateers � Treaties � Observations on the tendency of War � Pages 72-76.

LESSON XVIII.

Origin of the American Constitution � Recapitulation � Early instances of Associations formed by the People of America for mutual Defence and Protection � Congress of 1754 � Difference between the objects of the Crown and those of its Members generally � Plan of Limited Government drawn up by Franklin, rejected not only by the King, but by all the Colonies � Reasons and Causes � Indignation roused by the passage of the Stamp-Act � Congress of 1765� Its Declaration of Rights Adopts an Address to the King, and a Petition to each House of Parliament � Congress of 1774 � First recommended by the People of Providence, Rhode Island � Pages 76-82.

LESSON XIX.

The "Revolutionary Government," or "Continental Congress" � Passes the Declaration of Rights, October 14th, 1774, and the Declaration of Independence, July 4th, 1776 � The separate nationality of the United States dates from the first, and the Constitution is based upon both � Various prior forms of Colonial Government � General Remarks � Pages 82-86.

LESSON XX.

Declaration, of Rights � Its reception, by the whole Country � Commencement of Hostilities � Pages 86-94.

LESSON XXI, Declaration of Independence � Pages 94-102

LESSON XXII.

Sketch of a Confederation submitted by Dr. Franklin to Congress in 1775, not discussed � Congress takes Measures to form a Constitutional plan of Union � Confirms the Articles of Confederation, November 15th, 1777 � They are sanctioned by all the States, the last one, Maryland, agreeing on the 1st of March, 1781 � Congress assembles the next day under the new Powers � The two Periods of the Continental Congress � Its Powers gradually progressive � Beginning of the Nationality of the Colonies, and rise of the General Government � The Colonies known abroad as the "United States" � Powers of Congress inadequate � Amended and extended from time to time � Pecuniary embarrassments of the Country on the return of Peace � A Government of and from the People wanted � Incompetency of the Articles of Confederation for managing National Affairs demonstrated to Madison, Hamilton, and Jay � Washington in Retirement broods over the Distress of the Country, and disappointed Hopes � First idea of a Revision of the Articles of Confederation stalled at Mount Vernon � A Convention proposed by Virginia � Held at Annapolis with but five States represented � Recommends another to meet in Philadelphia � Constitution of the United States framed by this Last � Remarks � Pages 102-109.

LESSON XXIII.

Violation of the essential Principles of rational liberty and English Common I aw, the immediate Cause of the Declaration of Independence � Proceedings of Congress pending

CONTENTS. 9

it � "Committee of the Whole" explained in full � Extracts from the Journals of Congress of 1776 � Committee of five appointed to prepare the Declaration � By agreement each draws up a Form independent of the others � Jefferson's first read in Committee, and adopted unanimously � True Causes and Nature of the Revolution exhibited by the Declaration � All the Excellencies of the English Constitution embodied in our own � A Copy surpassing the Original � The Revolution not without precedents � The merit of our Ancestors is, that they transmitted to us the freedom obtained by their Bravery � Critical position of the Signers of the Declaration � Bribes offered to some of them by Emissaries of the Crown � Their great Merit � Americans of the present Day should be Friendly to their British brethren � British Parliamentary Speeches in favor of American Revolutionary Liberty � Exhortation � Pages 109-118.

LESSONS XXIV � XXV � XXVI & XXVII. Constitution of the United States of America � Pages 118-142.

LESSON XXVIII.

Articles in addition to and amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America � Pages 112-148.

LESSON XXIX.

Commentary on the Constitution � Derivation of the word "Constitution" � The Constitutions of England and other Monarchies, depending upon immemorial Consent of the People, and long settled Usage, it is difficult for the Majority of the Ruled to understand them � Advantages of our own in this Respect � Derivation of the word "Preamble" � Importance of the Preamble in elucidating the Principles of the Constitution � Remarks � Further Particulars Comments � The "more perfect Union" � The People must Read and Ponder every Sentence of the Constitution before they can sustain it � Comparatively small number of Men and Women who have ever read the Constitution � Number of false Oaths to sustain it annually taken by Office holders � The Power and Glory of our Country sustained by its Teachers � Pages 148-156.

LESSON XXX.

Commentary on the Preamble continued � Importance of thorough Male and Female Education to Free Governments � The "establishment of Justice" � Comments � The "ensurance of Domestic Tranquillity" � Comments � Pages 156-160.

LESSON XXXI.

Commentary on the Preamble concluded � Provision for the "Common Defence" � Remarks and Reflections � Promotion of the "general Welfare" Remarks � Securing of "the blessings of Liberty to ourselves and Posterity" � General Observations � Pages 180-167.

LESSON XXXII.

Commentary on the Constitution � Legislative Department � House of Representatives � The more Popular Branch has the power of Impeachment � Senate � Check upon too hasty Action � A Court for the trial of Impeachments � Skilful distribution of Power � Pages 167-173.

LESSON XXXIII.

Duties and Compensation of Members, and Powers of Congress generally � Election � Quorum � Adjournment � Pay � Exemption from Arrest not a personal Privilege � Freedom from being Questioned for Speech or Debate necessary � Revenue Bills to emanate from the Lower House � Veto � Duties, &c , to be alike throughout the Country � Congress to regulate Commerce � Establish uniform Naturalization � Can pass general Bankrupt Laws � Is alone to coin Money and fix its Standard � The Post Office and Mail Service � Copy-rights and Patents � Piracy � Declaration and Conduct of War � Navy � Government of Land and Sea Forces � Militia � Paramount Authority requisite for the general Government � Pages 173-182.

LESSON XXXIV.

Prohibitions upon the Powers of Congress and upon the States � Migration or Importation of Persons � Slave-trade � Habeas Corpus � Bills of Attainder � Ex Post Facto Laws � No Duty to be laid on Exports of any State � No Preference to be given to Ports of any State � No Vessel from one State bound to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another � No Money to be drawn, but in consequence of Appropriations made by Law � Exhibit of the State of Public Finances to be published from time to time � No Titles of Nobility to be granted � Office holders not allowed to accept Presents, &c. from Foreign Governments � Rights of and Restrictions on the States � Continental Money � Nothing but Gold and Silver a legal Tender � The States not to pass Bills of Attainder, Ex Post Facto Laws, and Laws impairing Contracts � Not to grant Titles of Nobility � In extremity can wage Defensive War � Executive Department � President � Vice-President � Remarks � Rule for finding the Name of any Congress � Actual mode of electing Executive Magistrates � Pages 182-189.

LESSON XXXV.

Duties of the Presidential Electors � Contingency of an Election by the House of Representatives provided for � Way of Proceeding of the Electoral College � Qualifications of President and Vice-President � Salaries � Oaths of Office � Denunciation � Warning � Powers and Duties of the President � Is Commander-in-Chief of the whole Military Force � Can Reprieve and Pardon but not in Cases of Impeachment � Has in connection with the Senate, the Treaty-making Power, and that of Appointment to Office � Removes from Office without consulting the Senate � An Argument � Pages 189-195.

LESSON XXXVI.

Duties of the President, continued � Is to give Congress information of the "State of the Union," and recommend Measures for the general Good � Has Power to convene Congress � Annual Message � Special Messages � Executive Patronage, Influence, Exemption from Arrest in Civil Cases, liability to Impeachment � No Titles of any sort given by the Constitution � Observations � Judicial Department: Treason � A Law-administering Tribunal needed � Montesquieu � No Liberty if the Judiciary is not separated from the Executive and Legislative Powers � Duties of


10

CONTENTS.

the Judiciary � Range of its Powers � Judges � How appointed � Duration of their Term of Office � Subject to removal only on Impeachment � Supreme Court � Its Jurisdiction, Original and Appellate, defined and described � Trial by Jury � Pages l95-202.

LESSON XXXVII.

Treason � Its Nature � Two Witnesses needed to Convict of it � Effects of Attainder limited to the Life of the Offender � Horrible ancient English Common Law punishment of Treason � Its punishment here � Public Records � Privileges of Citizens � Fugitive Criminals and Slaves � Formation and Admission of new States � Government of the Territories � Amendments to the Constitution provided for � Public Debt � Supremacy of the Constitution and Laws � Religious Test � Oath of Office � Ratification of the Constitution � Remarks � Pages 202-208.

LESSON XXXVIII.

Commentary on the Amendments � No Religion to be established by Law � Freedom of Speech and Liberty of the Press guaranteed � Right of Petition confirmed to the People � Militia � Right of the People to keep and bear Arms not to be infringed � Remarks on Standing Armies and Military Habits � Additional observations � In time of Peace Soldiers are not to be quartered in any House without the Owner's Consent � Pages208-216.

LESSON XXXIX.

Houses of the People protected against unreasonable Searches � Speedy trial guaranteed to those accused of Crime � Life not to be twice jeoparded � Other Privileges � Jury trial extended to Civil Cases � Manner of examining Causes once tried, prescribed � Prohibition of excessive Bail and Fines, and. unusual punishment � Rights enumerated do not affect those retained � Reservation of Powers � Prohibition additional upon the Powers of the Supreme Court � Remarks � Present Manner of electing the President and Vice-President shown by Article XII. � Reason of the Change � Duration of the Constitution � General Reflections � Washington's Farewell Address � Extract from Bryant � Pages 216-225.

LESSON XL.

Duties and Responsibilities of Voters � Popular Phrases rendered obsolete by the peculiar Character of .our Institutions � Subject considered at Length � Reflections � Pages 225-234.

LESSON XLI.

Subject continued � Enlightenment necessary � Ignorance in any Part detrimental to the Whole � Apostrophe � Rights of the Minority � Party Virulence dangerous � Admonition to Voters � Pages 234-239.

LESSON XLII.

Duties and Responsibilities of Jurors � Preparatory Mental Discipline an essential thing to a Juryman � General Remarks � Two kinds of Juries � Grand Juries defined and explained � Preliminary Oaths of their Foremen and Members � Extent of their Jurisdiction � One Member appointed Secretary, but no records kept � Bills of Indictment supplied by the Attorney-General � Secret examination of Witnesses � Pages 239-245.

LESSON XLIII.

Subject .continued � Vigilance and Caution required � Presentments � Further Explanations and Remarks � Jury of Trials or Petit Jury � The Oath � Qualifications should be of an equally high order as those of a Grand Jury � Definition � Trial Public � Evidence to be first given by the Plaintiff � Cross-examination � Challenged Questions decided upon by the Bench � Speeches of Counsel � Summing: up of Testimony by the Judge � His Interpretation of the Law � The Facts determined by the Jury � Pages 245-252.

LESSON XLIV.

Subject continued � Admonition � Way of proceeding in plain Cases � In intricate ones � Common Law explained � Contrast between ancient and modern Jury treatment � Criminal prosecutions � Surest preventive of Crime � Privileges of the Accused � Further Remarks � Pages 252-260.

LESSON' XLV.

Disclaimer � Danger to be apprehended � Nothing stationary � General Observations � Pages 260-268.

LESSON XLVI.

Duties and Responsibilities of Civil Magistrates � Term defined � Improvement in the Condition of Society � Extracts from Locke and others, on the Subjects treated of � Accompanying extracts from early English Statutes � Pages 268-276.

LESSON XLVII. Genera! Observations and Reflections � Pages

276-282.

LESSONS XLVIII & XLIX. Concluding Remarks � Pages 282-290-301.

STATISTICAL TABLES � Page 323. APPENDIX � Pages 1-54.

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION � Pages 45-48.

INDEX

TO THE SYNONYMS, AND OTHER WORDS, EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED IN THE APPENDIX.

THE synonyms have no designatory character. U. signifies unlike; S., used in different senses; M., meaning; and Q., question, applied to words not properly belonging to any of the other divisions. The numbers are: � first, the lesson; second, the question; third, the page in Appendix. Words twice given are twice elucidated.

Les. Q. P.

Abolish, }

Abrogate, } ................xv. 16, 18

Abhors � detests............xlvi. 44, 42

Absence � recess, U .........xxvi. 11, 28

Abuses � wrongs, U .........xxi. 17, 24

Account � history ...........xiii. 26, 14

Accurately � correctly .......xvi. 5, 20

Acknowledged � recognized .. .xv. 15, 18

Acquire � receive, U ...........ix. 51, 8

Acquittal � liberty, U .........xlv. 20, 41

Actual � real...............xxiv. 8, 27

Ad (prefix) -journ, M.........xxv. 4, 28

Adapted }

Adopted } U ................xxiii. 23, 26

Adequate � commensurate ... .xv. 47, 20 Adieu � farewell � good-bye .... xxii. 8, 25

Adjoining � contiguous.......xv. 30, 19

Adjourn � prorogue..........xix. 15, 22

Administer � contribute.....xiv. 9, 16

Admitted � received.........xxii. 17, 25

Advancement � progression ... 16, 6

Advantage � benefit........xxii. 6, 25

Affirmation � oath, U ...... . xxvi. 7, 28

Affirmed � sworn, U.........xlii. 35, 40

Affront � insult..............xv. 41, 19

Ages � generations........ .xxxi. 18, 36

Ages � periods..............xiii. 26, 14

Agreement � contract ....... xvii. 15, 21

Agreement � covenant .......xv. 10, 18

Agreements � compacts ........xx. 11, 23

Alliteration, M..............xlix. 68, 43

Also � likewise ............. xxv. 2, 27

Alter � change ............... xv. 4, 18

Altered � changed ............xx. 20, 24

Amicable � friendly .......... xv. 39, 19

Among � between, U, ... xxxi. 5, 36

Analyze, M..................... 4, 6

Angry � offended...........xxiii. 27, 26

Annihilation � destruction.. .xxi. 26, 24 Ap (prefix) -propriations, M. xxv. 25, 28 Apportioned � distributed. ..xxiv. 7, 27

Apprehended � feared.......xviii. 13, 21

Apprised }

Apprized } U................xvii. 2, 20

Arms � weapons..........xxviii. 9, 31

Art � science................xiii. 88, 16

Article, S.................xxvii. 3, 29

Asbestos, M...............xxvii. 32, 26

Assemble � meet..........xxviii. 38, 32

Assembly � convocation .... xviii. 16, 21

Attainder, M..............xxvii. 8, 29

Authority � power � strength.. 20, 6 Authorizing � empowering.. .xvi. 12, 20

Les. Q. P.

Avow � declare..............xxi. 6, 24

Axioms � self-evident truths xxii. 25, 25 Aye, M., ............. .....xxix. 50, 35

Baffled � defeated ......... . xviii. 17, 21

Bail � security............xxviii. 28, 32

Ballot � ticket............xxviii. 39, 32

Banner � flag.............. .xxxi. 33, 37

Bargains � contracts........xvii. 10, 21

Basis � foundation...........xx. 13, 23

Bear � carry.................. xvi. 11, 20

Before � preceding, (phrases

syn. to)................xxii, 1, 25

Behavior � conduct ........ . xxiv. 14, 27

Beneath � under.............xv. 35, 19

Benefit � advantage......... xxii. 6, 25

Bestow � confer............ xxix. 37, 35

Between � among, U. ..... .xxxi. 5, 36 Bill of attainder � ex post

facto law.............xxxiv. 8, 38

Bliss � felicity..............xxix. 48, 35

Book of laws � code ..........xii. 112, 14

Borne � supported ........... .xviii. 25, 22

Brands � swords.. ..........xxix. 49, 35

Breach of the peace � felony xxiv. 18, 27 Break the seals of � open . xxviii. 42, 33 Brethren }

Brothers }................xxi. 44, 24.

Business � concerns........ ... .xvi., 8, 20

But, (dif. parts of speech). ..xliii. 36, 40 By degrees � gradually, (phrase

syn. to)...................xxii. 10, 25

Calculated }

Computed }.............xxix. 47, 35

Called � named ...........xvii. 13, 21

Carry � bear.................... xvi 11, 20

Case S .......................xiii. 31, 14

Catalogues � lists . ......xxviii. 40, 32

Cause � reason..........xxviii. 22, 32

Cede � surrender.............xv. 27, 19

Celebrated � illustrious ......... xiv. 28, 17

Ceremony � form. .......... xiv. 39, 18

Change � alter ............ xv. 4, 18

Changed � altered ............. xx. 20, 24

Changes � vicissitudes ....... . xvii. 17, 21

Charge � office .................. xxiv. 20, 27

Choice � option ................ xv. 28, 19

Chosen � elected ........... ..... xxi 25, 24

Chosen � selected .............. .xxiv. 6, 27

Christendom (its old M.) .......x. 1, 8

Chronological, M.. ................ix. 30, 8

Circumscribed � restricted ... . xv. 12, 18


12 INDEX.

Les. Q P

Circumstantial � minute .. . xv. 38, 19

Citizen � subject..........xxxvi 14, 38

Citizens � denizens........ xxxi. 31, 37

Citizens � people........... xiii 48, 15

Civil code, M............. xii 103, 14

Claim, S ............... xxvii 12, 29

Claims � rights.......... xii 110, 14

Class � order.............xxiv. 10, 27

Class � order � rank....... xv 44, 19

Client � patron, U.......... xliii. 41, 40

Closing } .......xvii. 20, 21

Concluding }

Coalescence � union......... xv 17, 18

Code � book of laws...... xii. 112, 14

Columbia (whence derived) .. xxx. 2, 35

Com (prefix) -pose.....xii. 56, 13

Commensurate � adequate ... xv. 47, 20 Comments � observations .. . xxix. 20, 34 Commonwealth � state... xxviii. 35, 32 Compacts � agreements ..... ... xx. 11, 23 Compensation � remuneration

xxviii 18, 31

Compile, M..............xxii. 3, 25

Complete � perfect..........xxix; 29, 34

Compose }

Constitute }.................xii. 111, 114

Con (prefix) -sequently and -tracts,

M xii. 36, 12

Concerns � business...... xvi. 8, 20

Conceit those measures (syn.

phrase to) ........... xxii. 11, 25

Concurrence }

Consent } .............xxiv. 15, 27

Conduct � behaviour.. .. xxiv. 14, 27 Confederation � union .... . xxvii. 13, 30

Confer � bestow...........xxix 37, 35

Confidence � trust.......... xlvi 29, 42

Confirm � establish ...... xxiv 4, 27

Conquered � vanquished. xiv 26, 17 Consecrated � devoted .. xxxi, 12, 36 Consecrated � hallowed .... xxix. 44, 35 Considered � regarded ... xix ... 7, 22 Constant � perpetual. . . xiv. 11, 17 Constitution (whence deriv.) xxix. 2, 34

Constitution S.........xxix 3, 34

Contempt � disdain ..... xx. 9, 23

Contentions � dissensions... xxx, 13, 35

Contested � disputed .......xv. 7, 18

Contiguous � adjoining .... xv, 30, 19 Continuance }

Continuation } .............. xxiv 21, 27 Contract � agreement ..... xvii. 15, 21

Contracts � bargains .......xvii 10, 21

Contribute � administer....... xiv. 9, 16

Controversy � dispute .......xiv. 18, 17

Conventions }

Convocations }...............xxvii 27, 30 Convocations � meetings ... xviii. 29, 22 Convocation � assembly... xviii. 16, 21

Correctly � accurately.......xvi. 5, 20

Counsel � lawyers ....... xlv. 21, 41

Countenance � encourage. .. xvi. 6, 20 Countenanced � sanctioned .... xv. 3, 18

Country � land.............xxviii 33, 30

Course � series ..... . ..... xxix. 25, 34 Covenant � agreement .... xv. 10, 18 Cradle � dwelling place, U. . . xlvi. 16, 42 Crime � misdemeanor......xxviii. 21, 31

Les. Q. P. Crown-lands � public domain, U.

xxii. 5, 25

Custom � usage.............. xv. 31, 19

Customs � practices .........xxix. 26, 34

Customs � usages...........xiv. 20, 17

Cut � tear, U................xlvi. 32, 42

Danger � jeopardy ..........xxviii 17, 31

Dealings � traffic ............. xvii 9, 21

Debate � speech ................ xxiv. 19, 27 Declare � avow ............. . xxi. 6, 24

Declare � proclaim ..........xvi. 15, 20

Declined � refused.......... xvii. 12, 21

Deeds, S................... xii. 32, 12

Defeated � baffled...........xviii 17, 21

Defective � imperfect ....... xxix. 35, 35 Defence (two ways to spell), xlv, 37, 41 Definition � synonym, U........... 10, 6 Degree, S ................. xiv. 10, 17 Demand � requirement .............. xv. 46, 20 Demoniacs � possessed persons

xlvi. 11, 42

Denizens � citizens ............ xxxi. 31, 37 Denoted � signified ............... x. 35, 9 Depredation � robbery ..... ..xv. 23, 19 Deputize (an Americanism). .xiii. 82, 16

Design � object ..............xlii, 14, 40

Destroy }

Dissolve } ................xxi. 5, 24

Destruction � annihilation ... xxi. 26, 24 Destruction � ruin ............. ix 13, 7 Destruction � ruin ........... xxxvi. 15, 38 Detests � abhors ............ xlvi. 44, 42 Developing � elevating � strength-

ening, U................. 11, 6

Devises � wills ............... xii. 108, 14

Devoted � consecrated . ........ xxxi. 12, 36

Dictate � proscribe ........ . xiv. 37, 18

Different }

Dissimilar }.............. x. 38, 9

Different � several ........... xxvii. 23, 30 Difficulties � obstacles ....... xxix. 38, 35 Dignity � honor ......... xiv. 42, 18 Dis (prefix) -approved, M .... xxv. 6, 28 Discoveries � inventions ...... xii. 105, 14 Discretion � judgment ........... . xv. 26, 19 Disdain � contempt ........ xx. 9, 23 Disparity � inequality ......... xiv. 1, 16 Display � exhibit .......... xv. 8, 18 Disposed � inclined ............. xiii. 26, 14 Dispute � controversy ....... xiv. 18, 17

Disputed � contested ......... xv. 7, 18

Disregard � slight .............. xiv 19, 17

Dissensions � contentions xxx 13, 35 Dissensions � quarrels xxx 15, 35

Distant � foreign, U ..... xxviii 36, 32 Distinct � separate x 36, 9

Distributed � apportioned xxiv 7, 27

Disturb � interrupt....... xxx 8, 35

Disunited }

Divided } ..............x. 45, 9

Done � made............xxvii 39, 30

Drawing, S ............... xii 32, 12

Due � right ............xiii 26, 14

Duties � taxes..........xxxiii 36, 37

Duty � service......... xxviii 16, 31

Dwelling place � cradle, U. xlvi. 16, 42

INDEX. 13

Each }

Every } .................. xxx. 17, 36

Educators, M ...................

