RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE AMERICAN MANUAL.

Extracts from Letters, &c., received by the Publishers.

From Rev H. Galphin, Principal of the High School at Eastville, Northampton County, Virginia.

— My scholars have fallen in love with the American Manual and their improvement delightfully corresponds. If I do not mistake, it will be appreciated and introduced into Schools just in proportion as it becomes known. It ought to be in every family and in every library.

From Dr. J. Patrick, President of Madison College, Pa. — The questions and marginal notes are of incalculable service to the pupil; while at the same time the author's exposition combines the utmost perspicuity, precision, and clearness, making very attractive the study of those great principles which are the soul of the charter of our liberties.

The effects of the extensive use of the American Manual must be to elevate our national character, by preparing the American boy to act the part of a sovereign citizen, either in the place of authority as an officer, or as a private individual; and the American girl for enunciating at the fireside the principles of true patriotism and virtue —Baltimore Patriot.

The principles inculcated are sound, and tend to the improvement of the heart as well as the enlightenment of the mind — Lutheran Observer, Baltimore.

This Manual of Mr. Burleigh's is, in our opinion, the most valuable school book that has issued from the prolific American press for many years. Its value is greatly increased by the fact that numerous questions are given in an unique marginal arrangement, by which the skill of the pupils is much exercised in mentally tracing the analogy of synonymy, thus rendering perfect their knowledge of the language. — Gazette of the Union.

The conciseness and beauty of the style, the unequalled excellence of the marginal exercises in drawing out the mind, and thoroughly disciplining the mental powers, and training the pupils to reason with accuracy and precision, renders it in my opinion, the best school-book extant. I shall introduce it into the female seminary over which I preside, at the commencement of next session. D. R. ASHTON, Fifth street below Arch, Philadelphia.

I have examined the American Manual and heartily concur with Professor Ashton in regard to its merits, and shall introduce it into the French seminary over which I preside.

C. PICOT, No. 15 Washington Square.

I have critically examined the American Manual. Having taken much pains in ascertaining the true tenor of the republican institutions of my adopted country, I had previously read the leading authors on government with much satisfaction, but I have not met with any work, in any language, that so clearly, so concisely, and so beautifully conveys to the mind the principles of political science. The marginal exercises afford much invaluable assistance to the foreigner in acquiring a knowledge of the English language. The exercises also afford to the mental powers a similar discipline that is obtained in studying the ancient classics. A FREITAG, L.L.D.

Professor of German in St. Mary's College, Baltimore.

A text-book prepared by a man so distinguished for scholarship, experience, and success in teaching, as President Burleigh, cannot fail to secure universal favor. The general arrangement of the work is regular. The marginal exercises and questions placed at the foot of each page, greatly facilitate the labor both of the teacher and scholar, and serve to interest the mind of the latter, in the acquisition of knowledge. The appendix serves as a key to the whole work, which renders it complete. It is a book which, in my opinion, should be placed in the hands of every American citizen. ROBERT KERR, Principal of West. Female High School, Baltimore.

The arrangement of the book is such as greatly to facilitate the labor of instruction, and no candid mind can look over its pages without coming to the conclusion, that the work is the best of any yet published to promote among pupils generally an exact and thorough knowledge of the principles of republican government.

WM. M. CREERY, M. CONNOLLY, M. M'CONKY, E. ADAMS, R CONNOLLY, and many other principals of Public Schools in Baltimore.

From Professor Lewis W. Burnet. — I have examined the American Manual, by President Bur-

leigh, and find it to be just the book that is wanted in our schools, and I may add, in every private library. While all proclaim that our existence, as a free nation, depends on the intelligence of the people, little comparatively is doing to reduce this idea to practice in our schools.

From Hon. L. G. Edwards, Pres. of the Bd. of Pub. School Commissioners for Norfolk Co. Va. —

I consider the American Manual a desideratum which had not been before supplied, and respectfully recommend that it be used generally in every District Free School in this county.

At a meeting of the Controllers of Public Schools, First District of Pennsylvania, held at the Controllers' Chamber, on Tuesday, December 10th, 1850, the following resolution was adopted: — Resolved, That the American Manual, by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, be introduced as a class-book into the Grammar Schools of this District. ROBERT J. HEMPHILL, Sec.

The American Manual, by Joseph B. Burleigh, L.L.D., has, by order of the Trustees, been introduced into the Public Schools of the City of Washington. C. A. DAVIS, Sec'y B. T. P. C.

From the Hon. B. Everett Smith. — I doubt whether the ingenuity of man can ever devise a work better adapted to the purpose avowed by the author. I arose from the perusal of the American Manual, more deeply impressed than ever with my responsibility as a citizen, and with the absolute necessity of fostering sound virtue and political morality.


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DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON, OCT. 1, 1850.
This is to certify, that Joseph Bartlett Burleigh's Script Edition of the U. S. Constitution with the Amendments, has been carefully collated with the originals in the Archives of this Department, and proved to be accurate in the CAPITALS,

ORTHOGRAPHY, TEXT, and PUNCTUATION.

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SECRETARY OF STATE.

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CHIEF CLERK.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON, OCTOBER 3, 1850.

I have carefully compared Burleigh's Script Edition of the American Constitution and the Amendments appended, with the original manuscript and the twelve Amendments, IN THE ORDER OF THEIR ADOPTION, and have found that it minutely delineates the original documents, with all their peculiarities.

It may be proper to add, that other Amendments have been proposed, but only the aforesaid twelve have been constitutionally ratified.

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KEEPER OF THE ARCHIVES.

WASHINGTON, D. C., SEPT 30, 1850

I have critically compared Burleigh's Script Constitution of the United States, and all its Amendments, with the original documents deposited at the Department of State, and have found them in every respect alike, even to the minutest particular.

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PROOF-READER IN THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE See the latter part of page 22 in the Introduction and also page 118.

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SEE ALSO THE FIRST PAGE OF THIS LEAF.


THE

AMERICAN MANUAL;

OR,

THE THINKER, (PART III., COMPLETE IN ITSELF.)

CONTAINING

AN OUTLINE OF THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF GOVERNMENT; THE NATURE OF LIBERTY, THE LAW OF NATIONS, A CLEAR EXPLANATION OF THE

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES,

AND OF THE DUTIES OF VOTERS, JURORS, AND CIVIL MAGISTRATES; WITH
SYNONYMOUS WORDS APPLIED AND PRACTICALLY ILLUSTRATED
IN SENTENCES, AND THE CENSUS OF 1850.

THE WHOLE
ARRANGED ON A NEW AND ORIGINAL PLAN;
DESIGNED TO IMPART AN ACCURATE KNOWLEDGE OF OUR SOCIAL AND
POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS; TO AROUSE THE MINDS OF YOUTH,
AND INCULCATE PURE AND NOBLE PRINCIPLES.
ADAPTED, AS A READER, OR TEXT-BOOK, TO THE WANTS
OF ADVANCED PUPILS; ALSO TO THE USE OF
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES.

BY

JOSEPH BARTLETT BURLEIGH, LL.D.

PERMANENT STEREOTYPED EDITION.

PHILADELPHIA:
LIPPINCOTT, GRAMBO & CO.,
No. 20 NORTH FOURTH STREET. 1854.


Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by JOSEPH BARTLETT BURLEIGH,
in the clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for
the District of Maryland.

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PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.

THE publishers commit this work to the practical teachers of the United States, believing that it will greatly assist them in the discharge of their important duties, and reflect the highest honor on their profession. The Author is a laborious practical teacher, of twenty years' experience; he has travelled extensively in every section of the Union, with a view to ascertain the true condition and the real wants of the schools of the country. He has also made many and important improvements in the system of instruction, and we think nothing is hazarded in the assertion that none understand the true character of the schools of the whole Union better, or are more ardently and zealously devoted to the cause of universal education.

The work seems to be imperatively demanded. It has received the highest commendation from all who have carefully examined it. Many politicians from the leading parties of the country, and some of the ablest divines from the prevailing denominations of Christians in the Union, have given it their heartiest approval.

It is intended, both by us and the Author, that it shall contain no sentiment that will in the least militate against the view's of any denomination of Christians, or that shall conflict with the political opinions of the patriotic citizens of any party in our land.

On every page are inculcated principles that will tend to make the mind purer, and the heart better. The spirit of the entire work is of the most patriotic character; it advocates the rights and the privileges of the people. It sets forth in vivid light their duties, and the necessity of the universal dissemination of sound education, and the purest principles of patriotism and morality.

The proper use of the marginal exercises cannot fail to give the pupil an accurate use of words and an extensive command of language. It must tend to render the Teacher's Profession delightful, because the plan, carried out, will always be attended with success, and enable him. at the close of each day, to see that labor has not been spent in vain.

1*

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EXTRACTS FROM RESOLUTIONS, LETTERS, &C., RESPECTING THE THINKER, THE LEGISLATIVE GUIDE, AND THE AMERICAN MANUAL.

At a meeting of the Controllers of Public Schools, First District of Pennsylvania, held on Tuesday Nov l1th 1851 the following resolution was adopted —Resolved, That the "Thinker," by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh. be introduced as a class-book into the Public Schools of this District ROBERT J. HEMPHILL, Sec.

At a meeting of the Board of School Commissioners for the city of Baltimore held on Tuesday, 10th February, 1852, the following resolution was unanimously adopted — Resolved, That the "Thinker" by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, L.L.D., be introduced as a class-hook into the Public Schools of Baltimore. J. W. TILYARD, Clerk Com. of Pub. Schools, Baltimore.

At a meeting of the Board of Public School Commissioners for the City of Baltimore, held on Tuesday, 10th February, 1852, the following resolution was unanimously adopted — Resolved. That the "Practical Spelling Book ' by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, L.L D., be introduced as a class book into the Public Schools of Baltimore.

J. W. TILYARD, Clerk Com. of Pub. Schools, Baltimore.

"The Practical Spelling Book" by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh. L.L.D., is happily calculated to teach the infant mind self reliance the want of which blights the prospect of so many youth. GEORGE S. GRAPE, WM. KERR, and many other principals of Public Schools in Baltimore.

The "Thinker" is one of the very best books that can be put into the hands of youth. Apart from the morality which it inculcates, it cannot fail to secure a facility in the choice of words, a command of language, and a familiarity with the construction and component parts of a sentence.

HIRAM JOHNSON, Prin. Pub. School No. 8, Baltimore.

From Ex Governor W. G. D. Worthington. — I have examined "Burleigh's Legislative Guide." and find as its name implies, that it is indispensable for every legislator who desires to establish a uniform system of rules for conducting public business throughout the United States. In my humble judgment, every State Legislature will immediately adopt it as their standard as soon as the merits of the work can be known. W. G. D. WORTHINGTON

I am convinced that the "Legislative Guide" will prove a valuable text-book for collegiate students, and will use it as such at St. Timothy's Hall, believing that every young American ought to be acquainted with the routine of order appropriate to legislative assemblies. St. Timothy's Hall, Catonsville, Md., Feb. 26, 1852. L. VAN BOHKELEN, Rector.

From Hon. J. C. Legrand, Ch. Justice, Court of Appeals, Md. — The plan of the "Legislative Guide" enables the student or legislator to discover, with facility, the rule and reason for it, in each particular instance, and must, therefore, be of great value to legislative and other deliberative bodies. JNO. CARROLL LEGRAND

At a meeting of the Board of Public School Commissioners for the City of Baltimore, held on Tuesday, 10th February, 1852, the following resolution was unanimously adopted — Resolved That the "American Manual" by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh, L.L.D., be introduced as a class book into the Public Schools of Baltimore. J. W. TILYARD, Clerk Com. Pub. Sch. Baltimore.

We the undersigned, Teachers of the Public Schools in the city of Steubenville, find, on trial, that Burleigh's "American Manual" is the best book with which we are acquainted for waking up the mind of youth for training them to understand what they read, for leading them to investigate and reason for themselves, and thoroughly fitting them for the duties of after life. The school, the infallible test of the merits of a class-book, proves that its proper use need only be witnessed to receive the approbation of every friend of thorough education. FRANCIS TURNER, M. A. WALKER, M. KIDDO, M. HULL, T. BROWN, M. ALLEN, WM. McCAY, I. B. BUTLER, E. KELL, M. ORR.

