The tree of liberty must be refreshed from
time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural
— Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to William Smith, Nov. 13, 1787
We must realize that today's Establishment is the new
George III. Whether it will continue to adhere to his tactics, we do
not know. If it does, the redress, honored in tradition, is also
— Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, Points of
Rebellion, New York: Random House, 1970
I decided history needed a course correction,
so I reached for my keyboard.
— Jon Roland, March, 1994, before issuing a nationwide militia call-up
Click on the button to get the
indicated file format:
Statements of the Founders
Ratification Convention Debates
1788 — Debate on the powers delegated in Art.
I Sec. 8, first day.
1788 — Debate on the powers delegated in Art.
I Sec. 8, second day, especially the militia clauses.
The right of the citizens to bear arms is just one more guarantee against arbitrary government, one more safeguard against the tyranny which now appears remote in America, but which historically has proved to be always possible. — Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey (1911-1978)
RAIM — Right to Assemble as an Independent Militia
Defense activity, and those who engage in it. This is the central page
for information about the modern constitutional militia movement.
Treatises, James B. Whisker — Standard references
on the subject. Includes The Militia (1992) and The
American Colonial Militia (1997).
Congress Debate On Arms And Militia 1789 — Including debate
on wording of Second Amendment.
Affairs. Reports to the U.S. Congress on military
and militia matters. Volume 1 contains reports from Mar. 3, 1789,
through Mar. 3, 1819. See particularly the reports on militia
organization and militia returns showing organization and strength.
Provides insight into original thinking on militia and the right to
keep and bear arms.
Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms: The Common Law Tradition,
by Joyce Lee Malcolm — Explains how it is connected to militia duty.
Role of the Militia in the Development of the Englishman's Right to be
Armed — Clarifying the Legacy, by Joyce Lee Malcolm.
Dialogue Between X, Y, and Z, Concerning the Present State of Affairs
in Pennsylvania, by Benjamin Franklin — Discussion in a
fictional dialogue of the first colonial militia law,
from the The Pennsylvania Gazette, December 18,
Militia v. Inimicitia, Jon Roland — Article: Jun. 24, 2000
meaning of the phrase "well-regulated" in the 2nd amendment —
From Brian T.
The Battle of Athens — On August 2, 1946, the militia of Athens, Tennessee, resorted to arms against corrupt officials to restore the rule of law in McMinn County. This is their story.
reports and chronology on the Battle of Athens — From
Swiss Report: A special study for Western Goals Foundation,
by General George S. Patton, U.S.A. (Ret.) and General Lewis W. Walt,
U.S.M.C. (Ret.), introduction by Congressman Lawrence Patton McDonald,
1983 — Analysis of Swiss militia system.
Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) — Local copy as of 1997 June
Right of Defense Against Unlawful Arrest — Quotes from court
Quotes — Guidance on interpreting the Constitution,
especially regarding firearms and the militia.
Reading — Published works that discuss matters related to the
constitutional militia and the constitutional militia movement.
What to do in a mass shooting situation — Practical methods.
of Marque and Reprisal — Collection of
historical examples with analysis.
Our safety, our liberty, depends upon preserving the
Constitution of the United States as our fathers made it inviolate. The
people of the United States are the rightful masters of both Congress
and the courts, not to overthrow the Constitution, but to overthrow the
men who pervert the Constitution. — Abraham Lincoln
RKBA — Right to Keep and Bear Arms
Amendment Law Library — Scholarly articles, federal and
supreme court decisions, and legal briefs.
Unabridged Second Amendment — Grammatical analysis by an
expert on English grammar and usage.
Right to Keep and Bear Arms — Report of the Senate
Subcommitee on the Constitution, 1982. Contains argument that
gun-control laws and enforcement of them are unconstitutional.
of Columbia v. Heller, No. 07-290 (2008)
Right of the People or the Power of the State, by Stephen
Right to Keep and Bear Arms under the Second and Fourteenth Amendments,
by Stephen Halbrook.
the Simple Cite Be Trusted?: Lower Court Interpretations of United
States v. Miller and the Second Amendment, Brannon
Embarrassing Second Amendment, by Sanford Levinson, Prof. of
Law, U. of Texas. Civil libertarians might not want to admit it, but
the Constitution really does protect the individual right to keep and
bear arms, and there are good reasons for that.
of Eugene Volokh on the Second Amendment, Senate Subcommittee on the
Constitution, Sept. 23, 1998 — Reprinted as A Right
of the People, California Political Review,
Nov./Dec. 1998, p. 23. Reprinted here with permission of the author.
Safety or Bills of Attainder?, Jon Roland — Law review
article written Jun. 14, 2000, published UWLA LR vol. 34, 2002. Argues
constitutional issues of current federal firearms legislation.
of the Fourteenth Amendment was to Protect All
Rights, Jon Roland.
Second Amendment and the Personal Right to Arms, William W.
Racist Roots of Gun Control, Clayton E. Cramer. Kan.
J.L. & Pub. Pol'y, Winter 1995, at 17.
Second Amendment and States' Rights: A Thought Experiment,
Glenn Harlan Reynolds & Don Kates, 36 Wm. & Mary L.
Rev. 1737-1768 (1995).
Second Amendment: A Guard for Our Future Security, Andrew M.
Wayment, Idaho Law Review, Comments 37 (2000): 203.
U.S. Supreme Court on the Right to Arms, Fielding Lewis
of the U.S. department of Justice on the Right to Keep and Bear Arms,
August 24, 2004, Steven G. Bradbury, Principal Deputy Assistant
Attorney General, and others.
