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THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT)

Statement of Objects and Reasons appended  to  the  Constitution
(Forty-fifth  Amendment)  Bill, 1978 (Bill No.  88 of 1978) which  was
    enacted as THE CONSTITUTION (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978

STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS

Recents  experience  has shown that the fundamental rights,  including
those of life and liberty, granted to citizens by the Constitution are
capable  of  being  taken  away  by  a  transient   majority.   It  is,
therefore,  necessary  to  provide  adequate  safeguards   against  the
recurrence  of  such a contingency in the future and to ensure to  the
people  themselves  an  effective  voice in determining  the   form  of
government  under which they are to live.  This is one of the  primary
objects of this Bill.

2.   It is, therefore, proposed to provide that certain changes in the
Constitution  which would have the effect of impairing its secular  or
democratic  character,  abridging  or taking away  fundamental   rights
prejudicing  or impeding free and fair elections on the basis of adult
suffrage  and compromising the independence of judiciary, can be  made
only  if  they  are approved by the people of India by a  majority   of
votes  at  a referendum in which at least fifty-one per cent.  of  the
electorate participate.  Article 368 is being amended to ensure this.

3.   In view of the special position sought to be given to fundamental
rights,  the  right to property, which has been the occasion for  more
than  one  amendment  of  the  Constitution,   would   cease  to  be  a
fundamental right and become only a legal right.  Necessary amendments
for  this purpose are being made to article 19 and article 31 is being
deleted.   It would, however, be ensured that the removal of  property
from  the  list  of fundamental rights would not affect the  right   of
minorities  to  establish and administer educational  institutions  of
their choice.

4.   Similarly,  the  right  of   persons  holding  land  for  personal
cultivation  and  within the ceiling limit to receive compensation  at
the market value would not be affected.

5.  Property, while ceasing to be a fundamental right, would, however,
be  given  express recognition as a legal right, provision being  made
that  no  person shall be deprived of his property save in  accordance
with law.

6.   A  Proclamation of Emergency under article 352 has virtually  the
effect  of amending the Constitution by converting it for the duration
into that of a Unitary State and enabling the rights of the citizen to
move  the courts for the enforcement of fundamental rights---including
the  right to life and liberty---to be suspended.  Adequate safeguards
are,  therefore,  necessary  to  ensure that this  power  is   properly
exercised  and  is  not  abused.  It is, therefore,   proposed  that  a
Proclamation  of  Emergency  can be issued only when the  security   of
India  or  any part of its territory is threatened by war or  external
aggression  or by armed rebellion.  Internal disturbance not amounting
to  armed  rebellion  would  not  be  a ground  for   the  issue  of  a
Proclamation.

7.   Further,  in order to ensure that a Proclamation is  issued  only
after due consideration, it is sought to be provided that an Emergency
can  be proclaimed only on the basis of written advice tendered to the
President by the Cabinet.  In addition, as a Proclamation of Emergency
virtually  has  the effect of amending the Constitution, it  is  being
provided  that  the Proclamation would have to be approved by the  two
Houses  of Parliament by the same majority which is necessary to amend
the  Constitution  and such approval would have to be given  within  a
period of one month.  Any such Proclamation would be in force only for
a  period  of  six  months  and  can  be   continued  only  by  further
resolutions  passed by the same majority.  The Proclamation would also
cease  to be in operation if a resolution disapproving the continuance
of the Proclamation is passed by Lok Sabha.  Ten per cent.  or more of
the  Members  of  Lok  Sabha can requisition  a  special   meeting  for
considering a resolution for disapproving the Proclamation.

8.   As a further check against the misuse of the Emergency provisions
and to put the right to life and liberty on a secure footing, it would
be  provided that the power to suspend the right to move the court for
the  enforcement of a fundamental right cannot be exercised in respect
of the fundamental right to life and liberty.  The right to liberty is
further  strengthened  by  the  provision that a  law  for   preventive
detention cannot authorise, in any case, detention for a longer period
than  two months, unless an Advisory Board has reported that there  is
sufficient cause for such detention.  An additional safeguard would be
provided  by  the requirement that the Chairman of an  Advisory  Board
shall  be  a serving Judge of the appropriate High Court and that  the
Board  shall be constituted in accordance with the recommendations  of
the Chief Justice of that High Court.

