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act

overt, see overt act purpose in, 212-213 (see also treason, intent in)

witnesses to, 56, 67, 217, 232, 249-250

Act of April 30, 1790, 145, 151

Act of William III, 81-83, 106

Adams, John, 7, 84, 160, 198, 268-269

Adams, John Quincy, 168

"adhering to the enemy," 201, 203-210

"aid by counsel," 100

"aid or comfort to the enemy," 22, 53, 103, 130, 132-133, 135, 209, 241-244

defined, 230

Albany Law Journal, 200

allegiance

betrayal of, 83

death penalty for failure in, 105-106

treason and, 82-83, 104, 144, 245-246

American Digest System, 200

American Law Review, 200

American Revolution

English treason statutes during, 85

penalty for treason in, 102-103

treason cases in, 9, 82-106

treason prior to, 68-82

André, Maj. John, 234

Arden's case, 33

Arner, Frederick R., viii

Arnold, Benedict, 234 attainder

acts of, no

banning of, 83

Bacon's Rebellion, 82

banishment, as penalty for treason, 105

Bayard, Nicholas, 110-111

bellum levatum, vs. bellum percussum, 278

betrayal, treason and, 21-22, 82-83, 101-102

Bill of Rights, 136-137, 150, 155 see also First Amendment

Black, Hugo, 205

Blackstone, Sir William, 48, 67

Bollman case, see Ex parte Bollman

Bracton (Bretton), Henry de, 16, 21, 26

Brown, John, 10, 263-264

Burr, Aaron, ix, 143, 190

capital punishment, 9, 175

Carteret, John, 71

Catholic University of America, viii

Chambers v. Florida, 200

Chandler v. United States, x, 236-237, 254

Chapin, Bradley, ix

Chase, Salmon P., 192

civil war, treason and, 134

"clear and present danger" test, 166

Coke, Sir Edward, 17-19, 21, 23-26, 28, 31, 34, 40, 54, 67, 74, 111, 209, 276-279

colonial legislature, failure of to act in treason cases, 109

colonial period

abuse of treason trials in, 85

broad treason acts passed during, 78

law libraries in, 75

test oaths in, 84

treason in, 68-82

Committee of Detail, 129, 131-132, 135

Committee on Spies, 83

common law

as "birthright of English subjects," 76

judge-made treasons as, 89

treason and, 16-17, 89

Commonplace Book (Williams), 75

Communist party, 241, 245

confiscation, as penalty for treason, 83, 104-105

Congress, U.S.

penalty for treason fixed by, 122, 175

powers and limitations of, 146

Connecticut Acts and Laws, 72 Connecticut General Laws

(1673), 70, 115 Connecticut treason statutes, 99

Consolidated Coal & Coke v.

Beale, 226

conspiracy, treason and, 20 Constitution, U.S., 92, 208,

217, 238-239 Article III, Sec. 3, 14 framing of, 8 legislative character of, 8 repudiation of English

background in, 5 treason clause in, 3-11, 14, 75, 122, 126-166, 186-218 (see also treason clause) treason defined in, 4-5, 7, 14 writers on, 54-56 Constitutional Convention (Philadelphia), 128-136, 146, 156-157, 178, 182-183 constructive treason, 54, 88,

141-142, 153 defined,139

Continental Congress, 9, 83-84,

86, 127-128 statutes differing from

recommendations of, 117 "correspondence," as treason,

94

see also writing Coxey's Army, 199 Cramer, Anthony, 203, 215 Cramer v. United States, vii-viii,

x, 4, 55, 67, 186-189,

191-193, 202-215, 218,

224, 238, 24l, 247-248, 255-256

criminal syndicalism, 162 Crohagan's case, 32-33, 41-42

Davis, Jefferson, 262 death penalty

in colonial New Jersey, 115

nonallegiance and, 105-106

Declaration of Independence,

9, 86, 105 treason trials referred to in,

91-92

Dickinson, John, 132, 160 disloyal utterances, 83-84 Dorr, Thomas Wilson, 10, 263 double jeopardy clause, 148 Douglas, William O., 205, 256 Duke of York's Laws, 71, 107

early treatises, ambiguity in, 19 see also English treatises

Edward III, 4, 15

see also Statute of Edward III

Elizabeth I, 33-34

Ellsworth, Oliver, 129, 132

enemy

adherence to, 201, 203-210 aid and comfort to, see "aid and comfort to the enemy"

enemy (cont.)

