INDEX.

Abbots, their membership in Parliament, 67.

Act, Licensing, 220, ib. n. 3.

Act of Settlement, 99, 108, 109, 127 n. 1, 194.

Act, Test, 214, n. 4.

Act of Toleration, 214.

Adams, John, cited, 31, 42 n. 2.

Alfonso V., King of Aragon, 194 n. 1.

Alfred the Great, 8 n., 87.

Amendments, to the Constitution of the United States, 213, ib. n. 2, 214, 219, 221, 222, 224, 226, 228, 229-233.

America, 7 n., 8, 27 n. 2, 36 n., 41, 42, 74 n. 1, 78 n. 1, 115, 150, 151, 196 n. 1, 201 n. 1, 205 n. 1, 206, 216 n. 2, 232 n. 2.

American Bar, 184, 202.

Andros, Sir E., 17.

Anglican Church, 11 n. 2, 69, 73, 88, ib. n. 1, 123, 124, 127, 135, 216.

Anglo-Saxon, superseded other races in England, 6 n.; race, 7 n.; freedom, 8 n.; invasion of England, 62; kingship, 129; institutions, 233 n. 2.

Anne, Queen, 22, 92, 97 n. 1, 109, 145, 151, 157, ib. n. 2, 214, 232.

Antwerp, 78 n. 1.

Appropriation by Parliament, 111.

Aragon, 194 n. 1.

Archdeacons, 73.

Areopagitica, The, of Milton, 220. Aristotle, philosophy of, 1, ib. n. 1.

Arms, Assize of, 223. Arms, right to bear, 223, ib. n. 1, ib. n. 4, 224, ib. n. 1.

Arnold, Sir Edwin, cited, 7 n.

Arrest, freedom from, 103, 104, ib, n. 4, 105, 106.

Assize of Arms, 223.

Assize of Clarendon, 235.

Athabasca, 8 n.

Athelstan, King, 126.

Attainder, bills of, 96, ib, n. 1, 211, ib. n. 2.

Audit by Parliament, 111.

Aukland, 8 n.

Australia, 204.

Austria, 45 n.

Bacon, Lord, 97 n. 1, 99 n. 3.

Bagehot, Walter, cited, 172.

Bail for prisoners, 229, 233.

Ballarat, 8 n.

Baltimore, Lord, 17, 200.

Baptists, 216.

Bar, American, 184, 202.

Barons, the English, 67, 74, 76.

Barons' War, 71, 90, 131.

Bentham, 74 n. 1, 201 n. 1.

Berkeley, Lord, 21.

Berkeley, Sir William, 13.

Bicameral System, 74, ib. n. 1, 83, 84 n. 1. See Two Houses.

Bill of Rights, English, 9, 104, 137, 207, 222-225, 232, 233; Virginia, 13; Massachusetts, 15; Connecticut, 17; Maryland, 18; New York, 20 n. 2; Pennsylvania, 22 n. 2; American, 42, 211, 213, 224 n. 1, sq.

Bills, 93, 94, ib. n. 1, ib. n. 2, 95, 156, ib. n. 2, 158 n. 2.

Bills of Attainder, 96, ib. n. 1, 211, ib. n. 2.

Bishops, in Witenagemot, 67, 86-88; in Great Council, 67; in House of Lords, 68, 69; in Privy Council, 76.

Blackstone, Sir William, 48, 154-156, 160, 164, 196 n. 1, 200, 201; cited, 48, 238.

Britain, 60 n. 2, 61, 62, 121, 123, 124 n. 1.

Britain, Great, 5, 9, 27, 29, 30, 31, ib. n. 4, 36 n., 38, 42, 43, 52, 101 n. 1, 123, 166 n. 1, 171, 173, 173, 190 n. 1.

Bryce, James, cited, 25, 41, 146, 154, 158, 177, 202.

Buckingham, George Villers, Duke of, 97 n. 1.

Burgesses, 72, 73, 74 n. 3.

Bute, Lord, 141.

Butler, Pierce, 45 n.

Cabinet, rise of the English, 92, 138, ib. n. 1; relation to the Privy Council, 77, 138; power, 138-140; relation to Parliament, 138-141; relation to the crown, 138-141, 171, 172, 176, 206; unknown in the American colonies, 151; relation of the American, to the President, 158, 166-168, 170-173, 175. 376.

Calvert, Cecilius, Lord Baltimore, 17.

Cambridge, 219 n. 3.

Campbell, Douglas, his assertion that Americans are not of English race, 4 n. 1; answer to claims of his followers as to Dutch origin of American institutions, 19 n. 2; answer to claims of Dutch influence in New York, 20 n. 2; in Pennsylvania, 23 n. 1; his claim of Dutch elements in the American Confederation, 40, ib. n. 1; his claim of Dutch influence in the Constitutional Convention, 43 n. 2, 149 n. 1; in election of senators, 78 n. 1; in tenure of judges, 194 n. 1; his general claims in favour of Dutch as against English derivation of the American Constitution, 205 n. 1; his claim that religious liberty as provided in the American Constitution is of Dutch origin, 217 n. 2; on freedom of the press, 220, 221 n. 2.

Canada, 30, 204.

Canterbury, 73, 124, 219 n. 3; Archbishop Baldwin, of, 179 n. 1.

Canute, King, 104, 122 n. 2.

Cape Town, 8 n.

Carolina, granted by Charles II., 23; its government, 23; Locke's plan regarding, 23, ib. n. 2, 24; divided into North and South Carolina, 24; bill of rights, 209, 218.