The "American Manual" cannot fail to command general favor. — Baltimore Sun. From John B. Strange, A. M., and R. B. Tschudi, A. M., Principals of the Norfolk Academy, Va. — We do not hesitate to pronounce it (the American Manual) one of the best school-books we have ever examined, not only as regards the matter, but also the manner of communicating it. The Manual is adapted to the capacity of the youngest, and must prove highly interesting and instructive to the older pupils.

From Prof. S. C. Atkinson. — So far at my observation extends, no school book is so well calculated to enlarge and ennoble the mind of youth as the American Manual.

A lawyer by profession and a teacher from choice, Mr. Burleigh possesses at the same time a consciousness of what is needed and the ability to supply it — Frankford Herald.

We, the undersigned, teachers in the Public Schools of Pittsburg, have used Burleigh's American Manual with great satisfaction and delight. The plan of the work is in ill respects judicious. The marginal exercises are a novel and original feature, and are arranged with great accuracy and discrimination. Their use not only excites the liveliest interest among the pupils, but produces great, salutary, and lasting effects, in arousing the mental powers, and leading the scholars constantly to investigate, reason, and judge for themselves. The Manual is elegantly written, and must have the effect to give a taste to what is pure and lofty in the English language. Signed by B. M. KERR, J. WHITTIER,

and twenty three other principals of Public Schools in Pennsylvania.

From the Fredericksburg, Va. Herald — The American Manual possesses a kind of railroad facility in arousing the minds of youth, no one who is entrusted with the education of the rising generation should be ignorant of its contents, or a stranger to its thorough and efficient mode of imparting knowledge. It contains a condensed, lucid, exact and comprehensive view of our social and political institutions, and ought to be in every family.

From Hon. Wm. Roberts, President of the Bd. Pub. Sch. Com. of Princess Ann Co. Virginia — I consider The American Manual the best book for training the young mind, in the earlier stages of its education, I have ever seen.

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CONTENTS.

LESSON I.

Design of the Work — Marginal Exercises — Explanation of their Use and Advantage — Analyzation of Paragraphs — Marginal words to be spelled and their varied Definitions, Synonyms, Roots &c. given — Their Application in composing Simple Sentences — Progress of the Pupil — Pages 9-11.

LESSON II.

Definitions and Synonyms not found in the Margin to be given by the Scholar — Pains must be taken to arouse Thought and Investigation — Attention of a Class to be secured— Mode of putting Questions to accomplish this End explained — Tact necessary m the Teacher — Method of Reading most advantageous to the Scholar — Pages 11-12.

LESSON III.

Marginal Exercises to be varied according to the Proficiency of the Pupils — Necessity of distinct Articulation and correct Pronunciation — The Instructor to commit Errors Purposely, in order that the Scholars may make Corrections — Each Feature to be made a leading Subject, until well understood — Anecdote of a Paris Rhetorician — Necessity for the Scholar to comprehend what he reads— Paramount importance of the Reading Lesson — Pages 12-14.

LESSON IV.

An oral or written Account of the Reading Lesson to be given by the Pupil from Memory — Consequent Improvement of the Learner in Writing, Spelling, Application of Words, and Ease and Rapidity of Composition — Attention of the Scholar thus riveted — Habit of relating Incidents with Accuracy and Precision thus acquired — Immeasurable benefit thereby accruing to all the Sons and Daughters of the Land — Pages 14-15.

LESSON V.

Judgment of the Teacher to be used in simplifying, suppressing, or extending the Marginal Exercises, and in illustrating and varying the Lessons — Local Prejudices to be thus overcome — The same Plan will not suit every Part of the Union — Extended application of the Marginal Words — Suggestions — Marginal Terms to be employed in the construction of Literary and Scientific Themes — Nice shades of Distinction in the varied Use of the same Word pointed out by them — Pages 15-17.

LESSON VI.

Errors to be corrected by the Pupils — Easy Answers to be at first permitted — Further directions — Attractiveness of the System — Necessity of cultivating the Moral Powers — The young must rely upon themselves — Prevention better than Cure — Pages 17-19.

LESSON VII.

The Pupil's own Thoughts to be elicited — Attributes of the Mind to be exercised — Exertion required in Educators — Opposition to be met by them, then final Success — Equal Benefit not derived by all from the same Book — Thoroughness necessary m Reading — Error sometimes printed — Some Books to be shunned — Reflections — Appeal on behalf of proper Education — The American Constitution — Pages 19-21.

LESSON VIII.

Our principles of Action formed in early Life from the Books studied in School — Extensive influence of Teachers on the Destiny of Mankind — Their Labors often inadequately rewarded — Plan of rigid Moral and Intellectual Training to be carried out — Enthusiasm for Critical Study thereby excited — Consequent Advantages to Society — Pages 21-24.

LESSON IX.

Political Science in important Study — Excellencies of the National Constitution — Some knowledge of the Rise and Progress of the Science of Government necessary for all — Origin of Government — far reaching character of the Mosaic History — Only reliable account of the Antediluvian World — Momentous Events only related — Paternal Authority the Source of Government — Longevity of the Antediluvians — Consequent early dense Population of the World — Absolute Sway over Families formerly exercised by Fathers — Blessings at present enjoyed by us — Pages 24-29.

LESSON X.

Difference between Family Law and Law generally — Imperfection of early Governments — Prevalence of Licentiousness and Depravity — Wickedness destroyed by the Almighty through a Deluge — Reflections — Age of the World — Wise Laws enjoyed by but a small Portion of its Inhabitants — Noah and his Sons commanded to replenish the Earth — A Portion of Noah's Descendants regardless of the Almighty's commands, build the Tower of Babel to make themselves a Name — Futility of their Scheme — A Lesson for us — Confusion of Languages — Resolution of Society to its Primitive State — Result of Man's painful and long continued Efforts — Pages 29-34.

LESSON XI.

Early Governments not the result of Deliberation — Influence and Dominion acquired in Primitive Times by Men noted for Strength, Bravery and Skill — Nimrod founder of the first Empire — Primeval Governments despotic — Herodotus' account of the Election of the first Median king Dejoces — Early Crowns often elective — Circumscribed Dominions of the first Monarchs — Kings consequently numerous — Original divisions of Egypt, China, and Japan — Similar examples now existing m Africa — Rights of the Ruled disregarded as the power of Rulers increase — Rule, at first delegated, usurped and made hereditary. — Pages 34-40.

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8 CONTENTS.

LESSON XII.

Ceremonies of Marriage, regulation of Property, and punishment of Crimes, among the first Laws instituted — Penal Laws, at first extremely severe — Many Crimes punished with Death by the Mosaic Code — Its tenderness of the Irrational Creation — Is the Basis of our own Laws — Publicity necessary to authentic Engagements — Writing unknown, Laws transmitted to Posterity in oral Verse — Executive power needed — The early Ruler a Magistrate and Priest — Land assigned to every Family — Prohibition to remove Landmarks — Title to land gained by cultivation — Modern Changes in old Regulations — Pages 40-47.

LESSON XIII.

Laws of some Sort have always governed the whole human Race — Examples — The Universe pervaded by Law — All protected and restrained by it — Condition of Society in which human Restrictions would not be needed impossible under present Circumstances — Incorrectness of a common Assertion shown — Non-existence of natural Liberty — Human Laws defective and inadequate — Those of God perfect in all Respects — Even Americans are not governed by Laws of their own making — Demonstration — All are dependent — Reflections — An Appeal — Pages 47-57.

LESSON XIV.

Man created for Civil Society — Causes which bind Men together — Each Individual should relinquish the claim of Maintaining and Redressing Personal Rights and Wrongs, to Authorities delegated by the Community — The ablest Minds generally selected to establish Rules — Security and Happiness afforded by Christian Commonwealths — Law of Nations — Based upon Christianity — Not enforced by any Human Tribunal — No Courts for adjusting National disputes — Moral obligations disregarded by ancient Empires and Republics — The fame of Rome tarnished by her Perfidy — Superior Moral Character of Modern Nations — Additional Remarks — Pages 57-62.

LESSON XV.

Divisions of the Law of Nations — Necessary Law of Nations defined — Positive or International Law explained at large — Application of the two Divisions contrasted — Each Nation at liberty to legislate for itself, provided that by so doing it does not injure another — A State breaking the Law of Nations liable to attack from all the Rest — National rights of Navigation — Passports — National Agents — Ambassadors — Pages 63-68.

LESSON XVI.

Envoys — Plenipotentiaries — Ministers — Nature of the distinction between Ambassadors Envoys, Plenipotentiaries, and Resident Ministers — Charges d'Affaires — Consuls — Their Business — War — Its Formalities and Laws — Declaration of — The Tax payer a belligerent as well as the Soldier — Difference between Offensive and Defensive War — Dangers arising from Military Ambition and Renown — Pages 68-72.

LESSON XVII.

Nature and Effect of a Blockade — Truces and Armistices defined — Consequences of a Declaration of W ar — An Embargo — Letters of Marque and Reprisal — Privateers — Treaties — Observations on the tendency of War — Pages 72-76.

LESSON XVIII.

Origin of the American Constitution — Recapitulation — Early instances of Associations formed by the People of America for mutual Defence and Protection — Congress of 1754 — Difference between the objects of the Crown and those of its Members generally — Plan of Limited Government drawn up by Franklin, rejected not only by the King, but by all the Colonies — Reasons and Causes — Indignation roused by the passage of the Stamp-Act — Congress of 1765— Its Declaration of Rights Adopts an Address to the King, and a Petition to each House of Parliament — Congress of 1774 — First recommended by the People of Providence, Rhode Island — Pages 76-82.

LESSON XIX.

The "Revolutionary Government," or "Continental Congress" — Passes the Declaration of Rights, October 14th, 1774, and the Declaration of Independence, July 4th, 1776 — The separate nationality of the United States dates from the first, and the Constitution is based upon both — Various prior forms of Colonial Government — General Remarks — Pages 82-86.

LESSON XX.

Declaration, of Rights — Its reception, by the whole Country — Commencement of Hostilities — Pages 86-94.

LESSON XXI, Declaration of Independence — Pages 94-102

LESSON XXII.

Sketch of a Confederation submitted by Dr. Franklin to Congress in 1775, not discussed — Congress takes Measures to form a Constitutional plan of Union — Confirms the Articles of Confederation, November 15th, 1777 — They are sanctioned by all the States, the last one, Maryland, agreeing on the 1st of March, 1781 — Congress assembles the next day under the new Powers — The two Periods of the Continental Congress — Its Powers gradually progressive — Beginning of the Nationality of the Colonies, and rise of the General Government — The Colonies known abroad as the "United States" — Powers of Congress inadequate — Amended and extended from time to time — Pecuniary embarrassments of the Country on the return of Peace — A Government of and from the People wanted — Incompetency of the Articles of Confederation for managing National Affairs demonstrated to Madison, Hamilton, and Jay — Washington in Retirement broods over the Distress of the Country, and disappointed Hopes — First idea of a Revision of the Articles of Confederation stalled at Mount Vernon — A Convention proposed by Virginia — Held at Annapolis with but five States represented — Recommends another to meet in Philadelphia — Constitution of the United States framed by this Last — Remarks — Pages 102-109.

LESSON XXIII.

Violation of the essential Principles of rational liberty and English Common I aw, the immediate Cause of the Declaration of Independence — Proceedings of Congress pending

CONTENTS. 9

it — "Committee of the Whole" explained in full — Extracts from the Journals of Congress of 1776 — Committee of five appointed to prepare the Declaration — By agreement each draws up a Form independent of the others — Jefferson's first read in Committee, and adopted unanimously — True Causes and Nature of the Revolution exhibited by the Declaration — All the Excellencies of the English Constitution embodied in our own — A Copy surpassing the Original — The Revolution not without precedents — The merit of our Ancestors is, that they transmitted to us the freedom obtained by their Bravery — Critical position of the Signers of the Declaration — Bribes offered to some of them by Emissaries of the Crown — Their great Merit — Americans of the present Day should be Friendly to their British brethren — British Parliamentary Speeches in favor of American Revolutionary Liberty — Exhortation — Pages 109-118.

LESSONS XXIV — XXV — XXVI & XXVII. Constitution of the United States of America — Pages 118-142.