"joining" of, 104-105

enemy agent, conversation with, 67

enemy broadcasts, 248

England, break with, 85

English law

American knowledge of, 7-8 18th-century treatises on,

29-49

levying of war on king in, 6 repudiation of in treason

clause, 5

English State Trials, 8 English statutes, colonial

adoption of, 75-77 English treatises, treason in, 7,

15-28

Epton v. New York, 252 Erskine, John, 154 Espionage Act of June 15,

1917, 161-163, 166 evidence, sufficiency of,

249-251 Ex parte Bollman, 152, 163-164,

188-189, 220, 228-231 Ex parte Milligan, 176-177 Ex parte Quirin, 147 expatriation, of U.S. citizens,

246

Fahy, Charles, vii false rumors, 99 FBI agents, 204, 227 Federal Espionage Act, 239 Federalist, The, 143, 158, 167,

169 First Amendment, 155-160,

165

see also Bill of Rights foreign sovereign, allegiance to,

245-246

Foster, 37-42, 45-49, 52, 56 Fox's Libel Act of 1792, 154 Frankfurter, Felix, 205 Franklin, Benjamin, 134, 141,

144, 190, 216, 232 free speech, 165

Constitution and, 155-156

treason and, 159 French and Indian Wars, 79 French king, treasonable

correspondence with, 79 Fries, John, 191, 198, 268 Frohwerk v. United States, 160 Fugitive Slave Law, 149, 197, 228, 268

Gage, Gen. Thomas, 85 Gallatin, Albert, 158 General Laws and Liberties of

Massachusetts Bay, 71 Gianturco, Elio, viii Giles, William Branch, 143,

174-175

Glanvill, Ranulf de, 16, 19-21 Gordon, Lord George, 6 Gorham, Nathaniel, 129, 157 government, safety of, 75-76 Great Britain, colonies' break

with, 85

see also England; English Gregg, William, 39 Grier, Robert C., 7, 197-200,

225 Gsovski, V., viii

Hale, 19, 25, 29-36, 43, 46

Hallam, Henry, 54

Hamilton, Alexander, 128, 167,

169, 172 Hand, Learned, 217, 232,

276-277

Hanway, Castner, 268 Hanway case, 198-200, 267-268

Hartford Convention, 149 Haupt v. United States, 231, 236,

238, 244-247, 250-251,

255-256, 275 Hawkins, William, 36, 61 Haymarket riots, 199 head of state, protection of,

20-21

Henry VIII, 86 Henry, Patrick, 137, 155 Hewes, Joseph, 118 Holdsworth, 51, 53, 153 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 161-162 Homestead strike, as treason,

13, 149, 199, 264 Hoxie case, see United States v. Hoxie

insurrection, 77

martial law and, 76 intelligence, conveying of, 94 intent

evidence of, 26

vs. overt act, 211-212

see also treason, intent in Iredell, James, 118, 139, 170-171, 181, 191

Jackson, Robert H., 189, 205,

247, 255

Jackson, William, 65 James, Eldon, viii Jefferson, Thomas, 11, 67,

84-90, 93, 118-119, 158,

173

Jeffersonian Embargo, 149 Johnson, William Samuel, 132,

168 Jones, Samuel, 167

Kawakita v. United States,

236-237, 246, 257 Kelyng, J., 36-37, 41-61

Kilty, William, 108, 112, 115 king

levying of war on, 6 (see also war, levying of)

safety of, 17, 20-21 King, Rufus, 131, 143, 178 king's death

irrelevancy of, 194-195

overt act and, 23, 61

as treason, 5-6, 15, 26, 31-36, 39, 41-49, 51-55, 64, 71-72, 87, 130, 152-153, 194 King v. Bayard, 74, 82 Knauer v. United States, 242 Korean war, 244, 251-252 Kuttner, Stephan G., viii

Laws of New Haven Colony, 69,

114-115

Laws of the Colony of New

Plymouth, 70 Lee, Henry, 158 legislation, early U.S. policy

and, 9 legislative attainders, banning

of, 83

legislative source materials, 8-9 legislative tyranny, prevention

of, 136

lèse majesté, crime of, 17-21 levying war, limitation of,

193-203

see also war, levying of Library of Congress, ix Livingston, Henry B., 7, 196,

198

Livingston, John, 167 Livingston, Robert, 84 Lord Preston's case, 44-45,

51-54, 64, 85, 217

McKean, Thomas, 67, 85 Madison, James, 128, 130,

133-134, 143, 154, 158,

168, 216

Magna Charta, 17 Maitland, Frederick William, 65 Malin case, 90 Mann Act, 253 Marbury v. Madison, 233 Marshall, John, 152, 163, 173,