Carolina, North, division from South Carolina, 24; State constitution, 37, 78, 152 n. 1, 187.

Carolina, South, division from North Carolina, 24; State constitution, 37, 78, 80, 97, 152 n. 1, 160 n. 3, 187; governor of, 150 n. 1.

Cases, 197.

Cénred, 86.

Cerdic, 121 n. 2, ib. n. 4, 127 n. 1.

Chancellor, the, 182, ib. n. 1.

Charles I., 13, 17, 50, 92, 104, 114, 135, 151, 202, 216 n. 2, 225, 227.

Charles II., 17, 19, 23, 50, 92, 99, 111, 135, 138, 151, 220, ib. n. 1, 222, 225.

Charters, royal, 9, 27, 38; commercial, 9 n. 1, 26; of Virginia, 10, 12; Massachusetts, 13, 14; New Hampshire, 15; Connecticut, 16, ib. n. 2, 17, 38; Rhode Island, 17, 38, 216 n. 2; Maryland patent, 17; New York, 19, 20; Pennsylvania, 22, ib. n. 2; Georgia, 24.

Chatham, Lord, 36 n.

Chief Justice of the U. S., 98, 165.

Choiseul, 30 n. 1.

Church, the, 11 n. 2, 69, 73, 88, ib. n. 1, 123, 124, 127, 135, 216.

Clarendon, Assize of, 235.

Clarendon, Constitutions of, 235.

Clarendon, Lord, 23, 73 n. 2, 97 n. 1.

Coke, Sir Edward, 194, 231.

Colonies, American, follow model of English institutions, 7, 24-29, 31 n. 4, 151; settled by Englishmen, 4, 9; by other races, 4 n. 1; by Dutch, 4 n. 1, 5 n. 1, 18, 19 n. 2, 22; Scotch, 4 n. 1; Scotch-Irish, 4 n. 1; French, 4 n. 1, 5 n. 1; Germans, 4 n. 1, 5 n. 1; Welsh, 4 n. 1; Spaniards, 5 n. 1; Irish, 4 n. 1, 5 n. 1; Swedes, 4 n. 1, 5 n. 1; separated from England, 29, 30, ib. n. 1, 35, ib. n. 1, 36, 37; attempted union of, 154 n. 1; no nobility in, 77; political usages of, 93.

Columbia, District of, 188.

Comitatus, the, 124, ib. n. 1.

Common Law in Virginia, 13; Massachusetts, 15; New York, 20, ib. n. 2; Georgia, 24 n. 2; in England, 199, 207, ib. n. 1, 210, 220 n. 3, 230, 231; in America, 37, ib. n. 1, 189, 190, 199, 207, ib. n. 1, 208, 210, 229, ib. n. 1, 230 238.

Commons, House of, model for American legislatures, 26, 43, 80; rise of, 69, 72, 74, 83; relation of Simon De Montfort to, 8 n., 71, 72, 136; membership of, 74, ib. n. 3, 132 n. 1; powers, 90-114, 132, 137; act of attainder by, 96, ib. n. 1; power of impeachment, 96-100; right to initiate money bills, 100, 101 n. 1, 111; right of audit of public accounts, 111; freedom of speech, 103, 104; freedom from arrest, 103, 104; ancient right to decide contested membership, 103, 106; membership contrasted with that of the House of Representatives, 206.

Concilium, Magnum, 67, 180. See Great Council.

Concilium Ordinarium, 76, 180 n. 2, 183 n. 1. See Privy Council.

Confederation, Articles of, 39; nature of, 39, 40; unsatisfactory, 39-41, 53, 84, 200 n. 3.

Confirmatio Chartarum, 113.

Congress, Continental, 35, 38 n. 1, 39; of Confederation, 40, 84; American, 60, 79, 93; powers, 80, 93, 110 n. 2, 115, ib. n. 2, 173; procedure, 93, 95 n. 2; privileges, 96, 102 n. 1, 103; freedom of arrest for members, 104, 105; secrecy of proceedings, 108; right of appropriation, 112, 115 n. 2; of audit, 112; power of taxation, 115; relation to the President, 156-159, 167 n. 2, 171, 173. See Senate and House of Representatives.

Connecticut, charter, 17; early written constitutionconstitutiona> -->, 12 n., 16 n. 2; State constitution, 17, 38, 152 n. 1, 205 n. 1; bill of rights, 17, 208, ib. n. 1.

Conquest, Norman, 67, 127 n. 1, 129, 178, 223, 234.

Constitutional Amendments. See Amendments to the Constitution.

Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, 40-57, 77-79, 84, 101 n. 1, 144, 147-160, 166, 177, 184, 186-195, 200 n. 3, 213, 214.

Constitution, English, 26, 31, ib. n. 1, 38 n. 1, 43 n. 1, 47-51, 53, 54 n. 1, 56 n. 2, 57 n. 2, 72 n. 2, 73 n. 3, 83, 101 n. 1, 135, 136, 172, 184, 210, 239.

Constitution of the Netherlands, 16 n. 2.

Constitution of the States, 37-39, 49, So, 57 n. 2, 77, 78, ib. n. 1, 152 n. 1, 207 n. 1, 238. See under each State.

Constitution of the United States, 4, ib. n. 1, 41, 42, 50-57, 78-83, 93-110, 115, ib. n. 2, 117, 143, 148, 153-176, 184-206, 211-239.

Constitutions of Clarendon, 235.

Contested membership, 103, 106.

