Xeta Linux installation and update notes
Xeta is the name of a Fujitsu C2210 notebook computer, 2 GHz, with 512
MB RAM, a 60 GB HD, a Firewire port, 4 USB2 ports, an SD memory stick port,
PCMCIA ports, an ethernet port, and integrated 802.11b wireless.
<>After using Partition Commander CD to repartition the 60 GB Xeta
HD, reducing the size of the NTFS partition to 20 GB and setting the size of
the Linux partitions as follows:
/boot 300 MB
/home 7 GB
/ 30 GB
But errors were found in the root partition.Using the tools "e2fsck" and
"tune2fs -j" on the /dev/hda4 rootpartition seemed to work at first, but
subsequent use of the systemresulted in serious evidence of file damage in the
root partition, soit was decided to do a complete re-install of Fedora Core 1
(then version 2.4.22-1.2115.npt1.i386), wiping out the root partition but
preservingthe /home partition where most of the downloads and builds were
stored.Selected the options of installing Everything, that is, all
packages.Grub now defaults to loading the latest Linux kernel.
However, if I were to partition the drive again, I would allocate about
half of the / partition to the /home partition, because that is where most
downloads, workfiles, email, and other data files tend to reside. I might also
want to create a /usr/local partition, and perhaps an /opt partition, for files
added outside the original distribution and upgrades to it.
Logged in as root —
Added "Terminal" app to the root taskbar and moved it to the left of the
Changed name of "Start Here" desktop launcher to "File Manager:
Nautilus" and set preferences to "View as List".
This began a practice of naming desktop launchers with the category of
function or application they are, so that when the launchers are sorted by
name, by right-clicking on the desktop screen, those of the same kind will be
grouped together. Other categories include "SCSI", "Floppy", "HTML Editor",
"XML Editor", etc.
Added logout launcher to root toolbar to the left of the Volume icon.
(So far have not figured out how to do the same for the non-root user desktop
Created ordinary non-root user "jdr", but added it to group "root".
Changed name of "Start Here" desktop launcher to "File Manager:
Konqueror" and set icon to
Added Terminal launcher to toolbar.
Set time and date formats.
Set its environment to KDE using menu "Preferences | More Preferences |
Desktop Switching Tool" or " System Settings | More System Settings | Desktop
Switching Tool". (There appears to also be another way to switch environments,
but it doesn't work. Use only the wizard on the menu.
Added launcher icon "File Manager: Gentoo" executing '/usr/bin/gentoo
--root-ok' and set it to run as root so it can always be used to override
permissions, then selected gentoo.png icon from icon library
/usr/share/pixmaps. Did the same for both root and non-root desktops. The
Gentoo file manager is more useful than the Nautilus or Konqueror file managers
for many purposes, especially for file copying and backups.
Downloaded old_gond.ttf (Old Gondor) font from www.constitution.org and
saved into /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/ which seems to be sufficient to
recognize and display them in the X browsers after reboot, because the font
displayed property on the home page of www.constitution.org.
Wanted .ttf fonts from Windows not included in the Linux distro, so
copied some of my favorites from a Windows machine using the Gentoo file
manager to three directories:
- /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/ — Making them available
to all X apps for all users
- /home/jdr/.kde/share/fonts/TrueType/ — Making them
available for KDE apps for user jdr
- /home/jdr/fonts — Repository of imported fonts for
backup and restore
Created in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/ a script install-fonts
And executed it in that directory, but so far the additional fonts have
not begun to work in the Mozilla browser, particularly the fonts spionic_.ttf
(Greek), sptiberi.ttf (Hebrew), and spedessa.ttf (Syriac), testing it with the
Ran "yum update" using the unmodified /etc/yum.conf file to get updates
from fedora.redhat.com. Very slow. Got several errors. Download seemed to stall
so terminated with ctrl-C. Log apparently supposed to be stored as
/var/log/yum.log but no content found, so copied output from terminal window
into file, using ctrl-shft-c and ctrl-shft-v and made backup named
Backed up /etc/yum.conf to /etc/yum.conf.fedora1
Downloaded yum-fd.conf from
freshrpms.net/packages/builds/index.html?build=yum and saved as
In preparation for using yum with
www.freshrpms.net, got Matthias Saou's pgp key from the freshrpms site and
inserted it into the keyring with
gpg --keyserver wwwkeys.pgp.net --recv-key e42d547b
Could verify that his key not already in rpm database with
rpm -q gpg-pubkey-e42d547b
So extracted from pubring with
gpg --export -a e42d547b > /tmp/key
and added to rpm database with
rpm --import /tmp/key
Also saved key from freshrpms.net/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.txt into
/tmp/key1 and executed
rpm --import /tmp/key1
But the command on the freshrpms web page was incorrect for importing
the Fedora/Red Hat keys, so instead used
rpm --import /usr/share/doc/*/RPM-GPG-KEY
rpm --import /usr/share/rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY
yum -y update
which upgraded the kernel to 2.4.22-1.2174.npt1.i386
(And re-run this every couple of days to update packages.)