Elected � chosen............xxi. 25, 24

Elevated � raised ........... xxix. 34, 34

Elevating � developing � strengthening, U ................ 11, 6

Emergency }

Exigency } ................xvi. 3, 20

Emoluments � salaries .......xxi. 33, 24

Emphasis �

Emphasis � pause � tone...... 21, 6

Employ � use...........xv. 25, 19

Empowering � authorizing .. . xvi. 12, 20

Enacted � made .............xiii. 48, 15

Encompassing � surrounding ... xvii. 1, 20

Encourage � countenance ... .xvi. 6, 20

Ends � objects ...............xiv. 41, 18

Enemies � foes............. xxi. 54, 25

Engagements, S.............xii 32, 12

Engrossed, S.............xxiii. 3, 25

Enormous � vast ...........xvi. 18, 20

Enviable, (whence derived, and

how used) ............. ix. 49, 8

Envy � jealousy............xviii 23, 22

Equably }

Equally } ..................xiv. 40, 18

Equal � uniform............xiv. 34, 17

Essay � treatise............... 23, 6

Establish � confirm.........xxiv. 4, 27

Evasion � subterfuge......... xv. 20, 18

Evident � manifest..........xvi. 17, 20

Examples � instances.......xviii. 10, 21

Excises � imposts ...... xxxiii. 37, 37

Excite � incite.............. 18, 6

Executives � pardoning power,

U .................xlv. 28, 41

Exhibit � display ............xv. 8, 18

Existing � subsisting......xviii. 11, 21

Experience � trial ..........xx. 16, 23

Exports � imports, U . ....... xxv. 28, 28

Ex post facto law � bill of at-

tainder, U .........xxxiv. 8, 38

Extending � suppressing, U .. .. vi. 2, 4

Faculties M ................ 12, 6

Faithful � true .........xlvi. 35, 42

Famous � renowned ........... xiv. 22, 17

Farewell � adieu � good-bye xxii. 8, 25

Feared � apprehended ......xviii. 13, 21

Felicity � bliss ..........xxix. 48, 35

Felony � breach of the peace ... xxiv. 18, 27

Fixed � permanent ......xii 106, 14

Flag � banner ..........xxxi. 33, 37

Foes � enemies ...........xxi. 54, 25

Foreign � distant, U..... xxviii. 36, 32

Forgive � pardon . xlvi. 5, 41

Form S.......xix. 9, 22

Forms, S .........xii 32, 12

Form � ceremony...........xiv 39, 18

Form � system ...... xix. 10, 22

Foundation � basis ......xx 13, 23

Freedom � liberty .. .. xxviii 5, 31

Friendly � amicable . ... xv 39, 19

Fruitful � prolific ...... xiv 24, 17

Fulcrum � prop ........ xlviii 49, 43

Furnished � provided...... xv. 33, 19

Les. Q. P.

General excellency � humanity,

U.....................xlv. 25, 41

Generations � ages.........xxxi. 18, 36

Glaive, M.................. . . xxix. 51, 35

Glaring � notorious.........xxii. 23, 25

Governed � ruled .... xiii. 48, 15

Government, M..............ix. 14, 7

Government, S............... ix. 15, 7

Good-bye � adieu � farewell xxii. 8, 25 Gradually � by degrees, (phrase

syn. to) ...............xxii. 10, 25

Grandeur � magnificence .. xv. 50, 20

Greatest � largest ....... xxviii. 13, 33

Grievances � wrongs ... xxviii. 8, 31

Guns � muskets.........xxxviii. 22, 38

Had, S ................. xxii. 12, 25

Hallowed � consecrated.....xxix. 44, 35

Harbors � ports............. xv 37, 19

Hidden � latent ............xxix. 21, 34

History � account..........xiii 20, 14

Honor � dignity..........xiv 42, 18

Host, S .............x 54, 9

Humanity � general excellency,

U.....................xlv. 25, 41

Ignorant }

Illiterate }..................xiv. 2, 16

Illegal � unjust ............xlv. 50, 41

Illustrious � celebrated.....xiv. 28, 17

Im (prefix) -portant, M .......xii 21, 12

Im (prefix) -punity, M......xliv. 37, 41

Imperfect � defective.......xxix 35, 35

Imports � exports, U........ xxv. 28, 28

Imposing � obtruding .......xxi. 37, 24

Imposts � excises ........xxxiii. 37, 37

In (prefix) -formed and -flicted,

M .. .......xii. 63, 13

In (prefix) -habitants, M ...xii. 50, 12

In (prefix) -secure, &c , M xliv. 38, 41

Incite � excite .......... 18, 6

Inclined � disposed ....... xiii. 26, 14

Independent (whence deriv.) . xxx. 9, 35

Indians � savages ..... xviii 14, 21

Indictment � presentment .. xliii. 5, 40

Ineffectually }

In vain } (phras. syn. to) xxii 20, 25

Inequality � disparity .. . xiv 1, 16

Infallible � unerring.....xiii. 2, 14

Infirmity � weakness ...xiii 26, 14

Infringement (whence deriv. ) xix 5, 22

Inhabitants � people ..... xxviii 33, 32

Inheritance � legacy .... xxxi . 3, 36

Inheritances � patrimonies xii. 107, 14

Injure }

Impair }...................xv. 18, 18

Inoffending � unoffending.....xv. 21, 19

Instances � examples .......xviii, 10, 21

Instructed � taught .............xiv. 25, 17

Instrument, S...........xxiii. 21, 26

Instrument � tool..... ......xxi 38, 24

Insult � affront ........ xv. 41, 19

Insurrections � rebellious.... xxv. 16, 28

Insurrections � riots ........ xxxiii. 74, 38

Intellectual � moral ............... 15, 6

Intention � purpose ..... .... xxiv 12, 27

Inter (prefix) -national, M .. .xiv 14, 17

Interrupt � disturb .......... .xxx. 8, 35

2


14 INDEX.

Les. Q. P.

Inventions � discoveries......xii. 105, 14

Italics, M..................... 1, 2

Jealousy � envy........... .xviii. 23. 22

Jeopardy � danger.........xxviii. 17, 31

Judgment � discretion.. .......xv. 26, 19

Junes � voters, Q.............xlv. 17, 41

Juryman, M................See page 242

Kept � retained...............xx. 18, 23

Kingly � regal..............xviii. 20, 22

Land � country............. xxvii. 33, 30

Largest � greatest .........xxviii. 43, 33

Lasting � permanent......,xvii. 28, 22

Latent � hidden............. xxix, 21, 34

Law, S.......... ............. xxvii. 5, 29

Law � rule................xxviii. 3, 31

Laws � statutes .............xiii. 48, 15

Laws � statutes.......... xxvii. 30, 30

Lawyers � counsel .......... .xlv. 21, 41

Leave � permission.......... xv. 36, 19

Legacy � inheritance . .... ... xxxi. 3, 36

Liberty � acquittal, U....... xlv. 26, 41

Liberty � freedom ......... xxviii. 5, 31

Light � trivial........... ...xxi. 16, 24

Like � similar..............xviii. 26, 22

Likewise � also............ xxv. 2, 27

Lists � catalogues.........xxviii. 40, 32

Literary � scientific, U......... 22, 6

Loyalty, M..................xix. 19, 23

Made � done...............xxvii. 39, 30

Made � enacted ..............xiii. 48, 15

Magistrate � priest, U.......xii. 62, 13

Magna Charta, M...........xlvi. 20, 42

Magnificence � grandeur......xv. 50, 20

Main, (in opposite senses). .xxix. 42, 35

Main � ocean..............xxix. 41, 35

Manifest � evident...........xvi. 17, 20

Manner }

Mode } ..................xxiv. 13, 27

Manner � way ............xxviii. 12, 31

Matters � resolutions, Q .. .xxiii. 14, 26

May, S...................xix. 2, 22

Meaning � signification ....xxix. 18, 34

Meet � assemble..........xxviii. 38, 32

Meetings � conventions ....xviii. 29, 22

Memento }

Monument } ..................xxiii. 25, 26

Method }

Mode } ...................xiv. 38, 18

Metonomy, M.............. 13, 6

Minute � circumstantial ..... xv. 38, 19

Misdemeanor � crime .... xxviii. 21, 31

Model � pattern........... .xxx. 4, 35

Modern � recent...........xiv. 32, 17

Modulation � emphasis....... 21, 6

Monarchs � sovereigns....... xv. 6, 18

Monolith � obelisk ........ xxxi. 39, 37

Moral � intellectual.......... 15, 6

Moral ......... 15, 6

Moslems � Turks........ .. .xlvi. 10, 42

Motives � principles.........xvi. 20, 20

Multitudes � swarms.... .xviii. 22, 22

Muskets � guns..........xxxviii. 22, 38

Mutual � reciprocal.......... xv. 43, 19

Les. Q. P.

Named � called ................ xvii. 13, 21

Necessary � requisite........ xii. 44, 12

Necessity }

Need } .................... xii. 104, 14

Need � want ..................xiii. 26, 14

Nevertheless }

Notwithstanding } ............ xxvii. 35, 30

Nobles � peers ..............xxxi. 22, 36

Notorious � glaring . ....... xxii. 23, 25

Oath � Affirmation ......... xxvi. 7, 28

Obelisk � monolith ......... xxxi. 39, 37 Object � design ..............xlii, 14, 40

Objects � ends ................ xiv. 41, 18

Observations � comments ... xxix. 20, 34 Obstacles � difficulties ............xxix. 38, 35 Obtain � procure . ................ xvi. 14, 20 Obtruding � imposing .. ........ .xxi. 37, 24

Ocean � main .................. .xxix. 41, 35

Ocean � sea ......... ....... xxxi. 10, 36

Offended � angry ............. xxiii. 27, 26 Officer � charge .............xxiv, 20, 27

On � upon ................xxviii, 44, 33

Open, S .............. ......xxvii. 9..29

Open � break the seals of . .. xxviii. 42, 33

Option � choice............... xv. 28, 19

Or (affix) elect , M. ....... . xxvi. 2, 28 Orally, M ..................... 9, 6

Order � class..............xxiv. 10, 27

Order � class � rank ..........xv. 44, 19

Outline � sketch....... ...... xxii. 2, 25

Ownership � property ....... xii. 109, 14

Palladium, M ..............xxix. 27, 34

Panel }

Pannel } ...........xlii. 27, 40

Paragraph � sentence, U ........ 23, 6

Pardon � forgive ............ xlvi. 5, 41 Pardoning power � executives,

U......................xlv. 28, 41

Part }

Portion }...... .....xxvii. 25, 30

Passed }

Propounded }.............. xxiii. 19, 26

Patrimonies � inheritances ... xii. 107, 14

Patron � client, U...........xliii. 41, 40

Pattern � model.............. xxx. 4, 35

Pause � emphasis � tone, M.. . 21, 6

Peace � quiet .......... ... ..xxviii. 11, 31

Peace � tranquillity .......... xii. 102, 14

Peace � tranquillity......... xiv. 33, 17

Peers � nobles. ............. xxxi. 22, 36

People � citizens........... xiii. 48, 15

People � inhabitants..... xxviii 33, 32

People � populace........ xxii 24, 25

Perceived � seen ...........xxix 30, 34

Perfect � complete .......xxix 29, 34

Perfidious � treacherous..... xiv. 29, 17

Periods � ages .............xiii 26, 14

Permanent � fixed...........xii. 106, 14

Permanent � lasting....... xviii. 28, 22

Permission � leave......... xv. 36, 19

Perpetual � constant........ xiv. 11, 17

Pillaged }

Plundered }.................xxi. 43, 24

Place � spot ...............xxiv. 16, 27

Poetry � verse...............xii. 57, 13

Ponder � reflect..........xxix. 45, 35

INDEX. 15

Les. Q P

Ports � harbors ............ xv. 37, 19

Possessed persons � demoniacs

xlvi. 11, 42

Potent }

Powerful } ...............xxix. 23, 34

Power � authority � strength. iii. 20, 2

Power � strength............xiv. 35, 18

Powers, S................... 20, 6

Practices � customs......xxix. 26, 34

Pre (prefix) -scribe, M......xiii 13, 14

Preamble (whence derived) xxix. 8, 34

Preamble, S...............xxix. 9, 34

Preceding � before (phrases syn.

to)..................xxii. 1, 25

Precepts }

Principles } .................xv. 2, 18

Prejudice, M................... 3, 4

Preparing, S..............xxiii. 16, 26

Prerequisite � qualification, U.

xxvii. 37, 30

Prescribe � dictate...........xiv. 37, 18

Presence � sight, U,.......xxviii. 41, 32

Presentment � indictment ..xliii. 5, 40

Pretences }

Pretexts } ................xx. 3, 23

Priest � magistrate, U.......xii. 62, 13

Principles, S...............xix 4, 22

Principles � motives ........xvi. 20, 20

Pro (prefix) -vide, M.........xxv. 9, 28

Proceeding }

Process }.............xxviii. 23, 32

Proclaim � declare...........xvi. 15, 20

Procure � obtain............xvi. 14, 20

Progression � advancement.... 16, 6

Prolific � fruitful............xiv. 24, 17

Prop � fulcrum............xlviii. 49, 43

Proper � right.............xxix. 32, 34

Property � ownership........xii. 109, 14

Prorogue � adjourn......... .xix. 15, 22

Prosecute }

Pursue } .................xv. 40, 19

Prosperity � welfare ....... xxiv. 5, 27

Provided � furnished ..........xv. 33, 19

Prudence � wisdom.........xxxi. 21, 36

Public domain � crown-lands,

U .................xxii. 5, 25

Purpose � intention ........xxi v. 12, 27

Purpose � sake..............xv. 22, 19

Qualification � prerequisite,

U..................xxvii 37, 30

Quarrels � dissensions.......xxx. 15, 35

Quick � speedy...........xxviii. 20, 31

Quiet � peace ......... xxviii. 11, 31

Quit � relinquish............xiv. 4, 16

Raised � elevated ........xxix 34, 34

Rank � class � order........ xv 44, 19

Rational }

Reasonable } .........xxix. 40, 35

Re (prefix) -consider, M. ... xxv. 3, 28

Real � actual.............xxiv. 8, 27

Reason � cause......xxviii. 22, 32

Rebellions � insurrections .xxv 16, 28

Receive � acquire, U.......ix 51, 8

Received � admitted ...... xxii 17, 25

Recent � modern .......xiv 32, 17

Recess � absence, U.....xxvi 11, 28

Les. Q. P.

Reciprocal � mutual ....... . xv. 43, 19

Recognized � acknowledged .. xv. 15, 18

Recorded }

Registered }..................xiv. 30, 37

Redress }

Relief } ..................xxi. 51, 25

Reflect � ponder...... .....xxix. 45, 35

Refused � declined..........xvii. 12, 21

Regal � kingly ............xviii 20, 22

Regard }

Respect }..................xiv. 23, 17

Regarded � considered . .....xix. 7, 22

Relinquish � quit.......... .xiv. 4, l6

Remuneration � compensation

xxviii. 18, 31

Renewed }

Revived }.................xvii. 5, 21

Renowned � famous.........xiv. 22, 17

Repeatedly (phrases syn. to) . .xx. 24, 21

Repose }

Rest }...................xxx. 7, 35

Representatives � senate, Q. xxiii 22, 26

Requirement � demand .... ..xv. 46, 20

Requisite � necessary........xii 44, 12

Resolutions � matters, Q, .... xxiii. 14, 26

Restrained }

Restricted }.................xx. 14, 23

Restrainment � suppression. ..xx. 7, 23

Restricted � circumscribed ... .xv. 12, 18

Retained � kept..............xx. 18, 23

Revered � venerated.........xx. 22, 24

Revolutionary � transitional,

U......................xxii. 9, 25

Right, S....................xix. 16, 23

Right � due.................xiii. 23, 14

Right � proper............xxix. 32, 34

Rights � claims...............xii. 110, 14

Rigorously � strictly.........xiii. 26, 14

Riots � insurrections .....xxxiii. 74, 38

Robbery � depredation........xv. 23, 19

Ruin � destruction ...........ix. 13, 7

Ruin � destruction.......xxxvi 15, 38

Rule � law ..............xxviii 3, 31

Ruled � governed............xiii. 48, 15

Sabbath, M.................xii. 9, 11

Sacredness (whence derived) xii 33, 12

Safe }

Secure }.................xxx. 5, 35

Sake � purpose ..............xv. 22, 19

Salaries � emoluments......xxi. 33, 21

Sanction }

Support }...................xv. 11, 18

Sanctioned � countenanced . .. xv. 3, 18

Savages � Indians.......... xviii.. 11, 21

Scholar 13, 6

School (words derived from) ... 13, 6

Science � art ........ .....xiii. 88, 16

Scientific � literary, U.......... 22, 6

Sea � ocean ..............xxxi. 10, 36

Seasons � times ......... xv. 49, 20

Security � bail ............ xxviii. 28, 32

Seen � perceived ........ xxix. 30, 34

Self-evident truths � axioms xxii 25, 25

Semi (prefix) -barbarous, M xiii. 9, 14

Senate � representatives, Q xxiii 22, 26

Sentence � paragraph, U....... 23, 6


16 INDEX.

Les Q. P.

Sentient (whence derived) ... 17, 6

Separate � distinct ............x. 36, 9

Sept � tribe ...............xxxi 14, 36

Series � course............. xxix 25, 34

Service � duty............xxviii. 16, 31

Several � different.........xxvii. 23, 30

Several � various............x. 37, 9

Sheep, Q ..................xlv. 23, 41

Sheriff, M...............xlii. 24, 40

Ships � vessels...............xv 32, 19

Sight � presence, U.....xxviii 41, 32

Signification � meaning . . xxix, 18 34

Signified � denoted......... . x. 35, 9

Similar � like ...........xviii 26, 22

Sketch � outline............xxii. 2, 25

Slight � disregard........... xiv, 19, 17

Societies, M............... xiii. 3, 14

Soil, S.................... xx. 25, 24

Sovereigns � monarchs......xv. 6, 18

Speech � debate..........xxiv 19, 27

Speedy � quick............xxviii. 20, 31

Spot � place ............xxiv. 16, 27

State � commonwealth ... .xxviii. 35, 32

States, M. . . ........... xiii. 8, 14

Status quo, Q................xv, 13, 18

Statutes � laws... ......... xiii. 48, 15

Statutes � laws...........xxvii, 30, 30

Step, M....................xii. 76, 13

Step (prefix) -father, M.......xii. 77, 13

Story, S ....................ix. 28, 7

Strength � authority � power .. 20, 6

Strength � power...........xiv, 35, 18

Strengthening � developing �

elevating, U.............. 11, 6

Strictly � rigorously........ .xiii. 26, 14

Subject, S.................vii. 3, 6

Subject � citizen..........xxxvi. 14, 38

Subsisting � existing.......xviii. 11, 21

Subterfuge � evasion.........xv. 20, 18

Supported � borne..........xviii. 25, 22

Suppressing � extending, U.. ... 2, 4

Suppression � restrainment .. xx. 7, 23

Surrender � cede........... xv. 27, 19

Surrounding � encompassing xvii. 1, 20

Swarms � multitudes.......xviii. 22, 22

Swords � brands ......... . xxix. 49, 35

Sworn � affirmed, U........xlii. 35, 40

Synonym � definition, U........ 10, 6

System � form.............. xix. 10, 22

Talesmen, M ..............xliv. 42, 41

Taught � instructed .........xiv. 25, 17

Taxes � duties..........xxxiii. 36, 37

Tear � cut U................xlvi. 32, 42

Temporary }

Transient }............. . xxiv. 11, 27

Term � word................xvi. 2, 20

Testimony � witness......xxvii. 41, 30

That, Q .................xliv. 30, 41

Ticket � ballot...........xxviii. 39, 32

Times � seasons ............ xv. 40, 20

Tion (affix) capita-, M......xxv. 23, 28

Tone � emphasis � pause, M. .. 21, 6

Les. Q. P.

