INDEX

(Figures refer to page numbers)

Page

ABANDONMENT Nonsupport and...................................................................................... 67

Nonsupport or.......................................................................................... 68

What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was at time intention to abandon was formed...................................................................... 66

Law of state in which accused was at time of separation...... 66

Law of state in which dependent was............................................ 67

ACCESSORIES BEFORE THE FACT

Felonies, procurer is principal if agent is innocent....................... 70

Misdemeanors, all are principals........................................................ 70

Statutes abolishing................................................................................... 71

What law governs?

Law of state in which person procured was at time of his act ................................................................................................72-73

Law of state in which procurer was at tune of his act..........72-73

Procurer's classification should be immaterial.........................76-78

ACCESSORY AFTER THE FACT

Receiver of stolen goods........ ........................................................... 120

ADMIRALTY JURISDICTION

Action commenced by libel or information?............................167-168

Criminal jurisdiction......................................................................167-168

Fiction that ship is the offender ..................................................171,173

See also Territorial Waters

AGENTS

See Accessories; Principals

AGGRAVATED LARCENY Law governing..................................................................................114-116

ARREST

See Jurisdiction of Courts

ASSAULT See Homicide

ATTEMPTS Law governing...................................................................................... 85

BATTERY See Homicide

BAYS

Law applicable to conduct on.......................................................185-187

BIGAMY

Statutes making bigamous marriage elsewhere by "any person"

a crime........................................................................................126-127

Statutes making cohabitation in the state with spouse of out of

state bigamous marriage criminal.............................................. 127

Venue ........................................................................................ 127

What law governs?

Citizens whose bigamous marriage is celebrated out of state.. 127 Law of state in which accused was at time of second marriage .................................................................................. 125

BURGLARY What law governs?..........................................................................114-116

CITIZENS ABROAD

Statutes, application of, to,

Express provision.............................................................................. 2

Presumption and inference in absence of expressed intent...... 2-3

CONSPIRACY What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was at time he agreed to participate ..................................................................80-84

Law of state in which principal crime committed or overt act done by co-conspirator..........................................................80-84

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION

Due process of law requires application of law to which accused was subject at time of conduct in question............................... 6-7

Right to trial in county in which crime was committed......28-29, 127 Right to trial in state in which crime was committed................ 28

CORPORATIONS What law governs?

Law of state in which agent is when he acts for corporation 78

DEODAND

Law of......................................................................................171.172

DUE PROCESS OF LAW

As prohibiting forfeitures of interests of innocent owners........ 172 Requires application of law to which accused was subject at time of conduct in question........................................................... 6-7

EMBEZZLEMENT Definition .................................................................................................. 121

What law governs?

Law of state in which accused had a duty to account......123-124 Law of state in which accused was when he formed intention to keep property....................................................122-124

Law of state into which accused afterwards brought embezzled property........................................................................124-125

EXTRADITION See Jurisdiction of Courts

FALSE PRETENSES

Obtaining property, meaning of

Commercial instrument or money from it?..............................95-96

Money from vendee or discounter or from drawee or person ultimately liable................................................................. 97

Possession or title?....................................................................94-95

What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was at time false pretenses were made.....................................................................................91-93

Law of state in which accused was at time property obtained ............................................................................................91-95

Law of state in which property was at time it was obtained..92-97 Law of state where possession delivered to agent or carrier..94-95

FOREIGN CRIMINAL LAWS Distinguished from civil laws.........................................................30-45

Violations of, not tried..........................................................................20-45

Bastardy statutes............................................................................. 35

Exemplary damage statutes............................................................39-42

Laws making directors and officers liable for corporate debts ................................................................................................33-34

Tax laws...........................................................................................35-39

Usury statutes................................................................................43-44

Wrongful death statutes..................................................................42-43

FORFEITURES

Action civil or criminal?................................................................156-158

Action commenced by libel or information?..............................167-168

Admiralty jurisdiction......................................................................167-168

Constitutional questions ..................................................................177-178

Interests of innocent owners.......................................................... 168-174

Deodand .....................................................................................171, 172

Fiction in admiralty law applicable to civil cases, that ship is offender .......................................................................171,173

Interpretation of statute..........................................................168-174

Jurisdiction of courts...................................................................176-177

What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was at time of conduct in question or law of state in which property was................174-176

FORGERY

What law governs?