The -y option for yum is to pass it the "y" reply to the prompt it would
otherwise issue, and which would be needed if it is run as a cron job.
Current yum.conf file is here.
Decided it was dangerous to still have the up2date icon on the
root/gnome taskbar, consisting of a circle with an exclamation point that turns
red when an update is needed, and blue after an update has been done, if it
still pointed to the fedora site, so edited the file /etc/sysconfig/rhn/sources
to comment out the existing lines beginning with "yum" that point to the fedora
site, by inserting a # at the beginning of the lines, and insert the lines
yum freshrpms http://ayo.freshrpms.net/fedora/linux/1/i386/freshrpms
yum Dag http://apt.sw.be/redhat/fc1/en/i386/dag
Also added the Dag Apt/Yum repository by following the directions at
Created launcher for Synaptic:
Downloaded and installed the latest version of Mozilla from
www.mozilla.org and installed it into the
Created a script moz-ni in /opt to download and expand the nightly
Mozilla binary builds. Created desktop launcher for it, with a Mozilla dragon
Modified properties of Mozilla taskbar launcher to launch that latest
nightly build of Mozilla instead of the original 1.4.1 version.
As both root and nonroot user jdr
Wanted a text editor that compared to UltraEdit that is my favorite in
Windows (www.ultraedit.com). Found three
on the system and created desktop launchers for them:
Name: 'Text Editor: gedit'
Name: 'Text Editor: kedit'
Name: 'Text Editor: nedit'
After some testing, I concluded that nedit came closest to my needs.
Upgraded nedit from v 5.3 to 5.3 by downloading rpm file from
http://www.nedit.org and running
rpm -Uvh nedit-5.4-1.i386.rpm
Also added a launcher for XEmacs:
Name: 'Text Editor: XEmacs'
Scientific calculators and documentation tools
Added application Rascal, a
scientific plotting calculator, by downloading its rpm into
/home/downloads/rascal and running it, which put grascal in /usr/local/bin, and
created desktop launcher for it by copying
/usr/share/applnk/Utilities/rascal-kde.desktop to /home/jdr/Desktop.
Created launcher for the scientific calculator kcalc by copying
/usr/share/applications/kde-kcalc.desktop to /home/jdr/Desktop and sorting the
icons by name. Unfortunately, it uses the same icon that Rascal does, so would
ltimately like to find a better, unique icon for Rascal.
Installed LaTeX and its IDE Lyx by downloading its rpm from
http://www.lyx.org into home/downloads/lyx
rpm -ivh lyx-1.3.3-1rh9_qt.i386.rpm
Didn't find a .desktop file that I could use for a launcher so created
Name: 'Lyx LaTeX'
The icon looks a bit ragged. Need one in 48x48.
As root, installed and/or created desktop launchers for several HTML
editors to evaluate in use:
Added application "Nvu", an HTML editor, based on the Mozilla Composer,
by downloading its tarball into /home/downloads/nvu and expanding, then
creating a desktop launcher to the nvu executable there with the icon
As user jdr added icon launcher for Nvu in desktop.
Added application "Bluefish", an HTML editor, by downloading its rpm
into /home/downloads/bluefish and running it, which put the bluefish executable
into /usr/bin and its icon into /usr/share/pixmaps, and created desktop
launcher for it using that icon.
As user jdr added icon launcher for Bluefish in desktop.
Added launcher for already-installed HTML editor Quanta 3.1.4, the
executable for which is /usr/bin/quanta, and selected the icon
Created similar launchers on the desktop of the nonroot user.