9.   A  special provision is being made guaranteeing the right of  the
media  to  report  freely and without censorship  the   proceedings  in
Parliament  and the State Legislatures.  The provision with regard  to
the  breakdown of the constitutional machinery in the States is  being
amended  so as to provide that a Proclamation issued under article 356
would  be  in  force  only for a period of six  months  in   the  first
instance and that it cannot exceed one year ordinarily.  However, if a
Proclamation  of Emergency is in operation and the Election Commission
certifies  that the extension of the President's rule beyond a  period
of  one  year  is  necessary on account  of  difficulties   in  holding
elections  to  the  Legislative Assembly of the State  concerned,   the
period  of  operation of the Proclamation can be extended  beyond  one
year.   This  is subject to the existing limit of three years.    These
changes would ensure that democratic rule is restored to a State after
the minimum period which will be necessary for holding elections.

10.   With a view to avoiding delays, it is proposed to amend articles
132,  133 and 134 and insert a new article 134A to provide that a High
Court  should  consider  the question of granting  a  certificate   for
appeal  to  Supreme  Court  immediately  after  the   delivery  of  the
judgment, decree, final order or sentence concerned on the basis of an
oral  application by a party or, if the High Court deems fit so to do,
on  its own motion.  Cases of special leave to appeal by Supreme Court
will be left to be regulated exclusively by article 136.

11.  The other amendments proposed in the Bill are mainly for removing
or  correcting  the  distortions which came into the  Constitution   by
reason  of  amendments  enacted  during the  period  of   the  Internal
Emergency.

12. The Bill seeks to achieve the above objects. The notes on
clauses explain in detail the various provisions of the Bill.

NEW DELHI; SHANTI BHUSHAN.

The 9th May, 1978.

            THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT)
ACT, 1978
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           ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
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SECTIONS

1. Short title and commencement.
2. Amendment of article 19.
3. Amendment of article 22.
4. Amendment of article 30.
5. Omission of sub-heading after article 30.
6. Omission of article 31.
7. Amendment of article 31A.
8. Amendment of article 31C.
9. Amendment of article 38.
10. Substitution of new article for article 71.
11. Amendment of article 74.
12. Amendment of article 77.
13. Amendment of article 83.
14. Substitution of new article for article 103.
15. Amendment of article 105.
16. Amendment of article 123.
17. Amendment of article 132.
18. Amendment of article 133.
19. Amendment of article 134.
20. Insertion of new article 134A.
21. Amendment of article 139A.
22. Amendment of article 150.
23. Amendment of article 166.
24. Amendment of article 172.
25. Substitution of new article for article 192.
26. Amendment of article 194.
27. Amendment of article 213.
28. Amendment of article 217.
29. Amendment of article 225.
30. Amendment of article 226.
31. Amendment of article 227.
32. Amendment of article 239B.
33. Omission of article 257A.
34. Insertion of new Chapter IV in Part XII.
35. Amendment of article 329.
36. Omission of article 329A.
37. Amendment of article 352.
38. Amendment of article 356.
39. Amendment of article 358.
40. Amendment of article 359.
41. Amendment of article 360.
42. Insertion of new article 361A.
43. Amendment of article 371F.
44. Amendment of the Ninth Schedule.
45. Amendment of THE CONSTITUTION (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976.

THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1978

[30th April, 1979.]

          An Act further to amend the Constitution of India.

BE  it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-ninth Year of the  Republic
of India as follows:-

1.   Short  title  and commencement.- (1) This Act may be  called  the
Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978.

(2)  It  shall come into force on such date as the Central  Government
may,  by  notification in the Official Gazette, appoint and  different
dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act.