Evidence of state in which accused was at time of forgery

Possession of the instrument in the state............................98-99

Uttering instrument in the state......................................98-99

Law of state in which accused was at time of forgery.......... 97

HIGH SEAS Concurrent jurisdiction on......................................................... 129

Freedom of................................................................................. 129

Meaning of.......................................................................148-149, 153

Ships national territory..................................................130-135, 139-142

Constitution of United States

Does it apply on American vessels?..............................134-135

Nationality Burden of proof..................................................................132-133

How determined...............................................................131-132

HOMICIDE International law........................................................................56-57

Venue

Death, place of..................................................................57-60

Effect, place of................................................................. 52

Location of accused at time of conduct.................................... 51

What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was at time of conduct in question ................................................................................... 55

Law of state in which death occurs.........................................60-61

Statutes .........................................................................62-63

Law of state in which effect produced................................ 54

ILLEGAL REMOVAL See Jurisdiction of Courts

IN REM ACTIONS See Forfeitures

Page

INTERNATIONAL LAW Applicability to conduct on high seas..........................................136-143

Custom, not law.......................................................................136-137

Jure gentium......................................................................................... 136

Natural law.............................................................................................. 136

Piracy ..................................................................................................135-143

INTRA FAUCES TERRAE Bays, when? ....................................................................................185-187

Diagram ....................................................................................... 186

Meaning of.....................................................................................185-187

Waters within three-mile limit beyond line drawn from headland to headland............................................................................ 187

What waters are?......................................................................185-187

JURE GENTIUM As basis of international law.............................................................. 136

JURISDICTION OF COURTS

Custody usually essential........................................................ 8-10

Extradition for crimes other than those accused is charged

with, effect of From foreign country..................................................................... 17-19

From state of United States....................................................... 19

Foreign criminal laws Civil laws distinguished.............................................................30-45

Violations of, not tried...................................................................20-45

Bastardy statutes........................................................... 35

Exemplary damage statutes..............................................39-42

Laws making directors and officers liable for corporate debts ...........................................................................................33-34

Tax laws.....................................................................................35-39

Usury statutes...........................................................43-44

Wrongful death statutes.........................................................42-43

Illegal arrest in the jurisdiction, effect of.............................. 8-10

Illegal removal, effect of

From another state of United States........................10, 13-15, 16

From foreign country.................................................................. 10-19

From foreign ship.............................................................................. 155

KIDNAPPING

Definition ................................................................................................. 116

What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was when victim seized......117-118 Law of state into which victim afterwards brought by accused 118 Statutes ................................................................................................ 118

LARCENY

American courts divided, some following English rule and some venue rule........................................................................................108-112

English courts hold thief who steals property abroad and brings it to England cannot be tried in England for a violation of its law..................................................................................... 107

Statutes ........................................................................................112-114

Venue in county into which accused has brought stolen property ..............................................................................................103-106

LIBEL Venue ..........................................................................................85-88

What law governs?

Is each copy a libel or only the statement?...........................90-91

When crime is to "compose," "dictate," "make," "print," "write" .......................................................................................... 88

When crime is to "circulate," "publish," "sell"...................... 88

Law of state in which person receiving or reading libel was ..........................................................................................88-90

Law of state in which accused was while sending or parting with possession..................................................................88-90

MARITIME JURISDICTION

See High Seas; Territorial Waters; Admiralty Jurisdiction

NATURAL LAW

As basis of international law.......................................................... 136

NONSUPPORT

Abandonment and ............................................................................... 67

Abandonment or.................................................................................... 68

What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was during period of................68-69

Law of state in which dependent was during period of........69-70

NUISANCE

See Public Nuisance

OBTAINING MONEY BY FALSE PRETENSES See False Pretenses

OCEANS

See High Seas; Territorial Waters

PENAL LAWS

Distinguished from civil laws...........................................................30-45