LESSON XXVIII.

Articles in addition to and amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America — Pages 112-148.

LESSON XXIX.

Commentary on the Constitution — Derivation of the word "Constitution" — The Constitutions of England and other Monarchies, depending upon immemorial Consent of the People, and long settled Usage, it is difficult for the Majority of the Ruled to understand them — Advantages of our own in this Respect — Derivation of the word "Preamble" — Importance of the Preamble in elucidating the Principles of the Constitution — Remarks — Further Particulars Comments — The "more perfect Union" — The People must Read and Ponder every Sentence of the Constitution before they can sustain it — Comparatively small number of Men and Women who have ever read the Constitution — Number of false Oaths to sustain it annually taken by Office holders — The Power and Glory of our Country sustained by its Teachers — Pages 148-156.

LESSON XXX.

Commentary on the Preamble continued — Importance of thorough Male and Female Education to Free Governments — The "establishment of Justice" — Comments — The "ensurance of Domestic Tranquillity" — Comments — Pages 156-160.

LESSON XXXI.

Commentary on the Preamble concluded — Provision for the "Common Defence" — Remarks and Reflections — Promotion of the "general Welfare" Remarks — Securing of "the blessings of Liberty to ourselves and Posterity" — General Observations — Pages 180-167.

LESSON XXXII.

Commentary on the Constitution — Legislative Department — House of Representatives — The more Popular Branch has the power of Impeachment — Senate — Check upon too hasty Action — A Court for the trial of Impeachments — Skilful distribution of Power — Pages 167-173.

LESSON XXXIII.

Duties and Compensation of Members, and Powers of Congress generally — Election — Quorum — Adjournment — Pay — Exemption from Arrest not a personal Privilege — Freedom from being Questioned for Speech or Debate necessary — Revenue Bills to emanate from the Lower House — Veto — Duties, &c , to be alike throughout the Country — Congress to regulate Commerce — Establish uniform Naturalization — Can pass general Bankrupt Laws — Is alone to coin Money and fix its Standard — The Post Office and Mail Service — Copy-rights and Patents — Piracy — Declaration and Conduct of War — Navy — Government of Land and Sea Forces — Militia — Paramount Authority requisite for the general Government — Pages 173-182.

LESSON XXXIV.

Prohibitions upon the Powers of Congress and upon the States — Migration or Importation of Persons — Slave-trade — Habeas Corpus — Bills of Attainder — Ex Post Facto Laws — No Duty to be laid on Exports of any State — No Preference to be given to Ports of any State — No Vessel from one State bound to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another — No Money to be drawn, but in consequence of Appropriations made by Law — Exhibit of the State of Public Finances to be published from time to time — No Titles of Nobility to be granted — Office holders not allowed to accept Presents, &c. from Foreign Governments — Rights of and Restrictions on the States — Continental Money — Nothing but Gold and Silver a legal Tender — The States not to pass Bills of Attainder, Ex Post Facto Laws, and Laws impairing Contracts — Not to grant Titles of Nobility — In extremity can wage Defensive War — Executive Department — President — Vice-President — Remarks — Rule for finding the Name of any Congress — Actual mode of electing Executive Magistrates — Pages 182-189.

LESSON XXXV.

Duties of the Presidential Electors — Contingency of an Election by the House of Representatives provided for — Way of Proceeding of the Electoral College — Qualifications of President and Vice-President — Salaries — Oaths of Office — Denunciation — Warning — Powers and Duties of the President — Is Commander-in-Chief of the whole Military Force — Can Reprieve and Pardon but not in Cases of Impeachment — Has in connection with the Senate, the Treaty-making Power, and that of Appointment to Office — Removes from Office without consulting the Senate — An Argument — Pages 189-195.

LESSON XXXVI.

Duties of the President, continued — Is to give Congress information of the "State of the Union," and recommend Measures for the general Good — Has Power to convene Congress — Annual Message — Special Messages — Executive Patronage, Influence, Exemption from Arrest in Civil Cases, liability to Impeachment — No Titles of any sort given by the Constitution — Observations — Judicial Department: Treason — A Law-administering Tribunal needed — Montesquieu — No Liberty if the Judiciary is not separated from the Executive and Legislative Powers — Duties of


10

CONTENTS.

the Judiciary — Range of its Powers — Judges — How appointed — Duration of their Term of Office — Subject to removal only on Impeachment — Supreme Court — Its Jurisdiction, Original and Appellate, defined and described — Trial by Jury — Pages l95-202.

LESSON XXXVII.

Treason — Its Nature — Two Witnesses needed to Convict of it — Effects of Attainder limited to the Life of the Offender — Horrible ancient English Common Law punishment of Treason — Its punishment here — Public Records — Privileges of Citizens — Fugitive Criminals and Slaves — Formation and Admission of new States — Government of the Territories — Amendments to the Constitution provided for — Public Debt — Supremacy of the Constitution and Laws — Religious Test — Oath of Office — Ratification of the Constitution — Remarks — Pages 202-208.

LESSON XXXVIII.

Commentary on the Amendments — No Religion to be established by Law — Freedom of Speech and Liberty of the Press guaranteed — Right of Petition confirmed to the People — Militia — Right of the People to keep and bear Arms not to be infringed — Remarks on Standing Armies and Military Habits — Additional observations — In time of Peace Soldiers are not to be quartered in any House without the Owner's Consent — Pages208-216.

LESSON XXXIX.

Houses of the People protected against unreasonable Searches — Speedy trial guaranteed to those accused of Crime — Life not to be twice jeoparded — Other Privileges — Jury trial extended to Civil Cases — Manner of examining Causes once tried, prescribed — Prohibition of excessive Bail and Fines, and. unusual punishment — Rights enumerated do not affect those retained — Reservation of Powers — Prohibition additional upon the Powers of the Supreme Court — Remarks — Present Manner of electing the President and Vice-President shown by Article XII. — Reason of the Change — Duration of the Constitution — General Reflections — Washington's Farewell Address — Extract from Bryant — Pages 216-225.

LESSON XL.

Duties and Responsibilities of Voters — Popular Phrases rendered obsolete by the peculiar Character of .our Institutions — Subject considered at Length — Reflections — Pages 225-234.

LESSON XLI.

Subject continued — Enlightenment necessary — Ignorance in any Part detrimental to the Whole — Apostrophe — Rights of the Minority — Party Virulence dangerous — Admonition to Voters — Pages 234-239.

LESSON XLII.

Duties and Responsibilities of Jurors — Preparatory Mental Discipline an essential thing to a Juryman — General Remarks — Two kinds of Juries — Grand Juries defined and explained — Preliminary Oaths of their Foremen and Members — Extent of their Jurisdiction — One Member appointed Secretary, but no records kept — Bills of Indictment supplied by the Attorney-General — Secret examination of Witnesses — Pages 239-245.

LESSON XLIII.

Subject .continued — Vigilance and Caution required — Presentments — Further Explanations and Remarks — Jury of Trials or Petit Jury — The Oath — Qualifications should be of an equally high order as those of a Grand Jury — Definition — Trial Public — Evidence to be first given by the Plaintiff — Cross-examination — Challenged Questions decided upon by the Bench — Speeches of Counsel — Summing: up of Testimony by the Judge — His Interpretation of the Law — The Facts determined by the Jury — Pages 245-252.

LESSON XLIV.

Subject continued — Admonition — Way of proceeding in plain Cases — In intricate ones — Common Law explained — Contrast between ancient and modern Jury treatment — Criminal prosecutions — Surest preventive of Crime — Privileges of the Accused — Further Remarks — Pages 252-260.

LESSON' XLV.

Disclaimer — Danger to be apprehended — Nothing stationary — General Observations — Pages 260-268.

LESSON XLVI.

Duties and Responsibilities of Civil Magistrates — Term defined — Improvement in the Condition of Society — Extracts from Locke and others, on the Subjects treated of — Accompanying extracts from early English Statutes — Pages 268-276.

LESSON XLVII. Genera! Observations and Reflections — Pages 276-282.

LESSONS XLVIII & XLIX. Concluding Remarks — Pages 282-290-301.

STATISTICAL TABLES — Page 323. APPENDIX — Pages 1-54.

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION — Pages 45-48.

INDEX

TO THE SYNONYMS, AND OTHER WORDS, EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED IN THE APPENDIX.

THE synonyms have no designatory character. U. signifies unlike; S., used in different senses; M., meaning; and Q., question, applied to words not properly belonging to any of the other divisions. The numbers are: — first, the lesson; second, the question; third, the page in Appendix. Words twice given are twice elucidated.

Les. Q. P.

Abolish, }

Abrogate, } ................xv. 16, 18

Abhors — detests............xlvi. 44, 42

Absence — recess, U .........xxvi. 11, 28

Abuses — wrongs, U .........xxi. 17, 24

Account — history ...........xiii. 26, 14

Accurately — correctly .......xvi. 5, 20

Acknowledged — recognized .. .xv. 15, 18

Acquire — receive, U ...........ix. 51, 8

Acquittal — liberty, U .........xlv. 20, 41

Actual — real...............xxiv. 8, 27

Ad (prefix) -journ, M.........xxv. 4, 28

Adapted }

Adopted } U ................xxiii. 23, 26

Adequate — commensurate ... .xv. 47, 20

Adieu — farewell — good-bye .... xxii. 8, 25

Adjoining — contiguous.......xv. 30, 19

Adjourn — prorogue..........xix. 15, 22

Administer — contribute.....xiv. 9, 16

Admitted — received.........xxii. 17, 25

Advancement — progression ... 16, 6

Advantage — benefit........xxii. 6, 25

Affirmation — oath, U ...... . xxvi. 7, 28

Affirmed — sworn, U.........xlii. 35, 40

Affront — insult..............xv. 41, 19

Ages — generations........ .xxxi. 18, 36

Ages — periods..............xiii. 26, 14

Agreement — contract ....... xvii. 15, 21

Agreement — covenant .......xv. 10, 18

Agreements — compacts ........xx. 11, 23

Alliteration, M..............xlix. 68, 43

Also — likewise ............. xxv. 2, 27

Alter — change ............... xv. 4, 18

Altered — changed ............xx. 20, 24

Amicable — friendly .......... xv. 39, 19

Among — between, U, ... xxxi. 5, 36

Analyze, M..................... 4, 6

Angry — offended...........xxiii. 27, 26

Annihilation — destruction.. .xxi. 26, 24

Ap (prefix) -propriations, M. xxv. 25, 28

Apportioned — distributed. ..xxiv. 7, 27

Apprehended — feared.......xviii. 13, 21

Apprised }

Apprized } U................xvii. 2, 20

Arms — weapons..........xxviii. 9, 31

Art — science................xiii. 88, 16

Article, S.................xxvii. 3, 29

Asbestos, M...............xxvii. 32, 26

Assemble — meet..........xxviii. 38, 32

Assembly — convocation .... xviii. 16, 21

Attainder, M..............xxvii. 8, 29

Authority — power — strength.. 20, 6

Authorizing — empowering.. .xvi. 12, 20

Les. Q. P.

Avow — declare..............xxi. 6, 24

Axioms — self-evident truths xxii. 25, 25

Aye, M., ............. .....xxix. 50, 35

Baffled — defeated ......... . xviii. 17, 21

Bail — security............xxviii. 28, 32

Ballot — ticket............xxviii. 39, 32

Banner — flag.............. .xxxi. 33, 37

Bargains — contracts........xvii. 10, 21

Basis — foundation...........xx. 13, 23

Bear — carry.................. xvi. 11, 20

Before — preceding, (phrases

syn. to)................xxii, 1, 25

Behavior — conduct ........ . xxiv. 14, 27

Beneath — under.............xv. 35, 19

Benefit — advantage......... xxii. 6, 25

Bestow — confer............ xxix. 37, 35

Between — among, U. ..... .xxxi. 5, 36

Bill of attainder — ex post

facto law.............xxxiv. 8, 38

Bliss — felicity..............xxix. 48, 35

Book of laws — code ..........xii. 112, 14

Borne — supported ........... .xviii. 25, 22

Brands — swords.. ..........xxix. 49, 35

Breach of the peace — felony xxiv. 18, 27

Break the seals of — open . xxviii. 42, 33

Brethren }

Brothers }................xxi. 44, 24.