2.  Amendment of article 19.- In article 19 of the Constitution,-

(a) in clause (1),-

(i) in sub-clause (e), the word "and" shall be inserted at the end;

(ii) sub-clause (f) shall be omitted;

(b)  in  clause (5), for the words, brackets and letters  "sub-clauses
(d),  (e)  and (f)", the words, brackets and letters "sub-clauses   (d)
and (e)" shall be substituted.

3.  Amendment of article 22.- In article 22 of the Constitution,-

(a)  for  clause  (4),  the following   clause  shall  be  substituted,
namely:-

`(4)  No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise  the
detention  of  a person for a longer period than two months unless  an
Advisory  Board constituted in accordance with the recommendations  of
the  Chief  Justice of the appropriate High Court has reported  before
the  expiration of the said period of two months that there is in  its
opinion sufficient cause for such detention:

Provided  that  an Advisory Board shall consist of a Chairman and  not
less than two other members, and the Chairman shall be a serving Judge
of  the appropriate High Court and the other members shall be  serving
or retired Judges of any High Court:

Provided further that nothing in this clause shall authorise the
detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any
law made by Parliament under sub-clause (a) of clause (7).

Explanation.-In this clause, "appropriate High Court" means,-

(i)  in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order
of  detention  made  by  the  Government of India  or   an  officer  or
authority subordinate to that Government, the High Court for the Union
territory of Delhi;

(ii) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order
of  detention made by the Government of any State (other than a  Union
territory), the High Court for that State;  and

(iii)  in  the  case of the detention of a person in pursuance  of  an
order  of detention made by the administrator of a Union territory  or
an  officer or authority subordinate to such administrator, such  High
Court  as  may be specified by or under any law made by Parliament  in
this behalf.';

(b) in clause (7),-

(i) sub-clause (a) shall be omitted;

(ii) sub-clause (b) shall be re-lettered as sub-clause (a);  and

(iii) sub-clause (c) shall be re-lettered as sub-clause (b) and in the
sub-clause  as  so  re-lettered, for the words, brackets,  letter   and
figure  "sub-clause  (a) of clause (4)", the word,brackets and   figure
"clause (4)" shall be substituted.

4.   Amendment of article 30.-In article 30 of the Constitution, after
clause (1), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:-

"(1A)  In  making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition  of
any   property   of  an   educational  institution    established   and
administered by a minority, referred to in clause (1), the State shall
ensure  that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for  the
acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate
the right guaranteed under that clause.".

5.   Omission of sub-heading after article 30.- The sub-heading "Right
to  Property" occurring after article 30 of the Constitution shall  be
omitted.

6.   Omission of article 31.- Article 31 of the Constitution shall  be
omitted.

7.   Amendment of article 31A.-In article 31A of the Constitution, in
clause  (1),  for  the words and figures "article 14,  article   19  or
article 31", the words and figures "article 14 or article 19" shall be
substituted.

8.   Amendment of article 31C.-In article 31C of the Constitution, for
the  words  and  figures "article 14, article 19 or article   31",  the
words and figures "article 14 or article 19" shall be substituted.

9.   Amendment of article 38.-Article 38 of the Constitution shall be
renumbered  as  clause  (1)  thereof  and   after   the  clause  as  so
renumbered, the following clause shall be inserted, namely:-

"(2)   The  State  shall,   in   particular,  strive  to  minimise  the
inequalities  in  income, and endeavour to eliminate  inequalities  in
status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but
also  amongst groups of people residing in different areas or  engaged
in different vocations.".

10.  Substitution of new article for article 71.-For article 71 of the
Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:-

"71.   Matters  relating  to,   or connected with, the  election  of  a
President  or Vice-President.-(1) All doubts and disputes arising out
of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President
shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision
shall be final.

(2)  If  the  election of a person as President or  Vice-President  is
declared  void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the  exercise
and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President or
Vice-President,  as  the  case may be, on or before the  date  of   the
decision  of  the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason  of
that declaration.

(3)  Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by
law  regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of
a President or Vice-President.