After trying each of the above 3 HTML editors, I found that while each
had some useful features the others lacked, Quanta was on the whole the most
satisfactory, although not as satisfactory as the Windows HTML editor I have
long used, HoTMetaL Pro (which is no longer sold or supported since Corel
bought it). However, from the menu you should select
Settings | Configure Editor | Editing
Then uncheck Word wrap and Remove trailing spaces, because there is a
bug that fails to restore the training space when lines are joined, thereby
losing the spaces between words.
Decided to download and install the latest version of the product,
Quanta+, from http://quanta.sourceforge.net to see
if it had fixed the bugs and made other improvements. I downloaded version
3.2.-BE-1 into /home/downloads/quanta and did the installation from there.
However, I found that it did not replace or overlay the previous installation,
and that despite having added the following environment variables to both the
root and nonroot .bash_profile files
PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/kde/bin; export PATH
KDEDIRS=/usr/local/kde; export KDEDIRS
Neither which nor locate found the executable, so modified
the launcher to execute '/usr/local/kde/bin/quanta' and thereby was able to
launch and use the new version.
However, it still does not work to enable word wrap or removal of
trailing spaces, and one must take care to make sure there are trailing spaces
after every word before hitting ENTER to start a new line, and before every
ending paragraph tag.
Added application "Conglomerate", an XML editor, by downloading the
latest version of its rpm into /home/downloads/conglomerate and running it,
which put the conglomerate executable into /usr/bin and an icon
into/usr/share/pixmaps, but that icon was too small at 16x16, so created
desktop launcher for it using another icon.
Name: 'XML Editor: Conglomerate'
Wanted character selector desktop launcher. Found two on the system,
kcharselect and gucharmap. Liked kcharselect better, but not its icon, so used
the gucharmap icon for it:
Name: 'Character Selector'
As user jdr added icon launcher for Conglomerate in desktop.
Added launchers on both root and nonroot desktops for gftp and set up to
upload to my sites. Found that the "publish" function of Nvu would not work for
that purpose because it cannot move up the directory tree from the default
directory one gets with the site URL, and for constitution.org ftp takes one to
the home directory of the user account rather than to the html file directory
Added application "WordPerfect 8" by first going to the sites
http://www.faqs.org/contrib/wordperfect/downloadwp8.html and reading the
instructions there. Downloaded the tarball of needed library files wp8-libs.tgz
into /home/downloads/wp8-libs and as root ran
tar -zxvf wp8-libs.tgz
on it to expand it.
There is now a file etc/ld.so.conf containing a list of directories that
need to be added to /etc/ld.so.conf so that one can find these library files
when they are added to the corresponding directories. In this case the
directories that need to be added are
One doesn't need to add /usr/X11R6/lib because that one is already
Now copy the files in the director is lib and usr
cp lib/* /lib
cp -r usr/* /usr
and run /sbin/ldconfig to rebuild the library cache. One gets an error
message "/lib/ld-linux.so.1 is not a symbolic link" which will come up in later
installations, so I made a symlink out of it with
mv /lib/ld-linux.so.1 /lib/ld-linux.so.x
ln -s /lib/ld-linux.so.x /lib/ld-linux.so.1
then rerun /sbin/ldconfig.
chown [yourself] /opt/wp8
Now download xwp8-linux.tar.gz from
http://linuxmafia.com/pub/linux/apps/ into /home/downloads/wp8. If there is
a previous xwp8 directory from aprevious install run "rm -rf xwp8". Now expand
tar -zxvf xwp8-linux.tar.gz
This will put the files into a subdirectory xwp8.
chown -R [yourself] xwp8
You will be asked to choose an installation directory. Enter/opt/wp8,
then choose the defaults for the remaining options until you get to the choices
for printers, and select those. If one has space, one might as well select them
You need to configure the printing subsystem. As the root user, start
xwp with the -admin (or -adm) command-line option, then select and install an
appropriate printer driver, from the menu select File | Print | Select Printer
| Printer Create | Add and fill in "Passthru Postscript" to the
Search/Selection field, then back out with OK, to hand off jobs to the
Postscript system printing daemon. (Alternatively, specify "-oraw" in the Lpr
options of Select Destination.)