Business — concerns........ ... .xvi., 8, 20

But, (dif. parts of speech). ..xliii. 36, 40

By degrees — gradually, (phrase

syn. to)...................xxii. 10, 25

Calculated }

Computed }.............xxix. 47, 35

Called — named ...........xvii. 13, 21

Carry — bear.................... xvi 11, 20

Case S .......................xiii. 31, 14

Catalogues — lists . ......xxviii. 40, 32

Cause — reason..........xxviii. 22, 32

Cede — surrender.............xv. 27, 19

Celebrated — illustrious ......... xiv. 28, 17

Ceremony — form. .......... xiv. 39, 18

Change — alter ............ xv. 4, 18

Changed — altered ............. xx. 20, 24

Changes — vicissitudes ....... . xvii. 17, 21

Charge — office .................. xxiv. 20, 27

Choice — option ................ xv. 28, 19

Chosen — elected ........... ..... xxi 25, 24

Chosen — selected .............. .xxiv. 6, 27

Christendom (its old M.) .......x. 1, 8

Chronological, M.. ................ix. 30, 8

Circumscribed — restricted ... . xv. 12, 18


12 INDEX.

Les. Q P

Circumstantial — minute .. . xv. 38, 19

Citizen — subject..........xxxvi 14, 38

Citizens — denizens........ xxxi. 31, 37

Citizens — people........... xiii 48, 15

Civil code, M............. xii 103, 14

Claim, S ............... xxvii 12, 29

Claims — rights.......... xii 110, 14

Class — order.............xxiv. 10, 27

Class — order — rank....... xv 44, 19

Client — patron, U.......... xliii. 41, 40

Closing } .......xvii. 20, 21

Concluding }

Coalescence — union......... xv 17, 18

Code — book of laws...... xii. 112, 14

Columbia (whence derived) .. xxx. 2, 35

Com (prefix) -pose.....xii. 56, 13

Commensurate — adequate ... xv. 47, 20

Comments — observations .. . xxix. 20, 34

Commonwealth — state... xxviii. 35, 32

Compacts — agreements ..... ... xx. 11, 23

Compensation — remuneration xxviii 18, 31

Compile, M..............xxii. 3, 25

Complete — perfect..........xxix; 29, 34

Compose }

Constitute }.................xii. 111, 114

Con (prefix) -sequently and -tracts, M xii. 36, 12

Concerns — business...... xvi. 8, 20

Conceit those measures (syn. phrase to) ........... xxii. 11, 25

Concurrence }

Consent } .............xxiv. 15, 27

Conduct — behaviour.. .. xxiv. 14, 27

Confederation — union .... . xxvii. 13, 30

Confer — bestow...........xxix 37, 35

Confidence — trust.......... xlvi 29, 42

Confirm — establish ...... xxiv 4, 27

Conquered — vanquished. xiv 26, 17

Consecrated — devoted .. xxxi, 12, 36

Consecrated — hallowed .... xxix. 44, 35

Considered — regarded ... xix ... 7, 22

Constant — perpetual. . . xiv. 11, 17

Constitution (whence deriv.) xxix. 2, 34

Constitution S.........xxix 3, 34

Contempt — disdain ..... xx. 9, 23

Contentions — dissensions... xxx, 13, 35

Contested — disputed .......xv. 7, 18

Contiguous — adjoining .... xv, 30, 19

Continuance }

Continuation } .............. xxiv 21, 27

Contract — agreement ..... xvii. 15, 21

Contracts — bargains .......xvii 10, 21

Contribute — administer....... xiv. 9, 16

Controversy — dispute .......xiv. 18, 17

Conventions }

Convocations }...............xxvii 27, 30

Convocations — meetings ... xviii. 29, 22

Convocation — assembly... xviii. 16, 21

Correctly — accurately.......xvi. 5, 20

Counsel — lawyers ....... xlv. 21, 41

Countenance — encourage. .. xvi. 6, 20

Countenanced — sanctioned .... xv. 3, 18

Country — land.............xxviii 33, 30

Course — series ..... . ..... xxix. 25, 34

Covenant — agreement .... xv. 10, 18

Cradle — dwelling place, U. . . xlvi. 16, 42

Crime — misdemeanor......xxviii. 21, 31

Les. Q. P. Crown-lands — public domain, U. xxii. 5, 25

Custom — usage.............. xv. 31, 19

Customs — practices .........xxix. 26, 34

Customs — usages...........xiv. 20, 17

Cut — tear, U................xlvi. 32, 42

Danger — jeopardy ..........xxviii 17, 31

Dealings — traffic ............. xvii 9, 21

Debate — speech ................ xxiv. 19, 27

Declare — avow ............. . xxi. 6, 24

Declare — proclaim ..........xvi. 15, 20

Declined — refused.......... xvii. 12, 21

Deeds, S................... xii. 32, 12

Defeated — baffled...........xviii 17, 21

Defective — imperfect ....... xxix. 35, 35

Defence (two ways to spell), xlv, 37, 41

Definition — synonym, U........... 10, 6

Degree, S ................. xiv. 10, 17

Demand — requirement .............. xv. 46, 20

Demoniacs — possessed persons xlvi. 11, 42

Denizens — citizens ............ xxxi. 31, 37

Denoted — signified ............... x. 35, 9

Depredation — robbery ..... ..xv. 23, 19

Deputize (an Americanism). .xiii. 82, 16

Design — object ..............xlii, 14, 40

Destroy }

Dissolve } ................xxi. 5, 24

Destruction — annihilation ... xxi. 26, 24

Destruction — ruin ............. ix 13, 7

Destruction — ruin ........... xxxvi. 15, 38

Detests — abhors ............ xlvi. 44, 42

Developing — elevating — strengthening, U................. 11, 6

Devises — wills ............... xii. 108, 14

Devoted — consecrated . ........ xxxi. 12, 36

Dictate — proscribe ........ . xiv. 37, 18

Different }

Dissimilar }.............. x. 38, 9

Different — several ........... xxvii. 23, 30

Difficulties — obstacles ....... xxix. 38, 35

Dignity — honor ......... xiv. 42, 18

Dis (prefix) -approved, M .... xxv. 6, 28

Discoveries — inventions ...... xii. 105, 14

Discretion — judgment ........... . xv. 26, 19

Disdain — contempt ........ xx. 9, 23

Disparity — inequality ......... xiv. 1, 16

Display — exhibit .......... xv. 8, 18

Disposed — inclined ............. xiii. 26, 14

Dispute — controversy ....... xiv. 18, 17

Disputed — contested ......... xv. 7, 18

Disregard — slight .............. xiv 19, 17

Dissensions — contentions xxx 13, 35

Dissensions — quarrels xxx 15, 35

Distant — foreign, U ..... xxviii 36, 32

Distinct — separate x 36, 9

Distributed — apportioned xxiv 7, 27

Disturb — interrupt....... xxx 8, 35

Disunited }

Divided } ..............x. 45, 9

Done — made............xxvii 39, 30

Drawing, S ............... xii 32, 12

Due — right ............xiii 26, 14

Duties — taxes..........xxxiii 36, 37

Duty — service......... xxviii 16, 31

Dwelling place — cradle, U. xlvi. 16, 42

INDEX. 13

Each }

Every } .................. xxx. 17, 36

Educators, M ...................

Elected — chosen............xxi. 25, 24

Elevated — raised ........... xxix. 34, 34

Elevating — developing — strengthening, U ................ 11, 6

Emergency }

Exigency } ................xvi. 3, 20

Emoluments — salaries .......xxi. 33, 24

Emphasis —

Emphasis — pause — tone...... 21, 6

Employ — use...........xv. 25, 19

Empowering — authorizing .. . xvi. 12, 20

Enacted — made .............xiii. 48, 15

Encompassing — surrounding ... xvii. 1, 20

Encourage — countenance ... .xvi. 6, 20

Ends — objects ...............xiv. 41, 18

Enemies — foes............. xxi. 54, 25

Engagements, S.............xii 32, 12

Engrossed, S.............xxiii. 3, 25

Enormous — vast ...........xvi. 18, 20

Enviable, (whence derived, and

how used) ............. ix. 49, 8

Envy — jealousy............xviii 23, 22

Equably }

Equally } ..................xiv. 40, 18

Equal — uniform............xiv. 34, 17

Essay — treatise............... 23, 6

Establish — confirm.........xxiv. 4, 27

Evasion — subterfuge......... xv. 20, 18

Evident — manifest..........xvi. 17, 20

Examples — instances.......xviii. 10, 21

Excises — imposts ...... xxxiii. 37, 37

Excite — incite.............. 18, 6

Executives — pardoning power, U .................xlv. 28, 41

Exhibit — display ............xv. 8, 18

Existing — subsisting......xviii. 11, 21

Experience — trial ..........xx. 16, 23

Exports — imports, U . ....... xxv. 28, 28

Ex post facto law — bill of attainder, U .........xxxiv. 8, 38

Extending — suppressing, U .. .. vi. 2, 4

Faculties M ................ 12, 6

Faithful — true .........xlvi. 35, 42

Famous — renowned ........... xiv. 22, 17

Farewell — adieu — good-bye xxii. 8, 25

Feared — apprehended ......xviii. 13, 21

Felicity — bliss ..........xxix. 48, 35

Felony — breach of the peace ... xxiv. 18, 27

Fixed — permanent ......xii 106, 14

Flag — banner ..........xxxi. 33, 37

Foes — enemies ...........xxi. 54, 25

Foreign — distant, U..... xxviii. 36, 32

Forgive — pardon . xlvi. 5, 41

Form S.......xix. 9, 22

Forms, S .........xii 32, 12

Form — ceremony...........xiv 39, 18

Form — system ...... xix. 10, 22

Foundation — basis ......xx 13, 23

Freedom — liberty .. .. xxviii 5, 31

Friendly — amicable . ... xv 39, 19

Fruitful — prolific ...... xiv 24, 17

Fulcrum — prop ........ xlviii 49, 43

Furnished — provided...... xv. 33, 19

Les. Q. P.

General excellency — humanity, U.....................xlv. 25, 41

Generations — ages.........xxxi. 18, 36

Glaive, M.................. . . xxix. 51, 35

Glaring — notorious.........xxii. 23, 25

Governed — ruled .... xiii. 48, 15

Government, M..............ix. 14, 7

Government, S............... ix. 15, 7

Good-bye — adieu — farewell xxii. 8, 25

Gradually — by degrees, (phrase syn. to) ...............xxii. 10, 25

Grandeur — magnificence .. xv. 50, 20

Greatest — largest ....... xxviii. 13, 33

Grievances — wrongs ... xxviii. 8, 31

Guns — muskets.........xxxviii. 22, 38

Had, S ................. xxii. 12, 25

Hallowed — consecrated.....xxix. 44, 35

Harbors — ports............. xv 37, 19

Hidden — latent ............xxix. 21, 34

History — account..........xiii 20, 14

Honor — dignity..........xiv 42, 18

Host, S .............x 54, 9

Humanity — general excellency, U.....................xlv. 25, 41

Ignorant }

Illiterate }..................xiv. 2, 16

Illegal — unjust ............xlv. 50, 41

Illustrious — celebrated.....xiv. 28, 17

Im (prefix) -portant, M .......xii 21, 12

Im (prefix) -punity, M......xliv. 37, 41

Imperfect — defective.......xxix 35, 35

Imports — exports, U........ xxv. 28, 28

Imposing — obtruding .......xxi. 37, 24

Imposts — excises ........xxxiii. 37, 37

In (prefix) -formed and -flicted,

M .. .......xii. 63, 13

In (prefix) -habitants, M ...xii. 50, 12

In (prefix) -secure, &c , M xliv. 38, 41

Incite — excite .......... 18, 6

Inclined — disposed ....... xiii. 26, 14

Independent (whence deriv.) . xxx. 9, 35

Indians — savages ..... xviii 14, 21

Indictment — presentment .. xliii. 5, 40

Ineffectually }

In vain } (phras. syn. to) xxii 20, 25

Inequality — disparity .. . xiv 1, 16

Infallible — unerring.....xiii. 2, 14

Infirmity — weakness ...xiii 26, 14

Infringement (whence deriv. ) xix 5, 22

Inhabitants — people ..... xxviii 33, 32

Inheritance — legacy .... xxxi . 3, 36

Inheritances — patrimonies xii. 107, 14

Injure }

Impair }...................xv. 18, 18

Inoffending — unoffending.....xv. 21, 19

Instances — examples .......xviii, 10, 21

Instructed — taught .............xiv. 25, 17

Instrument, S...........xxiii. 21, 26

Instrument — tool..... ......xxi 38, 24

Insult — affront ........ xv. 41, 19

Insurrections — rebellious.... xxv. 16, 28

Insurrections — riots ........ xxxiii. 74, 38

Intellectual — moral ............... 15, 6

Intention — purpose ..... .... xxiv 12, 27

Inter (prefix) -national, M .. .xiv 14, 17

Interrupt — disturb .......... .xxx. 8, 35

2


14 INDEX.

Les. Q. P.