(4)  The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not
be  called  in question on the ground of the existence of any  vacancy
for  whatever  reason  among  the members  of  the   electoral  college
electing him.".

11.   Amendment  of article 74.-In article 74 of the Constitution,  in
clause  (1),  the  following  proviso shall be inserted  at   the  end,
namely:-

"Provided  that the President may require the Council of Ministers  to
reconsider  such  advice,  either  generally  or  otherwise,   and  the
President  shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such
reconsideration.".

12.   Amendment  of  article 77.-In article 77  of  the  Constitution,
clause (4) shall be omitted.

13.   Amendment of article 83.-(1) In article 83 of the  Constitution,
in clause (2), for the words "six years" in both the places where they
occur, the words "five years" shall be substituted.

(2) The amendments made by sub-section (1) to clause (2) of article 83
shall  apply also to the House of the People in existence on the  date
of coming into force of this section without prejudice to the power of
Parliament with respect to the extension of the duration of that House
under the proviso to that clause.

14.   Substitution of new article for article 103.- For article 103 of
the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:-

"103.   Decision on questions as to disqualifications of  members.-(1)
If  any  question  arises as to whether a member of  either   House  of
Parliament  has  become  subject  to   any  of   the  disqualifications
mentioned in clause (1) of article 102, the question shall be referred
for the decision of the President and his decision shall be final.

(2)  Before  giving any decision on any such question,  the  President
shall  obtain  the  opinion of the Election Commission and  shall   act
according to such opinion.".

15.   Amendment of article 105.-In article 105 of the Constitution, in
clause  (3), for the words "shall be those of the House of Commons  of
the  Parliament  of  the  United  Kingdom,  and  of   its  members  and
committees,  at  the  commencement of this Constitution",  the   words,
figures  and brackets "shall be those of that House and of its members
and  committees immediately before the coming into force of section 15
of  the  Constitution  (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act,  1978"   shall  be
substituted.

16.   Amendment  of article 123.-In article 123 of  the  Constitution,
clause (4) shall be omitted.

17.  Amendment of article 132.-In article 132 of the Constitution,-

(a)  in  clause (1), for the words "if the High Court certifies",  the
words,  figures and letter "if the High Court certifies under  article
134A" shall be substituted;

(b) clause (2) shall be omitted;

(c) in clause (3), the words "or such leave is granted," and the words
"and,  with the leave of the Supreme Court, on any other ground" shall
be omitted.

18.   Amendment of article 133.-In article 133 of the Constitution, in
clause  (1), for the words "if the High Court certifies-", the  words,
figures  and letter "if the High Court certifies under article  134A-"
shall be substituted.

19.   Amendment of article 134.-In article 134 of the Constitution, in
sub-clause  (c)  of clause (1), for the word "certifies",  the   words,
figures   and  letter  "certifies  under   article   134A"   shall   be
substituted.

20.   Insertion  of  new  article 134A.- After article  134   of  the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"134A.   Certificate  for  appeal to the Supreme  Court.-  Every  High
Court, passing or making a judgment, decree, final order, or sentence,
referred to in clause (1) of article 132 or clause (1) of article 133,
or clause (1) of article 134,-

(a) may, if it deems fit so to do, on its own motion;   and

(b)  shall,  if  an oral application is made, by or on behalf  of  the
party  aggrieved,  immediately  after the passing or  making  of   such
judgment, decree, final order or sentence,

determine, as soon as may be after such passing or making, the
question whether a certificate of the nature referred to in clause (1)
of article 132, or clause (1) of article 133 or, as the case may be
sub-clause (c) of clause (1) of article 134, may be given in respect
of that case.".

21.   Amendment of article 139A.-In article 139A of the  Constitution,
for clause (1), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:-

"(1)  Where  cases  involving   the  same  or  substantially  the  same
questions  of law are pending before the Supreme Court and one or more
High Courts or before two or more High Courts and the Supreme Court is
satisfied  on  its  own  motion  or on  an  application   made  by  the
Attorney-General  of  India or by a party to any such case  that  such
questions are substantial questions of general importance, the Supreme
Court  may withdraw the case or cases pending before the High Court or
the High Courts and dispose of all the cases itself:

Provided  that  the  Supreme  Court may  after  determining  the  said
questions  of law return any case so withdrawn together with a copy of
its  judgment on such questions to the High Court from which the  case
has  been  withdrawn,  and the High Court shall  on  receipt   thereof,
proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgment.".