Tool � instrument ...........xxi. 38, 24

Traffic � dealings...........xvii. 9, 21

Tranquillity � peace......... xii. 102, 14

Tranquillity � peace....... xlv. 33, 17

Trans (prefix) -mitted, M ... xii, 58, 13 Transitional � revolutionary, U,

xxii. 9, 25

Treacherous � perfidious.... xiv. 29, 17

Treatise � essay ,.............. 23, 6

Trial � experience............xx. l6, 23

Tribe � sept ...............xxxi 14, 36

Trivial � light ..............xxi. 16, 24

True � faithful............ xlvi 35, 42

Trust � confidence........ xlvi. 29, 42

Turks � Moslems ..........xlvi. 10, 42

Ty (affix) notorie, M.......xii. 25, 12

Un (prefix}, M............ .. .xii, 114, 14

Un (prefix) -aided, M.........xii 113, 14

Under � beneath ..............xv. 35, 19

Unerring � infallible. ........ xiii. 2, 14

Uniform � equal.......... .. xiv, 34, 17

Union � coalescence........ . xv. 17, 18

Union � confederation . .... xxvii. 13, 30

Unjust � illegal .... ....... . xlv. 50, 41

Unoffending � inoffending ... .xv. 21, 19

Upon � on ...................xxviii 44, 33

Usage � custom ...............xv. 31, 19

Usages � custom ............ .xiv. 20, 17

Use � employ................xv. 25, 19

Validity, S...................xii. 32, 12

Vanquished � conquered .....xiv. 26, 17

Various � several ............. x. 37, 9

Vast � enormous ............xvi. 18, 20

Venerated � revered ..........xx. 22, 24

Verse � poetry ............... xii. 57, 13

Vessels � ships .. ............xv. 32, 19

Vetoed, M. ... .............xiii. 63, 15

Vice (prefix), M............ xxvi. 16, 28

Vice, S...................xxvi. 17, 28

Vicissitudes � Changes ......xvii. 17, 21

Voice }

Vote }...................xxiv. 9, 27

Voters � juries, Q............xiv. 17, 41

Want � need............... .xiii. 26, 14

Way � manner ... ..... .xxviii 12, 31

Weakness � infirmity..... xiii 26, 14

Weapons � arms....... xxviii 9, 31

Welfare � prosperity . . . xxiv 5, 27

Wills � devises ........ xii 108, 14

Wisdom � prudence . .. xxxi 21, 36

Witness � testimony. xxvii 41, 30

Word � term .... . xvi. 2, 20

Work, S . ... 2, 6

Writ of error Q .... xxxix 15, 39

Wrongs � abuses U xxi. 17, 24

Wrongs � grievances . . xxviii 8. 31

THE

AMERICAN MANUAL.

LESSON I.

THE design of the right-hand column of words (See LESSON 7.) is to render the school-room a place of intense interest, enchaining the mind of the pupil by gradual and constant exercise of all the intellectual faculties; for, like the body, the more the mind is properly exercised the stronger it becomes. When the right-hand column is used as a spelling lesson, and the teacher gives out any word, it is intended that the word in the same line indicated by the figure 1 shall be spelled in its place. For example � when the teacher pronounces book, the pupil will spell work � when primary, the pupil will spell elementary � when lessons for practice, the pupil will spell exercises � and when writers, the pupil will spell authors. Again, when the teacher pronounces work, the scholar will spell book � when elementary, the scholar will spell primary � when exercises, the scholar will spell lessons for practice � when authors, the scholar will spell writers. It is obvious that by this plain not a word can be spelled without "waking up the mind" of the scholar. The pupil spells and learns the meaning of two words in every line, and eventually forms the habit of observing how every word read is spelled, or, in other words, learns to spell every word in the language correctly; and, what is more, not only learns the meaning of every word, but also the nice shades of difference between words generally used as synonymous with each other. Youth thus enter with zest on the study of their mother tongue, and each day brings increasing delight in tracing the beauties and following out the philosophy of language, in which all the business of life is transacted, effectually fitting the student for the real practical duties of the world.

In order to enliven the class, train the pupils to think quick, and to rivet their attention the teacher may occasionally give them the marginal words to spell by letter. Thus, the teacher pronounces work, Susan begins, B, Mary instantly follows, OO, then Jane, K, and Harriet pronounces the word; and so on down the column and

2*

(17)


18 INTRODUCTION.

through the class. It will be advisable for those who use the Manual as a reading book to take but one feature at a time, and to omit the questions till the pupils are perfectly familiar with the marginal exercises.

It cannot be too often repeated, that the great object has been to discipline the mind, to give the pupil an accurate command of language; and hence, the word found in the margin is often not the easiest or the plainest one that might have been given. For example (see page 83), ken, 18th marginal line; also (page 111) coterie, 33d marginal line, and moderator, 49th marginal line.

Some words in the right-hand column are definitions, some synonyms, and some neither definitions nor synonyms, but phrases or expressions that convey a similar idea to the mind. Hence, the pupil in properly using this book must reason, investigate, and reflect ; the attention thus aroused in school will accompany the pupil through life, and in the place of stupidity, sluggishness, and a distaste for intellectual pursuits, an acute intellect and polished mind will be formed which will adorn the possessor, and! bless society to the end of time.

It is believed that pupils who properly use this book will acquire attentive habits, desire for study, and patient investigation, which will fit them in after life to be the solace and pride of their families, and the ornaments of society.

LESSON II.

Another excellent feature of the marginal exercises is, that youths gradually train the eye to look in advance of the word they; are pronouncing. For example, when the scholar pronounces schools, the first word in the third line of Lesson 7., the eye glances forward to the end of the line in order to bring.in the meaning of exercises, the word indicated by the figure 1. The eye thus accustomed to reach in advance of the words being pronounced, the pupil is enabled to articulate the difficult words that occur in the course of reading, without the least hesitancy. Hence, a habit of reading fluently is acquired at the same time youth are obtaining a command of language. Educators will find it well frequently to call the attention of the young to the great variety of meanings the same word may have, owing to its connexion with the sentence in which it is placed. Thus work, the second

INTRODUCTION. 19

word in the first line of Lesson 7., is used in the sense of book, but it may have ten different significations. See Lesson 8., Question 2 Page 6 Appendix. Teachers who properly use the marginal column will soon find the eyes of their pupils beaming with joy, as their minds expand by the use of the marginal exercises. The pupil should so study the lesson as not to make the slightest halt in substituting the meaning for the word indicated by the figure 1. For backward or dull scholars, it will be well for the teacher to simplify the answers in the Appendix. For example, Question 2, of Lesson 8., in the Appendix may be elucidated more in full, 'thus: (see Ques. 2. Les. 8.) first in the sense of BOOK, as the work is well written; that is, the book is well written. Second, in the sense of LABOR, as he is at work; that is, he is at labor. Third, in the sense of MANAGE, as work out your own salvation; that is, manage your own salvation. Fourth, in the sense of OPERATE, as the principle works well; that is, the principle operates well. Fifth.. in the sense of BECOME, as the cogs work loose by friction; that is, they become loose by friction. Sixth, in the sense of FERMENT, as malt liquors work; that is, they ferment. Seventh, in the sense of REMOVE, as the plaster works out of place; that is, the plaster is removed out of place. Eighth, in the sense of KNEAD, as the young ladies, Bridget, Elizabeth, and Louisa, work pastry: that is, the young ladies knead pastry. Tenth, in the sense of EMBROIDER, as (he young ladies, Jane, Susan, and Harriet, work purses; that is, they embroider purses. For backward or dull scholars it would probably be best for the teacher to omit the questions in the book entirely, and give them a few easy oral ones; and for those advanced it will be well to vary the exercise and make it more difficult. By taking again Question 2, Lesson I., the advanced pupil would give something like the following answer. First, in the sense of BOOK, as my mother purchased the work. Second, in the sense of LABOR, as John is at work, &c.

It frequently occurs throughout the book that the best word for the text is found in the margin. In doing this, the author had a two-fold object; first, to exercise the judgment and discriminating powers of the pupils; second, it was often more convenient. For examples of this kind, see page 111, and the 38th line; COMMITTEE would be far preferable, both in brevity and style, to number of their body; PLAINTIFF, page 250, marginal line 149; REPLICATION, page 251, marginal line 167; GIVEN HIS CHARGE, Lesson XLIV., page 252, line 2 ; with many others, are examples of this kind.


20 INTRODUCTION.

As a genera] rule, the term or phrase given in the margin is the approximate meaning of the word in the same line, indicated by the figure 1. The teacher should be careful to make the pupil understand that the same word may convey a very different or even an opposite signification in one sentence from what it does in another ; for example, when we speak of a nervous writer, we mean one strong and vigorous; but when we speak of a nervous lady, we mean one weak and feeble.

After the pupils have become familiar with the marginal words they should substitute original meanings, obtained by their own research and reflection: for example, in the place of the meaning given in the margin of work, in the first line of Lesson 7., the scholars may substitute Reader, Manual, or Volume; any phrase or expression that will convey a similar idea.

LESSON III.

The Index to synonyms, [see page 11] will also furnish many interesting fireside lessons, and greatly assist the teacher who uses the Manual for advanced classes. For example, suppose the pupil wishes to know the difference between abolish and abrogate; by reference to lesson XV., Question 16, page 18 of the Appendix (as pointed out by the Index), the difference is explained at length; and by turning to Lesson XV. (Question 16, which points out the line in which the words occur), and page 70, in the body of the book, the pupil will see an application of the words in a sentence; hence it is plain that if the nation does away gradually with its old regulations, abolish will be the best word to use in the text; if suddenly, then abrogate would be the best, It appears that alter precedes abolish (see page 70, line 54); hence, it is evident that the change may be a gradual alteration, and therefore abolish is the best word to use in the text. Again, suppose the difference between declare and avow is required; under the letter D, page 12, in the Index, the difference is indicated, and clearly explained in Lesson XXI., Question 6, page 24 of the Appendix By reference to Lesson XXI. (Question 6, which points out the line in which the words occur), page 94, the application of the words will appear; declare being the best word to use in the text, because its application is national. The Biographical Tables also furnish fruitful and varied themes

INTRODUCTION. 21

for composition, and are of much service by arousing a literary spirit in the family circle. The pupils should be encouraged to obtain knowledge from friends as well as from books.

Again, to vary the exercise, as well as to give the pupils some lesson that will interest their families at home, the teacher may assign with Lesson I., Table I. (found on page 332) of the State in which the school is taught. For example, suppose the school to be in the State of Pennsylvania; by reference to the table, it will be perceived that Pennsylvania is the ninth State in the column of States, and that opposite each State is the first column of figures denoting in years the time for which the governor in that State is elected. The figure opposite Pennsylvania in the first column is 3; hence, the governor of Pennsylvania is elected for three years. The figures in the second column denote, in dollars, the governor's salary per year; opposite Pennsylvania in the second column is 3000; hence, the governor of Pennsylvania has an annual salary of $3000. Again, suppose the school happens to be in Virginia, and that the class has been assigned Lesson II. By reference to Table II. it will be seen that Virginia is the twelfth State in the column of States. The first column of figures denotes the number of State Senators. In the first column of figures opposite Virginia is 50; hence, the number of State Senators in Virginia is 50. The second column of figures denotes the time, in years, for which the State Senators are elected ; 4 is opposite Virginia in the second column of figures; hence, the term of office for the State Senators in Virginia is four years. The third column of figures denotes the number of State Representatives for each State. The figures opposite Virginia are 152 ; hence, the number of State Representatives' in Virginia is 152. The fourth column of figures denotes the time, in years, for which the State Representatives are elected. The number opposite Virginia is 2; hence, the term of office of the State Representatives for Virginia is two years. The fifth column of figures denotes, in years, the youngest age at which any man can legally serve as State Senator. The figures opposite Virginia in the fifth column are 30; hence, a man must attain thirty years in Virginia before he can be legally elected a State Senator. Again, suppose the school happens to be in Ohio, and the class has Lesson IV. assigned. For the home lesson the teacher may assign Table V. Ohio is the twenty-fifth State in the column of States, on page 336. The first column of figures


22 INTRODUCTION.

denotes the number of inhabited dwelling houses in each of the States respectively. The figures opposite Ohio in the first column are 336,098 ; � hence, according to the government authority of the last census, there were 336,098 inhabited dwelling houses in Ohio. The scholars may commit to memory one table, or even less than one table, for each day; and in the course of a short time they will be familiar with all the statistics of their own State.

LESSON IV.

Inattentive examination has led many who were not practical teachers to believe that the author intended the right-hand column of words as exact definitions; nothing could be farther from the fact. There are about one thousand questions calling the attention to the difference between the meaning of the word indicated by the figure 1 and the word in the margin, at the end of the line. The great object is to give varied accuracy in the use of words, a command of language, and gradually but thoroughly to exercise, the judgment and discriminating powers of the pupils. Pages 291, 297, and many others, call the attention expressly to the use of the marginal column. It cannot be too much borne in mind, that even of any several-words derived from various tongues, and conveying each in its own, the same thought as either or all of the rest, there is generally, in our language, a slight shade of difference in the application, so that they cannot be used indiscriminately. See page 4, Ap. Probably no two words can be found, in their true and nice application, exactly alike, though there are many conveying a similar idea. Let it be always distinctly recollected, that the main object of the marginal exercises is properly to discipline the mind, to cultivate a taste for the philosophy of our own language, and Jit the pupils for the duties of after-life.

Especial attention is also requested to the peculiarities of orthography in the Constitution. Several persons have had the kindness to point out what they supposed to be errors in spelling, whereas if they had taken pains to examine the questions at the termination of the Constitution (page 147), and the answers found to questions 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, and 71, in the corresponding lesson in the Appendix, or Key (pages 33 and 34), they would have seen the importance of not altering one iota, a document so sacred and venerable as the AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. Hence, in-

INTRODUCTION. 23

stead of being an insuperable objection to the use of the Manual, it will be seen that the very fact of its containing a FACSIMILE of the original manuscript of the Constitution (now in the Department of State in the City of Washington), greatly enhances its value. Hundreds of errors are now to be found in law and other books purporting to contain copies of the Constitution. One of the most popular school-books of the day has XIII. amendments to the Constitution ; yet only XII. have been made by Congress. If in less than a century, independent of variations and errors in orthography, punctuation, &c., an entire amendment can be added to the Constitution, is there not danger, if authors are allowed to vary from the original manuscript, that in the course of time the entire original Constitution will be changed or obliterated, and a new one formed, according to the caprices of the public mind? Again, our language is subject to constant change, and, according to the general received opinion, up, the last word in the 120th line, page 134, is superfluous; yet it is found in the manuscript as originally adopted. The specimens of old English poetry, page 44 of the Appendix, and the Constitution itself, may, when compared with the best writers of the present day, serve to show the changes our language has gradually undergone. It may be well here to remark, that no one can comprehend the author's system of instruction who does not constantly refer to the questions. The answers to the questions, in the Appendix or Key, are intended simply as models; the pupils should always be encouraged to give original answers.

Books are companions whose silent and ever-acting influence, for good or for evil, is incalculable. If we place in the hands of youth books from which they form habits of memorizing like parrots and reciting like automatons; if we allow our daughters to take to their bosoms productions that please the fancy while they undermine the morals; if we allow our sons to read works that enervate and degrade instead of invigorating and exalting; if we are indifferent to the contents of a volume recommended or decried by a gaudy, a mercenary, a base, a prostituted press, we suffer others, tampering not with things of time but of eternity, to stain the fair blank of mind, prepared for the pen of virtue, and mar the symmetrical proportions of the soul. With interests so vast at stake, it behooves every educator, if he has not at hand those known to be disinterested, carefully to read books designed for his use, relying in the end upon his own judgment, so that neither the selfishness


24 INTRODUCTION.

of individuals, nor the cupidity of hireling critics, burning with insane zed to promote private ends, shall thwart his laudable efforts to ELEVATE AND ENNOBLE THE MINDS OF THE RISING GENERATION.

Should these remarks ever meet the eye of a teacher wishing to procure his bread without labor, to white away the time and pocket the money consecrated to the noble purpose of training youth for the duties of life and of eternity � if there be any having the superintendence of schools, or in any way whatever the charge of the young, who, to screen the teacher's indolence or serve in any manner private ends, advance the specious argument that the multiplicity of words given confuse and bewilder the pupil � the brief and irrefutable answer slay be made, that learning the definitions from a dictionary, the study of the classics, and the acquirement of any knowledge, is liable to the same sophistical objections. But skilful and conscientious teachers will not be dismayed by labor; and the child's eye, beaming with joy, as indications of an expanding mind, will dispel such arguments like mist before the burning sun.

By those who wish to travel the old beaten track, to use the books their forefathers used, this work may be cast aside as a "humbug;" and every other effort made to a rouse the unreflecting to a sense of the imminent dangers that now threaten the ruin of our Republic will also be cried down by those who feel that knowledge and morality endanger the wheedling politician's permanent hold on office. Some will, however, be found who regret the innovations of the day; who, like the Chinese, wish Us now to live as man lived two thousand years ago, trusting to the profession of rulers, and neglecting all the means by which we may know how well they live up to their vaunting professions of disinterested patriotism.

The present is an age of progress � the farmer uses labor-saving machines in agriculture; all the departments of human industry call to their aid, and are served by, the skill and ingenuity of modern inventions; the labor of months is now often performed in a few days; feats are accomplished that would formerly have been deemed incredible; and even the lightning of heaven has been bridled and broken to an express courser by man. Has it come to this, that every thing shall receive countenance and support save that only which affects the training of the young, that which has for its object the growth, the progress, the strength, the welfare of the immortal mind?

INTRODUCTION. 25

In two quarters have objections been raised to the use of a work of this kind in female seminaries. One class argue that political science is dry, uninteresting, and useless: "What," say they, "do young girls want to know of the Constitution of the United States? An accomplished education consists in dancing gracefully ; in being familiar with the contents, of every novel in English and French." The other class wish to limit woman's knowledge to cooking and washing. The former would make woman a toy of youth, to be deserted in age ; the latter, a cateress to man's selfishness � not a companion and equal, but his abject slave through life.

Who moulds the destiny of the future? Who makes an indelible impression on the infant mind ere it gives utterance to expressions of endearment and purity 2 Woman ! Ye master spirits of the present and the past century, who were the real authors of your greatness? What enabled you to fill the world with your fame, and engrave your names high on the pillars of immortality? The tomb resounds, MATERNAL INFLUENCE. Oh, shades of Washington and Napoleon ! How long will the world be learning that when the father's influence is no more felt, when the paternal spirit takes its flight, and leaves the widow and her infant brood to loneliness and woe, the educated mother's power is sufficient, soaring above the misfortunes of earth, to mould the character and shape the destiny of WORLD-RULERS?

Where is the man � yea, what man ever lived distinguished for great deeds and noble actions, for goodness and excellence, who owed not his eminence to the elevating influence of FEMALE POWER? What mother � yea what father � lives, believing that the mind is immortal, that God governs the universe and takes cognizance of the affairs of man, who would wish the daughter's mind to remain blank in reference to our social and political institutions? Who would wish the females of our country to remain for ever ignorant of the disinterested motives, the self-sacrifices of the founders of our Republic? Who would desire ANY to remain ignorant of the AMERICAS CONSTITUTION, the sheet-anchor of the world's liberties, and the guarantee alike of man's and woman's privileges? Who would wish the daughters of America to form alliances for life like the Turkish slave � who would wish fading beauty � wealth, "which takes to itself wings" � to be the soul of attraction? for when these begin to wane, she must bid farewell to earthly happiness, and it may be, through a defective education, to CELESTIAL

BLISS.

The female may even now he born on whom may fall the mantle of the combined virtues of the illustrious dead, whose name may yet animate a slumbering world to deeds of excellence and of piety. It may be that female fame may yet leave all names now first, second on earth's annals of renown. The female may even now live who may follow closer the precepts and the commands of the SAVIOUR, of mankind than ever mortal yet attained. \V ho is afraid that by the study of political and liberal science woman will usurp the duties of man? As the Creator has assigned the moon, the sun, and the stars, their respective orbits, so also has he prescribed the sphere and the duties of woman ; and glorious will be that day when she assumes an intelligent and a proper sway in the affairs of a SUFFERING WORLD.


26 INTRODUCTION.

LESSON V.