Inventions — discoveries......xii. 105, 14

Italics, M..................... 1, 2

Jealousy — envy........... .xviii. 23. 22

Jeopardy — danger.........xxviii. 17, 31

Judgment — discretion.. .......xv. 26, 19

Junes — voters, Q.............xlv. 17, 41

Juryman, M................See page 242

Kept — retained...............xx. 18, 23

Kingly — regal..............xviii. 20, 22

Land — country............. xxvii. 33, 30

Largest — greatest .........xxviii. 43, 33

Lasting — permanent......,xvii. 28, 22

Latent — hidden............. xxix, 21, 34

Law, S.......... ............. xxvii. 5, 29

Law — rule................xxviii. 3, 31

Laws — statutes .............xiii. 48, 15

Laws — statutes.......... xxvii. 30, 30

Lawyers — counsel .......... .xlv. 21, 41

Leave — permission.......... xv. 36, 19

Legacy — inheritance . .... ... xxxi. 3, 36

Liberty — acquittal, U....... xlv. 26, 41

Liberty — freedom ......... xxviii. 5, 31

Light — trivial........... ...xxi. 16, 24

Like — similar..............xviii. 26, 22

Likewise — also............ xxv. 2, 27

Lists — catalogues.........xxviii. 40, 32

Literary — scientific, U......... 22, 6

Loyalty, M..................xix. 19, 23

Made — done...............xxvii. 39, 30

Made — enacted ..............xiii. 48, 15

Magistrate — priest, U.......xii. 62, 13

Magna Charta, M...........xlvi. 20, 42

Magnificence — grandeur......xv. 50, 20

Main, (in opposite senses). .xxix. 42, 35

Main — ocean..............xxix. 41, 35

Manifest — evident...........xvi. 17, 20

Manner }

Mode } ..................xxiv. 13, 27

Manner — way ............xxviii. 12, 31

Matters — resolutions, Q .. .xxiii. 14, 26

May, S...................xix. 2, 22

Meaning — signification ....xxix. 18, 34

Meet — assemble..........xxviii. 38, 32

Meetings — conventions ....xviii. 29, 22

Memento }

Monument } ..................xxiii. 25, 26

Method }

Mode } ...................xiv. 38, 18

Metonomy, M.............. 13, 6

Minute — circumstantial ..... xv. 38, 19

Misdemeanor — crime .... xxviii. 21, 31

Model — pattern........... .xxx. 4, 35

Modern — recent...........xiv. 32, 17

Modulation — emphasis....... 21, 6

Monarchs — sovereigns....... xv. 6, 18

Monolith — obelisk ........ xxxi. 39, 37

Moral — intellectual.......... 15, 6

Moral ......... 15, 6

Moslems — Turks........ .. .xlvi. 10, 42

Motives — principles.........xvi. 20, 20

Multitudes — swarms.... .xviii. 22, 22

Muskets — guns..........xxxviii. 22, 38

Mutual — reciprocal.......... xv. 43, 19

Les. Q. P.

Named — called ................ xvii. 13, 21

Necessary — requisite........ xii. 44, 12

Necessity }

Need } .................... xii. 104, 14

Need — want ..................xiii. 26, 14

Nevertheless }

Notwithstanding } ............ xxvii. 35, 30

Nobles — peers ..............xxxi. 22, 36

Notorious — glaring . ....... xxii. 23, 25

Oath — Affirmation ......... xxvi. 7, 28

Obelisk — monolith ......... xxxi. 39, 37

Object — design ..............xlii, 14, 40

Objects — ends ................ xiv. 41, 18

Observations — comments ... xxix. 20, 34

Obstacles — difficulties ............xxix. 38, 35

Obtain — procure . ................ xvi. 14, 20

Obtruding — imposing .. ........ .xxi. 37, 24

Ocean — main .................. .xxix. 41, 35

Ocean — sea ......... ....... xxxi. 10, 36

Offended — angry ............. xxiii. 27, 26

Officer — charge .............xxiv, 20, 27

On — upon ................xxviii, 44, 33

Open, S .............. ......xxvii. 9..29

Open — break the seals of . .. xxviii. 42, 33

Option — choice............... xv. 28, 19

Or (affix) elect , M. ....... . xxvi. 2, 28

Orally, M ..................... 9, 6

Order — class..............xxiv. 10, 27

Order — class — rank ..........xv. 44, 19

Outline — sketch....... ...... xxii. 2, 25

Ownership — property ....... xii. 109, 14

Palladium, M ..............xxix. 27, 34

Panel }

Pannel } ...........xlii. 27, 40

Paragraph — sentence, U ........ 23, 6

Pardon — forgive ............ xlvi. 5, 41

Pardoning power — executives,

U......................xlv. 28, 41

Part }

Portion }...... .....xxvii. 25, 30

Passed }

Propounded }.............. xxiii. 19, 26

Patrimonies — inheritances ... xii. 107, 14

Patron — client, U...........xliii. 41, 40

Pattern — model.............. xxx. 4, 35

Pause — emphasis — tone, M.. . 21, 6

Peace — quiet .......... ... ..xxviii. 11, 31

Peace — tranquillity .......... xii. 102, 14

Peace — tranquillity......... xiv. 33, 17

Peers — nobles. ............. xxxi. 22, 36

People — citizens........... xiii. 48, 15

People — inhabitants..... xxviii 33, 32

People — populace........ xxii 24, 25

Perceived — seen ...........xxix 30, 34

Perfect — complete .......xxix 29, 34

Perfidious — treacherous..... xiv. 29, 17

Periods — ages .............xiii 26, 14

Permanent — fixed...........xii. 106, 14

Permanent — lasting....... xviii. 28, 22

Permission — leave......... xv. 36, 19

Perpetual — constant........ xiv. 11, 17

Pillaged }

Plundered }.................xxi. 43, 24

Place — spot ...............xxiv. 16, 27

Poetry — verse...............xii. 57, 13

Ponder — reflect..........xxix. 45, 35

INDEX. 15

Les. Q P

Ports — harbors ............ xv. 37, 19

Possessed persons — demoniacs

xlvi. 11, 42

Potent }

Powerful } ...............xxix. 23, 34

Power — authority — strength. iii. 20, 2

Power — strength............xiv. 35, 18

Powers, S................... 20, 6

Practices — customs......xxix. 26, 34

Pre (prefix) -scribe, M......xiii 13, 14

Preamble (whence derived) xxix. 8, 34

Preamble, S...............xxix. 9, 34

Preceding — before (phrases syn. to)..................xxii. 1, 25

Precepts }

Principles } .................xv. 2, 18

Prejudice, M................... 3, 4

Preparing, S..............xxiii. 16, 26

Prerequisite — qualification, U. xxvii. 37, 30

Prescribe — dictate...........xiv. 37, 18

Presence — sight, U,.......xxviii. 41, 32

Presentment — indictment ..xliii. 5, 40

Pretences }

Pretexts } ................xx. 3, 23

Priest — magistrate, U.......xii. 62, 13

Principles, S...............xix 4, 22

Principles — motives ........xvi. 20, 20

Pro (prefix) -vide, M.........xxv. 9, 28

Proceeding }

Process }.............xxviii. 23, 32

Proclaim — declare...........xvi. 15, 20

Procure — obtain............xvi. 14, 20

Progression — advancement.... 16, 6

Prolific — fruitful............xiv. 24, 17

Prop — fulcrum............xlviii. 49, 43

Proper — right.............xxix. 32, 34

Property — ownership........xii. 109, 14

Prorogue — adjourn......... .xix. 15, 22

Prosecute }

Pursue } .................xv. 40, 19

Prosperity — welfare ....... xxiv. 5, 27

Provided — furnished ..........xv. 33, 19

Prudence — wisdom.........xxxi. 21, 36

Public domain — crown-lands,

U .................xxii. 5, 25

Purpose — intention ........xxi v. 12, 27

Purpose — sake..............xv. 22, 19

Qualification — prerequisite,

U..................xxvii 37, 30

Quarrels — dissensions.......xxx. 15, 35

Quick — speedy...........xxviii. 20, 31

Quiet — peace ......... xxviii. 11, 31

Quit — relinquish............xiv. 4, 16

Raised — elevated ........xxix 34, 34

Rank — class — order........ xv 44, 19

Rational }

Reasonable } .........xxix. 40, 35

Re (prefix) -consider, M. ... xxv. 3, 28

Real — actual.............xxiv. 8, 27

Reason — cause......xxviii. 22, 32

Rebellions — insurrections .xxv 16, 28

Receive — acquire, U.......ix 51, 8

Received — admitted ...... xxii 17, 25

Recent — modern .......xiv 32, 17

Recess — absence, U.....xxvi 11, 28

Les. Q. P.

Reciprocal — mutual ....... . xv. 43, 19

Recognized — acknowledged .. xv. 15, 18

Recorded }

Registered }..................xiv. 30, 37

Redress }

Relief } ..................xxi. 51, 25

Reflect — ponder...... .....xxix. 45, 35

Refused — declined..........xvii. 12, 21

Regal — kingly ............xviii 20, 22

Regard }

Respect }..................xiv. 23, 17

Regarded — considered . .....xix. 7, 22

Relinquish — quit.......... .xiv. 4, l6

Remuneration — compensation xxviii. 18, 31

Renewed }

Revived }.................xvii. 5, 21

Renowned — famous.........xiv. 22, 17

Repeatedly (phrases syn. to) . .xx. 24, 21

Repose }

Rest }...................xxx. 7, 35

Representatives — senate, Q. xxiii 22, 26

Requirement — demand .... ..xv. 46, 20

Requisite — necessary........xii 44, 12

Resolutions — matters, Q, .... xxiii. 14, 26

Restrained }

Restricted }.................xx. 14, 23

Restrainment — suppression. ..xx. 7, 23

Restricted — circumscribed ... .xv. 12, 18

Retained — kept..............xx. 18, 23

Revered — venerated.........xx. 22, 24

Revolutionary — transitional,

U......................xxii. 9, 25

Right, S....................xix. 16, 23

Right — due.................xiii. 23, 14

Right — proper............xxix. 32, 34

Rights — claims...............xii. 110, 14

Rigorously — strictly.........xiii. 26, 14

Riots — insurrections .....xxxiii. 74, 38

Robbery — depredation........xv. 23, 19

Ruin — destruction ...........ix. 13, 7

Ruin — destruction.......xxxvi 15, 38

Rule — law ..............xxviii 3, 31

Ruled — governed............xiii. 48, 15

Sabbath, M.................xii. 9, 11

Sacredness (whence derived) xii 33, 12

Safe }

Secure }.................xxx. 5, 35

Sake — purpose ..............xv. 22, 19

Salaries — emoluments......xxi. 33, 21

Sanction }

Support }...................xv. 11, 18

Sanctioned — countenanced . .. xv. 3, 18

Savages — Indians.......... xviii.. 11, 21

Scholar 13, 6

School (words derived from) ... 13, 6

Science — art ........ .....xiii. 88, 16

Scientific — literary, U.......... 22, 6

Sea — ocean ..............xxxi. 10, 36

Seasons — times ......... xv. 49, 20

Security — bail ............ xxviii. 28, 32

Seen — perceived ........ xxix. 30, 34

Self-evident truths — axioms xxii 25, 25

Semi (prefix) -barbarous, M xiii. 9, 14

Senate — representatives, Q xxiii 22, 26

Sentence — paragraph, U....... 23, 6


16 INDEX.

Les Q. P.