22.  Amendment of article 150.-In article 150 of the Constitution, for
the  words  "after  consultation with", the words "on the   advice  of"
shall be substituted.

23.   Amendment  of article 166.-In article 166 of  the  Constitution,
clause (4) shall be omitted.

24.  Amendment of article 172.-(1) In article 172 of the Constitution,
in clause (1), for the words "six years" in both the places where they
occur, the words "five years" shall be substituted.

(2)  The  amendments made by sub-section (1) to clause (1) of  article
172-

(a)  shall  not apply to any existing State Legislative  Assembly  the
period  of  existence whereof as computed from the date appointed  for
its  first  meeting to the date of coming into force of  this  section
(both  dates  inclusive) is more than four years and eight months  but
every such Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, stand dissolved on
the expiry of-

(i) a period of four months from the date of coming into force of this
section;  or

(ii)  a  period  of six years from the date appointed  for  its  first
meeting,

whichever period expires earlier;

(b)  shall  apply to every other existing State   Legislative  Assembly
without  prejudice  to  the power of Parliament with  respect  to   the
extension  of duration of such Assembly under the proviso to the  said
clause (1).

Explanation  I.-In its application to the Legislative Assembly of  the
State  of  Sikkim  referred to in clause (b) of article  371F  of   the
Constitution, this sub-section shall have effect as if-

(i) the date appointed for the first meeting of that Assembly were the
26th day of April, 1975;  and

(ii)  the references in clause (a) of this sub-section to "four  years
and  eight months" and "six years" were references to "three years and
eight months" and "five years" respectively.

Explanation  II.-In  this  sub-section,   "existing  State  Legislative
Assembly"  means  the Legislative Assembly of a State in existence  on
the date of coming into force of this section.

25.   Substitution of new article for article 192.-For article 192  of
the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:-

"192.   Decision on questions as to disqualifications of  members.-(1)
If  any  question  arises  as to whether a member of a  House   of  the
Legislature   of   a  State  has  become    subject  to  any   of   the
disqualifications  mentioned  in clause (1) of article 191, the  ques-
tion  shall  be  referred  for the decision of the  Governor   and  his
decision shall be final.

(2)  Before  giving  any decision on any such question,  the  Governor
shall  obtain  the  opinion of the Election Commission and  shall   act
according to such opinion.".

26.   Amendment of article 194.-In article 194 of the Constitution, in
clause  (3), for the words "shall be those of the House of Commons  of
the  Parliament  of  the  United  Kingdom,  and  of   its  members  and
committees,  at  the  commencement of this Constitution",  the   words,
figures  and brackets "shall be those of that House and of its members
and  committees immediately before the coming into force of section 26
of  the  Constitution  (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act,  1978"   shall  be
substituted.

27.   Amendment  of article 213.-In article 213 of  the  Constitution,
clause (4) shall be omitted.

28.   Amendment of article 217.-In article 217 of the Constitution, in
clause (2),-

(a)  in  sub-clause (b), the word "or" occurring at the end  shall  be
omitted;

(b) sub-clause (c) shall be omitted;

(c) in the Explanation, clause (a) shall be re-lettered as clause (aa)
and  before  clause  (aa) as so re-lettered, the  following   shall  be
inserted, namely:-

"(a)  in computing the period during which a person has held  judicial
office  in the territory of India, there shall be included any period,
after  he  has held any judicial office, during which the  person  has
been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a member of
a  tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special
knowledge of law;".