Particular attention is called to the novel plan of reading the questions, used in this book, and the answers thereto, in the Appendix. For this exercise the class should be separated into two divisions, facing each other. The poorest readers should be the questioners, who ought always to face the best readers, or answerers, For example, suppose the school to be in Maryland, and the class to be composed of Ann, Louisa, Sarah and Jane, the former two being the poorest readers. If Lesson X. be assigned, Ann begins with question 1, page 35, Miss Sarah, in what sense was Christendom formerly used? Sarah, having her book open at the 8th page of the Appendix, reads 1st answer of the 10th Lesson. Louisa then asks the 2d question on the 35th page, and Jane reads the 2d answer from the 8th page of the Appendix. A class of 30 or 40 may proceed in the same manner. The poorest readers in front of the best should proceed, in rotation, to read [ask] the questions, taking care always to raise the eyes and look at those questioned. The best readers, facing the poorest, should, in rotation, read [answer] the questions, each pupil, in turn, taking care always to look at the one propounding the query. Long practice in the school-room proves that these familiar dialogues and colloquies effectually break up ,drawling tones, lifeless monotony, heedlessness, &c., and impart to each pupil vigor, life, and accuracy. The tables are designed to be read as dialogues. For example, if the school be in Maryland, and Table III., page 334, be the reading exercise, Joint Ball, at the head of the 1st division, looks directly at William Lewis, who is at the head of the 2d division, and says, Mr. Lewis, (see question 40, page 334,) When is the election held in our state? William Lewis replies, (see Maryland, 11th state from the top, and the 2d column of figures,) Mr. Ball, the election in Maryland is held on the first Wednesday in October. It will be perceived that John adds to question 40, in our state. With little encouragement each pupil will be able to frame his own questions for the census tables of 1850. This book can be used by two different classes at the same time, the less advanced being selected to ask the questions. The Manual contains many mental questions such as are not generally found in school books. Every query is designed to lead the pupil to think, investigate, and reason. Reading the questions and the answers gives variety, and cannot be too highly commended. All who have tried this system speak of it as the best possible exercise for all scholars who are in the habit of reading too low or too fast. Asking and answering questions is the easiest and quickest way to elevate the voice to its natural pitch. The learner soon acquires the habit of reading with ease, distinctness, and elegance. The questions and answers are in reading -what the gammut is in music, a natural and an infallible guide. They are the simplest

INTRODUCTION. 27

kind of dialogues and colloquies, and gradually excite backward, inattentive, and indolent pupils to the highest degree of quickness and energy. It is, however, of the utmost importance that the class proceed, in reading these dialogues and colloquies, in the right way. By invariably raising the eyes in propounding and answering the queries, and looking at the person questioned or answered, the pupil is at once initiated into the secret of the best elocution, by following the natural instead of an artificial rule. Hence inattentive habits, indistinct enunciation, and mannerism, the great impediments to good reading, are effectually avoided. Long experience in the use of this plan has proved that the learners will soon use the language of the book clearly and naturally. Youth, in fact, form the habit of communicating what they read with the ease, facility, and clearness of animated conversation.* Pupils in rising to read should endeavor to feel that they are communicating the subject to all present, and talking the sentences read. The best readers are those who talk best to the persons in the school room. This plan will soon enable them to read with ease and facility. Accustomed to look constantly in advance of the word being pronounced, they read naturally, and will not make the slightest pause when they come to a difficult word, or raise their eyes towards the audience. The plan pursued in this work is not to make every part so plain that youth may understand it without study. The questions are of a mental character, and regard the pupil not as a parrot but as a rational being, susceptible of constant and progressive improvement. They are designed to lead youth, by easy and progressive steps, to the top of the ladder of thought.�

The marginal arrangement is believed to be the best method ever devised for forcing the eye in advance of the word being pronounced. It is most effectual in aiding the pupil to read with ease, fluency, and correctness. The exercises also give an accuracy and variety in expressing the same idea, and a command in the use of language. The marginal words that most consider best selected, may be, by a few, called the poorest. This conflicting opinion does not, however, detract any thing from their transcendent excellence. No work can ever receive the sanction of all. Even the Bible itself is loudly decried by a certain class. Suppose, however, that the author has not, in every case, selected the best marginal words, every human production must be imperfect. If the best expressions are not always used, then the

* One of the most eminent scholars of the age remarks that, "the highest degree of excellence in reading and speaking is attained by following nature's laws, and not torturing the young to read according to mechanical rules as various and as contradictory as the eccentricities of the authors who compose them."

� This subject is more extensively illustrated in a small book called "THE THINKER," by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh. The Thinker appropriately, precedes the American Manual. The Thinker probably contains a greater variety than any other took of its size over published. As a practical work of morality, it ought to be in the hands of every youth.


28 INTRODUCTION.

teacher can encourage the pupils to unwearied effort in selecting those which are better.* When the best are used, then the next best may be selected. Every educator will at once see that no class of marginal words could be selected that would alike suit all schools, and be equally acceptable to all teachers.

LESSON VI.

The questions in this book are intended to make separate and distinct reading lessons, and should be read [asked] by one division of the class and the answers (see page 4 of the Appendix) should be read [given] by the other division of the class. 1. [Mary.] Some words of the questions in this book are printed in italics, what is the meaning of italic? 2. [Jane.] What is the difference in meaning between suppressing and extending? 3, What is the meaning of prejudice? 4. [Susan.] You perceive the syllable un is placed before weaned, how does un, as a prefix, affect words? The questions and the answers thereto throughout this book are intended to be read by the pupils either as dialogues or colloquies, (see page 4, Lesson VI., of the Appendix,) In case the answers to the questions in the Appendix are lengthy, as is the case with the remarks that follow the 4th query, all the pupils in the class may read by turns, each reading only to a period.


EXPLANATIONS.

LESSON VII.

Spelling Definitions. Synonyms Unlike words Mental exercises


(§ 1.) This 1work is a family manual for reference,

Book.


and a text-book and reader for 1elementary

Primary


schools and academies. The marginal 1exercises

Lessons for practice


are peculiar to the 1author's schoolbooks.

Writer's.

5

(§ 2.) Before the 1top of the first letter

Upper part


of some word in each line is a 1diminutive

Very small


figure 1, which 1denotes that the word marked

Signifies


by it may be 1omitted, and the definition, or

Not mentioned


1some other expression that will convey a

Any 2

10

similar 1idea, be put in its stead. (§ 3.) For

Meaning


example, the 1first line may be read, "this

Top 2


book is a 1family manual," and so on through

General 2


the 1lesson, omitting the marked words, and

Exercise 2


1putting in their stead those in the margin.

Substituting


* It has generally been acknowledged whenever at first sight the best words appear not to nave been taken, or where the most difficult were not marked, that they were elsewhere exemplified.

DIRECTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS. 29

15

This 1Manual can be used as a reader in the

Book


largest 1public Schools, without occupying

Free 2


more time than the 1ordinary Readers. (§ 4.)

Common.


By reading in this 1book pupils gradually

Manual.


acquire a 1knowledge of our social and political

Familiarity with

20

institutions. Youth are 1thus led, by

In this way


1progressive steps, to cultivate a taste for useful

Easy and advancing


reading, 1industrious habits, and patient

Attentive


research, without which they are not 1properly

Suitably.


fitted for the 1duties Of after life. (§ 5.) The

Labors.

25

1alluring incentives of the Marginal words

Enticing.


give, by easy 1gradations, a variety of words

Steps


in expressing the same 1idea, and an accuracy

Thought


in the use of 1terms.* (§ 6.) Immediately

Words


before 1telling the meaning of the words

Giving

30

1marked by the small figure 1, the pupils

Labelled


should 1raise their eyes from the reading exercise,

Look


and 1look at those to whom they read.

Glance

LESSON VIII. � 1. To what does their refer? [line 14] 2. In what sentences can you use the word work [see Lesson VII, line 1] so that in each it shall convey a different meaning? 3. What is a paragraph? 4. What does analyze mean? 5. What is the meaning of marginal words? 6. Amos, what is a simple sentence? 7. Peter, what is a compound sentence? 8. Phillip, is it a bad plan to think, out of school, about the subject of your lesions? 9. Thomas, what does orally mean? 10. Henry, what is the difference in meaning between definition and synonym? 11. Joseph, illustrate the difference in the meaning of developing, strengthening, and elevating. 12. William, what is the meaning of mental faculties? 13. Asa, what is the meaning of metonomy? 14. Charles, what does rhetorician mean? 15. Timothy, what is the difference, in meaning, between intellectual and moral? 16. Alfred, what is the difference in meaning between progression and advancement? 17. Eli, from what is sentient derived? 18. Moses, what is the difference in meaning between incite and excite? 19. Stephen, in how many sentences can you use the word power, so that in each sentence it shall convey a different meaning? 20. Joshua, illustrate, in sentences, the difference in the meaning of strength, power and authority? 21. Edward, what do persons mean when they speak of pause, tone, and emphasis? 22. Edwin, what is the difference between scientific and literary? 23. Hiram, what is the meaning of a sentence, a paragraph, an essay, and a treatise? 24. Benjamin, what is the most important part of our education?

* See the Index, page 11 � See Rules for Reading, page 1, Appendix

3*


30 UTILITY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE.


LESSON IX.*



� (§1.) POLITICAL 1SCIENCE is an exceedingly

Knowledge


interesting and 1important study, and justly

Useful


1claims the attention, both of the young and

Demands.


of the old. It 1expands and strengthens the

Enlarges.

5

mind � 1increases our knowledge of human

Adds to


1nature � enables us to judge of the actions of

Character.


men, and understand the 1system of government

Plan


1under which we live, �(§ 2.) No American

Subject to


citizen can 1creditably perform the duties

Honorably.

10

incumbent on him, without a 1knowledge of

Acquaintance


the nature of political 1power. The Constitution

Authority.


of the United States is the most 1complex

Intricate.


yet perfect system of human 1policy

Government

15

ever established, and combines alike the 1excellencies

Good qualities


of all the 1illustrious States of ancient

Famous.


and modern 1times. �(§3.) It is, therefore,

Eras


1necessary for every citizen to know some-

Useful.

The difficult Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

�(§1.) 1 What is the meaning of "both of the young and of the old," in the 3d line? 2. What conjunction usually follows both? 3. Can you give an example in which both is substituted for a noun? �(§ 2 ) 4. When you substitute acquaintance for knowledge, in the 10th line, why do you change a to an? 5. In what country do you think the people the happiest and most powerful at the present time? 6. What do you think is the only guarantee of the perpetuity of liberty and the happiness of communities? 7. Can you name some of the causes which led to the settlement of this country? 8. What do you think has contributed to make the people of the United States so prosperous and happy? �(§ 3) 9. Why is the study of political science interesting

* Lesson IX is the beginning of the main subject of this work To meet the convenience of different Teachers who must necessarily have classes of varied attainments the lessons are generally divided into 10 or 12 sections each of which usually contains from 8 to 12 lines. It will be borne in mind, that these sections are merely arbitrary divisions and not paragraphs. According to this arrangement Teachers may, with the utmost ease vary the lessons they wish to assign. For some classes, one section may be enough for a task, others may take 2 3 4 5 6 sections or it may be, even a whole lesson, for a single exercise. The answers to the questions are often not found in the Lesson and are intended to stimulate the pupils to industrious habits out of school � to develope thoroughly the mental and moral powers � to train properly the young for the momentous duties and responsibilities that await them in the future. Teachers will perceive that each section of questions is intended to correspond to its numbered section in the context

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. 31


thing of the 1origin and progress of political

Rise


science, its nature and 1necessity; to understand

Need

20

the causes and 1circumstances which

Incidents


have 1contributed to found States and Empires;

Helped


the means by which they 1acquired

Attained.


honor and 1renown; the reasons of their

Fame.


real happiness and 1grandeur; and the true

Splendor

25

causes of their 1degeneracy and ruin.

Destruction


(§4.) Government is 1a science of the most

*One


exalted character, and can only be 1learned

Acquired.


by study. It 1combines reason, morality,

Unites


and wisdom, and 1approximates to the attributes

Approaches

30

of Divine power. In 1treating, therefore,

Discoursing


of the Constitution of the 1United States,

Confederacy


and the 1duties of citizens, it seems proper

Obligations


to commence with the 1origin and progress

Beginning.


of 1government.

Political power.


(§ 5.) ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.


35

It is the nature of each 1order of created

Class


beings to take 1pleasure in one another's

Enjoyment


company. The beasts of the 1forest, and

Wilderness

and useful to all? 10. Why is it necessary for everyone to know something of the nature of political power? 11. What is the difference between ancient and modern times? 12. Can you name some of the most famous nations of antiquity? 13. Illustrate the difference between ruin, in the 25th line, and destruction. (§ 4 ) 14. Can you illustrate the meaning of government, in the 26th line? 15. How many simple sentences can you name in each of which government shall have a different meaning? 16. Why is the science of government a subject of much importance? 17. In what country is it necessary for every one to understand the principles of government? 18. Why do you suppose it is more necessary for people to be enlightened under a republican than under a despotic government? 19. Ought all the people in every country to be educated? 20. Why do you suppose, in treating of the Constitution of the United States, it is proper to begin with the origin and progress of government? * What do


32 ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT.


the birds of the air, herd and 1 flock together;

Collect


but the 1power is given to the human race

Ability.

40

alone, to 1look through the vista of past, and

See.


of future time, to derive 1 wisdom from the

Knowledge.


Creator of all, and enjoy the 1inestimable

Invaluable.


blessings of 1rational government. (§6.) The

Reasonable.


history of the people of 1 Israel is the only one

Jacob.

45

that carries on a continued 1narration from

Story.


the 1beginning of the world without any

Origin.


interruption, and even with this, there are

Disturbance.


occasionally chronological 1difficulties. Yet

Impediments


these are of minor importance, 1compared

Contrasted.

50

with the universal 1obscurity and uncertainty

Mystery.


which pertain to the 1annals of all other nations.

Histories.


(§ 7.) The Mosaic 1history, contained

Account.


in the first seven chapters of 1Genesis, is the

The first book of the Bible.


only reliable 1account of the world before

Narration.

.55

the 1deluge. Moses has related only those

Flood.


1momentous events which were necessary

Weighty.


for man to know; all minor 1details, which

Explanations

you think is the difference between a and one? (§5.) 21. What is the meaning of all, in the 42d line? 22. What do you think is the nature of each order of created beings? 23. Can you name any created beings, besides the birds and the beasts, that take pleasure in each other's company? 24. Can you name some of the advantages the human race has over all other orders of created beings? 25. Can you assign any reason why forest, in the 37th line, is used instead of forests, inasmuch as there are many forests in the world, and the author is speaking in general terms? (§6.) 26. What is the meaning of one, in the 44th line? 27. Can you tell why Jacob was called Israel?

28. In how many simple sentences can you use story, in the 45th line, so that the word shall in each case convey a different meaning?

29. What is understood after this, in the 47th line? 30. What is the meaning of chronological, in the 48th line? 31. What does these refer to, in the 49th line? (§7.) 32. Give an account of the eventful life of Moses. 33. Can you give an account of the flood? 34. Do you suppose they had any printed books in the time of Moses? 35. How do you suppose this account of Moses was originally recorded?

ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT. 38


would be exceedingly interesting and 1gratifying

Pleasing.


to us, have been 1omitted. (§ 8.) We are,

Neglected.

60

however, led to 1 infer from this history, that

Conclude.


the origin of government arose from 1paternal

Fatherly.


authority, and is nearly 1coeval with the

Of equal age.


creation. We are 1informed that the first

Told.


man 1 lived 930 years; that his children and

Existed.

65

their 1descendants generally attained a similar

Offspring.


longevity. (§ 9.) This great length of human

Length of life


life would, in a few 1centuries, have filled the

Hundreds of years.


earth with a 1dense population; and it would

Thick.


certainly have been natural for all to 1reve-

Regard.

70

rence the authority of their common 1progenitor,

Ancestor.


who probably 1received much knowledge

Obtained.


by 1inspiration,and retained a greater amount

Divine influence.


of 1virtue and wisdom than any of his cotem-poraries.

Moral goodness.


Moreover, it is reasonable to 1suppose,

Conceive.

Excellent

75

that the one who stood 1preeminent in

above others.


experience and years would be 1sovereign of

Ruler.


those in his 1vicinity. (§ 10.) The duties of

Neighborhood.


rulers and of parents are in many respects

Governors.


nearly 1allied; both are bound by the holiest

Connected.

36. Why do you suppose we have not a more detailed account of the world before the flood? (§ 8.) 37. Whence do you suppose government originated? 38. Assign all the reasons you can for this conclusion? 39. Who was the first man? 40. What can you say of his extraordinary career. (§9.) 41. What does all mean, in the 69th

line? 42. Can you name some of the different parts of speech in the margin? 43. * Which of the marginal exercises affords you the greatest facility in composing simple sentences? 44. Who do you suppose is meant by ancestor, in the 70th� line? 45. How do you suppose his attainments in virtue and wisdom compared with his cotemporaries? (§10.) 46. In what respects are the duties of rulers and of parents similar? 47. Who do you suppose, among rulers, merits most

* Intended to exercise the discriminating powers.

� The line in the margin is generally synonymous with the one in the context.


34 ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.

80

ties to promote the happiness of those 1com-

Entrusted.


mitted to their 1charge � both are entitled to

Care.


respect and obedience; and the most 1enviable

Desirable.


and exalted title any ruler can 1 acquire

Receive.


is "the father of his 1country." (§ 11.) Formerly,

Native land

85

fathers exercised an 1absolute sway

Unlimited.


over their families and considered it 1 lawful

Right.


to 1deprive even their children of life; and this

Dispossess.


1custom is still sanctioned by many savage

Usage.


tribes, and 1prevails in the oldest and most

Predominates.

90


populous 1empire in the world.* How thankful

Region including several countries


ought we to be, who are alike 1exempt

Free.


from 1despotism and unrestrained liberty;

Arbitrary rule.


and enjoy the 1inestimable blessings of a

Priceless.


1republican government, and the heavenly

Representative.

95

influence of our HOLY RELIGION.

Power.

the gratitude of mankind? 48. Who, among all the innumerable hosts that have ever lived, do you suppose deserves most our gratitude and veneration? 49. What is enviable, in the 82d line, derived from, and is it generally used in a good or a bad sense? 50. Can you name any word that may convey one meaning in one sentence, and directly its opposite in another? 51. What is the difference between the meaning of acquire and receive, in the 83d line? (§ 11.) 52. Name, in this lesson, a simple sentence�53. A compound sentence�54. A paragraph. 55. Can you name any revolting custom that formerly prevailed, and is sanctioned by the unenlightened at the present day? 56. Name some of the peculiarities, advantages, and blessings resulting from Christianity. 57. What is the oldest and most populous empire in the world? 58. How many times larger, in population, is China than the United States? 59. What nation do you suppose is the most power-I ful? 60. In which do you suppose the people the happiest? 61. Can you name any peculiarities in the natural productions, works of art, language, literature, &c., of China? 62. How do you suppose the power of the Emperor of China compares with that of the President of the United States? 63. In which country would you rather live? 64. Why? 65. What invaluable privilege and unfailing source of happiness have the people of our country that the Chinese do not enjoy 3

* A prominent feature of this work is to excite investigation, thought, reflection, and reason ; Teachers and Parents should, therefore, afford all possible facilities in encouraging the young to read out of school, and give extended narrations of all the knowledge thus industriously obtained

ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT. 35


LESSON X.



(§ 1.) Between the laws in 1Christendom,

Regions inhabited by Christians


however, and the 1regulations of a family,

Rules.


there are several 1material differences; the

Very important.


latter are of a more 1limited character.

Restricted.

5

When children arrive at 1age, they are as free

Twenty-one years.


as their parents � but citizens are 1always under

At all times.


the control of the 1 laws of their country.

Regulations.


(§ 2.) Governments may and often do 1inflict

Impose.


1capital punishment, but no parent is ever

A punishment that takes away life.

10

allowed to exercise this 1prerogative. The

Peculiar authority.


law speaks with authority, and 1commands �

Orders.


the parent admonishes, 1entreats or advises.

Persuades.


The child, in his 1turn, may become a parent

Vicissitude.


� but it does not 1consequently follow that

Accordingly.

15

the parent may exercise the 1 functions of

Powers.


government.

Polity.


(§ 3.) The first 1governments, like the first

Systems of polity.


arts and 1sciences, were exceedingly imperfect.

Collection, of leading truths relating to any subject


The 1patriarchs often ruled with despotic

Ancient fathers of mankind

20

1sway, yet they were not able to impart

Power.


harmony and 1 happiness even among those

Felicity.


who were 1affiliated to them by the tenderest

Bound.

The difficult Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

(§1.) 1. In what sense was Christendom formerly used? 2. What are some of the differences between national and family government? 3. Wherein consists the propriety of assigning a fixed age as minority? (§ 2.) 4. What is meant by capital punishment? 5. What is the design of punishment? 6. Is there any other way of inducing a compliance with rectitude? 7. What is the proper treatment of incorrigible offenders? (§3) 8. Why were the earliest systems of government defective? 9. Has experience the effect to improve polity? 10. Can you tell the condition of the first laws, arts, and sciences, and name some of the improvements that have been made in each? 11. What is understood by despotic power? 12. In what grade 01


36 ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.


ties; 1discord and murder entered the family

Contention.


of the first ruler of the human 1race. (§ 4.)

Family.

25

Want of proper order and 1government among

Discipline.


the families of mankind increased till 1 licentiousness

Unrestrained liberty.


and 1depravity prevailed to so great

Destitution of holiness.


an extent, that from the vast 1multitudes of

Population.


the earth only eight 1righteous persons were

Pioas.

30

to be found 1worthy of preservation. Then

Deserving.


the 1vengeance of heaven was kindled at the

Retribution.


1frenzied disorders of men, and the ALMIGHTY,

Maddening.


who governs with the 1utmost harmony and

Greatest.


regularity, the boundless 1universe, determined

System of cre-

ated worlds

35

to 1destroy the whole dense population

Extirpate.


of the earth with a 1universal deluge.

Overwhelming.


(§ 5.) Hence it appears that an 1abiding sense

Permanent*


of the 1omniscience and 2omnipresence� of

Power of knowing all things


God, and personal accountability to him for all

2 Presence in every place at the same time.

40

that each one 1does, says, and even thinks, is

Performs.


necessary to secure 1undying grandeur.

Immortal.

society can despotic power be exercised? (§ 4.) 13. Under what circumstances are licentiousness and depravity most likely to prevail? 14. Do you think of any appalling desolation that the Almighty sent upon the earth, on account of the lawless spirit and wickedness of its inhabitants? 15. Why does the author use boundless before universe, in the 34th line? 16. Can you give some idea of the extent of the universe? 17. Which is the easiest to define, the extent of the universe, the commencement of time, or the duration of eternity? 18. What should these things teach us? 19. How does human life and all earthly happiness compare with the duration and joys of eternity?