For WP8 registration keys try "LW8XW-NfDyZN1HfZ", "LW8XW-9K87F9tldF",
"LW8XW-bA8L9bjZf9", or "LW8XW-nEqIHnZrcH". The first worked for me.
Found WordPerfect icon for the desktop launcher at
http://www.buzzard.org.uk/jonathan/icons/kde-icons.html and downloaded into
/usr/share/pixmaps, then created desktop launcher.
Later, as usr jdr, created icon launcher on desktop for WordPerfect 8,
but found that I could not select the wp.gif icon for it using the launcher
creation tool, which in KDE will only recognize .png nd .xpm files. So
converted the .gif file to .png using the netpbm utilities
giftopnm wp.gif | pnmtopng > wp8.png
What is happening here is that the first utility, giftopnm, is
converting the .gif file to a common "netpbm" format, and then converting from
that to the .png format and saving the result. This is done because there is
not a giftopng utility to do it directly.
That .png file was then selected for the icon.
Also wanted to experiment with a native Linux word processor, so chose
kword and created launcher:
Name: 'Word Processor: kword'
First tried to add 1394 (firewire) support by first downloading
gscanbus-0.7.1.tgz from http://gscanbus.berlios.de into
/home/downloads/gscanbus and extracting and compiling it there:
tar -zxvf gscanbus-0.7.1.tgz
But the compilation failed with errors, so I had to find another
Next, downloaded rescan-scsi-bus.sh from
http://www.linux1394.org/sbp2.html into /home/downloads/rescan-scsi-bus and
created a symlink
chmod 777 rescan-scsi-bus.sh
ln -s /home/downloads/rescan-scsi-bus/rescan-scsi-bus.sh /usr/local/bin
Create a mount point for the firewire device, which Linux will see as a
While I ws at it, I made the devices to be mounted writable with
chmod 777 /mnt /mnt/floppy /mnt/scsi
Now create in /home/downloads/rescan-scsi-bus a script file named mnt-fw
mount -o uid=jdr,rw /dev/sda1 /mnt/scsi
I set uid to jdr because I expect only users root and jdr will be
writing to the scsi devices and this covers both. Mounting a SCSI device or
floppy sets all its files and directories to 755 permissions so that only the
owner and root can write to it. To enable any other user than root to write to
it, the owner needs to be set to the user that mounts the device.
Made mnt-fw executable and created a symlink in /usr/local/bin
chmod 777 mnt-fw
ln -s /home/downloads/rescan-scsi-bus/mnt-fw /usr/local/bin
Next created a desktop launcher for mnt-fw with the icon
Finally, create a script named umnt-fw to unmount in
/home/downloads/rescan-scsi-bus containing only
chmod 777 umnt-fw
ln -s /home/downloads/rescan-scsi-bus/umnt-fw /usr/local/bin
and create a launcher for it using the icon
Note that if a file manager like Nautilus is used to read the directory
of the mounted firewire (or scsi) device, the unmount command won't work,
because it will be considered "busy". You have to close programs accessing the
device before it can be unmounted.
This will need to be revisited when both 1394 and true scsi devices are
connected and disconnected.
As both root and jdr
Created icon launchers on the desktops "Mount Floppy" executing
mount -o uid=jdr,rw /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy
set to run as root
and "Unmount Floppy" executing
Also set to run as root.
For each selected the Gnome or KDE icons already designated for those
Modified the root .bashrc file to add
alias h='history | less'
which provides a 1-character command to get the command history,
and at the end
PS1='\! $ '
which makes a shorter, simpler prompt suitable for my needs.
Did the same for jdr.
Installed latest version of Java SDK. This isneeded for Java
development, in particular, use of the Eclipse IDE forJava development, and
installation of Java plugin. Went tohttp://java.sun.com, and in particlar to
http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/download.html , for the SDK rpm file
j2sdk-1_4_2_04-linux-i586-rpm.bin which was downloaded to
/home/downloads/javasdk1.4.2, then in shell running as root, ran
rpm -iv j2sdk-1_4_2_04-linux-i586-rpm
which installed java into the /usr/java/j2sdk1.4.2_04/ tree.
Also downloaded the J2SE 1.4.2 Documentation into
/home/downloads/javadoc and used unzip to extract it.
