Logical Fallacies

The following is an incomplete compilation of ways people can and have reasoned incorrectly.

Fallacies of Distraction

Appeals to Emotions instead of Fact or Logic

Fallacy of Authority

Changing the Subject

Inductive Fallacies

Fallacies Involving Statistical Arguments

Causal Fallacies

A common variety of these fallacies is the Rooster Syndrome — giving credit to the rooster crowing for the rising of the sun — but applied to giving credit or blame to leaders for events that occur on their watch to which they made little if any contribution. It may also be called Canute Syndrome or Deification Syndrome, attributing godlike powers to the most powerful figure on the scene.

Missing the Point

Fallacies of Ambiguity

Category Errors

Non Sequitur

Syllogistic (Deductive) Errors

Fallacies of Explanation

Fallacies of Definition or interpretation

Fallacies of Misdirection

Fallacies of Miscognition

Avoidance of rigor — Sometimes called "generalized logic"


Acknowledgment: Many of the above were suggested by Stephen Downes, now found on this web page.

See also this list.

See the page on Propaganda Techniques that discusses how these logical fallacies can be used.

The Uses of fallacy. Discussion of "generalized logic" used to avoid rigor.

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