20. Had the earth probably become very populous before the flood?

21. What cause could have accumulated so numerous a population in the comparative infancy of the earth? (§ 5.) * When you substitute permanent for abiding, in the 37th line, why do you alter an to a? 22. How are you pleased with the study in which you are now engaged? 23. Do you consider it important? 24. Who do you think will be the legislators and governors in our country 40, 50, 60 or 70 years hence? 2&. Should you ever be a legislator, a judge, or a governor, what is it ne-

� The figures 2, 3, 4, &c., before words, refer to words similarly marked in the margin.

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. 37


This 1immutable truth should be indelibly

Unchangeable.


1engraven alike on the hearts of rulers and

Impressed.


the 1ruled. With this sense, the former can

Governed.

45

safely 1attain the pinnacle of earthly fame

Reach.


and have their names 1transmitted in grateful

Handed down.


remembrance to 1posterity. By piety

Succeeding generations.


the former and the latter can alike 1secure

Make certain


temporal comfort and 1everlasting happiness.

Eternal.

50

(§ 6.) The world has been 1created nearly

Made.


six thousand years, yet, for want of 1order

Method.


and suitable government, individuals, 1tribes,

Races.


and 1nations have been to each other the greatest

Communities


1scourge. Even at the present day, of

Punishment.

55

the 1estimated nine hundred millions of the human

Computed.


1race, that now inhabit the globe, how

Family.


few are in the enjoyment of wise 1 laws and

Regulations.


salutary 1government!

Control.


(§ 7.) Immediately after the flood, the 1Lord

Supreme Being.

60

blessed Noah and his sons and 1commanded

Ordered.


them to "replenish the earth," which 1denoted

Signified.


that they should be divided into 1separate nations, under 1various governments,

Distinct



Several


and dwell in 1different countries, till every

Dissimilar.

cessary for you constantly to remember? 26. Should you forget this, what would be your future fate among posterity�and before what infallible tribunal will you have to appear and answer for your conduct?

27. After we die, where must we all appear and for what purpose?

28. What effect should this consideration produce on youth? 29. What on men? (§ 6.) 30. What is the reputed age of the earth? 31. What its present population? 32. How is that population politically divided? 33. What has been the nature of their respective intercourse? 34. Does this intercourse resemble that between the respective States of the American confederacy? (§ 7.) 35. Illustrate the difference between denoted and signified, in the 61st line�36. separate and distinct, in the 62d line�37. various and several, in the 63d line�38. different and dissimilar, in the 64th line. 39. What was the


38 ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.

65

part of the earth was 1reinhabited. Upwards

Inhabited anew.


of one hundred years after the 1 flood,

Inundation.


the descendants of Noah, under the 1command,

Control.


1doubtless, of Nimrod, "journeyed

Without doubt


from the east, and 1settled on a plain in the

Fixed their habitations.

70

land of Shinar." (§8.) They rapidly 1increased

Augmented.


in number, but, 1regardless of the

Neglectful.


commands of the Almighty, they 1determined

Resolved.


to have but one government � to 1remain one

Continue.


nation � and 1 formed a plan "to build a city,

Devised.

75

and a 1tower whose top would reach unto

Lofty fortress


heaven." Thus, among other 1purposes, the

Uses.


tower would be a 1 beacon to guide the inhabitants

Sign.


back to the city when they had 1wandered

Strayed.


to a great distance in 1search of the

Quest

80

1necessaries of life; it would be a centre of

Requisites.


union, and they would thereby not be 1disunited

Divided.


and 1scattered abroad upon the face of

Dispersed.

exact number of years after the flood, when the people commenced building the Tower of Babel, and why do you suppose the term "upwards of 100 years" should be used in the 65th line? 40. Can you tell where it is recorded that the Lord blessed Noah and his sons? 41. Can you tell who Nimrod was, and why do you suppose it without doubt that the hordes that "journeyed from the east" were under Nimrod's command? 42. As Noah was living at this time, what reason can you assign why he had not the command instead of Nimrod? 43. What leads us to infer that the hordes that "journeyed from the east and settled on a plain in Shinar" did not include all the inhabitants of the earth? 44. Can you tell where the land of Shinar was? (§ 8.) 45. What is the difference between disunited and divided, in the 81st line? 46. Why do you suppose the people did not intend the tower as a place of refuge in case of another flood? 47. What do you suppose were some of the objects of the tower? 48. What name was given to the tower? 49. What was the meaning of the name? 50. What do you suppose were some of the reasons why the people wished to have but one government? 51. How did the Lord countenance this plan of having one grand ruler of all mankind? 52. What effect has increasing the territory and population of a country on the power of rulers? 53. Does the more power rulers possess generally

ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT. 39


the whole 1earth. (§9.) It appears, moreover,

Habitable globe.


that they sought their own 1glory, and wished

Renown.

85

to obtain 1adoration and fame among posterity.

Praise.


Yet it is 1remarkable that of all that

Extraordinary.


ambitious 1host not a single name is mentioned

Multitude.


by any 1 historian.

Writer.


We may here 1derive a most instructive

Obtain.

90

lesson on the 1vanity of all earthly fame, and

Pride.


the weakness and 1folly of man if not guided

Irrationality.


by the 1unerring precepts of heaven. (§ 10.)

Infallible.


The 1whole race at that time spoke the same

Entire.


language. 1Jehovah, who gave to man speech,

The Lord.

95

by a 1miracle dissolved this powerful bond

Wonder.


of union, scattered the different 1tribes, and

Hordes.


thus, by 1dividing the languages, divided the

Separating.


governments; 1accordingly, since then, every

Therefore.


nation has had a 1language and government

Dialect.

100

1peculiar to itself. Thus it appears that the

Appropriate.


1descendants of Noah, after the confusion of

Offspring.


languages, 1occupied a position similar to

Held.


that of the first 1parents of mankind; and

Ancestors.


nearly two thousand years after the 1world

Earth.

increase or decrease their regard for the rights of their subjects and their morals and piety? (§ 9.) 54. In how many simple sentences can you use the word host, in the 87th line, so that in each case it shall convey a different meaning? 55. Can you use it so that in one sentence it shall convey a meaning directly the opposite of what it does in the other? 56. Can you name any Republic that has a Christian government? 57. Can you mention any powerful nation that once adopted a republican government, and rejected Christianity? 58. What has been the fate of every nation that has not been governed by Christian laws? (§ 10). 59. Do you know whether learned men have thought the term confusion of languages might bear another construction? 60. What reasons can you assign that seem to prove beyond doubt that the opinion generally received is correct? 61. What was the exact number of years, according to the most accredited authorities, after the creation, that the confusion of languages occurred?


40 ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT.

105

had been created, we find society 1resolved

Reduced.


to nearly its 1primitive state, and government

First


in its infancy. (§ 11.) The 1post-diluvians

Persons living since the flood.


had, however, 1retained some important features

Kept


of the Divine 1statutes. After centuries

Laws.

110

of 1experience, trials, and sufferings, we

Tests.


find mankind governed by those 1rules and

Maxims.


precepts which derive their 1origin from sentiments

First existence.


of 1equity and justice, engraven on

Rectitude.


the human heart by the 1invisible hand of

Unseen.

115

1Providence.

Divine guidance.

62. What natural monuments go to prove, independent of revelation, that the Lord intended that there should be many governments? (§ 11.) 63. Do the natural divisions of the earth into separate continents, islands, &c., seem to indicate that the Almighty intended one nation to have absolute sway? 64. What reasons can you assign why it would not be well to have a republican president govern the whole world? 65. What has heretofore been the fate of republics that have attempted universal dominion? 66. Is our own republic the most powerful that has ever existed 1 67. What do you suppose contributes most to the happiness of man?


LESSON XI.



(§ 1). IT appears evident, that the first 1governments

Systems of polity.


were not the result of 1deliberations.

Mutual discussions and exa-

minations.


The 1usages of the patriarchs, established

Customs.


without the 1sanction of legislative

Support

5

1assemblies, gradually became the first laws

Parliaments.


among mankind. Consequently, these 1customs

Usages.


were the origin of all the 1political

National.

The difficult Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

(§ 1.) 1. What do you think ought to be the object of every government? 2. Mention some of the advantages likely to result from legislative deliberation. 3. Under what governments do you

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. 41


regulations that have either 1depressed or

Degraded.


1ameliorated the condition of the human race

Made better.

10

in all 1succeeding ages. (§ 2.) In the different

Following.


societies that were 1formed after the confusion

Organized.


of tongues, and the 1dispersion of "the

Separation.


people," at the building of the Tower of 1Babel,

Confusion.


were persons noted for 1physical power,

Superior strength.

15

skill, and 1bravery. Those who enjoyed

Courage.


these 1 blessings soon acquired public confidence

Advantages.


and admiration. Hence the 1utility of

Benefit.


their services, and the favorable 1opinion of

Sentiment


men, enabled them gradually to acquire 1dominion.

Supreme authority.

20

(§ 3.) The 1records of all nations

Authentic memorials.


prove that the first rulers owed their 1ascendancy

Superiority.


to the 1services they had rendered society,

Benefits.


or to military 1prowess. Nimrod was

Valor.


the 1founder of the first empire of which we

Establisher.

25

have any 1authentic account. We are informed

Reliable.


by the 1sacred historian that he was

Divine.


a mighty hunter, and are led to 1infer that the

Conclude.


people were often with him, that they 1gradually

By degrees.


put themselves 1under his authority.

Subject to.

30

In 1process of time, he conquered nations,

Progressive course.


increased his power, and 1 founded the

Established.

think a majority of the people enjoys the most happiness? (§ 2) 4. Do you suppose there were any distinguished personages at the building of the Tower of Babel? 5. Who do you suppose of those Babel-builders acquired dominion? 6. Do you think of any endowments that are requisite for every ruler to possess in rendering service to the community? 7. What is of the utmost consequence that all should possess? 8. May everyone possess this inestimable blessing? (§ 3.) 9. What sort of men have generally been the first rulers of nations? 10. Who was the founder of the first empire of which we have any authentic account? 11. Who informs us what this man was, and what he became? 12. Illustrate the meaning of Sacred His-


42 ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT,


Babylonian, or Assyrian 1empire, for he became

Realm.


a " 1mighty one in the earth."

Powerful.


(§4.) It is a 1remarkable, but irrefutable

Extraordinary.*

35

1fact, that the first human governments were

Truth.


of a 1despotic character. Yet they were

Absolute.*


1baneful in their operation, and signally failed

Ruinous.


in securing permanent order, 1harmony, prosperity,

Concord.


or 1tranquillity to individuals � peace

Freedom from trouble.

40

between tribes and nations, or the 1permanent

Lasting.


power and 1magnificence of empires.

Grandeur.


The 1deleterious influences of the arbitrary

Destructive.


will and 1unbridled passions of rulers,

Licentious.


the 1usurpation of human rights by petty

Unlawful seizing.

45

chiefs and mighty 1monarchs, affected all

Sovereigns.


classes, till universal 1contamination and

Pollution.


depravity prevailed. (§ 5.) Herodotus, who

Wickedness.


is styled the father of 1profane history, informs

Secular.


us that the Medes, after having 1rejected

Shaken off

tory. (§ 4.) 13. *In substituting extraordinary for remarkable, and absolute for despotic, why do you change a to an? 14. What was the character of the first human laws? 15. What was their result in relation to individuals �16. tribes and nations�17. and empires? 18. Do you suppose people generally look to their rulers for examples to imitate? 19. Do you suppose evil rulers tend to make good people wicked? 20. If rulers usurp, or steal, or rob, or get intoxicated, what are their subjects likely to do? 21. What would be the tendency of righteous rulers on a vicious or corrupt people? 22. Do you suppose people would be likely to become tacked or corrupt, if they always had pious rulers? 23. Do you think any one can commit a crime and escape punishment? 24. Is it wise or foolish, then, to do wrong? 25. Is it the mark of a great or a little mind to do wrong? 26. Can you mention any authority from the BIBLE that has reference to this subject? 27. Who do you think are the happiest in this life, those that do wrong, or those that strive to do right? 28. Who do you think stand the best chance of being happy in the life to come, those that are indolent and vicious, or those that are industrious and strive to be good? (§ 5.) 29. What is history? 30. Who is styled the father of profane history? 31. What is profane history? 32. Can you give any account of the nature and power Of the Assyrian or

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. 48

50

the1 Assyrian yoke, were some time without

Tyranny of the Assyrians


any form of government, and 1anarchy prevailed

Intestine broils


and subjected them to the most 1 horrible

Fearful.


excesses and 1disorders. It was at

Tumults.


length 1resolved by them, that, in order to

Determined

55

avoid their 1direful calamities, they would

Woeful.


elect a king. Dejoces, a man of 1consummate

Complete.


prudence and skill, was 1unanimously

Without dissent.


1elected.

Selected.


(§ 6.) In the 1primitive ages crowns were

Pristine.

60

often elective, and those were 1selected who

Chosen.


were either capable of 1dispensing justice

Distributing.


to their subjects, or of 1commanding them

Directing.


in time of war. The 1dominions of the first

Territories..


monarchs were of small 1extent. In the

Limit.

65

early ages, every city had its king. 1Sacred

Holy.


and 1profane historians alike bear testimony

Secular.


to the narrow bounds of 1ancient kingdoms,

Primitive.


and the valor and even excellent 1traits of

Qualities.


their rulers. Joshua 1defeated thirty-one

Overthrew.

70

kings; and Adonibezek 1owned that in his

Confessed.

Babylonian empire? 33. What do you suppose contributed to the overthrow of the Assyrian empire? 34. What was the character of the government of the Medes after they had shaken off the tyranny of the Assyrians? 35. Why do you suppose their government did not continue a democracy? (§ 6.) 36. From whom did sovereigns in the primitive ages derive their power to govern? 37. If sovereigns sometimes derived their power to govern from the Lord, what name ought to be given such government? 38. Can you name any remarkable texts in scripture to prove that the Lord did not approve of kingly government? 39. What do you suppose was the earliest kind of government? 40. What was the first kind of human government? 41. What was the second kind of human government? 42. What were formerly considered requisites in a king? 43. Do you suppose modern kings are the most learned and virtuous people in the nations they respectively govern? 44. What are your reasons for this opinion? 45. Were monarchies formerly extensive? 46. What reasons can you


44 ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.


wars he had destroyed " 1three score and ten

Seventy.


kings." (§ 7.) Egypt was 1originally divided

Primarily.


into several states. The different 1provinces

Dominions.


that compose the present 1empires of China

Regions.

75

and Japan, formed 1anciently as many distinct

Of old.


1sovereignties. A few families assembled in

Dominions.


one neighborhood composed all the 1subjects

Vassals.


of many of the first 1monarchs. Africa, a

Kings


1part of Asia, and the Indian tribes of our

Portion

80

own 1continent, present us with samples

Hemisphere.


similar in many 1respects to the primitive

Particulars.


monarchies.

Kingdoms.


(§ 8.) But the 1ambition of monarchs � the

Inordinate grasping.


desire to 1transmit to their posterity their

Hand down.

85

power and their 1 fame, as well as their property,

Renown.


among other causes 1induced them to

Influenced.


usurp the rights 1delegated to man by his

Intrusted.

assign for this opinion? (§ 7.) 47. What was formerly the political condition of Egypt? 48. What other sources prove that monarchies were not originally extensive? 49. Do you suppose crowns are still elective? 50. What is your reason for this opinion? 51. What countries, at the present,day, are in some respects similar to the primitive monarchies? 52. What remarkable fact, independent of revelation, proves the existence of God, and of our souls after our bodies turn to dust? (§ 8.) 53. What is the principle which induces us to desire to transmit our possessions to our particular heirs? 54. What is your opinion about the justice and propriety of the law of inheritance? 55. Why do you suppose the law of inheritance ought not to apply to power and office, as well as to property? 56. Wherever it has so applied, what has been the uniform result? 57. Do you suppose human nature is the same now that it always has been? 58. What are your reasons for this opinion? 59. Do you suppose there is no danger that the rulers of a republic will ever abuse authority entrusted to them? 60. What are your reasons for this opinion? 61. If a farmer hires a man to work, or a merchant employs a clerk, or a mechanic an apprentice, and the employed, in either case, abuse the trust confided to him, what is usually done? 62. Who are the employed, the rulers or the people? 63. What ought to be done, when rulers abuse the trust confided to them? 64. Why do you suppose a

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. 45


creator. 1Accordingly all history shows, that

Consequently


as the 1power of the ruler has been increased

Authority.

90

the rights of the 1ruled have been disregarded.

Subjects.


(§ 9.) Hence, the 1mightiest empires of the

Most powerlul.


1earth, the Babylonian, the Assyrian, the

World.


Egyptian, and the Chinese, 1with all

As well as.


those of later 1ages, as they increased in

Times.

95

1territory and population, became hereditary.

Area.


But the highest 1dazzling power ever possessed

Brilliant.


by any 1monarch, the renown of the

Potentate.


mightiest 1armies that have ever been led to

Hosts.


the field of 1slaughter, have exhibited alike

Butchery.

100

the 1insensibility, the degradation, the hopeless

Stupidity.


misery of the 1mass of the subjects, and

Body.


the 1 fatuity, the wretchedness of their rulers.

Imbecility.


Without the light of Divine 1revelation, what

Communication.


stronger 1proof need be adduced to demonstrate

Evidence.

105

to all the absolute 1necessity of integrity

Want.


and 1piety, than the total ruin of all

Duty to God.


1ancient empires and republics, whose surpassing

Old.


power and 1magnificence would be

Grandeur.


deemed a 1fable were it not that their crumbling

Falsehood.


1monuments still attest that they existed.

Relics.

people that can neither read nor write cannot tell when authority is abused? (§ 9.) 65. What effect has absolute power always produced on rulers? 66. Their subjects? 67. What rendered the Babylonian, Assyrian empires, &c., unable to cope with other nations? 68. How many lives do you suppose have been sacrificed to gratify the vanity or ambition of a few men clothed with authority? 69. How much treasure? 70. What incalculable good do you suppose might be accomplished with the treasure, the talent, and the lives that have been wasted in war? 71. Do yon suppose it is pleasing to the Almighty Ruler of the universe to have discord and contention among men? 72. What has Christ, through whose atonement alone we can be saved, commanded? 73. Do you suppose the time will come when wars will cease? 74. What does the Bible say about this subject?


46 PRIMITIVE LAWS.


LESSON XII.



(§ 1.) AMONG the earliest 1laws instituted,

Statutes.


was, undoubtedly, the 1establishment of the

Institution.


1regulations concerning property � the punishment

Rules.


of crimes � the ceremonies of 1marriage.

Matrimony.

5

These 1usages, which experience has

Customs.


proved to be indispensable to the 1well-being

Happiness.


of mankind, were coeval with the first 1form

System.


of human government. (§ 2.) We 1find, in

Learn.


the early ages, that the penal laws were

Punishing.

10

extremely 1severe. By the code of Moses,

Rigorous.


1blasphemy, idolatry, profanation of the sabbath,

Irreverence toward Jehovah.


1witchcraft, and many other crimes,

Sorcery.


were punished with death. Yet it is 1remarkable,

Eminently worthy of note.


that the laws of Moses were 1exceedingly

Transcendently.

15

tender of all the 1irrational creation.

Created beings not possessing reason.


The Mosaic statutes have 1received the approbation

Obtained.


of the wise and good of all 1succeeding

Following.


ages. They are the 1basis of the

Foundation.

The difficult Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

(§ 1.) 1. Name some of the earliest laws instituted. 2. Have people ever deviated from these usages? 3. What are your reasons for this opinion? 4. Do you suppose these usages were designed or sanctioned by the Creator? 5. What are your reasons for this opinion? 6. Can you name a few instances where men in the most exalted human stations, possessing unlimited power, have been signally abased for deviating from these primitive laws? 7. Were the primitive lams lenient? 8. What are your reasons for this opinion? (§ 2.) 9. What is the meaning of sabbath, in the 11th line? 10. When was the sabbath first observed as a day of rest? 11. Do you think it a good or a bad plan to loiter away one's time on the sabbath? 12. Assign your reasons for this opinion. 13. Can you name any nation that has attained either durable happiness or power, that profaned the sabbath? 14. How do our laws compare with those of the primitive ages? 15. What reasons can you assign why ours may with safety be more lenient? 16. How do the laws of Moses compare with all other laws? 17. Where are the laws

PRIMITIVE LAWS. 47


laws of our country, and have 1remained

Continued.

20

unaltered, stood the 1test of the most profound

Scrutiny.


1criticism, and received the Veneration

Animadversion


of nations for upwards of three thousand

2 Reverence.


years. (§ 3.) In every age, the more 1 important

Weighty.


1transactions of society, such as purchases,

Affairs.

25

sales, marriages, 1sentences of judges,

Judicial decisions.


the 1claims of citizens, &c., have had a

Titles.


certain degree of 1notoriety, in order to

Publicity.


secure their execution and 1validity. Hence

Justness.


certain 1forms have been established for

Prescribed modes.

30

drawing 1deeds, certain persons authorized

Contracts.


to receive them, and public 1places appropriated

Apartments.


to preserve them; for the 1welfare

Prosperity.


of society depends upon the 1sacredness of

Inviolableness.


the 1engagements of its members.