Violations of foreign law not tried....................................................20-45

Bastardy statutes................................................................................ 35

Page

Exemplary damage statutes..........................................................39-42

Laws making directors and officers liable for corporate debts..33-34 Tax laws..............................................................................................35-39

Usury statutes....................................................................................43-44

Wrongful death statutes..................................................................42-43

PIRACY

American courts apply law of ship when not in territorial waters ............................................................................................139-142

Definition ............................................................................................135-136

English law..........................................................................................142-143

International law ..............................................................................136-139

PRINCIPALS Agents? Who are................................................................................78-80

Carriers?

Express companies? Mail? Railroads?

Telegraph Companies? Felonies, procurer is principal if agent is innocent....................... 70

Misdemeanors, all are principals........................................................ 70

Statutes abolishing accessories............................................................ 71

What law governs?

Law of state in which person procured was at time of his act .................................................................................................74-76

Law of state in which procurer was at time of his act............76-78

Procurer's classification should be immaterial.................76-78

PROCURERS

See Accessories; Principals

PROHIBITION OF SALES Solicitation of sales What law governs?

Law of state in which accused or person solicited was?..101-102 Statutes making it a crime to sell or "dispose" of property....... 103 What law governs?

Law of state in which property, accused, or vendee was at time title passed?.....................................................................101-102

PUBLIC NUISANCE

Action civil or criminal?................................................................164-166

Forfeiture? Action in rem or in personara?.................................. 166

Venue ................................................................................................ 64

What law governs?.............................................................................. 64

QUI FACIT PER ALIUM FACIT PER SE See Accessories; Principals

RECEIVING STOLEN GOODS Accessory after the fact........................................................................ 120

Law of state in which accused was when goods received.......... 118

Must thief be triable in state for violation of its law?........118-119

Not law of state in which thief stole the goods............................. 118

ROBBERY What law governs?..........................................................................114-116

SALES

See Prohibition of Sales

SEAS

See High Seas; Territorial Waters

SHIPS

See High Seas; Territorial Waters

TERRITORIAL PRINCIPLE Applicable law depends upon Location of accused........................................................................... 3

At time of conduct in question.................................................. 4

Reasons for.............................................................................................. 4-5

Statutory interference with these rules, effect of.......................... 5-7

TERRITORIAL WATERS

Laws applicable to conduct on

American ships in foreign territorial waters..........................144-145

Majority rule, law of ship......................................................144-145

Erroneously made to depend upon admiralty court's jurisdiction over subject matter........................................146-148

"Out of jurisdiction of any state"........................................... 151

Statutes specifically applying "within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States".................. 148

Statute of 1825..................................................................150-151

Minority rule, law of territory.................................................... 145

Foreign ships in American territorial waters........................143-144

Matters affecting only those on the ship............................149-150

Power of federal government to legislate for territorial waters

within a state...........................................................................152-154

What waters are territorial?

Between land territory of two states

Boundary defined............................................................................ 180

Boundary undefined........................................................................ 179

Page

Concurrent jurisdiction by state compact or federal statute .....................................................................181-184

Oceans and waters bordered by three or more states Bays .............................................................................185-187

Intra fauces terrae..................................................................185-187

Statutes containing express territorial provisions............187-190

Statutes extending jurisdiction.............................................190-192

Three mile limit......................................................184-185

Treaties ......................................................................................192-193

Within land territory of single state.......................................... 179

UTTERING What law governs?

Law of state in which accused was at time of parting with possession ....................................................................................99-100

Law of state in which person receiving forged instrument was ................................................................................................99-100

VENUE Common law rule.................................................................................... 21

Constitutional right to trial in county in which crime was committed ..........................................................................................28-29

For particular crimes see index heading for the particular crime

WATERS

See High Seas; Territorial Waters

WHAT LAW GOVERNS Effect, place of........................................................................................ 47

Location of accused at time of conduct in question...................... 48




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