179, 188-189, 210 martial law, authority for, 76 Maryland Act of April 20,

1777, 77, 94-95 Maryland Act of December 3,

1777, 95 Maryland General Assembly,

71, 116 Mason, George, 130-133, 157,

170, 182 Massachusetts Act of August

31, 1706, 79-80 Massachusetts Act of February

1, 1777, 122 Massachusetts Act of June 26,

1744, 81 Massachusetts Act of March 20,

1699-1700, 114 Massachusetts Act of May 1,

1776, 122 Massachusetts Act of November

8, 1782, 95-96 Massachusetts Bay colony, 73,

81, 79-80

Medina, Harold R., viii meeting of persons, as overt

act, 33 mental attitudes, as treason,

210

militia laws, treason and, 114 misprision, 36, 86, 124, 151 mob rule, 199 Montesquieu, Charles de

Secondat, Baron de, 48,

136

Morgan v. Devine, 148 Mormons

indictments against, 10

trial of, 264 Morris, Gouverneur, 131-132,

157 motive

act and, 212-213 irrelevancy of, 194-195 see also treason, intent in Murphy, Frank, 204, 242, 255 mutiny, martial law and, 76

New Hampshire, unconventional treason acts in, 112-113

New Hampshire Act of May 15,

1714, 73 New Haven Colony, Laws of,

69, 114-115 New Jersey Act of December

11, 1778, 100, 104 New Jersey Act of December

21, 1782, 97 New Jersey Act of May 30,

1668, 115 New Jersey Act of October 3,

1782, 100 New Jersey Act of October 8,

1778, 96

New Jersey Resolutions, 128 New Plymouth Colony, 107 General Laws and Liberties of,

115 New York Act of March 15,

1781, 105 New York Act of March 30,

1781, 100-101 New York Act of May 6, 1691,

74, 77-78 New York Act of October 9,

1780, 105 Nicholas, George, 137, 155, 183

Nicholas, John, 183 Nicolls, Richard, 71 Nishikawa v. Duties, 242-243 North Carolina

Charter of 1665, 69

Constitution of, 139

Ordinance of December 23, 1776, 122

treason statutes in, 99,

137-138 Northwest Territory, 9

objective tendency, overt act

and, 26-27 Ordinance of 1787, 9 overt act, 21-24, 28, 31, 33, 37,

48-50, 53, 82, 92, 130-133,

147, 164, 201, 205, 209,

233, 247-249- 267-270 defined by Foster, 38-39 as essential element, 38 evidence of, 42, 210-218 function of, 51 king's death and, 23, 61 levying war as, 64 (see also

war, levying of) meeting of persons as, 33 "minimum function" of, 214 objective tendency and,

26-27

perjury and, 133-134 proof of, 91 witnesses to, 56, 67, 217, 232,

249-250 words as, 39, 41, 48, 61,

79-80

writing as, 39, 48, 61, 79-80 overthrow of government by

force, 241

pardon, by President, 146 partial pardon, in Virginia Assembly, no

Paterson, William, 128 Peacham's case, 39-40, 61 Penn, William, 107 Pennsylvania Act of December

3, 1782, 120 Pennsylvania Act of February

11, 1777, 99 Pennsylvania Act of March 10,

1787, 120 Pennsylvania Act of March 27,

1700, 74, 77, 112, 115 Pennsylvania Act of September

5, 1776, 122

perjury, overt act and, 133-134 Philadelphia Convention, see

Constitutional Convention Pickering, Timothy, 143 Pinckney, Charles, 127 Pinckney plan, 127-128 piracy, 151 political security, treason and,

143 posse comitatus, resistance to,

270

Prence, Thomas, 107 presidential pardon, 146 property forfeiture, as penalty

for treason, 83, 104-105 Pullman strike, 199 punishment congressional authority on,

122, 146 death penalty in, 105-106,

115

severity of, 150 Pyne's case, 32

queen's death, 46, 71-72 see also king's death

radio propaganda programs,

248 Randolph, John, 129-132, 157,

170-171, 179 Ray, John, 167 rebellion, martial law and,

76-77

Reed, Stanley F., 205 reprisals, following Restoration,

37 republican form of

government, 156, 182 Respublica v. Carlisle, 85 Restoration, reprisals following,