Mutual promises.

35

(§4.) In the primitive 1ages, the art of

Eras.


writing was not 1practised; consequently all

Exercised.


1contracts and deeds were verbal; yet it was

Bargains.

of Moses found? 18. Have our laws any similarity to those of Moses? 19. What is your reason for this opinion? 20. Why do you suppose the laws of Moses were so perfect? (§ 3.) 21. Illustrate the meaning of im before portant, in the 23d line. 22. What does ty, ending words, denote, as society, in the 24th line? 23. What is im, and also ty, called? 24. Why are they so called? 25. What is the meaning of the affix ty, in notoriety, in the 27th line? 26. What is the meaning of ty, in validity, in the 28th line? 27. Why do you suppose the line is always named in which the prefixes and affixes are used? 28. Does ty affixed to words always have the same meaning? 29. Is ty ever used as a prefix? 30. Why is it not a prefix in the word tyrant? 31. With what words are prefixes and affixes used? 32. In how many simple sentences can you use the words notoriety, validity, forms, drawing, sacredness, engagements, and deeds, in the 27th, 38th, 29th, 30th, 33d, and 34th lines, so that in each case they shall convey a different meaning? 33. From what is sacredness derived, in the 33d line? 34. Is there any thing peculiar in its meaning? 35 What is your reason for this opinion? (§ 4.) 36. What is the meaning of con. placed before words, as consequently, in the 36th line, and con-


48 PRIMITIVE LAWS.


1necessary to have them acknowledged and

Requisite.


authenticated; hence, all 1proceedings in

Transactions

40

1transferring property were held in public,

Conveying.


and before 1witnesses. The same method

Deponents.


was 1adopted in dispensing justice among

Chosen.


the 1people; and the gates of cities were

Citizen.


usually 1resorted to for these purposes. (§ 5.)

Repaired.

45

Though the 1primitive inhabitants were not

Original.


skilled in the 1art of writing, yet they had

Profession.


adopted several 1expedients to supply its place;

Devices.


the most rational plan was to 1compose their

Form.


laws, histories, &c., in 1verse, and sing them;

Poetry.

50

thus were the first 1 laws of states and empires

Statutes.


1transmitted to posterity. It has been

Handed down.


1found, in all ages, that it is not enough that

Discovered.

tracts, 37th line? 37. * What is con called when placed before words? 38. *Why is it so called? 39. *Name some other syllables used in the same way. 40. Illustrate the meaning of con with some other words. 41. What is meant by deeds, in the 37th line? 42. What were verbal deeds? 43. How are deeds and contracts at the present day authenticated? 44. What is the difference between requisite and necessary, in the 38th line? 45. What do you understand by gates of cities, in the 43d line? 46. Why do you suppose we have no gates to cities in the United States? 47. Can you name any modern cities that have gates? (§ 5.) 48. What conjunction follows though, in the 45th line? 49. Why does this conjunction usually follow though, and what is it called? 50. What is the meaning of in before habitants, in the 45th line? 51. Why does not in have the same meaning before human, as inhuman? 52. As the ancients had not the art of writing, how did they record sentiments and events? 53. Can you name any specimens of history transmitted in verse? 54. Wherein are the functions of modern government essentially different from those of the ancients? 55. To what does its refer, in the 47th line? 56. What is the meaning of com, before pose, in the 48th line? 57. What is the difference between verse and poetry, in the 49th line? 58. What is the meaning of trans, before mitted, in the 51st line? 59. Illustrate its meaning with some other words. 60. Why do you suppose the primitive inhabitants were not skilled in the art of writing?

* The Teacher will bear in mind, that these questions, with all others of an intricate character, are to be omitted when the pupils are not advanced.

PRIMITIVE LAWS. 49


laws exist. It is 1requisite to provide for

Essential.


their 1execution; and as the early patriarchs

Performance

55

1presided over* their families, and settled the

Superintended.


disputes that naturally arose among their

Controver-

sies


children, so the first monarchs 1distributed

Allotted.


justice in person among their 1subjects.

Inferiors.


(§6.) It appears that the earliest 1rulers

Governors.

60

exercised the station of both 1magistrate and

Judge.


priest. We are informed that Moses, 1oppressed

Overburdened.


with the multiplicity of 1affairs, chose

Business.


a certain number of wise men to 1dispense

Administer


justice among the people. These judges 1decided

Settled.

65

all matters of small 1importance; but

Weight.


their decisions were 1subject to the 2supervision

Liable.


and reversion of Moses. The administration

2 Review.


of 1justice was, in the early ages, generally

Equity,

70

given to the 1priests, who determined

Spiritual directors.


all 1disputes, and inflicted such punishment

Contests.


as they 1deemed necessary.

Thought.


(§ 7.) 1Probably the earliest, and certainly

Likely.


the most important regulation 1in reference

Relating.

61. Who is the first writer mentioned in authentic history? (§ 6.) 62. What is the difference between a magistrate and a priest? 63. What is the meaning of in before formed, in the 6tst line? 64. Illustrate the meaning of in with some other words. 65. What is the meaning of in before flicted, in the 70th line? 66. What meaning do im, in, and il always have when prefixed to verbs? 67. Illustrate their meaning by examples. 68. What meaning do im, in, ig, ir, ne, dis, and ill have when placed before adjectives? 69. Are there any exceptions to this rule? 70. Illustrate their meaning by examples. 71. What offices did the earliest rulers fill? 72. Do you suppose one man is competent to fill so many offices? 73. Does it require more than erudition and talent to fill any of them? 74. Who were generally appointed, in the primitive ages, to dispense justice?

* The teacher will perceive that the definitions or synonyms of two or more words are sometimes given in the margin, in which case they are printed in italics.


50 PRIMITIVE LAWS.


to property, was 1assigning and securing

Allotting.

75

to each family a certain 1portion of land.

Piece.

The state of be-


This was the first step towards 1civilization,

ing refined in manners from


for among all savages lands are common;

primitive gross, ness, and im-

proved in arts

and learning.


they have no 1boundaries, no land-marks;

Limits.


every one seeks his 1subsistence where he

Support.

80

sees fit. But in the civilized 1state it is

Condition.


necessary to 1distinguish land, and adopt

Separate.


such rules as will secure to each 1member

Individual.


the 1 benefit of his labor; so that he who

Profit


sows may have a reasonable 1expectation of

Prospect.

85

reaping and enjoying the 1profits of his skill

Reward.


and 1industry. The rights of all ought to

Diligence.


be 1guaranteed, so that no one can seize the

Warranted.


1profits of another's labor. (§ 8.) Laws were

Proceeds.


early 1established, not only to regulate the

Enacted.

90

division of 1land, but also to guard against

Real estate.


and prevent 1usurpation. With a view to

Occupation without right


curb the grasping desires of 1avaricious and

Covetous.


tyrannizing oppressors, and to protect 1mutually

Reciprocally.


the rights of all, we 1 find that the earliest

Learn.

95

laws 1required every person to fix the

Demanded.


boundaries of his 1possessions by land-marks.

Property.

(§ 7.) 75. What was probably the first and most important regulation in reference to property? 76. What is the meaning of step, in the 76th line? 77. Why does not step have the same meaning before father?

78. Illustrate some of the different meanings of step in sentences.

79. How are lands held among all savages? 80. How do savages obtain their support? 81. What regulations are observed among all civilized nations? 82. Why do you suppose it necessary to have such rules? (§ 8.) 83. Why were other laws established besides those that regulate the division of land? 84. Do you suppose reason or revelaiion sanctions the ownership of a whole state by one, (wo, three, four, or Jive men? 85. Assign some reasons why it would not be well for a few men to own all the land in a whole nation? 86. What did the ancient laws require all persons to do? 87. What were all ex-

PRIMITIVE LAWS. 51


Moses 1expressly forbids the Israelites from

In direct terms.


removing the ancient 1boundaries of lands;

Limits.


and in the days of Job, those who 1removed

Displaced.

100

these marks were 1ranked among the worst

Classed.


of mankind. 1Profane history informs us of

Secular.


the importance attached to this most 1salutary

Advantageous.


regulation. 1Homer speaks of it as a

The father of poets.


custom of the highest 1antiquity. Virgil refers

Age.

105

it to the age of Jupiter, which 1appears

Seems.


with him to mean the 1 beginning of time.

Commencement.


(§ 9.) 1Agriculture first gave rise to property

Husbandry.


in 1lands; but this property must

Real estate.


change after the death of the 1owner. It

Proprietor.

110

is 1reasonable to suppose that after cultivating

Rational.


the 1land for years, men would become

Ground.


strongly attached to it, and desire to 1transmit

Convey.


its 1enjoyment to those bound to them by

Possession.


the holiest ties. Furthermore, the 1peace of

Tranquillity.

115

society required that some 1permanent, regulation

Durable.


should be 1established in reference to

Settled.

pressly prohibited from doing? 88. How are lands measured? 89. If land-marks are removed, have people of the present age any means of knowing where they stood? 90. What nation first used surveying? 91. What character separates land-marks, in the 96th line? 92. Should you ever use this character in composing letters, or in any other writing? 93. Why do you think it important to notice the different pauses and characters used in the books we read? 94. Will you elucidate the meaning of the use of the hyphen by a few examples? 95. What marks are meant in the 100th line? 96. Do you know what the opinion of many learned men is respecting Homer and his writings? 97. Who was Virgil? (§ 9.) 98. What first gave rise to property in lands? 99. Why do you suppose men would naturally desire to transmit their property to their posterity? 100. What do you suppose has produced many inventions and laws? 101. Why do you suppose the peace of society required permanent regulations in reference to property of deceased persons? 102. What is the difference between the meanings of peace and tranquillity, in the 114th line? 103. What


52 PRIMITIVE LAWS.


the property of deceased persons. 1Necessity,

Need.


which is said to be the "mother of 1inventions"

Discoveries.


as well as of laws, 1required some

Demanded.

120

1permanent regulations in reference to inheritances,

Filed.


and also the power of making 1devises.

Wills.


Hence, 1property in lands was the

Ownership.


origin of 1rights and jurisprudence, which

Claims.


1compose the most important part of the

Constitute.

125

whole civil 1code. (§ 10.) Civil laws, like

Book of laws


governments, were at first very 1 imperfect;

Defective.


1jurisprudence was not formed into any regular

The science of right.


system till after the 1 lapse of centuries.

Passing away


No one ruler or lawgiver, 1unaided by Divine

Unassisted.

130

1inspiration, could foresee all events;

Infusion.


unlooked-for 1occurrences gave occasion for

Incidents.


the 1establishment of most of the laws that

Enactment.


now 1govern civilized society. Old regulations

Regulate.


have consequently been either 1extended,

Enlarged.

135

reformed, or 1repealed, in proportion to the

Revoked.


1ingenuity and industry of man in extending

Acuteness.


1commerce � discovering the natural wealth

Trade.


of the earth � the 1multiplicity of inventions

Variety.


� the wonderful 1 improvements in the arts,

Progress.

is the meaning of civil code, in the 125th line? 104. What is the difference between necessity and need�105. inventions and discoveries� 106. permanent and fixed�107. inheritances and patrimonies�108. devises and wills�109. property and ownership�110. rights and claims� 111. compose and constitute�1-12. code and book of laws, in the 117th, 118th, 120th, 121st, 122d, 123d, 124th, and 125th lines respectively? (§ 10.) 113. What is the meaning of un prefixed to aided, in the 129th line? 114. What meaning has un prefixed to words? 115. What were civil laws at first? 116. Can any ruler or body of legislators, however wise, foresee all events? 117. What gave rise to most of the laws in force among civilized nations? 118. What has happened to ola regulations? 119. What has caused this great difference between many of the ancient and modern laws? 120. Who is meant by the

NATURE OF LIBERTY. 53

140

sciences, letters, and, above all, the 1promulgation

Diffusion.


of the 1ameliorating doctrines of

Improving.


the 1 Savior of mankind.

Redeemer.

Saviour of mankind in the 142d line? 121. Where do we find his precepts? 122. What do you suppose would be the result if all lived according to the doctrine taught by JESUS CHRIST?


LESSON XIII.



(§ 1). WE see by reference to the 1unerring

infallible.


page of history, that laws of some 1kind

Sort.


have 1always governed the whole human

Ever.


race. 1Civilized societies have their extensive

Cultivated.

5

and 1complicated systems of jurisprudence.

Intricate.


1 Semi-barbarous states yield to the

Half savage.


1commands of a king, or some other despotic

Orders.


ruler; and even savages obey their chief, 1endure

Abide by.


the rules which the 1customs of their

Usages.

10

tribes 1prescribe, or obey the obvious and

Ordain.


indisputable laws of 1right and the voice of

Justice.


nature, which 1alarm the soul with excruciating

Frighten.


1remorse whenever justice is disregarded.

Agony.

(§ 1.) 1. What do you suppose is meant by infallible page of history, in the 1st line? 2. What is the difference between unerring and infallible? 3. What is the meaning of societies, in the 4th line? 4. What part of speech is it? 5. What number? 6. What do nouns ending in ty always denote? 7. How do they always form their plural? 8. What is the meaning of states, in the 6th line? 9. Do you know what meaning semi has before barbarous, in the 6th line? 10. Do you suppose it always has this meaning? 11. What is your reason for this opinion?* 12. Illustrate the meaning of semi with some other words. 13. What is the meaning of pre before scribe, in the 10th line? 14. Does it always have the same power when used as a prefix? 15. Illustrate its meaning with some other words. (§ 2.) 16. Do you sup-

* When pupils give either a simple affirmative or negative answer, it is always well to require their reasons, inasmuch as yes or no may be indifferently given without either thought or reflection.


54 NATURE OF LIBERTY.


(§ 2.) Law 1pervades the universe;

Is diffused through.

15

no created being is 1exempt from its protecting

Flee.


care � nor can any one ever 1deviate

Turn aside.


from its 1salutary influence with impunity.

Wholesome.


Even in 1societies possessing the greatest

Communities


blessings, each individual is 1restricted to certain

Restrained within.

20

1limitations in his intercourse with

Bounds.


others, and 1 invested with rights which extend

Clothed.


alike to all, and which cannot be 1 infringed

Violated.


without 1endangering the security

Putting in hazard.


and happiness of every 1member, who is an

Citizen.

25

integral part of the community.

Component.


(§ 3.) If each and everyone possessed 1sufficient

Adequate.


knowledge, and a 1disposition to do what

Desire.


was 1strictly just � to give to all their due �

Rigorously.


to take only what was 1 lawful � then, indeed,

Proper.

30

there would be no 1need of human restrictions.

Want


But the history of man in all 1ages

Times.


proves that, either from ignorance, the 1weakness

Infirmity


of his judgment, or from his natural 1in-

Propensity.

pose there is any place where there is not law? 17. What is the meaning of being, in the 15th line? 18. Why would not beings be a better word than being, in the 15th line, inasmuch as nothing is ex empted? 19. If the wisest and best men are required to observe certain rules, is it unreasonable that scholars should scrupulously regard the rules of school? 20. Which do you suppose most benefits the pupils, the school with perfect order, or the school without any order? 21. Do you think each one at school should strive to aid the teacher in preserving perfect order? (§3.) 22. Do you suppose there might be any condition in which human law would not be necessary? 23. What does all history prove? 24. What is necessary for man's quiet and happiness? 25. What do reason and revelation alike prove? 26. What is the difference between disposed and inclinedstrictly and rigorousiy � due and right � need and want � history and accountages and periods � weakness and infirmity, in the 27th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, and 32d lines respectively? 27. Why do you suppose man is used in the 31st line, as it is evident the author meant the whole human race? (§ 4.) 28.

NATURE OF LIBERTY. 55


clination to evil, he has been 1prone to go

Disposed.

35

astray, and that laws are 1 indispensable to

Necessary.


his 1tranquillity and his happiness. Moreover,

Quiet.


reason and revelation alike 1attest that

Bear witness


man was created for society, and 1 intended

Designed.


by the 1 Deity to be subject to that law and

Creator.

40

order which the created 1intelligences of

Spiritual beings.


heaven 1obey, and that there is no such thing

Comply with.


as 1natural liberty. (§ 4.) It has often been

Original.


1asserted, that man gave up certain natural

Affirmed.


1rights when he became a member of civil

Privileges.

45

society, but it appears 1evident that such

Plain.


was not the 1case. No one ever had the right

Fact.


to do as he 1chose, for all were born with

Liked.


equal 1rights; and if one had natural liberty,

Claims.


then all were equally entitled to it. 1Suppose

Admit.

50

all have natural 1 liberty, then our property,

Freedom.


yea, our lives, are at the 1disposal of any

Mercy.


person who is either able or 1willing to take

Desirous.


them from us. In our country, every 1infringement

Breach.


of the law is a 1violation alike of

Transgression.

55

public and rational liberty, for 1God created

Jehovah.


man 1subject to law, and that is his natural

Amenable,


1state.

Condition.

What has often been asserted? 29. Is such the case? 30. What are some of your reasons for this opinion? 31. In how many simple sentences can you use case, in the 46th line, so that in each instance it shall convey a different meaning? 32. Is the assertion that "all men were created equal" literally true? 33. What are your reasons for this opinion? 34. If some are born deformed or with sickly constitutions, and others are born perfect and robust, what is the meaning of "all were born with equal rights," in the 47th line? 35. What reasons prove that no one has natural liberty? 36. What effect do you suppose it would have in this country if every one violated the laws that appeared unjust? 37. What do you suppose is the natural state


56 NATURE OF LIBERTY.


(§ 5.) The laws of one's 1country may or

State.


may not 1protect the natural rights of man

Guard.

60

according to 1circumstances or the peculiarities

The worldly

estate.


of the individual's 1condition; but

Mode of being.


the law of God is a perpetual 1security

Protection.


against 1oppression, and no liberty has ever

Tyranny.


existed or can 1exist where the laws of God

Have being.

65

are not obeyed. For take away the 1sacred

Divine.


law, and the weaker are 1subject to the

Liable.


stronger, and the 1stronger may, in their turn,

More powerful.


become subject to 1combinations of the

Coalitions.


weaker. (§ 6.) It may, moreover, be 1observed

Remarked.

70

that liberty does not 1consist in laws

Depend on.


of our own 1making; for let us examine the

Framing.


laws of our 1country, and we shall find most

Confederacy.


of them were in 1 force before we had existence.

Operation.


Furthermore, it is 1evident that a large

Plain.

75

majority of 1people, even of this country,

Citizens.


are never 1governed by laws of their own

Ruled.


making, though the statutes may be 1enacted

Made.


during their own 1lives.

Existence.

of man? (§ 5.) 38. What is the meaning of the expression, "one's country," in the 58th line? 39. May the laws of one's country operate unequally? 40. What laws always operate justly? 41. What would be the condition of society if the principles of the sacred law were banished? 42. Do you suppose any nation ever enjoyed true liberty that had not received the aid of Divine revelation? 43. Do you suppose we often enjoy many blessings which are the result of Christianity without being conscious of the true source from whence they flow? (§ 6.) 44. Do you suppose liberty consists in laws of our own making? 45. What are your reasons for this opinion? 46. How long do you suppose most of the laws of this country have been in force? 47. Why are not a majority of the people in this country governed by laws of their own making, even when the laws are made during their lives? 48. What is the difference between people and citizensgoverned and ruledstatutes and lawsenacted and made, in the 75th, 76th, and 77th lines respectively? 49. What words do you consider

NATURE OF LIBERTY. 57


(§ 7.) The 1Congress of the United States

Legislature.

80

consists, (1848,) in 1round numbers, of 291

Whole.


members; 31 in the 1senate and 116 in

Upper house.


the 1house of representatives make a quorum

Lower house


for transacting business. Hence it 1appears

Is evident.


that a 1bill may pass both houses by a majority

Law.

85

of one vote; 58 would be a 1majority

Legal number.


in the 1house and 16 in the senate. A

Hall of representatives.


1contingency might therefore happen in

Fortuitous event.


which a bill would 1pass both houses by receiving

Prevail in.


74 votes, and the 1sanction of the

Approval.

90

President would make it a 1law. Consequently,

Statute.


every person in the whole 1union

Country.


might be 1governed by a law made by 75

Ruled.


1men; and 217 senators and representatives

Legislators.


might be 1opposed to the law made by 75

Unfavorable.

95

men, which would 1 govern upwards of

Rule.


twenty millions of 1people. On the other

Citizens.

synonyms, and what definitions, in section 6? (§ 7.) 50. Why is the term round numbers used in the 80th line? 51. In the 80th line, it is asserted that the full number is 291 members, can you tell how many there are in the senate, and how many there are in the house of representatives? 52. Can the largest State, with nearly three millions of inhabitants, send more senators than the smallest State, with less than one hundred thousand inhabitants? 53. If you know the number of States and the whole number of members in Congress, can you not tell how many representatives there are? 54. How many make a quorum in the house? 55. How many in the senate? 56. How many may pass a law in the house? 57. How many in the senate? 58. How is it that, in the 85th line, it is said 58 may be a majority, when there are 116 necessary to make a quorum, and 58 is only one-half of 116�why would not 58 be a tie, and not a majority? 59. Could there possibly be a contingency in which 75 men might make a law that would govern upwards of twenty millions of people? 60. If such is the power of law-makers, what ought to be the character of all men elected to legislative bodies? 61. What people do you suppose the most likely to discern and elect men of pure principles and patriotic character, an intelligent or an


58 NATURE OF LIBERTY.


hand, a bill of the 1utmost importance may

Highest


unanimously pass both houses and be 1vetoed

Prohibited.


by the President. It must then be 1returned

Sent back.