Convocation, relation to taxation, 73; of Canterbury, 73; of York, 73.

Cooley, Thomas M., cited, 171, 202, 224.

Cornwall, Earl of, 71.

Cortes, 194 n. 1.

Council, colonial, 10-15, 23, 26, 77.

Council, Ordinary, 76. See Council, Privy.

Council, Great, 60, 67, 76, 77, 89 n. 1, 90, 93, 180 n. 2, 181 n. 1.

Council, Privy, origin, 76; membership, 76; relation to Parliament, 76; powers, 76, 90; colonial relation, 27, 29; model of the U. S. Senate, 77-79; attempt in the

Philadelphia Convention to create one, 78; relation to the king, 138; the Senate as a, 160-167; judicial powers, 27, 29, 91 n. 2, 183-191, 200.

Court of King's Bench, 179, 180 n. 2, 182; Exchequer, 182; Common Pleas, 182; Chancery, 182; Star Chamber, 183 n. 1, 220; of Claims, 188. See Supreme Court.

Court, Supreme. See Supreme Court.

Crane and Moses, cited, 2, 24.

Criminal Trial, 202, 228-233.

Cromwell, Oliver, 8 n., 50.

Cumberland, 8 n.

Cyning, 119, ib. n. 2, 160. See King.

Cynric, 121 n. 2, ib. n. 4, 123 n. 1, ib. n. 4.

Dakota, 7 n.

Danby, Thomas Osborne, Earl of, 99.

David of Wales, 96 n. 1. Debate, secrecy of, 107, 108.

Declaration of Independence, 37, 39, 55 n. 1, 115, 225. 237.

Declaration of Rights, 217, 222.

Delaware, settlement, 22; united with Pennsylvania, 22; legislature of, 23; State constitution, 37, 78 n. 1, 97, 152 n. 1, 187; governor of, 150 n. 1, 187.

Deputy governor, office of, 81.

Dering, Sir Edward, 107 n. 2.

De Tocqueville, 189 n. 1.

Dickinson, John, 79 n. 1, 187 n. 2.

Dorset, 8 n.

Dutch race in America, 4 n. 1; influence on American institutions, 4 n. 1, 5 n. 1, 19 n. 2, 40, ib. n. 1, 43 n. 2, 78 n. 1, 149 n. 1, 151 n. 1, 194 n. 1, 205 n. 1, 216 n. 2, 217 n. 2, 221 n. 2; in New York, 18, 19 n. 1, ib. n. 2, 20 n. 2; in Pennsylvania, 23 n. 1, 78 n. 1; in New Jersey, 18. Dutch West India Co., 20 n. 2.

Eádgár, 66 n. 1, 87.

Earldorman, 67, 86-88, 121, ib. n. 2, 124, 126 n.

Earls, 67, 69.

East Anglia, 63 n. 1.

Edmund, 87.

Edward the Confessor, 88, 89 n. 1, 104 n. 4, 122 n. 2.

Edward I., 72, ib. n. 2, 90, 105, 113, 127 n. 1, 131, 179, 223.

Edward II., 91, 105, 127 n. 1, 179.

Edward III., 91, 96, 110 n. 2, 114 n., 202, 203, ib. n. 1, 236.

Edward IV., 127 n. 1, 179.

Edward VI., 135, 203, 231 n. 1.

Egbert, 67, 88.

Eleanor, Queen, 71.

Election, 69, 70, ib. n. 1, 71, 72, 78 n. 1, 79 n. 1. 88, 103, 106, 109, 118, 119 n. 1, 120, 127, id. n. 1, 129, 152 n. 1, 174 n. 1, 176 n. 1, 194.

Electors, American, 152 n. 1; German imperial, 152 n. 1.

Eliot, Sir John, 104.

Elizabeth, Queen, 9, 91, 106, 135.

Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln, 164 n. 1, 167 n. 2.

Empire, British, 5, 6, 9.

Empire, Holy Roman, 152 n. 1.

England, 5-7, 10-15, 19, 20, 26, 28, 30 n. 2, 31, 32, 36 n., 42-44, 47, 53, 55 n. 1, 56 n. 2, 60 n. 2, 62, 70 n. 1, 72-77, 81 n. 1, 83, 86, 92, 96, 99, 104, 107, 110 n. 2, 115 n. 2, 117, 122 n. 1, ib. n. 2, 123, 142, 144 n. 3, 147, ib. n. 2, 149-151, 157 n. 2, 158, 176, 180, 184 n. 1, 185-190, 192, 194 n. 1, 196 n. 1, 198 n. 1, 201 n. 1, 205 n. 1, 207 n. 1, 222, 223, 227, 229 n. 1, 233, ib. n. 2, 234, 238.

England, New. See New England.

Equity, 198, ib. n. 1, 199.

Ercenwold, 86.

Essex, 63 n. 1.

Ethelbert, King, 87, 104.

Ethelred II., King, 235.

Executive, 9, 117, 118, 120, 144, 149 n. 1, 171; colonial, 12, 13, 14, ib. n. 1, 15, 17, 20, 24, 26, 27, 149 n. 1, 151; English, 9, 27, 117-120, 144, 149 n. 1, 171. See King, Governor, President.

Ex-post facto laws, 211, ib. n. 2.

Faulkland Islands, 8 n. Federalist, The, 174; cited, 47, 52, 185, 186.

Fitz Walter, 136.

Folkmoot, origin, 60-63; continuance, 65, 181; membership, 70. Fort Carry, 8 n.