37

restrictive definition content of, 138-145 see also treason, restrictive

definition of Revolutionary War, see

American Revolution Rhode Island, law against

piloting British ships

passed by, 96 Rhode Island Act of October

1779 on citizenship, 103 Richard II, 29 riot, treason and, 199-200,

270-271

Roberts, Owen J., 205 Roberts case, 91 Rodney, Caesar A., 179 Rosenberg case, 239-240 Rutledge, John, 84, 129, 242

sabotage, as treason, 146-147,

203-210, 214-215,

255-256

Schaefer v. United States, 161 sedition, martial law and, 76 Sedition Act of July 14, 1798,

151, 154, 158, 175 Shays, Daniel, 127 Shays' Rebellion, 127, 140 Sidney's case, 39 Smith, Caleb, 167

Smith, Joseph, 264

Smith, Joshua Hett, 233

Smith Act, 241

Spies v. People, 226

spoken words

as evidence, 25, 31-32 as overt act, 41, 48

state

positive provision for safety

of, 127

safety of individual and, 75-76

Statute of Edward III, 4-5, 15-19, 22-23, 26, 29, 34-35, 38, 43, 48, 50, 53-55, 64-65, 73, 76, 78, 83-84, 87, 89-93, 112, 131, 133, 136, 139-141, 144, 151-153, 191, 208

Statute of 25 Edward III, 69, 71, 89

Statute of 3 Henry VII, 27

Statute of 1 Mary, 25

statute of treasons, 92

Statute of 7 William III, 81-83, 106

Staundford, 16, 22, 31, 48, 276

Stephens, Sir James Fitzjames, 49

Stillman, Arthur M., viii

Stone, William, 65

subversion, treason as, 150-151

Sullivan, James, 170

Supreme Court, U.S., 4, 67, 147-148, 187, 192-193, 203, 215-216, 236, 242-243, 249-250

Taylor, John, 158-159

test oaths, colonial laws and, 84

Thiel, Werner, 203-204

Thompson v. Gleason, 241

tobacco plants, destruction of, 113-114

Tong case, 36

Tooke, Home, 6

traitorous correspondence, 79-80, 94 see also writing

treason

"abuse" of as crime, 210

accessory post factum in, 107

accomplishment vs. attempt in, 121-122

aider or abettor in, 53

aid to enemies as, 22 (see also

"aid or comfort to the enemy")

vs. allegiance, 82-83, 104, 144, 245-246

ambiguity in early treatises on, 19

as betrayal, 21-22, 82-83, 101-102

civil war and, 134

Coke's discussion of, 16-19

in colonial period, 68-82

in colonial charters, 69-71

common law and, 16-17, 89

confession in, 249

confiscation and, 83, 104-105

Congress as sole authority on, 127

congressional power to reduce penalty in, 175

conspiracy and, 20

under Constitution, 14, 75, 126-166, 186-218

Constitutional Convention and, 128-129

"constructive," 54, 88, 139, 141-142,153

death penalty for, 9, 175

defined, 3-4, 7, 14, 50, 106-108, 129-130, 133, 137, 145

"definite" meaning of, 187

destruction of tobacco plants as, 113-114

doctrinal development of, 186-187

domestic upset and, 75

in doubtful cases, 54

in 18th-century treatises, 29749

English history and, 5-7

in English law treatises, 7, 15-28

evidence in, 249-251

extensions of, 134, 141

failure of colonial legislature to act in, 109

in federal system, 134

free speech and, 159

general policy on in U.S. Constitution, 126-138

guidance for English law in, 73

historic definition of, 145

intent in, 14, 25-26, 193-203, 211-212, 244-249

king's death and, 5, 31

king's death analogy irrelevant in, 194-195

"legislative tyranny" and, 136

by levying war, 7, 28, 34, 78 (see also war, levying of)

limitation of "levying war" in, 193-203, 218

"mental attitudes" as, 210

militia laws and, 114

mob rule and, 199

as most serious crime, 15

19th- and 20th-century treatises on, 49-53

in North Carolina Charter of 1665, 69

objective tendency in, 26-27

other crimes combined with, 149-150

overt act in, 21-24, 50

overt act function as zero in, 247 (see also overt act)