Sentient (whence derived) ... 17, 6

Separate — distinct ............x. 36, 9

Sept — tribe ...............xxxi 14, 36

Series — course............. xxix 25, 34

Service — duty............xxviii. 16, 31

Several — different.........xxvii. 23, 30

Several — various............x. 37, 9

Sheep, Q ..................xlv. 23, 41

Sheriff, M...............xlii. 24, 40

Ships — vessels...............xv 32, 19

Sight — presence, U.....xxviii 41, 32

Signification — meaning . . xxix, 18 34

Signified — denoted......... . x. 35, 9

Similar — like ...........xviii 26, 22

Sketch — outline............xxii. 2, 25

Slight — disregard........... xiv, 19, 17

Societies, M............... xiii. 3, 14

Soil, S.................... xx. 25, 24

Sovereigns — monarchs......xv. 6, 18

Speech — debate..........xxiv 19, 27

Speedy — quick............xxviii. 20, 31

Spot — place ............xxiv. 16, 27

State — commonwealth ... .xxviii. 35, 32

States, M. . . ........... xiii. 8, 14

Status quo, Q................xv, 13, 18

Statutes — laws... ......... xiii. 48, 15

Statutes — laws...........xxvii, 30, 30

Step, M....................xii. 76, 13

Step (prefix) -father, M.......xii. 77, 13

Story, S ....................ix. 28, 7

Strength — authority — power .. 20, 6

Strength — power...........xiv, 35, 18

Strengthening — developing —

elevating, U.............. 11, 6

Strictly — rigorously........ .xiii. 26, 14

Subject, S.................vii. 3, 6

Subject — citizen..........xxxvi. 14, 38

Subsisting — existing.......xviii. 11, 21

Subterfuge — evasion.........xv. 20, 18

Supported — borne..........xviii. 25, 22

Suppressing — extending, U.. ... 2, 4

Suppression — restrainment .. xx. 7, 23

Surrender — cede........... xv. 27, 19

Surrounding — encompassing xvii. 1, 20

Swarms — multitudes.......xviii. 22, 22

Swords — brands ......... . xxix. 49, 35

Sworn — affirmed, U........xlii. 35, 40

Synonym — definition, U........ 10, 6

System — form.............. xix. 10, 22

Talesmen, M ..............xliv. 42, 41

Taught — instructed .........xiv. 25, 17

Taxes — duties..........xxxiii. 36, 37

Tear — cut U................xlvi. 32, 42

Temporary }

Transient }............. . xxiv. 11, 27

Term — word................xvi. 2, 20

Testimony — witness......xxvii. 41, 30

That, Q .................xliv. 30, 41

Ticket — ballot...........xxviii. 39, 32

Times — seasons ............ xv. 40, 20

Tion (affix) capita-, M......xxv. 23, 28

Tone — emphasis — pause, M. .. 21, 6

Les. Q. P.

Tool — instrument ...........xxi. 38, 24

Traffic — dealings...........xvii. 9, 21

Tranquillity — peace......... xii. 102, 14

Tranquillity — peace....... xlv. 33, 17

Trans (prefix) -mitted, M ... xii, 58, 13

Transitional — revolutionary, U, xxii. 9, 25

Treacherous — perfidious.... xiv. 29, 17

Treatise — essay ,.............. 23, 6

Trial — experience............xx. l6, 23

Tribe — sept ...............xxxi 14, 36

Trivial — light ..............xxi. 16, 24

True — faithful............ xlvi 35, 42

Trust — confidence........ xlvi. 29, 42

Turks — Moslems ..........xlvi. 10, 42

Ty (affix) notorie, M.......xii. 25, 12

Un (prefix}, M............ .. .xii, 114, 14

Un (prefix) -aided, M.........xii 113, 14

Under — beneath ..............xv. 35, 19

Unerring — infallible. ........ xiii. 2, 14

Uniform — equal.......... .. xiv, 34, 17

Union — coalescence........ . xv. 17, 18

Union — confederation . .... xxvii. 13, 30

Unjust — illegal .... ....... . xlv. 50, 41

Unoffending — inoffending ... .xv. 21, 19

Upon — on ...................xxviii 44, 33

Usage — custom ...............xv. 31, 19

Usages — custom ............ .xiv. 20, 17

Use — employ................xv. 25, 19

Validity, S...................xii. 32, 12

Vanquished — conquered .....xiv. 26, 17

Various — several ............. x. 37, 9

Vast — enormous ............xvi. 18, 20

Venerated — revered ..........xx. 22, 24

Verse — poetry ............... xii. 57, 13

Vessels — ships .. ............xv. 32, 19

Vetoed, M. ... .............xiii. 63, 15

Vice (prefix), M............ xxvi. 16, 28

Vice, S...................xxvi. 17, 28

Vicissitudes — Changes ......xvii. 17, 21

Voice }

Vote }...................xxiv. 9, 27

Voters — juries, Q............xiv. 17, 41

Want — need............... .xiii. 26, 14

Way — manner ... ..... .xxviii 12, 31

Weakness — infirmity..... xiii 26, 14

Weapons — arms....... xxviii 9, 31

Welfare — prosperity . . . xxiv 5, 27

Wills — devises ........ xii 108, 14

Wisdom — prudence . .. xxxi 21, 36

Witness — testimony. xxvii 41, 30

Word — term .... . xvi. 2, 20

Work, S . ... 2, 6

Writ of error Q .... xxxix 15, 39

Wrongs — abuses U xxi. 17, 24

Wrongs — grievances . . xxviii 8. 31


THE
AMERICAN MANUAL.

LESSON I.

THE design of the right-hand column of words (See LESSON 7.) is to render the school-room a place of intense interest, enchaining the mind of the pupil by gradual and constant exercise of all the intellectual faculties; for, like the body, the more the mind is properly exercised the stronger it becomes. When the right-hand column is used as a spelling lesson, and the teacher gives out any word, it is intended that the word in the same line indicated by the figure 1 shall be spelled in its place. For example — when the teacher pronounces book, the pupil will spell work — when primary, the pupil will spell elementary — when lessons for practice, the pupil will spell exercises — and when writers, the pupil will spell authors. Again, when the teacher pronounces work, the scholar will spell book — when elementary, the scholar will spell primary — when exercises, the scholar will spell lessons for practice — when authors, the scholar will spell writers. It is obvious that by this plain not a word can be spelled without "waking up the mind" of the scholar. The pupil spells and learns the meaning of two words in every line, and eventually forms the habit of observing how every word read is spelled, or, in other words, learns to spell every word in the language correctly; and, what is more, not only learns the meaning of every word, but also the nice shades of difference between words generally used as synonymous with each other. Youth thus enter with zest on the study of their mother tongue, and each day brings increasing delight in tracing the beauties and following out the philosophy of language, in which all the business of life is transacted, effectually fitting the student for the real practical duties of the world.

In order to enliven the class, train the pupils to think quick, and to rivet their attention the teacher may occasionally give them the marginal words to spell by letter. Thus, the teacher pronounces work, Susan begins, B, Mary instantly follows, OO, then Jane, K, and Harriet pronounces the word; and so on down the column and

2*

(17)


18 INTRODUCTION.

through the class. It will be advisable for those who use the Manual as a reading book to take but one feature at a time, and to omit the questions till the pupils are perfectly familiar with the marginal exercises.

It cannot be too often repeated, that the great object has been to discipline the mind, to give the pupil an accurate command of language; and hence, the word found in the margin is often not the easiest or the plainest one that might have been given. For example (see page 83), ken, 18th marginal line; also (page 111) coterie, 33d marginal line, and moderator, 49th marginal line.

Some words in the right-hand column are definitions, some synonyms, and some neither definitions nor synonyms, but phrases or expressions that convey a similar idea to the mind. Hence, the pupil in properly using this book must reason, investigate, and reflect; the attention thus aroused in school will accompany the pupil through life, and in the place of stupidity, sluggishness, and a distaste for intellectual pursuits, an acute intellect and polished mind will be formed which will adorn the possessor, and! bless society to the end of time.

It is believed that pupils who properly use this book will acquire attentive habits, desire for study, and patient investigation, which will fit them in after life to be the solace and pride of their families, and the ornaments of society.

LESSON II.

Another excellent feature of the marginal exercises is, that youths gradually train the eye to look in advance of the word they; are pronouncing. For example, when the scholar pronounces schools, the first word in the third line of Lesson 7., the eye glances forward to the end of the line in order to bring.in the meaning of exercises, the word indicated by the figure 1. The eye thus accustomed to reach in advance of the words being pronounced, the pupil is enabled to articulate the difficult words that occur in the course of reading, without the least hesitancy. Hence, a habit of reading fluently is acquired at the same time youth are obtaining a command of language. Educators will find it well frequently to call the attention of the young to the great variety of meanings the same word may have, owing to its connexion with the sentence in which it is placed. Thus work, the second


INTRODUCTION. 19

word in the first line of Lesson 7., is used in the sense of book, but it may have ten different significations. See Lesson 8., Question 2 Page 6 Appendix. Teachers who properly use the marginal column will soon find the eyes of their pupils beaming with joy, as their minds expand by the use of the marginal exercises. The pupil should so study the lesson as not to make the slightest halt in substituting the meaning for the word indicated by the figure 1. For backward or dull scholars, it will be well for the teacher to simplify the answers in the Appendix. For example, Question 2, of Lesson 8., in the Appendix may be elucidated more in full, 'thus: (see Ques. 2. Les. 8.) first in the sense of BOOK, as the work is well written; that is, the book is well written. Second, in the sense of LABOR, as he is at work; that is, he is at labor. Third, in the sense of MANAGE, as work out your own salvation; that is, manage your own salvation. Fourth, in the sense of OPERATE, as the principle works well; that is, the principle operates well. Fifth.. in the sense of BECOME, as the cogs work loose by friction; that is, they become loose by friction. Sixth, in the sense of FERMENT, as malt liquors work; that is, they ferment. Seventh, in the sense of REMOVE, as the plaster works out of place; that is, the plaster is removed out of place. Eighth, in the sense of KNEAD, as the young ladies, Bridget, Elizabeth, and Louisa, work pastry: that is, the young ladies knead pastry. Tenth, in the sense of EMBROIDER, as (he young ladies, Jane, Susan, and Harriet, work purses; that is, they embroider purses. For backward or dull scholars it would probably be best for the teacher to omit the questions in the book entirely, and give them a few easy oral ones; and for those advanced it will be well to vary the exercise and make it more difficult. By taking again Question 2, Lesson I., the advanced pupil would give something like the following answer. First, in the sense of BOOK, as my mother purchased the work. Second, in the sense of LABOR, as John is at work, &c.

It frequently occurs throughout the book that the best word for the text is found in the margin. In doing this, the author had a two-fold object; first, to exercise the judgment and discriminating powers of the pupils; second, it was often more convenient. For examples of this kind, see page 111, and the 38th line; COMMITTEE would be far preferable, both in brevity and style, to number of their body; PLAINTIFF, page 250, marginal line 149; REPLICATION, page 251, marginal line 167; GIVEN HIS CHARGE, Lesson XLIV., page 252, line 2; with many others, are examples of this kind.


20 INTRODUCTION.

As a genera] rule, the term or phrase given in the margin is the approximate meaning of the word in the same line, indicated by the figure 1. The teacher should be careful to make the pupil understand that the same word may convey a very different or even an opposite signification in one sentence from what it does in another; for example, when we speak of a nervous writer, we mean one strong and vigorous; but when we speak of a nervous lady, we mean one weak and feeble.

After the pupils have become familiar with the marginal words they should substitute original meanings, obtained by their own research and reflection: for example, in the place of the meaning given in the margin of work, in the first line of Lesson 7., the scholars may substitute Reader, Manual, or Volume; any phrase or expression that will convey a similar idea.

LESSON III.