Fox, Charles James, cited, 143 n. 2. France, 83, 134 n. 1, 158, 186, 233 n. 2, 234.

Franklin, Benjamin, 36 n., 54 n. 2, 78 n. 1, 154 n. 1, 174 n. 1, 221 n. 2.

Freedom from arrest for members of Parliament and of Congress, 103-106.

Freedom of the press, 219-221.

Freedom of speech, 103, 104.

Freeman, Edward A., cited, 67, 68, 83.

Frothingham, Richard, cited, 30.

Gallatin, Albert, 167 n. 2.

Gascony, 71.

Gaul, 60 n. 2.

George I., 97 n. 1, 139 n. 1, 142 n. 1, 146.

George II., 24, 138, 139, ib. n. 1, 142 n. 1, 146, 218.

George III., 32, 92, 97 n. 1, 115, 117, 140-143, 145-147, 151, 156 n. 2, 157, 170, 172, 175, 176, 194 n. 1, 195, 215, 221, 225, 226.

Georgia, charter, 24; government, 24; State constitution, 37, 77, 152 n. 1, 187; bill of rights, 208 n. 1, 218.

Germany, 36 n., 60 n. 2, 61, 134 n. 1, 152 n. 1, 216, 233 n. 2.

Gibson, Bishop, 73 n. 2.

Gloucestershire, 64 n. 1.

Governor, royal relations of the, 26-29, 48, 117; colonial, 26, 149-152; State, 151 n. 1, 152 n. 1; relation to council, 15, 77, 152 n. 1; powers, 24, 152, 158; title, 150 n. 1; of Virginia, 12, 13; Massachusetts, 13, 14, ib. n. 1; New York, 20; Pennsylvania, 23; Carolina, 24.

Grant, U. S., President, 174 n. 1.

Great Britain, 5, 9, 27-31, 36 n., 42, 43, ib. n. 1, 52, 101 n. 1, 123, 166 n. 1, 171, 173, 175, 196 n. 1.

Green, John Richard, cited, 26, 215.

Grotius, 1, 45 n.

Habeas Corpus, 161 n. 1, 211.

Hague, the, 194 n. 1.

Hallam, Henry, cited, 71, ib. n. 2.

Hamilton, Alexander, 41 n. 1, ib. n. 2, 46 n., 53, 54, ib. n. 2, 157 n. 1, 174, 176, 194 n. 1.

Hampshire, 123. Hanover, House of, 50, 92, 127 n. 1, 137, 139 n. 1, 142 n. 1, 145-147, 151, 156 n. 2, 214, 237.

Hanover, Sophia of, 127 n. 1.

Hardwicke, Lord, 200.

Hare, J. I. C., cited, 51.

Hartford, 16 n. 2.

Hastings, Warren, 97.

Hayes, Rutherford B., President, 158 n. 1, 167 n. 2.

Hedde, 86.

Hengest, 121 n. 3.

Henry I., 112, 129, 130, ib. n. 1, 178, ib. n. 1, 179 n. 1, 181 n. 1.

Henry II., 67, 89, 130, 180 n. 2, 181 n. 1.

Henry III., 70, 71, 76, 90, 131, 178 n. 1, 179, 182, ib. n., 223, 234.

Henry IV., 91, 100, 103, 111, 114 n. 1, 127 n. 1.

Henry V., 94.

Henry VII., 127 n. 1, 134 n. 1.

Henry VIII., 91, ib. n. 2, 103, 135.

Heretoga, title of, 121, ib. n. 3.

Hobbes, Thomas, 1, ib. n. 1.

Holland, 19, ib. n. 2, 20 n. 2, 40, ib. n. 1, 43 n. 1, 78 n. 2, 149 n. 1, 194 n. 1, 216 n. 2, 220 n. 1, 221 n. 2.

Homer, 47. Horsa, 121 n. 3.

Houses, two. See Two Houses.

Hundred, the, 62, 70.

Independence, Declaration of, 37, 39, 55 n. 1, 115, 225, 237.

Ini, 86.

Instinct, theory of, 2 n. 1.

Ireland, 123. Italy, 60 n. 2.

Jackson, Andrew, President, 147 n. 2.

James I., 9, 10, 92, 99 n. 3, 106, 127 n. 1, 135, 151, 179, 208 n. 1, 223, 231.

James II., 14, 20, 50, 92, 135, 137, 151, 217, 221, 225.

Jamestown, Va., 11, ib. n. 1, ib. n. 2.

Jay, John, 53, 54.

Jefferson, Thomas, President, 147 n. 2, 158, 167 n. 2.

John, King, 70, 71, 89, 113, 122 n. 1, ib. n. 2, 130, ib. n. 1, 207.

Johnson, Professor, cited, 38, 56.

Judiciary, American colonial, 12, 13, 15, 22, 29, 184, 187, 191; State, 184 n. 1, 187, ib. n. 2, 188, 189, ib. n. 1, 190, 191, 192, ib. n. 1; national, 184, ib. n. 1, 185, 187, 188, 189, ib. n. 1, 190, 192, ib. n. 1, ib. n. 2; English, 9, 29, 76, 86-90, 125, 126, 132, 164, 178-184, 190, 191, 200.

Judges, duration of appointment, 193-196.

Jurisprudence, 12-15, 20, 22 n. 2. 24 n. 2, 29, 37, ib. n. 1, 43 n. 1, 190-192, 197, 198, ib. n. 1, 200, 201, ib. n. 1, 228-233.