Installed java plugin to Mozilla with
Took advantage of list of links to various plugins for Mozilla under
Linux for the X86 at
plugindoc.mozdev.org/en-AU/linux.html to download plugins into a directory
Since plugins for Mozilla are placed in the directory
/opt/mozilla/pluginsin the main Mozilla directory tree /opt/mozilla, and users
are advised todelete this directory before installing a new version, without
always reminding them to first back up the /opt/mozilla/plugins directory,
saved the plugins into subdirectories under /home/plugins and wrote script
install-moz-plugins saved into /home/plugins containing the commands
to follow that create symlinks to the plugins for Mozilla in the
/opt/mozilla/plugins directory, and a symlink to it was created with
ln -s /home/plugins/install-moz-plugins /usr/local/bin
Installed RealPlayer plugin by downloading from
filerp8_linux20_libc6_cs2.rpm into /home/downloads/real and running
as root from that directory, then creating a symlink with
ln -s /usr/lib/RealPlayer8/rpnp.so /opt/mozilla/plugins/
Installed mplayer by downloading the file
/home/downloads/mplayer and running
rpm -ivh mplayerplug-in-2.50.fc1.i386.rpm
which put mplayerplug-in.so in /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins, but we need it
in /opt/mozilla/plugins, so ran
ln -s /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/m* /opt/mozilla/plugins/
which also created a symlink for mozplugger.so .
Discovered that although the xine multimedia viewer was installed, the
gxine front-end ws not, so installed from freshrpms with Synaptic, then
ln -s /usr/lib/gxine/gxineplugin.so /opt/mozilla/plugins/
installed the plugin for Mozilla.
Installed the Eclipse IDE by downloading 3.0 Stream Stable Build
http://eclipse.org/downloads/index.php into /home/downloads/eclipse and
running unzip to extract it. This put the eclipse executable into
/home/downloads/eclipse/eclipse, which is not in the global PATH, so, rather
than expanding the PATH variable, created symbolic link
ln -s /home/downloads/eclipse/eclipse/eclipse /usr/local/bin/
But when tried to execute eclipse found it was still missing a .jar
file. Only .jar file found in /home/downloads/eclipse/eclipse was startup.jar
so created a symlink for it with
ln -s /home/downloads/eclipse/eclipse/startup.jar /usr/local/bin/
However, when tried to execute eclipse, found it ws still looking for
/usr/local/bin/jre/bin/java, so provided it with
ln -s /usr/java/j2sdk1.4.2_04/jre/ /usr/local/bin/
After which, eclipse seemed to work okay, so created a launcher for it
executing /usr/local/bin/eclipse and found an icon for it,
/home/downloads/eclipse/eclipse/icon.xpm, which was copied into
/usr/share/pixmaps to make it easier to find with the launcher creation
Wanted a good forth package with a good IDE, so after some research,
selected bigForth, and downloaded all the Linux files except the German
http://www.jwdt.com/%7Epaysan/bigforth.html (which is mirrored at
http://bigforth.sourceforge.net/) into /home/downloads/bigforth. Then
extracted the .tar.bz2 files with tar -jxvf . Then
Which put the executable xbigforth in /usr/local/bin. Then created
launcher for it named bigForth but could not find an icon for it, so chose the
generic icon /usr/share/pixmaps/016_template.png .
Created launcher for the IDE idle for python:
Name: 'IDE Idle Python'
Note that the actual executables and icons can be found in the launcher
files in, e.g., /home/jdr/Desktop, which are ASCII text files, by selecting
them with the file manager, then opening them with the embedded text editor.
Thus the desktop of a user may be duplicate for another user by just copying
the contents of the Desktop directory from the one user to another.
Installed the package CmapTools, for concept mapping, by downloading
http://cmap.ihmc.us/download/index.php?myPlat=Linux the file
LinuxCmapTools_v3.3_03-09-04.bin into /home/downloads/cmaptools and then
to install it, choosing /opt/cmaptools as the installation folder, and
creating a symlink CmapTools in /usr/local/bin/ and a desktop launcher for it.
However, no icon file was found, so found one on some of the source site's
pages named CmapTools48px.gif, which was downloaded to /usr/share/pixmaps and
giftopnm CmapTools48px.gif | pnmtopng > CmapTools48px.png
Got embedded wireless working, but only at an away AP, not at home, so
not sure which if any of the things I tried contributed to success.