The Index to synonyms, [see page 11] will also furnish many interesting fireside lessons, and greatly assist the teacher who uses the Manual for advanced classes. For example, suppose the pupil wishes to know the difference between abolish and abrogate; by reference to lesson XV., Question 16, page 18 of the Appendix (as pointed out by the Index), the difference is explained at length; and by turning to Lesson XV. (Question 16, which points out the line in which the words occur), and page 70, in the body of the book, the pupil will see an application of the words in a sentence; hence it is plain that if the nation does away gradually with its old regulations, abolish will be the best word to use in the text; if suddenly, then abrogate would be the best, It appears that alter precedes abolish (see page 70, line 54); hence, it is evident that the change may be a gradual alteration, and therefore abolish is the best word to use in the text. Again, suppose the difference between declare and avow is required; under the letter D, page 12, in the Index, the difference is indicated, and clearly explained in Lesson XXI., Question 6, page 24 of the Appendix By reference to Lesson XXI. (Question 6, which points out the line in which the words occur), page 94, the application of the words will appear; declare being the best word to use in the text, because its application is national. The Biographical Tables also furnish fruitful and varied themes


INTRODUCTION. 21

for composition, and are of much service by arousing a literary spirit in the family circle. The pupils should be encouraged to obtain knowledge from friends as well as from books.

Again, to vary the exercise, as well as to give the pupils some lesson that will interest their families at home, the teacher may assign with Lesson I., Table I. (found on page 332) of the State in which the school is taught. For example, suppose the school to be in the State of Pennsylvania; by reference to the table, it will be perceived that Pennsylvania is the ninth State in the column of States, and that opposite each State is the first column of figures denoting in years the time for which the governor in that State is elected. The figure opposite Pennsylvania in the first column is 3; hence, the governor of Pennsylvania is elected for three years. The figures in the second column denote, in dollars, the governor's salary per year; opposite Pennsylvania in the second column is 3000; hence, the governor of Pennsylvania has an annual salary of $3000. Again, suppose the school happens to be in Virginia, and that the class has been assigned Lesson II. By reference to Table II. it will be seen that Virginia is the twelfth State in the column of States. The first column of figures denotes the number of State Senators. In the first column of figures opposite Virginia is 50; hence, the number of State Senators in Virginia is 50. The second column of figures denotes the time, in years, for which the State Senators are elected; 4 is opposite Virginia in the second column of figures; hence, the term of office for the State Senators in Virginia is four years. The third column of figures denotes the number of State Representatives for each State. The figures opposite Virginia are 152; hence, the number of State Representatives' in Virginia is 152. The fourth column of figures denotes the time, in years, for which the State Representatives are elected. The number opposite Virginia is 2; hence, the term of office of the State Representatives for Virginia is two years. The fifth column of figures denotes, in years, the youngest age at which any man can legally serve as State Senator. The figures opposite Virginia in the fifth column are 30; hence, a man must attain thirty years in Virginia before he can be legally elected a State Senator. Again, suppose the school happens to be in Ohio, and the class has Lesson IV. assigned. For the home lesson the teacher may assign Table V. Ohio is the twenty-fifth State in the column of States, on page 336. The first column of figures


22 INTRODUCTION.

denotes the number of inhabited dwelling houses in each of the States respectively. The figures opposite Ohio in the first column are 336,098; — hence, according to the government authority of the last census, there were 336,098 inhabited dwelling houses in Ohio. The scholars may commit to memory one table, or even less than one table, for each day; and in the course of a short time they will be familiar with all the statistics of their own State.

LESSON IV.

Inattentive examination has led many who were not practical teachers to believe that the author intended the right-hand column of words as exact definitions; nothing could be farther from the fact. There are about one thousand questions calling the attention to the difference between the meaning of the word indicated by the figure 1 and the word in the margin, at the end of the line. The great object is to give varied accuracy in the use of words, a command of language, and gradually but thoroughly to exercise, the judgment and discriminating powers of the pupils. Pages 291, 297, and many others, call the attention expressly to the use of the marginal column. It cannot be too much borne in mind, that even of any several-words derived from various tongues, and conveying each in its own, the same thought as either or all of the rest, there is generally, in our language, a slight shade of difference in the application, so that they cannot be used indiscriminately. See page 4, Ap. Probably no two words can be found, in their true and nice application, exactly alike, though there are many conveying a similar idea. Let it be always distinctly recollected, that the main object of the marginal exercises is properly to discipline the mind, to cultivate a taste for the philosophy of our own language, and Jit the pupils for the duties of after-life.

Especial attention is also requested to the peculiarities of orthography in the Constitution. Several persons have had the kindness to point out what they supposed to be errors in spelling, whereas if they had taken pains to examine the questions at the termination of the Constitution (page 147), and the answers found to questions 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, and 71, in the corresponding lesson in the Appendix, or Key (pages 33 and 34), they would have seen the importance of not altering one iota, a document so sacred and venerable as the AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. Hence, in-

INTRODUCTION. 23

stead of being an insuperable objection to the use of the Manual, it will be seen that the very fact of its containing a FACSIMILE of the original manuscript of the Constitution (now in the Department of State in the City of Washington), greatly enhances its value. Hundreds of errors are now to be found in law and other books purporting to contain copies of the Constitution. One of the most popular school-books of the day has XIII. amendments to the Constitution; yet only XII. have been made by Congress. If in less than a century, independent of variations and errors in orthography, punctuation, &c., an entire amendment can be added to the Constitution, is there not danger, if authors are allowed to vary from the original manuscript, that in the course of time the entire original Constitution will be changed or obliterated, and a new one formed, according to the caprices of the public mind? Again, our language is subject to constant change, and, according to the general received opinion, up, the last word in the 120th line, page 134, is superfluous; yet it is found in the manuscript as originally adopted. The specimens of old English poetry, page 44 of the Appendix, and the Constitution itself, may, when compared with the best writers of the present day, serve to show the changes our language has gradually undergone. It may be well here to remark, that no one can comprehend the author's system of instruction who does not constantly refer to the questions. The answers to the questions, in the Appendix or Key, are intended simply as models; the pupils should always be encouraged to give original answers.

Books are companions whose silent and ever-acting influence, for good or for evil, is incalculable. If we place in the hands of youth books from which they form habits of memorizing like parrots and reciting like automatons; if we allow our daughters to take to their bosoms productions that please the fancy while they undermine the morals; if we allow our sons to read works that enervate and degrade instead of invigorating and exalting; if we are indifferent to the contents of a volume recommended or decried by a gaudy, a mercenary, a base, a prostituted press, we suffer others, tampering not with things of time but of eternity, to stain the fair blank of mind, prepared for the pen of virtue, and mar the symmetrical proportions of the soul. With interests so vast at stake, it behooves every educator, if he has not at hand those known to be disinterested, carefully to read books designed for his use, relying in the end upon his own judgment, so that neither the selfishness


24 INTRODUCTION.

of individuals, nor the cupidity of hireling critics, burning with insane zed to promote private ends, shall thwart his laudable efforts to ELEVATE AND ENNOBLE THE MINDS OF THE RISING GENERATION.

Should these remarks ever meet the eye of a teacher wishing to procure his bread without labor, to white away the time and pocket the money consecrated to the noble purpose of training youth for the duties of life and of eternity — if there be any having the superintendence of schools, or in any way whatever the charge of the young, who, to screen the teacher's indolence or serve in any manner private ends, advance the specious argument that the multiplicity of words given confuse and bewilder the pupil — the brief and irrefutable answer slay be made, that learning the definitions from a dictionary, the study of the classics, and the acquirement of any knowledge, is liable to the same sophistical objections. But skilful and conscientious teachers will not be dismayed by labor; and the child's eye, beaming with joy, as indications of an expanding mind, will dispel such arguments like mist before the burning sun.

By those who wish to travel the old beaten track, to use the books their forefathers used, this work may be cast aside as a "humbug;" and every other effort made to a rouse the unreflecting to a sense of the imminent dangers that now threaten the ruin of our Republic will also be cried down by those who feel that knowledge and morality endanger the wheedling politician's permanent hold on office. Some will, however, be found who regret the innovations of the day; who, like the Chinese, wish Us now to live as man lived two thousand years ago, trusting to the profession of rulers, and neglecting all the means by which we may know how well they live up to their vaunting professions of disinterested patriotism.

The present is an age of progress — the farmer uses labor-saving machines in agriculture; all the departments of human industry call to their aid, and are served by, the skill and ingenuity of modern inventions; the labor of months is now often performed in a few days; feats are accomplished that would formerly have been deemed incredible; and even the lightning of heaven has been bridled and broken to an express courser by man. Has it come to this, that every thing shall receive countenance and support save that only which affects the training of the young, that which has for its object the growth, the progress, the strength, the welfare of the immortal mind?


INTRODUCTION. 25

In two quarters have objections been raised to the use of a work of this kind in female seminaries. One class argue that political science is dry, uninteresting, and useless: "What," say they, "do young girls want to know of the Constitution of the United States? An accomplished education consists in dancing gracefully; in being familiar with the contents, of every novel in English and French." The other class wish to limit woman's knowledge to cooking and washing. The former would make woman a toy of youth, to be deserted in age ; the latter, a cateress to man's selfishness — not a companion and equal, but his abject slave through life.

Who moulds the destiny of the future ? Who makes an indelible impression on the infant mind ere it gives utterance to expressions of endearment and purity 2 Woman ! Ye master spirits of the present and the past century, who were the real authors of your greatness ? What enabled you to fill the world with your fame, and engrave your names high on the pillars of immortality ? The tomb resounds, MATERNAL INFLUENCE. Oh, shades of Washington and Napoleon ! How long will the world be learning that when the father's influence is no more felt, when the paternal spirit takes its flight, and leaves the widow and her infant brood to loneliness and woe, the educated mother's power is sufficient, soaring above the misfortunes of earth, to mould the character and shape the destiny of WORLD-RULERS?

Where is the man — yea, what man ever lived distinguished for great deeds and noble actions, for goodness and excellence, who owed not his eminence to the elevating influence of FEMALE POWER ? What mother — yea what father — lives, believing that the mind is immortal, that God governs the universe and takes cognizance of the affairs of man, who would wish the daughter's mind to remain blank in reference to our social and political institutions ? Who would wish the females of our country to remain for ever ignorant of the disinterested motives, the self-sacrifices of the founders of our Republic ? Who would desire ANY to remain ignorant of the AMERICAS CONSTITUTION, the sheet-anchor of the world's liberties, and the guarantee alike of man's and woman's privileges ? Who would wish the daughters of America to form alliances for life like the Turkish slave — who would wish fading beauty — wealth, "which takes to itself wings" — to be the soul of attraction? for when these begin to wane, she must bid farewell to earthly happiness, and it may be, through a defective education, to CELESTIAL BLISS.

The female may even now he born on whom may fall the mantle of the combined virtues of the illustrious dead, whose name may yet animate a slumbering world to deeds of excellence and of piety. It may be that female fame may yet leave all names now first, second on earth's annals of renown. The female may even now live who may follow closer the precepts and the commands of the SAVIOUR, of mankind than ever mortal yet attained. \V ho is afraid that by the study of political and liberal science woman will usurp the duties of man? As the Creator has assigned the moon, the sun, and the stars, their respective orbits, so also has he prescribed the sphere and the duties of woman; and glorious will be that day when she assumes an intelligent and a proper sway in the affairs of a SUFFERING WORLD.


26 INTRODUCTION.

LESSON V.