Justice, Chief, of the U. S. Supreme Court, 98, 162 n., 165.

Justices of the Supreme Court of the U. S., 98 n. 2, 165, 193.

Jury, trial by, 9, 13, 17, 202, 208, 228, 229, 233-238.

Kansas, 7 n.

Kent, Chancellor, cited, 37, 207.

Kent, Kingdom of, 104; County of, 63 n. 1, 86.

King, relation to the government of the colonies, 10-13, 15, 22, 24, 26, 27, ib. n. 2, 39, 151, 152; a model for the American executive office, 43, 148-177; relation to the Witenagemot, 63-67, 88, ib. n. 1, 89; relation to the Great Council, 67; relation to the membership of Parliament, 70-73, 132 ; the kingship elective, 69, 88, 90, 118-120, 127, ib. n. 1, 129; relation to the Privy Council, 76; to the judiciary, 86, 87, 126, 164, ib. n. 1, 178, 179, ib. n. 1; deposition of the, 88, 91, 98, 127, 137; powers of the, 89-92, 126-146, 155-160, 164, 166, 172-179; royal philosophy, 92, 127 n. 1, 133, 134, 137, 159; fountain of honour, 127, 164; fountain of justice, 126, 164, ib. n. 1, 178-184, 194; pardoning power, 99, 164; origin of the kingship, 117, 118, ib. n. 1, ib. n. 2, 120, ib. n. 1, 127 n. 1; prerogative of the, 117, 136, 154. 156. 160, 164, ib. n. 1; title of the, 119, ib. n. 2, 122 n. 1, ib. n. 2, 126, ib. n. 1, 127; development of the kingship, 123, 124 n. 1, 129-144; relation to the judiciary, 86, 87, 126, 164, ib. n. 1, 178, 179, ib. n. 1, 193-195; veto power, 93 n. 1, 156-158; proclamations, 164n. 1; hereditary right of, 119, 120, 127 n. 1, 133, 134; tribal, 118-123; commander-in-chief, 127, 160, 174; limited nature of the office, 127, 131, 136-140; coronation of, 124, 127, ib. n. 1; territorial jurisdiction of, 127 n. 1, 129, 133; relation to Parliament, 88-92, 131-142, 144, 146, 156, 159; relation to the cabinet, 138-147, 170-176; American idea of the King, 147-151.

Knights, 67, 71-74.

Knights of the Shire. See Knights.

Lancaster, 91, 127 n. 1, 132, 135.

Lancaster, Henry of. See Henry IV.

Lancaster, House of, 91, 127 n. 1, 131. 132, 135.

Laud, Archbishop, 97.

Law, Common, 13, 15, 20, ib. n. 2, 24 n. 2, 37, 189, 190, 199, 207, ib. n. 1, 208, 210, 220 n. 3, 229, ib. n. 1, 230, 231.

Law, English, 5, 20, ib. n. 2.

Law of the land, 208, 230 n. 1.

Legislature, first one in America, 9 n. 1, 11, ib. n. 2, n. 4; popular movement of colonists to complete legislative organism, 9 n. 1, 10, 11, ib. n. 2, n. 4, 12-15, 20, 23-26, American limited 48, 80, 110 n. 2, colonial upper house, 10-18, 23, 26, 78, 79, colonial lower house, 11-18, 20, ib. n., 23, 26, 77.

Leicestershire, 8 n.

L'Esprit des Lois, 46, 185, 186.

Lewes, 71

Lexington 36 n.

Liberty, religious. See Religious Liberty.

Licensing Act, 220, ib. n. 3.

Lincoln, Abraham, President, 8 n., 161 n. 1, 164 n. 1, 167 n. 2, 171, 172.

Locke, John, his philosophy, 1, his plan of government for Carolina, 23, ib. n. 2.

Lolme De, John Louis, 196 n. 1.

London, 7 n., 8 n., 27, 71, 107 n. 2, 204, 219 n. 3, 220 n. 3.

London, Bishop of, 219 n. 3.

Lords, House of, a model for government in America, 26, 43 , developed from the Witenagemot, 68, 69, meetings of, 72, a model for the United States Senate, 77, 78 n. 1, 79, ib. n. 1, presiding officer of, 81, powers of, 90, 92, overthrow of, 92, judicial functions of, 96, 97, 98 n. 2, 180, 183, ib. n. 2, relation to money bills, 100, 101 n. 1, freedom of speech in, 103; membership, 132, ib. n. 1, contrasted with the United States Senate, 206.

Louis XIV , 138 n. 1.

Louisiana, purchase of, 167 n. 2.

Lovat, Lord, 97 n. 1.

Lowell, James Russell, cited, 57.

Lutherans, 216

Lyons, Lord, 161 n. 1.

Macaulay, Lord, cited, 136

Madison, James, President, 45 n., 47, 49 n. 1, 52, 54, 167 n. 2, 186, 187 n. 2.

Magna Charta, 15, 18, 20 n. 2, 55 n. 1, 56, 90, 113, 130, ib. n. 1, 131, ib. n. 1. 181 n. 1, 207, 209, 221. n. 1, 230, ib. n. 1.

Mahrattas, King of, 144 n. 3.

Maine, province of, 208 n. 1.

Maine, Sir Henry, cited, 51, 52, 82, 173, 185, 190.

Mansfield, Lord, 215, ib. n. 3.

Mary I., 106, 223

Mary II., 20, 92, 114, 136, 137, 151.