29.  Amendment of article 225.-In article 225 of the Constitution, the
following proviso shall be inserted at the end, namely:-

"Provided  that  any  restriction to which the  exercise  of  original
jurisdiction  by  any  of the High Courts with respect to  any   matter
concerning  the  revenue or concerning any act ordered or done in  the
collection  thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of
this  Constitution  shall  no  longer apply to the  exercise   of  such
jurisdiction.".

30.  Amendment of article 226.-In article 226 of the Constitution,-

(a)  in clause (1), for the portion beginning with the words "writs in
the  nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto  and
certiorari, or any of them" and ending with the words "such illegality
has  resulted in substantial failure of justice.", the following shall
be substituted, namely:-

"writs  in  the  nature of habeas corpus, mandamus,  prohibition,  quo
warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for the enforcement of any of
the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose.";

(b)  for  clauses (3), (4), (5) and (6), the following clause shall
be substituted, namely:-

"(3) Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of
injunction or stay or in any other manner, is made on, or in any way
proceedings relating to, a petition under clause (1), without-

(a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents
in support of the plea for such interim order; and

(b)  giving  such  party  an   opportunity of  being  heard,

makes  an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order
and  furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour
such  order has been made or the counsel of such party, the High Court
shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the
date  on  which it is received or from the date on which the  copy  of
such  application  is so furnished, whichever is later, or  where  the
High Court is closed on the last day of that period, before the expiry
of  the  next day afterwards on which the High Court is open;  and  if
the application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the
expiry  of that period, or, as the case may be, the expiry of the said
next day, stand vacated.";

(c) clause (7) shall be renumbered as clause (4).

31.  Amendment of article 227.- In article 227 of the Constitution,-

(a)  for  clause  (1),  the following   clause  shall  be  substituted,
namely:-

"(1)  Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts  and
tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises
jurisdiction.";

(b) clause (5) shall be omitted.

32.   Amendment of article 239B.-In article 239B of the  Constitution,
clause (4) shall be omitted.

33.   Omission of article 257A.-Article 257A of the Constitution shall
be omitted.

34.   Insertion  of  new Chapter IV in Part XII.-In Part  XII  of  the
Constitution,  after  Chapter  III,  the following  Chapter   shall  be
inserted, namely:-

"CHAPTER IV.-RIGHT TO PROPERTY

300A.   Persons  not to be deprived of property save by  authority  of
law.-No  person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of
law.".

35.   Amendment of article 329.-In article 329 of the Constitution, in
the opening portion, the words, figures and letter "but subject to the
provisions of article 329A" shall be omitted.

36.   Omission of article 329A.-Article 329A of the Constitution shall
be omitted.

37.  Amendment of article 352.- In article 352 of the Constitution,-

(a) in clause (1),-

(i)  for the words "internal disturbance", the words "armed rebellion"
shall be substituted;

(ii) the following Explanation shall be inserted at the end, namely:-

"Explanation.-A  Proclamation of Emergency declaring that the security
of  India or any part of the territory thereof is threatened by war or
by  external  aggression or by armed rebellion may be made before  the
actual  occurrence  of war or of any such aggression or rebellion,  if
the President is satisfied that there is imminent danger thereof.";

(b)  for  clauses  (2), (2A) and (3), the following clauses  shall  be
substituted, namely:-

"(2)  A Proclamation issued under clause (1) may be varied or  revoked
by a subsequent Proclamation.

(3) The President shall not issue a Proclamation under clause (1) or a
Proclamation  varying  such  Proclamation unless the decision  of   the
Union  Cabinet  (that is to say, the Council consisting of  the  Prime
Minister  and other Ministers of Cabinet rank appointed under  article
75)  that  such a Proclamation may be issued has been communicated  to
him in writing.

(4) Every Proclamation issued under this article shall be laid before
each  House of Parliament and shall, except where it is a Proclamation
revoking  a previous Proclamation, cease to operate at the  expiration
of  one month unless before the expiration of that period it has  been
approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament:

Provided  that  if  any such Proclamation (not  being  a  Proclamation
revoking  a previous Proclamation) is issued at a time when the  House
of  the People has been dissolved, or the dissolution of the House  of
the  People takes place during the period of one month referred to  in
this  clause, and if a resolution approving the Proclamation has  been
passed  by  the Council of States, but no resolution with  respect  to
such  Proclamation  has been passed by the House of the People  before
the expiration of that period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate
at  the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House  of
the  People  first  sits after its reconstitution, unless  before   the
expiration  of  the said period of thirty days a resolution  approving
the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People.

