BACK TO ORIGINAL
PART ONE / GENERAL PRINCIPLES
I. Form of the State
ARTICLE 1. The Turkish State is a Republic.
II. Characteristics of the Republic
ARTICLE 2. The Republic of Turkey is a democratic, secular and social
State governed by the rule of law; bearing in mind the concepts of public
peace, national solidarity and justice; respecting human rights; loyal to
the nationalism of Atatrk, and based on the fundamental tenets set forth
in the Preamble.
III. Integrity of the State, Official
Language, Flag, National Anthem, and Capital
ARTICLE 3. The Turkish State, with its territory and nation, is an
indivisible entity. Its language is Turkish.
Its flag, the form of which is prescribed by the relevant law, is
composed of a white crescent and star on a red background.
Its national anthem is the "Independence March".
Its capital is Ankara.
IV. Irrevocable Provisions
ARTICLE 4. The provision of Article 1 of the Constitution
establishing the form of the State as a Republic, the provisions in
Article 2 on the characteristics of the Republic, and the provision of
Article 3 shall not be amended, nor shall their amendment be proposed.
V. Fundamental Aims and Duties of the State
ARTICLE 5. The fundamental aims and duties of the State are; to
safeguard the independence and integrity of the Turkish Nation, the
indivisibility of the country, the Republic and democracy; to ensure the
welfare, peace, and happiness of the individual and society; to strive
for the removal of political, social and economic obstacles which
restrict the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual in a manner
incompatible with the principles of justice and of the social State
governed by the rule of law; and to provide the conditions required for
the development of the individual's material and spiritual existence.
ARTICLE 6. Sovereignty is vested in the nation without reservation or
The Turkish Nation shall exercise its sovereignty
through the authorised organs as prescribed by the principles laid down
in the Constitution.
The right to exercise sovereignty shall not
be delegated to any individual, group or class. No person or agency shall
exercise any State authority which does not emanate from the
VII. Legislative Power
ARTICLE 7. Legislative power is vested in the Turkish Grand National
Assembly on behalf of the Turkish Nation. This power cannot be delegated.
VIII. Executive Power and Function
ARTICLE 8. Executive power and function shall be exercised and
carried out by the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers
in conformity with the Constitution and the law.
IX. Judicial Power
ARTICLE 9. Judicial power shall be exercised by independent courts on
behalf of the Turkish Nation.
X. Equality Before the Law
ARTICLE 10. All individuals are equal without any discrimination
before the law, irrespective of language, race, colour, sex, political
opinion, philosophical belief, religion and sect, or any such
No privilege shall be granted to any individual,
family, group or class.
State organs and administrative
authorities shall act in compliance with the principle of equality before
the law in all their proceedings.
XI. Supremacy and Binding
Force of the Constitution
ARTICLE 11. The provisions of the
Constitution are fundamental legal rules binding upon legislative,
executive and judicial organs, and administrative authorities and other
agencies and individuals.
Laws shall not be in conflict with the