Maryland patent, 17, 18 n. 1, early government, 18, ib. n. 2, State constitution, 37, 78, 152 n. 1, 187, 232 n. 2, bill of rights, 115 n. 1, 208 n. 1, 209, religious liberty in, 216.

Mason, George, 46 n. 1.

Massachusetts, charters, 13, 14, ib. n. 1, early government, 14 address to the Long Parliament, 15; its government the model for that of Connecticut, 16 n. 1, 17, its copying after English institutions, 14, 15, State constitution, 37, 78, 80, 97, 101, 152 n. 1, 157 n. 1, 187, bill of rights, 115 n. 1, 209 218.

Matilda, Queen 178 n. 1.

Maud, Queen, 178 n. 1.

May, Sir Erskine, cited, 26, 142.

Mayflower, the, compact signed on 16 n. 2.

Melville, 97.

Membership, contested, of Parliament, 103, 106, of Congress, 106.

Mercia, 63 n. 1.

Mexico, 161 n. 1.

Militia, 127, 223, ib. n. 1, 224, ib. n. 1.

Miller, Mr. Justice, cited, 42.

Milton, John, 220, ib. n. 1.

Mompesson, Sir Giles, 97 n. 1.

Monroe, James, President, 147 n. 2, 167 n. 2.

Montfort, Simon De, 8 n., 71, 72, 136.

Montesquieu, Baron de, 46, 47, 48, 49 n. 1, 185, 186, 196 n. 1, 238.

Moravians, 216.

Morns, Gouverneur, 43 n. 2.

Morris, Robert, 54 n. 2.

Natal, 8 n.

Netherlands, the, 16 n. 2, 19, 195 n.

New Amsterdam, 19.

Newburg, 147 n. 2.

New England, 13, 20 n. 1, 22 n. 1, 216, 221 n. 2.

New Hampshire, charter, 15 , early government, 15, State constitution, 38, 78, 80, 97, 101, 152 n. 1, 187, governor, 150 n. 1, case involving New York referred to Privy Council, 200.

New Haven, colony of, 16.

New Jersey, Dutch settlement, 18 , granted by the Duke of York, 21, government, 21, 22, State constitution, 37, 152, 191 n. 1, 232 n. 2.

New York, settlement by the Dutch, 18, 19 n. 2, by the English, 18, charters, 19, theory of Dutch derivation, 19 n. 2, 20 n. 2, government under the Duke of York, 19, 20, colonial government, 20, ib. n. 1, ib. n. 2, State constitution, 37, 78, ib. n. 1, 97, 152 n. 1, 157 n. 1, 160 n. 3, 191 n. 1, 217 n. 2, bill of rights 208 210, 217 n. 2, 221 n. 2.

New Zealand, 8 n.

Nichol, Governor, 217

Nicola, Colonel 147 n. 2

Nobility, 23, 29, 75 n., 77, ib. n. 1, 83, 124, ib n. 1, 125, 130, ib. n. 1, 131.

Norfolk, 179 n. 1.

Norman Conquest, 67, 127 n. 1 129, 178, 223, 234.

Normandy, 234

Northamptonshire, 54 n. 2.

North Briton, The, 226.

North Carolina, division from South Carolina, 24, State constitution, 37, 78, 152, 187, bill of rights, 209, 218.

North, Lord, 143, 144, 156 n. 2, 170, 172.

Northumbria, 86.

Orange, William of. See William III.

Ordinary Council. See Council,

Privy. Osborne, Thomas, Earl of Danby, 99.

Oxford, 54 n. 2 71, 219 n. 3.

Palgrave, Sir Francis, cited, 235.

Pardoning powers of governors, 152, of President, 100, 152 n. 1, 166, ib. n. 1, of King, 165.

Parliament, colonial relations of, 27, ib. n. 2, 28, 32, 33, 35 n. 1, a model for colonial legislatures, 26, 52 82, 84 n. 1, origin, 60, 69 representation in, 66 n. 1, 68, 69, 70 n. 1, 71 72 , membership, 68-74, two houses, 9, 12, 72-74, 83, 90, three houses, 73, 83, compared with Congress, 80, 173, presiding officers, 81, powers, 90-92, 98 111 n. 2, 114, 115; privileges, 92, 96-101, 103, 104, 106, 107, relation to taxation, 112-115, relation to the sovereign, 129, 131, I35-142, 144, 146, 156, 159, relation to the cabinet, 138-141.

Penn, William, 22, 23 n. 1, 78 n. 1, 218.

Pennsylvania, settled by Dutch and Swedes, 22; granted to Penn, 22; relation to Delaware, 22; patent, 22, ib. n. 2; government, 23; Dutch influence, 23 n. 1; State constitution, 37, 77, 78 n. 1, 80, 97, 152 n. 1, 187, 221 n. 2, 232 n. 2; governor, 150 n. 1; bill of rights, 209.

Petition of Right, 114, 207, 225, ib. n. 3.

Petition, right of, 221, 222.

Philadelphia, 41, 42, 43 n. 2, 48, 49 n. 1, 50, 53, 77-79, 84 n. 1, 144, 147, 154, 166, 184, 186, 187 n. 2, 190, 193, ib. n. 2, 195, 211, 217 n. 2.

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, 46 n., 54 n. 2, 167 n. 2.

Pitt, William, 144, 147 n. 1.

Place Bill, 109.

Plantagenets, the, 70, 89, 93, 122 n. 2, 130, 132, 133.

Plymouth, colony of, 14 n. 1; bill of rights, 115 n. 1, 208, id. n. 2.