100

to the house in which it 1originated � say the

Had origin.


house of representatives � who 1pass it again

Sanction.


1unanimously. It then goes to the senate, who

Without a dis-

senting voice.


happen to have but a bare 1quorum � nineteen

Legal number to transact business.


votes are given in 1favor of the bill and eleven

Support

105

against it; consequently it does not 1receive

Obtain.


a 1majority of two-thirds of the senate

Plurality.


and is 1defeated. Hence it appears that a

Rendered null.


bill of 1vital importance might be defeated

Essential.


by either the 1arbitrary will � the vanity �

Despotic.

110

the imbecility � or the mistaken 1views of

Opinions.


one man. The President has 1power during his

The prerogative.


continuance in 1office to forbid any bill from

Authority.


becoming a law, though he is 1sustained by

Upheld.


less than three-eighths of the 1members of

Delegates.

115

1congress, and opposed by the unanimous

The national assembly.


voice of the nation. Further the 1 final vote

Ultimate.


of eleven senators may be in 1opposition to

Contradiction.


the 1views of two hundred and thirty-one

Sentiments.


representatives and forty-nine 1 senators.

Legislative counsellors.

120

1Moreover, these eleven senators may

Further.

illiterate people? 62. What may prevent a bill from becoming a law after it has unanimously passed both houses of congress? 63. What is the meaning of the word vetoed, in the 98th line? 64. When a bill is vetoed, to which house must it be returned? 65. May a bill, under any circumstances, become a law though the President veto (forbid) it? 66. Name some circumstances in which a contingency might happen to defeat a bill of vital importance? 67. Can Delaware, with a population of 78,085* inhabitants, send as many senators to congress as the State of New York, with a population of 2,428,921* inhabitants? 68. Why is the term original collective con-

* According to the census of 1810, New York has at the present time nearly 3,000,000.

NATURE OF LIBERTY. 59


be from the six 1smallest States in the Union,

Least populous


whose original collective 1constituency would

Body of constituents.


be less than one-half that of a single 1senator

Legislator.


from the largest State. Hence the 1hopes

Expectations

125

of upwards of twenty millions can be 1temporarily

For a time.


1 blasted by, it may be, even a good

Destroyed.


man, though an 1unsuitable President.

Unfit.


(§ 8.) Again, suppose a 1bill passes unanimously

Form of law not enacted.


both 1houses of congress, receives

Branches.

130

the 1sanction of the President, and becomes

Approval.


a law; 1yet the original constituents of the

Though.


1makers of the law would probably be less

Framers.


than one-tenth of the 1people that would be

Inhabitants.


1governed by the same. It is undoubtedly

Ruled.

135

1true, that all the important laws passed

A fact


by congress, whether for good or for 1evil,

Woe.


have received the 1sanction of less than two

Approbation.


hundred votes, and that the 1constituents of

Employers.


these rulers have, on 1an average, been a

A mean proportion.

140

minority of the 1legal voters of the country,

Lawful.


to say nothing of those of their 1constituents

Electors.


who were entirely 1opposed to the action of

Adverse.


their 1representatives. Thus the laws that

Deputies.


govern 1upwards of twenty millions of people,

More than.

stituency used in the 122d line? 69. What is the difference in the way in which U. S. senators and representatives are elected? (§ 8.) 70. Do important bills generally receive the unanimous concurrence of congress? 71. What are your reasons for this opinion? 72. Do you suppose congress could pass an evil law? 73. What are your reasons for this opinion? 74. What kind of men do you think ought to be elected as legislators? 75. Do you suppose those are generally the best legislators who give the people the most to eat and drink on election days? 76. What men in former republics adopted this practice? 77. Do you suppose there is any danger that men may become candidates for congress with any other object in view than the purest


60 NATURE OF LIBERTY.

145

even in this 1country, have been directly

Land.


1framed by about one-twentieth of the population;

Made.


it is, indeed, 1an axiom that no one

A self-evident truth.


has perfect 1 liberty � no people can be governed

Freedom.


by laws of their own 1making. We

Constituting.

150

are all 1dependent � 2dependent on our parents

Unable to exist by ourselves


and friends � dependent on our fellow citizens

2 Subject to the power of.


� dependent on 1our cotemporaries � dependent

Those living at the same time.


on our 1ancestors � dependent on the

Forefathers.


1goodness, and protecting care of our Heavenly

Benevolence.

155

Father. (§ 9.) If such are the 1 intricacies

Complexities


and the imminent dangers of 1delegated

Deputed.


power in the purest 1republic on which

Commonwealth.


the sun ever shone, how 1 indispensable is it

Necessary.


that all should understand the 1 fundamental

Essential.

160

1principles of political science! Let every

Elements.


citizen duly 1profit by the sufferings which

Improve.


mankind have 1endured for nearly six thousand

Borne.


years. Let the 1ambition of each

Ardent desire


be properly aroused to obtain the 1imperishable

Permanent.

165

wealth of the mind, to 1understand

Comprehend


and 1support the Constitution of the United

Sustain.


States, and transmit in 1unsullied brightness

Pure.


the 1character of the American name.

Good qualities.


(§ 10.) Let all early receive 1 impressive

Indelible.

patriotism? 78. What is a self-evident truth? 79. How ought each one, then, to perform the trusts committed to his charge? (§ 9.) 80. In whose hands is power originally vested? 81. What is understood by delegated or deputed power? 82. Is deputize a correct English word? 83. When power is deputed, has it irrevocably left its grantor? 84 What are some of the sufferings which mankind have so long endured? 85. What is meant by the "wealth of the mind," in the 165th line? 86. Why may the American name be considered bright? 87. What is meant by political science? 88. What is the difference between an art and a science? (§ 10 ) 89. What are republics or com-

NATURE OF LIBERTY. 61

170

lessons from the fate of former 1republics,

Commonwealths.


which, in their 1day, though far more

Time


powerful than ours, have either been 1crushed

Overwhelmed.


by military despotism, or rent 1asunder by

Apart


1intestine broils. Let every philanthropist

Domestic.

175

arouse, so that the predictions of kings, 1nobles,

Peers.


and many of the 1literati of Europe, pronouncing

Learned men


1anarchy and despotism to be the

Want of rule.


future 1fate of the United States, shall be falsified.

Destiny.


And thus the 1augmenting number

Increasing.

180

of our 1adult population, now probably five

Grown up.


millions, who can neither read 1understandingly

Knowingly.


nor write intelligibly, may be 1diminished,

Lessened.


and finally 1extinguished by the well-directed

Eradicated


1efforts of every American citizen.

Exertions.

185

(§11.) It is imperative to 1weigh properly

Consider.


the 1expediency of disseminating in

Propriety.


every part of the republic the 1inestimable

Invaluable.


blessings of letters, 1fraternal union, and

Brotherly.


Christian 1sentiment. In this way our country

Feeling.

190

may be made the 1 hallowed ark to

Sacred.


preserve in safety the 1rational liberties of

Reasonable.


mankind, by becoming the 1depository of

Lodgment.


human rights, and the 1asylum of the oppressed

Refuge.

monwealths? 90. What republics, in their day, exerted apparently a more extensive influence, and were comparatively more powerful than the United States? 91. Why should we learn lessons from these republics? 92. Why should those lessons be indelibly impressed? 93. What is the probable reason that monarchs and noblemen denounce our government? 94. Name some of the causes which may justly alarm the friends of our government. 95. Are crowned heads interested in promoting disunion in the United States? 96. Are the literati interested in the perpetuity of our institutions? 97. What should be our conduct towards those who differ from us in opinion? 98. What were some of the causes which produced the fall of former


62 NATURE OF LIBERTY.


and trodden-down of 1the old world.

Europe.

195

In view of all these impending 1circumstances

Facts.


and 1denunciations, it behooves

Public menaces.


each of us to use the utmost 1caution and

Prudence.


unceasing 1vigilance in regard to the perpetuity

Watchfulness.


of our 1unequalled institutions. (§ 12.)

Unrivalled.

200

Let us justly 1compare the fame of our

Estimate.


philosophers, 1legislators, heroes, and their

Law-makers.


influence on 1cotemporaries, with those that

Persons existing at the same time


flourished in the 1palmiest days of Greece

Most prosperous.


and Rome. Let the most 1indefatigable

Unwearied.

205

exertions be used to 1convey knowledge

Carry.


to every home, that one united 1intellectual

Mental.


1phalanx may be presented to assert the

Array of men


rights of mankind � to 1demonstrate to the

Prove.


1monarchies of the world, that while we

Kingdoms.

210

praise our 1illustrious ancestors in words we

Renowned.


1imitate them in actions. Then their enviable

Copy.


names, and the 1glory they won while

Fame.


living will not be 1tarnished by the degeneracy

Stained.


of their 1posterity. For our republican

Descendants.

215

institutions, while they 1inculcate human

Instil.


equality and a reverence for the 1approximating

Approaching


1perfection of our statutes will impart

Supreme excellence.

republics? (§ 11.) 99. How are the inhabitants of Europe oppressed and trodden down? 100. Why may our institutions be considered unequalled? (§ 12.) 101. Who were some of the principal philosophers?�102. Legislators?�103. Heroes, of antiquity? 104. Whence is the word palmiest derived? 105. Why is it applicable to the subject? 106. What is the nature of the indefatigable exertions we should use? 107. What is meant by a phalanx? 108. What is the strongest bulwark of American liberty? 109. What is the general tendency of republican institutions? 110. Are republics favorable to literature? 111. What should we endeavor to show the monarchies of the world? 112. Which do you think the best way to honor our

NATURE OP LIBERTY. 63


additional 1veneration for the wisdom of

Adoration.


the Divine law � instil an implicit 1obedience

Compliance with.

220

to the decrees of heaven, and secure the 1tenderest

Dearest.


regard for the rights of every human

Just claims


1being.

Creature.

Illustrious ancestors, to praise them in words or imitate them in actions 1 113. What ought to be the character and tendency of our republican institutions? 114. The class spell by letter the marginal words.


LESSON XIV.



(§ 1.) THE great 1inequality in the condition

Disparity.


of the race; the general propensity to

Inclination


1exercise power to the disadvantage and injury

Use.


of the 1ignorant and the weak; the necessity

Illiterate.

5

of 1curbing the excesses of the base

Checking.


and the 1wicked tend to form communities.

Evil.


The love for society; the 1fellowship with

Mingling.


those of like 1dispositions or similar conditions

Minds.


and the 1desire for knowledge, also, help to

Wish.

10

secure association. But a 1proper knowledge

Suitable.


of the 1Divine Law and an unwavering 2determination

Bible.


by all, to live according to its precepts

2 Purpose.


are 1necessary to secure the greatest

Requisite.


1comfort on earth and eternal bliss in HEAVEN.

Enjoyment

15

(§ 2.) In communities it is 1requisite that each

Essential.


individual should 1relinquish the claim of

Quit.


asserting individual rights, and 1redressing

Repairing.

(§ 1.) 1. What is the difference between disparity and inequality, in the 1st line?�What do their prefixes denote? 2. What is the difference between ignorant and illiterate, in the 4th line?�What do their prefixes signify? 3. How would it affect the sense, if the comma were


64 NATURE OF LIBERTY.


personal 1wrongs; every one must take the

Injuries.


general will of the community for a 1guide, and

Rule.

20

renounce all resort to individual 1force, for

Violence.


each receives 1instead of it the protection

In place.


of the 1commonwealth. None are allowed

State.


to consult 1exclusively their own happiness,

Solely.


without regard to the peace and 1order of the

Regular discipline.

25

society with which they are 1connected.

United.


Men with the best 1intentions often err;

Designs.


1precipitancy, or the want of knowledge or

Hastiness.


talent, may 1prevent them from coming to

Hinder.


correct 1conclusions concerning what is just.

Deductions

30

No one does 1right on all occasions.

Proper.


(§ 3.) Civil society is intended to 1remove

Displace.


these 1difficulties; the ablest minds are generally

Impediments.


1selected to establish the rules which

Chosen.


best promote the general good. It is 1requisite

Necessary.

35

that all subject themselves to the 1legal

Lawful.


authority created to 1enforce these regulations.

Administer


Christian institutions 1conduce in

Contribute


the highest possible 1degree to man's present

Measure.


and 1perpetual happiness. They have

Constant.

40

the 1immunity to enforce laws that best promote

Prerogative.


the general welfare � maintain 1perfect

Entire.

omitted after all, in the 12th line. ( § 2.) 4. What is the difference between relinquish and quit, in the 16th line 7 What is it requisite for every one to do in civil society 1 6. What may prevent even good men from coming to just conclusions 7 7. To what does it refer, in the 21st line 7 8. What is the meaning of none, in the 22d line? (§ 3.) 9. What is the difference between administer and contribute, in the 37th line? � What do their prefixes ad and con denote 7 10. In how many simple sentences can you write degree, in the 38th line, so that in each case it shall convey a different meaning? 11. What is the difference between perpetual and constant, in the 39th line? � What do their prefixes per and con denote? 12. To what does they refer, in the 39th line? 13. What is the character of laws en-

LAW OF NATIONS. 65


subordination without oppression � regulate

Submission.


private conduct without 1 invading the right

Infringing.


of individual opinions, and binding to 1prescribed

Dictated.

45

1modes of worship.

Forms.


(§ 4.) LAW OP NATIONS.



The Law of Nations designates the 1rights

Immunities.


and 1ordains the duties of nations in all their

Prescribes.


varied 1relations with each other. It is a

Dealings.


plain system of rules 1emanating from the

Proceeding.

50

principles of justice, which 1govern and regulate

Control.


the affairs of men in their 1social relations.

Companionable.


On no subject have writers 1differed

Varied.


more than on this; 1yet none is more simple

Notwithstanding


or easier of comprehension. It is 1established

Erected.

55

on the 1basis of Christianity, and is

Foundation.


1recognized, understood and observed only

Acknowledged.


among 1enlightened and Christian communities.

Intelligent.


(§ 5.) Its binding 1power is entirely of a

Authority.


moral and religious nature; its 1 fundamental

Essential.

60

principles are 1contained in the text "Do ye

Embraced.


unto others as ye would that others, in 1similar

Like.


1circumstances, should do unto you,"

Situations.


and 1enjoins benevolence, kindness and charity

Commands.


among all 1mankind. There is no human

The human race.

65

1tribunal to enforce an observance of

Seat of justice.


national law. Nations, in this respect, 1sustain

Bear.


a similar 1position toward each other

Attitude.


that 1individual members of society would

Single.


if all the halls of justice were 1abolished.

Destroyed.

acted and enforced by Christian communities? (§4.) 14. What was anciently the difference between the law of nations and international law? � What is the meaning of the prefix inter before national? 15. What is the valid basis of the law of nations? (§ 5.) 16. What relation


66 LAW OF NATIONS.

70

(§ 6.) There are no courts for the 1adjustment

settlement.

of national 1misunderstandings. Each

Quarrels.

nation is a judge of its own 1wrongs, and

Injuries.

decides its own 1standard of justice. Hence,

Criterion.

when a 1controversy arises between nations,

Dispute.

75

and the parties 1disregard the voice of reason

Slight.

and the established 1usages of the Christian

Customs.

world, they have no other 1resort than that

Expedient.

of 1arms. (§ 7.) It appears that the most

War.

renowned and powerful empires and republics

Famous.

80

of antiquity paid no 1regard to the moral

Respect.

national obligations of justice and 1humanity.

Benevolence

Athens, that 1fruitful mother of philosophers

Prolific.

and statesmen, who 1instructed the world in

Taught

85

the arts and 1sciences, encouraged her navy

Systematic knowledge.

in 1piracy, and put to death or sold into per-

High-sea robbery.

petual slavery, not only the 1prisoners taken

Captives.

in war, but also the 1women and children of

Females.

the 1conquered country.

Vanquished.

(§ 8.) Rome, the 1 boasted mistress of the

Vaunted.

90

world, is celebrated alike for her 1tyrannical

Imperious.

triumphs, her 1treacherous treaties, and her

Perfidious.

continual violations of justice. To the 1eter-

Lasting.

nal disgrace of the Roman name it is 1recorded,

Registered.

do nations sustain toward each other? (§ 6.) 17. Repeat the substance of section sixth. 18. What is the difference between controversy and dispute, in the 74th line? 19. Disregard and slight, in the 75th line? 20. Usages and customs, in the 76th line? (§ 7.) 21. Give a synopsis of section seventh. 22. What is the difference between renowned and famous, in the 79th line? 23. Regard and respect, in the 80th line? 24. Fruitful and prolific, in the 82d line? 25. Instructed and taught, in the 83d line? 26. Conquered and vanquished, in the 88th line? (§ 8.) 27. Of what does section eighth treat? 28. What is the distinction between celebrated and illustrious, in the 90th line? 29. Treacherous and perfidious, in the 91st line? 30. Recorded and registered, in the 93d

LAW OF NATIONS. 67

in her most 1approved legal code,

Commended

95

that whoever 1passed from one country to

Moved.

another became immediately a 1slave. (§ 9.)

Bondman.

It is only in 1modern times that nations

Recent.

assuming a moral character have, like the

Taking.

individuals 1composing them, considered

Forming.

100

themselves bound by the 1immutable prin-

Unchangeable.

ciples of justice. In a state of 1peace all

Tranquillity.

the nations in Christendom stand in an 1equal

Uniform.

1relation to each other, and are entitled to

Connection.

claim equal 1regard for their national rights,

Consideration.

105

and require 1reciprocal obligations in good

Mutual.

faith, whatever may be their 1relative size or

Particular.

power, or however varied may be their poli-

Strength.

tical and religious 1institutions. It is a funda-

Establishments.

mental 1principle in the law of nations, that all

Doctrine.

110

are on a 1perfect equality and entirely indepen-

Complete.

dent (§ 10.) Every nation has the sole 1privi-

Advantage.

lege of regulating its 1internal policy, and no

Domestic.

political power has a right to 1prescribe for

Dictate to.

another a mode of government or 1 form of

Ceremony.

115

religion. The Law of Nations, which 1equally

Equably.

dispenses its 1rights and requires the fulfil-

Immunities.

ment of its obligations, has for its 1objects the

Ends.

peace, the happiness, the 1 honor and the un-

Dignity.

fading glory of 1mankind.

Humanity.

line? (§ 9.) 31. Give a detailed account of section ninth. 32. What is the difference between modern and recent, in the 97th line? 33. Peace and tranquillity, in the 101st line? 34. Equal and uniform, in the 102d line? 35. Power and strength, in the 107th line? (§ 10.) 36. Repeat the substance of section tenth. 37. What is the difference between prescribe and dictate, in the 113th line? 38. Mode, in the 114th line, and the word method? 39. Form and ceremony, in the 114th line? 40. Equally and equably, in the 115th line? 41. Objects and ends, in the 117th line? 42. Honor and dignity, in the 118th line?


68 LAW OF NATIONS.


LESSON XV.



(§ 1.) THE Law of 1Nations may be divided

Commonwealths


into two parts, 1viz.: the Necessary Law of

Namely.


Nations, and the 1Positive Law of Nations,

Absolute.


or International Law. Those 1principles of

Precepts.

5

justice which reason 1dictates and revelation

Prescribes.


enjoins, may be 1considered the Necessary

Regarded as.


Law of Nations, 1for these principles, indispensable

Because.


to international 1commerce, are of

Intercourse.


universal application, and are 1sanctioned by

Countenanced.

10

the ablest jurists, numerous historical 1precedents,

Examples.


and the long-established 1usages of

Customs.


Christian governments. No 1power can, by

Nation.


its separate laws, 1invalidate any portion

Weaken.


of the 1necessary law of nations any more

Requisite,

15

than 1single individuals can, by their private

Separate.


acts, 1alter the laws by which the States

Change.


wherein they 1 live are governed. (§ 2.) The

Dwell.


1Positive, or International Law, consists of

Explicit


treaties or 1compacts between two or more

Contracts.

20

1sovereigns or nations. Treaties are of various

Monarchs.


kinds: � as, treaties of 1peace � of

Amity.


1alliance, offensive and defensive � for regulating

Union.


1commercial intercourse � for settling

Trade.


1disputed boundaries � any matter of national

Contested.

25

1interest, policy or honor. When treaties are

Concern.

The difficult Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

{§ 1.) 1. Of what does section first treat? 2. What is the difference between principles and precepts, in the 4th line? 3. Sanctioned and countenanced, in the 9th line? 4. Alter and change, in the 16th line? (§ 2.) 5. Of what does section second treat? 6. What is the difference between sovereigns and monarchs, in the 20th line? 7. Disputed and contested, in the 24th line? 8. Display and exhibit, in the

LAW OF NATIONS. 69


made, ministers, usually called 1plenipotentiaries

Ambassadors of full power.


1chosen, one, two, three, or more, by

Appointed.


and for each nation, 1meeting at some place

Convening.


1mutually agreed upon, and generally in the

Reciprocally.

30

territory of some neutral state � often 1display

Exhibit.


much 1ingenuity in making the preliminary

Acuteness.


arrangements, as each strives to 1secure

Obtain.


the best possible 1terms for his respective

Conditions.


1country.

Nation.