(5) A Proclamation so approved shall, unless revoked, cease to operate
on  the  expiration  of a period of six months from the  date  of   the
passing  of  the second of the resolutions approving the  Proclamation
under clause (4):

Provided  that  if  and  so   often   as  a  resolution  approving  the
continuance  in force of such a Proclamation is passed by both  Houses
of  Parliament  the  Proclamation shall, unless revoked,  continue   in
force  for  a further period of six months from the date on  which  it
would otherwise have ceased to operate under this clause:

Provided  further  that if the dissolution of the House of the  People
takes  place  during  any such period of six months and  a   resolution
approving  the  continuance  in force of such  Proclamation  has   been
passed  by the Council of States but no resolution with respect to the
continuance in force of such Proclamation has been passed by the House
of  the People during the said period, the Proclamation shall cease to
operate  at  the expiration of thirty days from the date on which  the
House  of the People first sits after its reconstitution unless before
the  expiration  of  the  said period of  thirty  days,   a  resolution
approving  the continuance in force of the Proclamation has been  also
passed by the House of the People.

(6) For the purposes of clauses (4) and (5), a resolution may be
passed by either House of Parliament only by a majority of the total
membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds
of the members of that House present and voting.

(7)  Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing clauses,  the
President  shall  revoke a Proclamation issued under clause (1)  or  a
Proclamation  varying  such  Proclamation if the House of  the   People
passes a resolution disapproving, or, as the case may be, disapproving
the continuance in force of, such Proclamation.

(8) Where a notice in writing signed by not less than one-tenth of the
total  number of members of the House of the People has been given, of
their intention to move a resolution for disapproving, or, as the case
may  be, for disapproving the continuance in force of, a  Proclamation
issued under clause (1) or a Proclamation varying such Proclamation,-

(a) to the Speaker, if the House is in session;  or

(b) to the President, if the House is not in session,

a special sitting of the House shall be held within fourteen days from
the  date on which such notice is received by the Speaker, or, as  the
case  may  be, by the President, for the purpose of  considering  such
resolution.";

(c)  clause (4) shall be renumbered as clause (9) and in the clause as
so renumbered, for the words "internal disturbance" in both the places
where they occur, the words "armed rebellion" shall be substituted;

(d) clause (5) shall be omitted.

38.  Amendment of article 356.-In article 356 of the Constitution,-

(a) in clause (4),-

(i)  for the words, brackets and figure "one year from the date of the
passing  of  the second of the resolutions approving the  Proclamation
under clause (3)", the words "six months from the date of issue of the
Proclamation" shall be substituted;

(ii)  in  the first proviso, for the words "one year", the words  "six
months" shall be substituted;

(iii)  in the second proviso, for the words "one year", the words "six
months" shall be substituted;

(b)  for  clause  (5),  the following   clause  shall  be  substituted,
namely:-

"(5)  Notwithstanding  anything contained in clause (4), a  resolution
with  respect  to the continuance in force of a Proclamation  approved
under clause (3) for any period beyond the expiration of one year from
the  date of issue of such Proclamation shall not be passed by  either
House of Parliament unless-

(a) a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, in the whole of India
or,  as the case may be, in the whole or any part of the State, at the
time of the passing of such resolution, and

(b) the Election Commission certifies that the continuance in force of
the Proclamation approved under clause (3) during the period specified
in  such resolution is necessary on account of difficulties in holding
general   elections  to  the  Legislative   Assembly   of   the   State
concerned.".