Pratt, Lord Chief Justice, 228 n. 1.

Presbyterians, 216.

President, colonial, 15, 150 n. 1, 154 n. 1.

President of the United States, his office derived from the governorship, 149, ib. n. 1, 150, ib. n. 1, 152, ib. n. 1; from the kingship, 42, 117, 148-151, 153, 155-161, 164-166, 170-177; his title, 150 n. 1; impeachment, 98, 100; election, 152 n. 1, 174 n. 1; powers, 150, 151, 155, 157-167, 174, 175; pardoning power, 100, 152, n. 1, 166, ib. n. 1; his veto, 156, 157, ib. n. 1, 174; message, 158; relation to Congress, 156-159, 167 n. 2; relation to foreign affairs, 160, ib. n. 1, 170; is commander-in-chief of the army and navy, 161, ib. n. 1, 164 n. 1, 174; his war powers, 161 n. 1, 163, 167 n. 2; power of appointment, 160, ib. n. 3, 165, 171, 174, 193; proclamations, 164 n. 1; execution of the laws, 165, ib. n. 1, 174, 175; his relation to the cabinet, 158, 166, 167 n. 2, 168, 170-173, 176.

President, Vice, 81.

Press, freedom of, 219-221.

Proctor, Richard A., cited, 6 n.

Proctors, 73.

Protestants, 215, 216, ib. n. 2, 223.

Puffendorf, 1.

Puget Sound, 8 n.

Puritanism, 135.

Puritans, 216.

Quakers, 216.

Quartering of troops, 224, 225, ib. n. 3.

Race influence, 3; Dutch race in America, 4 n. 1; English race in America, 4 n. 1, 5 n. 1; Teutonic race, 4, ib. n. 1.

Randolph, Edmund, 46 n.

Reformation, the, 73, 135, 219.

Religious liberty, 211, 214-219.

Representation in legislation, 9, 33; in Virginia, 11, ib. n. 2, 13; Teutonic, 66 n. 1, 67, 70 n. 1; in the Norman Great Council, 68; origin of, in Parliament, 69-72, 113, ib. n. 1, 115.

Representatives, House of, 42, 43; origin of, 80; presiding officer, 81, ib. n. 1; privileges, 96; relation to money bills, 46 n., 96, 101, ib. n. 1, 102, ib. n. 1; contrasted with the House of Commons, 201 n. 1.

Revolution, American, 12, 31 n. 4, 32, 34-37, 43 n. 2, 53, 115, 143, ib. n. 2, 158, 172, 200, 207 n. 1, 222, 226; English, of 1688, 29, 50, 92, 99, 136-138, 207, 232; French, 41, 84 n. 1.

Rhode Island, early government, 17; charter, 17, 38, 216 n. 2; State constitution, 17, 38, 152 n. 1; bill of rights, 208 n. 1, 209.

Richard I., 89.

Richard II., 91, 110 n. 2, 114 n. 1, 127 n. 1, 131, 134.

Rights, Bill of, in Virginia, 13; Massachusetts, 15; Connecticut, 17; Maryland, 18; New York, 20 n. 2; Pennsylvania, 22 n. 2; of the United States, 42, 211, 213, 224 n. 1; England, 9, 104, 114, 137, 207, 222-225, 232, 233.

Right of petition, 221, 222.

Right, Petition of, 114, 207, 225, ib. n. 3.

Right to bear arms, 223, ib. n. 1, ib. n. 4, 224, ib. n. 1.

Rochefoucauld, Duc de la, 174 n. 1.

Rockingham, Lord, 144.

Roman, 60 n. 2, 124, 231, 233 n. 2, 234, ib. n. 1.

Roman Catholics, 215, 216, 218.

Rome, 238.

Roses, Wars of the, 131.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, I, ib. n. 1.

Rufus, William. See William II.

Rutledge, J., 54 n. 2, 101 n. 1.

St. Albans, 70, 71.

St. Andrews, 54 n. 2.

St. Edmund, Abbot of, 179 n. 1.

Scroggs, Chief Justice, 220 n. 3.

Scotland, 54 n. 2.

Secrecy of debates, 107, 108.

Secession, War of, 161 n. 1.

Secretary, of the Navy, 170 n. 2; of

State, 170, ib. n. 2; of the Treasury, 167 n. 2; of War, 170 n. 2.

Senate, the, origin, 77-79; of States, 78, ib. n. 1; membership, 78 n. 1, 79 n. 1; its function as executive council, 79; as Privy Council, 79, 160, ib. n. 2, ib. n. 3, 162, 166, 167; contrasted with the House of Lords, 206; presiding officer, 81; privileges, 96, 97; judicial powers, 96, 97; relation to money bills, 101, ib. n. 1, 102, ib. n. 1; powers, 156.

Settlement, Act of, 99, 109, 127 n. 1, 194, 196.

Seward, Secretary, 161 n. 1.

Shaftesbury, Lord, 23 n. 2.

Shelburne, Lord, 144, ib. n. 3.

Sheldon, Archbishop, 73.

Shire, Knights of the. See Knights.

Shiremoot, the, origin, 60-63; continuation of, 65, 181 n. 1; membership, 70.

Shrewsbury, 97 n.

Social contract theory, 1, 2 n. 1.

Social growth theory, 1, 2 n. 1.

Sophia of Hanover, 127 n. 1.

Spain, 44 n., 60 n. 2, 82, 134 n. 1, 195 n.

Sparta, 238.