35

(§ 3.) After the 1plenipotentiaries have

Diplomates.


come to 1an understanding, they write out

A stipulation.


their 1agreement, which is then sent to their

Covenant,


respective nations or sovereigns. If its 1articles

Terms.


are confirmed, they 1 immediately become

At once.

40

an international law to those 1countries.

Lands.


Should either power refuse to 1sanction the

Support.


acts of its ministers, the treaty is 1inoperative

Null.


and things remain 1in statu quo. In the

As before.


United States, the 1concurrence of the President

Approbation.

45

and two-thirds of the senate is 1requisite

Necessary.


for the adoption and 1ratification of

Confirmation


a 1treaty. The Necessary Law of Nations

Compact.


may 1apply to the whole human family;

Rule.


whereas international law is more 1circumscribed

Restricted.

50

in its 1extent, and binds only the

Limit.


contracting nations. (§ 4.) It is 1an acknowledged

A recognized


principle that, having a right to 1adopt

Select.

30th line? (§ 3.) 9. Give a detailed account of section third. 10. What is the difference in the meanings of agreement and covenant, in the 37th line? 11. Sanction and support, in the 41st line? 12. Circumscribed and restricted, in the 49th line? 13. Status quo is the name of a certain kind of treaty � can you tell the condition in which it leaves the contracting parties? (§ 4.) 14. Of what does section fourth treat? 15. What is the difference between acknowledged and recog-


70 LAW OF NATIONS.


such 1form of government as it deems expedient,

System.


every nation may alter, or even 1abolish,

Abrogate.

55

its internal regulations at 1pleasure,

Will.


provided the 1changes do not in the least

Variations.


1affect any of its obligations to other governments,

Impair.


and that the claims of 1individual

Private.


creditors are not thereby 1weakened. No

Invalidated.

60

division of territory, 1coalescence with other

Union.


powers, or change in government, can 1impair

Injure.


any of its rights, or 1discharge it from

Free.


any of its just 1engagements.

Liabilities.


(§ 5.) A community, or 1kingdom, basely

Realm.

65

resorting to any 1subterfuge to shake off

Evasion.


its 1obligations � or wantonly making war

Engagements


upon its 1unoffending neighbors without asserting

Inoffending.


any 1just cause for the same, and apparently

Proper.


for the 1sake of plunder and a desire

Purpose.

70

of conquest, would 1forfeit alike its claim to

Lose.


the 1protection of the Law of Nations, and

Defence.


the 1regard of the civilized world. Such

Respect.

power would be a 1common enemy, and the

General.


act of 1appropriating the spoils thus obtained

Impropriati ng.

75

would be called national 1robbery. Every

Depredation.


government would be bound to join a 1league

Confederacy.


to force the 1relinquishment of such unlawful

Abandonment.


possessions. (§ 6.) It is generally 1acknowledged

Allowed.


that every nation may 1use its

Employ.

nized, in the 51st line? 16. Abolish and abrogate, in the 54th line? 17. Coalescence and union, in the 60th line? 18. Impair and injure, in the 61st line? (§ 5.) 19. Of what does section fifth treat? 20. What is the difference between subterfuge and evasion, in the 65th line? 21. Inoffending and inoffending, in the 67th line? 22. Sake and purpose, in the 69th line? 23. Robbery and depredation, in the 75th line? (§ 6.) 24. Give a synopsis of section sixth. 25. What is the difference be-

LAW OF NATIONS. 71

80

own discretion in making commercial and

Judgment.


other treaties � that 1one government may

Any.


surrender to another a part or all of its territory,

Cede.


1provided that in so doing the rights

Conditioned.


of no other 1power are either molested or

Commonwealth

85

endangered. Every country, has a right

Jeoparded.


to 1monopolize its own internal and colonial

Engross.


trade, and can exclude or admit at 1option

Choice.


any or every other 1nation.

Country.


(§ 7.) It is generally 1conceded that every

Granted.

90

nation has 1an exclusive right to rivers flowing

The sole.


through its territory � to all 1inland bays

Arms of the sea.


and 1navigable waters whatsoever � and to

Waters affording free passage to vessels.


the 1adjoining sea-coast for the distance of

Contiguous.


three miles from shore. 1Custom has rendered

Usage.

95

it necessary for 1vessels sailing beyond

Ships.


the 1jurisdiction of their own country to

Limits.


be 1provided with passports. (§ 8.) A passport,

Furnished.


is an 1official certificate, bearing the

Authoritative


seal of the government 1under whose flag

Beneath.

100

the vessel sails; it gives 1permission to pass

Leave.


from and to certain 1ports or countries, and

Harbors.


to navigate 1prescribed seas without molestation.

Determinate.


It should contain a 1minute description

Circumstantial.


of the vessel, her 1master, crew, loading, &c.,

Captain.

tween use and employ, in the 79th line? 26. Discretion and judgment, in the 80th line? 27. Surrender and cede, in the 82d line? 28. Option and choice, in the 87th line? (§ 7.) 29. Repeat the substance of section seventh. 30. What is the difference between adjoining and contiguous, in the 93d line? 31. Between custom and usage, in the 94th line? 32. Vessels and ships, in the 95th line? 33. Provided and furnished, in the 97th line? (§ 8.) 34. Of what does section eighth treat? 35. What is the difference between under and beneath, in the 99th line? 36. Permission and leave, in the 100th line? 37. Ports and harbors, in the 101st line? 38. Minute and circumstantial, in the 103d


72 LAW OF NATIONS.

105

and request all 1friendly powers to permit

Amicable.


her to 1pursue the prescribed voyage without

Prosecute.


any 1interruption. Although the vessel

Disturbance.


may 1be the property of a single merchant,

Belong to.


yet any injury done the vessel or 1crew

Sailors.

110

would be considered a national 1 insult, and

Affront.


one requiring full 1reparation, according to

Amendment.


1the law of nations.

international law.


(§ 9.) The 1mutual welfare of nations requires

Reciprocal.


that they should have 1accredited

Authorized.

115

agents to 1represent them at the national

Personate.


courts, or legislative 1assemblies of each

Convocations


other. These 1officers have usually been

Officials.


divided into the following classes, 1to wit:

Namely.


1st class, or highest 1order, Ambassadors

Rank.

120

and 1Papal Legates, � 2d class, Envoys Extraordinary

Nuncios and Internuncios.


and Ministers 1plenipotentiary, �

Of full power


3d class, Ministers 1resident, accredited to

Abiding.


sovereigns or 1independent nations, � 4th

Free.


class, 1Charges d'Affaires, accredited to the

Deputies.

125

minister of foreign 1affairs. (§ 10.) An ambassador

Business.


is a foreign 1minister of the highest

Representative.


rank; he acts in the place of the sovereign

Degree.


or government that employs him, and 1is entitled

Has a claim.


to all the respect and 1 immunities that

Privileges.

130

the ruler of the country he 1represents would

Personates.


be if 1personally present. An ambassador

Individually.

line? 39. Friendly and amicable, in the 105th line? 40. Pursue and prosecute, in the 106th line? 41. Insult and affront, in the 110th line? (§ 9.) 42. Of what does section ninth treat? 43. What is the difference between mutual and reciprocal, in the 113th line? 44. What is the difference in the meanings of class, order and rank, in the 119th line? (§ 10.) 45. Give a detailed account of section tenth. 46. What

LAW OF NATIONS. 73


is not 1answerable, even for the most atrocious

Responsible.


crimes, to the judicial 1tribunals of the

Courts.


country to which he is sent. For 1flagrant

Enormous.

135

offences he may, however, be sent to his

Crimes.


own government, with a 1demand that he

Requirement


should receive 1adequate punishment. Ambassadors

Commensurate.


are 1usually selected from the

Commonly.


ablest 1politicians of their respective countries

Statesmen.

140

� their residence is at the 1seat of government

Capital


of the power with which they 1negotiate.

Treat.


(§ 11.) In 1times of peace, it is usual

Seasons.


for each Christian 1nation to be represented

Country.


at the 1national legislature of every foreign

Court.

145

government, and the 1duties of an ambassador

Obligations.


consist in 1transacting all public business

Negotiating.


to the best possible 1advantage for his own

Benefit of.


government. He may 1penetrate the secrets,

Fathom.


the 1designs and the policy alike of the government

Schemes.

150

in which he 1resides, and that of

Sojourns.


every nation whose 1representatives he may

Envoys.


meet; hence there is 1constant danger of

Continual.


1immorality and crime among the highest

Dishonesty.


national 1functionaries. It is a mournful fact,

Officers.

155

that foreign courts have been more 1celebrated

Noted.


for 1intrigue and corruption than for

Complicated plots.


1purity of morals and patriotic deeds. National

Chasteness.


1gratitude has oftener been awarded to

Thanks.


private 1citizens than to public functionaries.

Individuals.

is the difference between demand and requirement, in the 136th line?

47. Between adequate and commensurate, in the 137th line? (§ 11.)

48. Give a synopsis of section eleventh. 49. What is the difference between times and seasons, in the 142d line? 50. Between grandeur and magnificence 1


74 LAW OF NATIONS.


LESSON XVI.



(§ 1.) AN envoy is a person 1deputed by a

Appointed.


sovereign or government to 1negotiate a

Hake.


treaty, or to 1transact any other business

Manage.


with a foreign nation. The 1word is usually

Term.

5

applied to a public 1minister sent on an

Agent


1emergency, or for a particular purpose.

Exigency.


A plenipotentiary is a person 1clothed with

Invested.


full 1power to act for his sovereign or government,

Authority.


1usually to negotiate a treaty at the

Commonly.

10

close of a war. The 1representatives of the

Deputies.


government of the United States at 1 foreign

Distant.


courts are usually 1styled ministers, and their

Denominated


duties depend entirely on the 1nature of the

Sort of.


1instructions given them by the executive

Advice.

15

cabinet at Washington. (§ 2.) The business

Council.


of the foreign ministers of the 1United States

American republic.


is generally to keep their government 1correctly

Accurately.


informed of the 1proceedings of foreign

Transactions


courts � to see that their countrymen are not

Administrations.

20

molested within the realms in which they

Disturbed.


reside, and to 1countenance all enlightened

Encourage.


proceedings that tend to 1ameliorate the

Improve.


condition of the human race. The distinction

Situation.


1between ambassadors, envoys, plenipotentiaries,

Betwixt.

25

and resident ministers, 1relates

Applies.

The difficult Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

(§ 1.) 1. Repeat the substance of section first. 2. What is the difference between word and term, in the 4th line? 3. Between emergency and exigency, in the 6th line? (§ 2.) 4. Give a synopsis of section second. 5. What is the difference between correctly and accurately, in the 17th line? 6. Between encourage and countenance, in the 21st line?

LAW OF NATIONS. 75


chiefly to diplomatic precedence and 1etiquette,

Ceremony.


and not to their 1essential powers

Requisite.


and 1privileges. Governments generally reserve

Prerogatives.


to themselves the right to 1ratify or

Confirm.

30

1 dissent from treaties concluded by their public

Reject.


1ministers.

Agents.


(§ 3.) A charge d'affaires 1ranks lowest

Stands.


in the 1class of foreign ministers, and is

Order.


usually a person intrusted with public 1 business

Concerns.

35

in a foreign country 1in the place of an

In lieu.


ambassador or other minister of high 1degree.

Rank.


A consul is a commercial 1agent, appointed

Factor.


by the government of a country to 1reside

Dwell.


in foreign dominions, usually in 1seaports.

Maritime towns.

40

Consuls are not entitled to the 1immunities

Exemptions.


of public ministers, 1nor are they under the

Neither.


special 1protection of the law of nations.

Shelter.


The power of a consul may be 1annulled at

Cancelled.


pleasure by the ruler of the country where

Option.

45

he 1resides, whereas the power of a foreign

Lives.


minister can be 1annulled only by the government

Abrogated.


which he 1represents. (§ 4.) Consuls

Supplies the place of.


must 1carry with them a certificate of their

Bear.


appointment, and must be 1publicly recognized

Officially.

50

and 1receive from the government in

Get.


whose dominions they 1propose to reside, a

Intend.


written declaration, called an exequatur, 1authorizing

Empowering


them to 1perform their specified duties.

Attend to.

(§ 3.) 7. Of what does section third treat? 8. What is the difference between business and concerns, in the 34th line? 9. Between agent and factor, in the 37th line 1 (§ 4.) 10. Repeat the substance of section fourth. 11. What is the difference between carry and bear, in the 48th line? 12. Between empowering and authorizing, in the 52d


76 LAW OF NATIONS.


The 1business of consuls is to attend

Occupation.

55

to the 1commercial rights and privileges of

Mercantile.


their 1country and its citizens. Unless it is

Government.


stipulated by treaty, the refusal to receive a

Covenanted.


consul is considered no breach of 1etiquette

Decorum.


between nations; but the 1refusal to receive

Declining.

60

a foreign minister denotes 1hostility.

Enmity.


(§ 5.) War, the greatest 1scourge that has

Evil.


ever 1afflicted the human race, has, among

Troubled.


civilized nations, its 1 formalities and its laws.

Ceremonies.


It is customary to 1precede it by a demand

Preface.

65

for redress of 1grievances. When every

Wrongs.


means has been resorted to in vain to 1obtain

Procure.


1justice � when peace is more dangerous and

Redrew


1deplorable than war itself � then nations

Lamentable.


usually 1set forth their grievances, accompanied

Publish.

70

with a declaration of war, and 1proceed

Begin and carry on.


to 1hostilities. In monarchies, the right to

War


1declare war is usually vested in the sovereign.

Proclaim.


In the United States, the 1power to

Authority.


declare war is confided to the 1national legislature.

Congress.

75

(§ 6.) When war is once 1declared,

Commenced.


each and every man in the 1belligerent countries

Fighting.


is 1a party to the acts of his own government;

Concerned in


and a war 1between the governments

Betwixt.


of two 1nations is a war between all

Countries.

80

the 1 individuals living in their respective dominions.

Persons.


The 1officers of government are

Functionaries.


considered 1merely as the representatives of

Only.

line? (§5.) 13. Repeat the substance of section fifth. 14. What is the difference between obtain and procure, in the 66th line? 15. Between declare and proclaim, in the 72d line? (§ 6.) 10. Of what does section sixth treat? 17. What is the difference between evident and

LAW OF NATIONS. 77


the people. It is 1evident that every citizen

Manifest.


indirectly contributes to 1sustain war, inasmuch

Support.

85

as it requires 1enormous sums of money,

Vast.


and can be 1waged only by the general

Prosecuted.


1consent of the citizens of each country in

Concurrence


paying taxes. The 1soldier is therefore the

Warrior.


direct, and the tax-payer the indirect 1belligerent;

Combatant.

90

both 1participants, though perhaps

Sharers.


in an unequal degree, in whatever of 1honor

Glory.


or of 1 infamy may be attached to the common

Shame.


1cause.

Object pursued.


(§ 7.) When one nation 1 invades the territory

Hostilely enters.

95

of another, under any 1pretence whatever,

Pretext.


it is called an 1offensive war on the

Aggressive.


part of the invading nation, and a 1defensive

War of resistance.


war on the part of the nation 1invaded.

Attacked.


1Offensive wars are generally waged by the

Invading.

100

most 1powerful nations; and nothing more

Potent


clearly 1demonstrates the absurdity and

Proves.


1injustice of wars than the fact that by them

Wickedness.


chiefly 1tyrants sustain their power � fill the

Despots.


world with 1wretchedness, and enslave mankind.

Misery.

105

The most 1unhallowed armies that

Wicked.


ever 1desolated the earth and converted it

Ravaged.


into a human slaughter-house, have 1clamored

Vociferated.


most about the justice of their 1cause.

Party.


The most 1idolized generals, those who have

Adored.

110

commanded the mightiest armies and 1boasted

Vaunted.

manifest, in the 83d line? 18. Between enormous and vast, in the 85th line? (§ 7.) 19. Give a synopsis of section seventh. 20. What is the difference between principles and motives, in the 111th line? 21. Can you name some renowned generals that, professing to be republicans, devastated the world and destroyed the liberties of the people? 22.


78 LAW OF NATIONS.


most of their republican 1principles, have been

Motives.


the first to snatch the 1imperial purple, and

Dress of kings.


1usurp the unalienable rights of man.

Steal.

Why ought not people to entrust their liberties to those who vaunt most about their patriotism and devotion to republican principles?


LESSON XVII.



(§ 1.) A BLOCKADE is the 1surrounding of a

Encompassing.


place with hostile troops or 1ships in such a

Vessels.


manner as to prevent 1escape and hinder

A departure.


supplies of provisions and 1ammunition from

Military stores.

5

entering, with a view to 1compel a surrender

Force.


by hunger and 1want, without regular attacks.

Need.


No neutral nation is 1permitted to

Allowed.


afford any 1relief whatever to the inhabitants

Succour.


of a place blockaded, and all 1supplies in a

Commodities

10

state of 1transmission for such relief are

Conveyance.


liable to 1confiscation. A mere declaration

Forfeiture.


of a blockade is not considered 1binding

Obligatory.


upon 1neutrals unless the place be actually

Non-combatants


surrounded by troops and ships in such a

Encircled.

15

manner as to render an entrance 1 hazardous.

Dangerous.


It is also requisite that neutrals be 1apprised

Informed.


of the 1blockade. (§ 2.) A Truce is a temporary

Investment.


1suspension of arms, by the mutual

Cessation.


agreement of the 1belligerent parties, for negotiating

Hostile.

20

peace or any other 1purpose; at

Cause.

(§ 1.) 1. What is the difference between surrounding and encompassing, in the 1st line? 3. Why would not apprized answer as well as apprised, in the 16th line? 3. How many simple sentences are there in section first? 4. Of what does section first treat? (§ 2.) 5. What

LAW OF NATIONS. 79


the 1expiration of a truce, hostilities may be

Close.


renewed without a new declaration of war.

Revived.


Truces are either 1partial or general. A partial

Limited.


truce 1suspends hostilities only between

Stops.

25

certain places, as between a town and the

Specified.


army 1besieging it; but a general truce

Investing.


extends to all the territories and dominions

Includes.


of the 1belligerent nations. An Armistice

Hostile.


has a more 1limited meaning, being applied

Restricted.

30

to a 1short truce, and solely to military

Brief


1affairs.

Matters.


(§ 3.) A 1declaration of war is a total prohibition

Proclamation


of all commercial 1intercourse and

Communication.


1dealings between all the citizens of the hostile

Traffic.

35

powers. All 1contracts made with the

Bargains.


subjects of a national 1enemy are null and

Foe.


void. It is unlawful for a 1citizen of one of

Subject


the 1 belligerent countries to insure the property,

Contending.


or even to 1remit money to a citizen

Transmit.

40

of the other 1country. (§ 4.) An embargo

Land.


is 1a prohibition upon shipping not to leave

An Injunction.


port. This 1restraint can be imposed only

Restriction.


by the 1supreme government of a country,

Paramount.


and is 1an implied declaration of some im-

A virtual.

45

mediate and 1impending public danger. Letters

Threatening.


of 1marque and reprisal, are letters under

License.


seal, or commissions 1granted by a government

Issued.

is the difference between renewed and revived, in the 22d line? 6, What do their prefixes denote? 7. Of what two subjects does section second treat? (§ 3.) 8. Repeat the substance of section third. 9. What is the difference between dealings and traffic, in the 34th line? 10. Between contracts and bargains, in the 35th line? (§ 4.) 11. Give a synopsis of section fourth. 12. What is the difference between declined


80 LAW OF NATIONS.


to its citizens to make seizure or 1reprisal

Capture.


of the 1property of an enemy, or of

Goods.

50

1persons who belong to a government which

Individuals.


has 1refused to do justice to the citizens of

Declined.


the country 1granting the letters of marque

Giving.


and reprisal. The 1war-vessels thus permitted

Men-of-war


by a government to be 1owned by its private

Possessed.

55

citizens are 1called privateers.

Named.


(§ 5.) A Treaty is a solemn 1contract between

Agreement.


two or more nations, 1formally signed

Ceremoniously.


by commissioners 1duly appointed, and ratified

Properly.


in the most sacred manner by the 1supreme

Highest.

60

power of each state, which 1thereby

By that means.


plights its national fidelity and honor.

Pledges.


Treaties 1usually take effect from the day

Generally.


they are 1ratified, and are as binding upon

Approved-


nations as private 1contracts are upon individuals.

Compacts.

65

Treaties should always 1receive a

Obtain.


fair and liberal 1construction and be kept

Explanation.


inviolable. (§ 6.) Nations, like individuals,

Sacred.


know not what 1changes may await them.

Vicissitudes.


The most powerful 1states, whose citizens

Governments

70

vainly 1boasted of their perpetual grandeur

Vaunted.


and 1duration, have been subverted and their

Continuance.


monuments of 1art demolished by the unsparing

Human skill.


ravages of 1ruthless conquerors. Hence

Barbarous.


it 1behooves the most powerful nations to

Becomes.

and refused, in the 51st line? 13. Between called and named, in the 55th line? (§ 5.) 14. Of what does section fifth treat? 15. What is the difference in the meaning of agreement and contract, in the 56th line? 16. How many different parts of speech are there in the marginal exercises in section fifth? (§ 6.) 17. What is the difference in the meaning of changes and vicissitudes, in the 68th line? 18. What

LAW OF NATIONS. 81

75

apply to themselves the same 1unerring rules