First, make a backup of /etc/resolv.conf that works at home,
because after being away, will need it when return home to be able to resolve
URLs, because it contains the IPs of the DNS servers that work there.
After some experimentation, I created two scripts, the first,
wi-away, to reconfigure for wireless access at an away AP:
dhclient rewrites resolv.conf, so when return home run script
mv /etc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf.`date +%Y%m%d%H%M`
/bin/cp /etc/resolv.conf.bak /etc/resolv.conf
Need to restore from the backup because can't depend on dhclient getting
the correct DNS IPs at home. The mv renames resolv.conf to append the
date and time, but should be further renamed with an identifier for the
location where dhclient was last run.
After running the first script, one can test the connection with
But this won't work at some locations, where the host expects the user
to first open a browser, and then be served the host's web page for setting up
an account or logging in, and perhaps making some contract for use or payment
After that one will normally have general access to the Internet, which can be
tested by opening a remote web page URL.
In the course of testing and selecting a personal taskmanager/ organizer
I found that many of the more interesting ones used a mysql database, and one
of thefirst I tried had me create the database by executing
But this produced the error message
ERROR 2002: Can't connect to local MySQL sever through socket
I confirmed that the socket was set to that in /etc/my.cnf but doing a
# find / -name mysql.sock
which did not find it anywhere on the system. This led to the discovery
that the daemon mysqld was not running, and had never been run since the OS was
installed, since it creates the mysql.sock file and other files in
I was able to start the daemon with
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld start
Then I could try connecting to a database using the mysql client program
# mysql -u root -p -h localhost
Enter password: [mysql]
But it is still necessary to have mysqld start on bootup.
To list what runlevels mysqld is supposed to start for run
# chkconfig --list mysqld
If they are all set to off (or mainly 3 4 and 5), then run
chkconfig mysqld on
If it returns that it is not registered, run
chkconfig --add mysqld
chkconfig mysqld on
That will create all the links in the /etc/rc.d/rc[0-6].d directories to
automatically start and stop mysqld.
Having found Evolution inadequate as a task manager, I turned to
korganizer and added a launcher for it to the desktop by copying
It is better than Evolution, in that one can export the data to a file,
from which one can use a shell script to extract what I want, which is a simple
list of tasks, printed in 3 columns
If an app is in one of the menus launched from the KDE toolbar icon, it
can be copied to the Desktop by finding the *.desktop file for the entry under
/var/lib/menu/kde/ and copying it to the directory /home/<user>/Desktop.
Likewise, one can duplicate the Desktop environments of two users by copying
the files from the Desktop directory of one user to the other.
Installed mondo backup utility from
involved downloading the following files into /home/downloads/mondo and
As a test, created image files of the /home partition by
- mkdir /backup/images
- cd /home
- mondoarhive -0i -s 700m -L -5 -F -d /backup/images -E /backup
This last line was saved as the file /home/jdr/notes/mondo.txt .
However, the -L option did not work — apparently the lzop compression
didn't get installed properly — so omitted on a second try. Took about 3
hours to create 5 iso files, which could then be used with k3b to copy
them onto bootable CD for a restore. This requires further testing to make sure
it can be used for backups and restores, and that the 700 size setting will fit
on the CDs.
Added launcher for the kate editor to the desktop, to be tested
along with other editors.
Could not get mplayer to work, because standard distros do not
include some needed files, like the proprietary codecs file. These can
be obtained as a complete installation package from
Downloaded yumgui from http://cobind.com/yumgui.html into
/home/downloads/yumgui and installed with
rpm -ivh yumi-2.0.7-1.noarch.rpm
Then executed yumi from the command line. Looks promising, but
does not weed duplicate packages and has no option to "select all" or some
range of packages. Had to select one at a time.
To play DVD movies, select xine from the menu, and DVD from the
sources shown on the control panel that comes up. To eject the DVD open a xterm
window and enter "eject" at the prompt.
To increase sound volume, press Alt-F2 to get command window, then enter
kmix and click to accept. This launches a control panel, and one
increases the general volume by raising the slider under the blue waveform
icon. This also adds a speaker icon in the taskbar that one can click on to get
a volume control and mute button.
To play avi, mpeg files, launch kaboodle, which is