Speech, freedom of, 103, 104.

Spinoza, 1.

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of, 97 n. 1.

State, the, colonial source of government, 13; constitutions, 25, 49, ib. n. 1, 110 n. 2; origin of the legislature, 60; executive council, 77; executive, 150 n. 1, 152 n. 1; controversies between States, 197, 200, ib. n. 3; State system, 204.

States in the Confederation, 39, 40.

States General of France, 82.

States General of the Netherlands, 40 n. 1.

Statholder, A., 151 n. 1.

Stephen, King, 122 n. 2.

Story, Mr, Justice, cited, 10, 11, 152, 199.

Stuart, House of, 132, 139.

Stubbs, Bishop, cited, 134.

Suffolk, 179 n. 1.

Sunderland, Robert, Earl of, 138, ib. n. 1.

Supreme Court, the, attitude on war powers of the President, 161 n. 1; its justices appointed by the President, 165; decisions, 43 n. 1, 170 n. 3, 211 n. 2; powers, 185, 188-192, 196 n. 1, 197, 200, 206; guardian of the constitution, 190-192; procedure, 190-192, 197, 198, ib. n. 1.

South Africa, 204.

Sussex, 63 n. 1.

Sweden, 82, 83.

Switzerland, 43, ib. n. 2.

Tacitus, cited, 59. Taney, Chief Justice, 161 n. 1. Taxation, 9, 13, 32-34, 71, 73, ib. n. 2, 88, 90, 100-102, 112-116, 129, 137.

Taylor, Hannis, cited, 67, 190, and nn.

Tenants in chief, 68, 130 n. 1.

Test Act, 214 n. 4, 219, ib. n. 2.

Teutonic, institutions, 60, ib. n. 2, 61, 62, 69, 70 n. 1, 72, 86, 96, 117-119, 121; race, 4, ib. n. 1, 61 n., 130, 238; freedom, 61; legislation, 66 n. 1, 67, 86, ib. n. 7, 89 n. 2.

Thegns, 67, 126 n.

Third Estate, 72, 73 n., 82.

Toleration, Act of, 214.

Tories, 31 n. 4, 147 n. 1.

Township system, 4 n. 1, 25 n. 1.

Treason, law of, 202, 203 it. n. 1. Tudor, House of, 132, 134 n. 1, 135. Turgot, 30 n. 1. Two Houses, 9, 12, 14, 17, 18, ib. n. 2, 42, 43, 72-75, 77, 78, 83, 84, ib. n. 1, 90.

Union of Utrecht, 16 n. 2, 205 n. 1.

United States, the, 10, 27, 43 n. 2, 56 n. 2, 57 n. 2, 84, 85, 93, 95, 101, 109, 110, 117, 143, 144, 152 n., 156, 159, 161, ib. n. 1, 165, ib. n. 1, 170-173, 175, 185, 188, 192, ib. n. 2, 193, 196-203, 205 n. 1, 214, 218, 219, 229, ib. n. 1, 239.

Venice, 43 n. 2.

Vermont, State constitution, 80, 97, 232 n. 2.

Versailles, Peace of, 144.

Veto power, 12, 22, 27, 93 n. 1, 95, 156-158, 174, 175.

Vice-President, 81.

Victoria, Queen, 140 n. 2, 175.

Villars, George, Duke of Buckingham, 97 n. 1.

Virginia, settlement, 10; charters, 10; first legislature, 10, 11, ib. n. 2, ib. n. 4; Governor Yeardley, n; early government, n; compared with Massachusetts, 14; State constitution, 13, 37, 78 n. 1, 97, 187; bill of rights, 115 n. 1, 191 n. 1, 208 n. 1, 209, 217 n. 2.

Warrants, 226-228.

Washington, city of, 27, 192 n. 2, 204.

Washington, George, President, 8 n., 36 n., 147 n. 1, 158, 170, 174 n. 1.

Webster, Daniel, cited, 37.

Wentworth, Thomas, Earl of Strafford, 97 n. 1.

Wessex, 63 n. 1.

West Indies, 143 n. 2.

Westminster, 71.

West Saxons, 86.

Wethersfield, 16.

Whigs, 31 n. 4, 138 n. 1, 147 n. 1.

Whitehall, 136.

Whitraed, 86.

Wilkes, John, 226, 227 n. 1.

Wilfred, 87.

William I., the Conqueror, 89, ib. n. 1, 122 n. 2, 127 n. 1, 129, 133, 178.

William II., Rufus, 129, 178.

William III., of Orange, 20, 92, 97 n. 1, 99, 111, 114, 136-138, 145, 146, 151, 194, ib. n. 1, 214, 221.

Williams, Roger, 216 n. 2.

Wilson, James, 43 n. 2, 54 n. 2, 149, n. 1, 157 n. 1, 187 n. 2.

Windsor, Conn., 16; England, 71.

Witenagemot, origin, 60, 62-64; membership, 64-67, 86, 87; procedure, 66 n. 1, 87, 88 n. 1; title, 67; merged in the Great Council, 67, 180; in the House of Lords, 68; origin of the Privy Council, 76; of the Senate, 77, 79; powers, 88, 89, ib. n. 1, 96, 98, 112, 126, 127, 180, ib. n. 1.

Woden, 124.

Yeardley, Governor, n. York, 73, 91, 127 n. 1, 132, 134, 135.

York, Duke of, 19-22, 217, ib. n. 2.

York, House of, 127 n. 1, 132, 134, 135.

Yorkshire, 8 n.


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