39.   Amendment of article 358.-Article 358 of the Constitution  shall
be renumbered as clause (1) of that article, and-

(a) in clause (1) as so renumbered,-

(i)  in  the opening portion, for the words "while a  Proclamation  of
Emergency  is  in  operation",  the words  "While   a  Proclamation  of
Emergency  declaring  that  the security of India or any part  of   the
territory  thereof is treatened by war or by external aggression is in
operation" shall be substituted;

(ii)  in  the  proviso,  for  the    words  "where  a  Proclamation  of
Emergency",  the words "where such Proclamation of Emergency" shall be
substituted;

(b)  after clause (1) as so renumbered, the following clause shall  be
inserted, namely:-

"(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall apply-

(a)  to  any law which does not contain a recital to the  effect  that
such  law is in relation to the Proclamation of Emergency in operation
when it is made;  or

(b)  to  any  executive  action   taken  otherwise  than  under  a  law
containing such a recital.".

40.  Amendment of article 359.-In article 359 of the Constitution,-

(a)  in  clauses (1) and (1A), for the words and figures  "the  rights
conferred  by  Part III", the words, figures and brackets "the   rights
conferred  by  Part  III  (except  articles   20   and  21)"  shall  be
substituted;

(b)  after  clause  (1A),  the following  clause  shall  be  inserted,
namely:-

"(1B) Nothing in clause (1A) shall apply-

(a)  to  any law which does not contain a recital to the  effect  that
such  law is in relation to the Proclamation of Emergency in operation
when it is made;  or

(b)  to  any  executive  action   taken  otherwise  than  under a law
containing such a recital.".

41.  Amendment of article 360.-In article 360 of the Constitution,-

(a)  for  clause  (2),  the following   clause  shall  be  substituted,
namely:-

"(2) A Proclamation issued under clause (1)-

(a) may be revoked or varied by a subsequent Proclamation;

(b) shall be laid before each House of Parliament;

(c) shall cease to operate at the expiration of two months, unless
before the expiration of that period it has been approved by
resolutions of both Houses of Parliament:

Provided  that  if any such Proclamation is issued at a time when  the
House of the People has been dissolved or the dissolution of the House
of  the People takes place during the period of two months referred to
in  sub-clause (c), and if a resolution approving the Proclamation has
been  passed by the Council of States, but no resolution with  respect
to such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People before
the expiration of that period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate
at  the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House  of
the  People  first  sits after its reconstitution  unless  before   the
expiration  of  the said period of thirty days a resolution  approving
the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People.";

(b) clause (5) shall be omitted.

42.   Insertion  of  new  article    361A.-After  article  361  of  the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

`361A.   Protection  of publication of proceedings of  Parliament  and
State  Legislatures.-(1) No person shall be liable to any proceedings,
civil  or  criminal, in any court in respect of the publication  in  a
newspaper  of a substantially true report of any proceedings of either
House  of Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, or, as the case  may
be,  either  House  of  the  Legislature,   of  a   State,  unless  the
publication is proved to have been made with malice:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to the publication of
any  report of the proceedings of a secret sitting of either House  of
Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, or, as the case may be, either
House of the Legislature, of a State.

(2) Clause (1) shall apply in relation to reports or matters broadcast
by  means  of wireless telegraphy as part of any programme or  service
provided  by means of a broadcasting station as it applies in relation
to reports or matters published in a newspaper.

Explanation.-In  this  article,   "newspaper" includes  a  news  agency
report containing material for publication in a newspaper.'.

43.   Amendment of article 371F.-In article 371F of the  Constitution,
in clause (c), for the words "six years", the words "five years" shall
be  substituted,  and  for the words "five years" in both   the  places
where they occur, the words "four years" shall be substituted.

44.   Amendment  of the Ninth Schedule.- In the Ninth Schedule to  the
Constitution, entries 87, 92 and 130 shall be omitted.

45.   Amendment  of  the Constitution   (Forty-second  Amendment)  Act,
1976.-  In  the  Constitution   (Forty-second  Amendment)   Act,  1976,
sections 18, 19, 21, 22, 31, 32, 34, 35, 58 and 59 shall be omitted.


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