Particular attention is called to the novel plan of reading the questions, used in this book, and the answers thereto, in the Appendix. For this exercise the class should be separated into two divisions, facing each other. The poorest readers should be the questioners, who ought always to face the best readers, or answerers, For example, suppose the school to be in Maryland, and the class to be composed of Ann, Louisa, Sarah and Jane, the former two being the poorest readers. If Lesson X. be assigned, Ann begins with question 1, page 35, Miss Sarah, in what sense was Christendom formerly used? Sarah, having her book open at the 8th page of the Appendix, reads 1st answer of the 10th Lesson. Louisa then asks the 2d question on the 35th page, and Jane reads the 2d answer from the 8th page of the Appendix. A class of 30 or 40 may proceed in the same manner. The poorest readers in front of the best should proceed, in rotation, to read [ask] the questions, taking care always to raise the eyes and look at those questioned. The best readers, facing the poorest, should, in rotation, read [answer] the questions, each pupil, in turn, taking care always to look at the one propounding the query. Long practice in the school-room proves that these familiar dialogues and colloquies effectually break up ,drawling tones, lifeless monotony, heedlessness, &c., and impart to each pupil vigor, life, and accuracy. The tables are designed to be read as dialogues. For example, if the school be in Maryland, and Table III., page 334, be the reading exercise, Joint Ball, at the head of the 1st division, looks directly at William Lewis, who is at the head of the 2d division, and says, Mr. Lewis, (see question 40, page 334,) When is the election held in our state ? William Lewis replies, (see Maryland, 11th state from the top, and the 2d column of figures,) Mr. Ball, the election in Maryland is held on the first Wednesday in October. It will be perceived that John adds to question 40, in our state. With little encouragement each pupil will be able to frame his own questions for the census tables of 1850. This book can be used by two different classes at the same time, the less advanced being selected to ask the questions. The Manual contains many mental questions such as are not generally found in school books. Every query is designed to lead the pupil to think, investigate, and reason. Reading the questions and the answers gives variety, and cannot be too highly commended. All who have tried this system speak of it as the best possible exercise for all scholars who are in the habit of reading too low or too fast. Asking and answering questions is the easiest and quickest way to elevate the voice to its natural pitch. The learner soon acquires the habit of reading with ease, distinctness, and elegance. The questions and answers are in reading -what the gammut is in music, a natural and an infallible guide. They are the simplest


INTRODUCTION. 27

kind of dialogues and colloquies, and gradually excite backward, inattentive, and indolent pupils to the highest degree of quickness and energy. It is, however, of the utmost importance that the class proceed, in reading these dialogues and colloquies, in the right way. By invariably raising the eyes in propounding and answering the queries, and looking at the person questioned or answered, the pupil is at once initiated into the secret of the best elocution, by following the natural instead of an artificial rule. Hence inattentive habits, indistinct enunciation, and mannerism, the great impediments to good reading, are effectually avoided. Long experience in the use of this plan has proved that the learners will soon use the language of the book clearly and naturally. Youth, in fact, form the habit of communicating what they read with the ease, facility, and clearness of animated conversation.* Pupils in rising to read should endeavor to feel that they are communicating the subject to all present, and talking the sentences read. The best readers are those who talk best to the persons in the school room. This plan will soon enable them to read with ease and facility. Accustomed to look constantly in advance of the word being pronounced, they read naturally, and will not make the slightest pause when they come to a difficult word, or raise their eyes towards the audience. The plan pursued in this work is not to make every part so plain that youth may understand it without study. The questions are of a mental character, and regard the pupil not as a parrot but as a rational being, susceptible of constant and progressive improvement. They are designed to lead youth, by easy and progressive steps, to the top of the ladder of thought.†

The marginal arrangement is believed to be the best method ever devised for forcing the eye in advance of the word being pronounced. It is most effectual in aiding the pupil to read with ease, fluency, and correctness. The exercises also give an accuracy and variety in expressing the same idea, and a command in the use of language. The marginal words that most consider best selected, may be, by a few, called the poorest. This conflicting opinion does not, however, detract any thing from their transcendent excellence. No work can ever receive the sanction of all. Even the Bible itself is loudly decried by a certain class. Suppose, however, that the author has not, in every case, selected the best marginal words, every human production must be imperfect. If the best expressions are not always used, then the

* One of the most eminent scholars of the age remarks that, "the highest degree of excellence in reading and speaking is attained by following nature's laws, and not torturing the young to read according to mechanical rules as various and as contradictory as the eccentricities of the authors who compose them."

† This subject is more extensively illustrated in a small book called "THE THINKER," by Joseph Bartlett Burleigh. The Thinker appropriately, precedes the American Manual. The Thinker probably contains a greater variety than any other took of its size over published. As a practical work of morality, it ought to be in the hands of every youth.


28 INTRODUCTION.

teacher can encourage the pupils to unwearied effort in selecting those which are better.* When the best are used, then the next best may be selected. Every educator will at once see that no class of marginal words could be selected that would alike suit all schools, and be equally acceptable to all teachers.

LESSON VI.

The questions in this book are intended to make separate and distinct reading lessons, and should be read [asked] by one division of the class and the answers (see page 4 of the Appendix) should be read [given] by the other division of the class. 1. [Mary.] Some words of the questions in this book are printed in italics, what is the meaning of italic? 2. [Jane.] What is the difference in meaning between suppressing and extending? 3, What is the meaning of prejudice? 4. [Susan.] You perceive the syllable un is placed before weaned, how does un, as a prefix, affect words? The questions and the answers thereto throughout this book are intended to be read by the pupils either as dialogues or colloquies, (see page 4, Lesson VI., of the Appendix,) In case the answers to the questions in the Appendix are lengthy, as is the case with the remarks that follow the 4th query, all the pupils in the class may read by turns, each reading only to a period.

EXPLANATIONS.

LESSON VII.

Spelling Definitions. Synonyms Unlike words Mental exercises

(§ 1.) This 1work is a family manual for reference,

Book.

and a text-book and reader for 1elementary

Primary

schools and academies. The marginal 1exercises

Lessons for practice

are peculiar to the 1author's schoolbooks.

Writer's.

5

(§ 2.) Before the 1top of the first letter

Upper part

of some word in each line is a 1diminutive

Very small

figure 1, which 1denotes that the word marked

Signifies

by it may be 1omitted, and the definition, or

Not mentioned

1some other expression that will convey a

Any 2

10

similar 1idea, be put in its stead. (§ 3.) For

Meaning

example, the 1first line may be read, "this

Top 2

book is a 1family manual," and so on through

General 2

the 1lesson, omitting the marked words, and

Exercise 2

1putting in their stead those in the margin.

Substituting

* It has generally been acknowledged whenever at first sight the best words appear not to nave been taken, or where the most difficult were not marked, that they were elsewhere exemplified.


DIRECTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS. 29

15

This 1Manual can be used as a reader in the

Book

largest 1public Schools, without occupying

Free 2

more time than the 1ordinary Readers. (§ 4.)

Common.

By reading in this 1book pupils gradually

Manual.

acquire a 1knowledge of our social and political

Familiarity with

20

institutions. Youth are 1thus led, by

In this way

1progressive steps, to cultivate a taste for useful

Easy and advancing

reading, 1industrious habits, and patient

Attentive

research, without which they are not 1properly

Suitably.

fitted for the 1duties Of after life. (§ 5.) The

Labors.

25

1alluring incentives of the Marginal words

Enticing.

give, by easy 1gradations, a variety of words

Steps

in expressing the same 1idea, and an accuracy

Thought

in the use of 1terms.* (§ 6.) Immediately

Words

before 1telling the meaning of the words

Giving

30

1marked by the small figure 1, the pupils

Labelled

should 1raise their eyes from the reading exercise,

Look

and 1look at those to whom they read.†

Glance

LESSON VIII. — 1. To what does their refer? [line 14] 2. In what sentences can you use the word work [see Lesson VII, line 1] so that in each it shall convey a different meaning? 3. What is a paragraph? 4. What does analyze mean? 5. What is the meaning of marginal words? 6. Amos, what is a simple sentence? 7. Peter, what is a compound sentence? 8. Phillip, is it a bad plan to think, out of school, about the subject of your lesions? 9. Thomas, what does orally mean? 10. Henry, what is the difference in meaning between definition and synonym? 11. Joseph, illustrate the difference in the meaning of developing, strengthening, and elevating. 12. William, what is the meaning of mental faculties? 13. Asa, what is the meaning of metonomy? 14. Charles, what does rhetorician mean? 15. Timothy, what is the difference, in meaning, between intellectual and moral? 16. Alfred, what is the difference in meaning between progression and advancement? 17. Eli, from what is sentient derived? 18. Moses, what is the difference in meaning between incite and excite? 19. Stephen, in how many sentences can you use the word power, so that in each sentence it shall convey a different meaning? 20. Joshua, illustrate, in sentences, the difference in the meaning of strength, power and authority? 21. Edward, what do persons mean when they speak of pause, tone, and emphasis? 22. Edwin, what is the difference between scientific and literary? 23. Hiram, what is the meaning of a sentence, a paragraph, an essay, and a treatise? 24. Benjamin, what is the most important part of our education?

* See the Index, page 11 † See Rules for Reading, page 1, Appendix

3*


30 UTILITY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE.

LESSON IX.*

† (§1.) POLITICAL 1SCIENCE is an exceedingly

Knowledge

interesting and 1important study, and justly

Useful

1claims the attention, both of the young and

Demands.

of the old. It 1expands and strengthens the

Enlarges.

5

mind — 1increases our knowledge of human

Adds to

1nature — enables us to judge of the actions of

Character.

men, and understand the 1system of government

Plan

1under which we live, †(§ 2.) No American

Subject to

citizen can 1creditably perform the duties

Honorably.

10

incumbent on him, without a 1knowledge of

Acquaintance

the nature of political 1power. The Constitution

Authority.

of the United States is the most 1complex

Intricate.

yet perfect system of human 1policy

Government

15

ever established, and combines alike the 1excellencies

Good qualities

of all the 1illustrious States of ancient

Famous.

and modern 1times. †(§3.) It is, therefore,

Eras

1necessary for every citizen to know some-

Useful.

The difficult Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

†(§1.) 1 What is the meaning of "both of the young and of the old," in the 3d line? 2. What conjunction usually follows both? 3. Can you give an example in which both is substituted for a noun? †(§ 2 ) 4. When you substitute acquaintance for knowledge, in the 10th line, why do you change a to an? 5. In what country do you think the people the happiest and most powerful at the present time? 6. What do you think is the only guarantee of the perpetuity of liberty and the happiness of communities? 7. Can you name some of the causes which led to the settlement of this country? 8. What do you think has contributed to make the people of the United States so prosperous and happy? †(§ 3) 9. Why is the study of political science interesting

* Lesson IX is the beginning of the main subject of this work To meet the convenience of different Teachers who must necessarily have classes of varied attainments the lessons are generally divided into 10 or 12 sections each of which usually contains from 8 to 12 lines. It will be borne in mind, that these sections are merely arbitrary divisions and not paragraphs. According to this arrangement Teachers may, with the utmost ease vary the lessons they wish to assign. For some classes, one section may be enough for a task, others may take 2 3 4 5 6 sections or it may be, even a whole lesson, for a single exercise. The answers to the questions are often not found in the Lesson and are intended to stimulate the pupils to industrious habits out of school — to develope thoroughly the mental and moral powers — to train properly the young for the momentous duties and responsibilities that await them in the future. † Teachers will perceive that each section of questions is intended to correspond to its numbered section in the context


ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. 31

thing of the 1origin and progress of political

Rise

science, its nature and 1necessity; to understand

Need

20

the causes and 1circumstances which

Incidents

have 1contributed to found States and Empires;

Helped

the means by which they 1acquired

Attained.

honor and 1renown; the reasons of their

Fame.

real happiness and 1grandeur; and the true

Splendor

25

causes of their 1degeneracy and ruin.

Destruction

(§4.) Government is 1a science of the most

*One

exalted character, and can only be 1learned

Acquired.

by study. It 1combines reason, morality,

Unites

and wisdom, and 1approximates to the attributes

Approaches

30

of Divine power. In 1treating, therefore,

Discoursing

of the Constitution of the 1United States,

Confederacy

and the 1duties of citizens, it seems proper

Obligations

to commence with the 1origin and progress

Beginning.

of 1government.

Political power.

(§ 5.) ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.

35

It is the nature of each 1order of created

Class

beings to take 1pleasure in one another's

Enjoyment

company. The beasts of the 1forest, and

Wilderness

and useful to all? 10. Why is it necessary for everyone to know something of the nature of political power? 11. What is the difference between ancient and modern times? 12. Can you name some of the most famous nations of antiquity? 13. Illustrate the difference between ruin, in the 25th line, and destruction. (§ 4 ) 14. Can you illustrate the meaning of government, in the 26th line? 15. How many simple sentences can you name in each of which government shall have a different meaning? 16. Why is the science of government a subject of much importance? 17. In what country is it necessary for every one to understand the principles of government? 18. Why do you suppose it is more necessary for people to be enlightened under a republican than under a despotic government? 19. Ought all the people in every country to be educated? 20. Why do you suppose, in treating of the Constitution of the United States, it is proper to begin with the origin and progress of government? * What do