penalties for, 4, 104-105, 130, 146, 150, 175

penalty for fixed in U.S. Constitution, 122

and positive provision for safety of state, 75-77, 127

prior to American Revolution, 68-82

property forfeiture and, 83, 104-105

punishment for, 4, 104-105, 130, 146, 150, 175

repudiation of English law on, 5

restrictive character of, 4, 126-145

riot and, 199-200

sabotage as, 147-148, 203-210, 214-215, 255-256

safety of state in, 75-76, 127

in 16th and 17th century, 49

spoken words in, 25, 31-32

in Statute of 25 Edward III, 4-5, 15 (see also Statute of Edward III)

subversion and, 150-151

two witnesses to, 56, 67, 217, 232, 249-250

unconventional definitions of, 106-107

against United States, 101-103, 128-131, 134

U.S. Constitution and, 14, 75, 126-166, 186-218

vagueness of, 188

"virulent" prosecution of, 141

written words as, 39, 48, 61, 79-80

treason cases

general policy in, 238-244

in period 1945-1970, 236-251

prosecutions and decisions in, 82

treason clause

basic policy of, 126-127

clash over, 137

common-sense approach in, 5

"constructive treason" and, 54, 88, 139, 141-142, 153

English experience and, 5

historic background of, 3-11

as limitation on governmental power, 143-166

restrictive character of, 4, 126-145

and suppression of political opposition, 143

unconstitutionality under, 146

treason doctrine

development of, ix

in period 1945-1970, 236-251

treason law, English sources of, 14-56

treason legislation, partisanship and, 101

treason trials

abuse of in colonial period, 85

noted in Declaration of Independence, 91-92

as political or factional weapon, 5, 153-154, 165-166

in Revolutionary period, 9, 106

"virulence" of, 190

two-witness principle, in overt act, 56, 67, 217, 232, 249-250

Uniform Code of Military Justice, 239

United States, treason against, 101-103, 128-131, 134

United States v. Burr, 232

United States v. Greathouse, 209

United States v. Hodges, 223

United States v. Hoxie, 196, 198

United States v. Pryor, 201, 227

United States v. Rosenberg, 239-240

U.S.S.R., communication with, 239-240

Utah State v. Solomon, 201

Van Doren, Carl, 234 Vermont, treason statutes in, 99

vigilantism, as riot, 270

Vilas, William F., viii

Virginia acts of attainder and partial pardon in, no unconventional treason acts in, 113-114

Virginia Convention, 158-159

Virginia Resolutions, 154, 158

Virginia treason statute, 86

voluntas pro facto rule, 26, 42-43

war

as collective activity, 210

conspiracy to levy, 120

"constructive" levying of, 78-82, 93, 138

levying of as treason, 6-7, 14, 23-24, 28, 34, 37, 64, 77-78, 82, 87, 92, 98, 114, 120, 129-130, 139, 144, 146, 193-203, 207, 275

Washington, Bushrod, 201

Washington, George, 269

Weems v. United States, 177

Wellman v. Whittier, 240-241

Whiskey Rebellion, 6, 149, 196, 269

Whitney v. California, 184

Wiener, Frederick Bernays, x

Wigmore, John Henry, 217

William III, 64

Wilson, James, 11, 48, 57, 67, 75, 84, 90, 119, 129, 132, 135-138, 140, 142, 169, 232

Wimmer v. United States, 162 witnesses, to overt act, 56, 67, 217, 232, 249-250

Woodbine, George E., 58

words, as overt act, 39, 41, 48, 61, 79-80

World War I, 160, 189

World War II, 241-242, 245

writing, as overt act, 39, 48, 61, 79-80

Wythe, George, 11, 87, 89

Yates v. United States, 252


The Law of Treason in the
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Contributions in American History
Series Editor Stanley I Kutler

1 Bread and Roses Too Studies of the Wobblies Joseph Robert Conlin

2 The Politics of Loyalty The White House and the Communist Issue, 1946-1952 Alan D Harper

3 The Vanity of Power American Isolationism and the First World War, 1914-1917 John Milton Cooper, Jr

4 City and Country Rural Responses to Urbanization in the 1920s Don S Kirschner

5 Political Change in California Critical Elections and Social Movements, 1890-1966 Michael Paul Rogin and John L Shaver

6 Negroes and the Great Depression The Problem of Economic Recovery Raymond Walters

9 Protestants Against Poverty Boston's Chanties, 1870-1900 Nathan Irvin Huggins

10 Horace White, Nineteenth Century Liberal Joseph Logsdon

11 The New York Abolitionists A Case Study of Political Radicalism Gerald Sorin


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