Primer on the Constitutional Right to Keep and Bear Arms,
Nelson Lund, professor of law at the George Mason University School of
— Extensive collection of court decisions, articles, and commentary.
Liberty — Using the First Amendment to protect the Second.
— Public education about firearm issues.
on the Second Amendment and Rights to Keep and Bear Arms in State
Constitutions, compiled by Eugene Volokh, UCLA Law School.
Dave Kopel's Home Page — News, articles, and links on the
RKBA and other constitutional issues.
Chan's Archive — News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Home Page — Focus on the RKBA.
and other gun law related info and cases (Bardwell
collection) — News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Carry — News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Amendment/Firearms File Library — News, articles, and links
on the RKBA.
RKBA Archive — News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Gun Control Study — Supports proposition that firearm carry
permits deter crime.
Laws, Bloomfield Press — Publish firearm laws of every state
and the federal government, online and in print.
Liability — Proposed statutes making the creators of gun-free
zones liable for any harm resulting from persons being unable to defend
Laws, Gun Control & Gun Rights — Presented by JURIST:
The Legal Education Network.
Articles by Miguel A. Faria Jr., M.D.:
Malpractice — 'Firearm Availability' and Violence, Part 1.
Malpractice — 'Firearm Availability' and Violence, Part 2.
Intent of the Second Amendment, by Nancy Ward — Collection of
Amendment Network — Maintained by Garry E. Harvey.
Megiddo — Report of FBI analysis and
recommendations for response to possible disorders.
I was born an
American. I live as an American; I shall die an American; and I intend
to perform the duties incumbent upon me in that character to the end of
my career. I mean to do this with absolute disregard to personal
consequences. What are the personal consequences? What is the
individual man with all the good or evil that may betide him, in
comparison with the good and evil which may befall a great country, and
in the midst of great transactions which concern that country's fate?
Let the consequences be what they will, I am careless, No man can
suffer too much, and no man can fall too soon, if he suffer or if he
fall, in the defense of the liberties and Constitution of his country.
— Daniel Webster
Owners of America — "The only no-compromise gun lobby in
Washington." — Rep. Ron Paul (R-TX)
For The Preservation Of Firearms Ownership — "America's Most
Aggressive Defender of Firearms Ownership."
National Rifle Association of America — Largest organization
of gun rights advocates, but some say too willing to compromise on
NRA/ILA — Institute for Legislation Action,
political action arm of the NRA
NRA — Takes positions independent of national HQ.
Gate United NRA Members Council.
Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms (CCRKBA) —
Another strong force for the RKBA.
Amendment Foundation(SAF) — Tax-deductible adjunct to the
Coalition — Neal Knox's group.
State Rifle Association — Firearm Rights for the Lone Star
State Rifle Association/Political Action Committee —
Opencarry.org — Promotes
open carry legislation.
Lawyer's Second Amendment Society — Unites constitutionalist
Law Enforcement Alliance of America — Unites law enforcement
professionals, opposes gun control.
Enforcement for the Preservation of the Second Amendment —
Unites law enforcement professionals against gun control.
Amendment Police Department— For police officers.
— Your guide to cop culture. Favors 2nd Amendment rights.
Response Team (TRT) — Being organized all over the country.
Activate one in your state or county.
New York (Orange County)
Of America — Oppose compromise on firearm rights.
Against Corruption — Fight corruption and abuse, especially
by police and prosecutors.
Society — Focus on Second Amendment compliance through
Against Gun Control — Unites women who refuse to be helpless
Amendment Sisters — Organizing demonstration in Washington,
DC, May 14, 2000.
Females of America — Pro-gun women on "full auto".
United Supporting the Second Amendment (SUSSA) — The elderly
need the RKBA as well.
for Sensible Gun Laws— Actually, for almost no gun laws.
for the Second Amendment — Until they put up a web site of
their own, this will have to do.
for the 2nd Amendment — Some don't agree with their party's
leadership on this issue.
For The Second Amendment — The next generation cometh.
— Sponsor rallies.
And Bear Arms — News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Amendment Home Page — News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Amendment Committee — News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Amendment Research Center — Affiliated with Ohio State
University, headed by Saul Cornell. Get some things wrong, but some
Shooting Sports Foundation — Support RKBA, but focus more on
hunting and shooting competitions.
— Focus on defense against government tyranny.
— Fundraising for pro-RKBA organizations.
Society — Conduct shooting tournaments.
Defensive Pistol Association — Promote firearm rights
Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) — Unites shooting
organizations in many countries.
United States Practical Shooting Association (USPSA) — U.S.
affiliate of the IPSC.
Association for Firearms Education (SAFE.) — Training in the
safe use of firearms.
Rights — Defend right to keep and bear knives and
other non-firearm weapons.
Institute for Legislative Action— Defend RKBA in Canada.
Unregistered Firearms Association— Canadian RKBA organization
that promotes civil disobedience.
Firearms Association — Canadian RKBA organization that is not
Stock and Barrel — Site of the Firearm Owners Association of
Tell — Swiss RKBA/Militia organization. Mainly in German,
French, and Italian.
Shooters Forum — British RKBA organization.
Waffenrecht — German RKBA organization. In German.
Liberales Waffenrecht in Österreich (IWÖ) — Austrian RKBA
organization. In German.
for Guns — Indian RKBA organization.
Commemorative Air Force. Formerly named the Confederate Air Force — The Militia needs an air force, too. This is mainly recreational, but in a crisis....
Air Patrol — Government-sponsored, but actually a kind of
Red Cross — Relief for victims of disasters. Disaster
response is militia also.
Liberty is defended in three stages: The ballot box,
the jury box, and the cartridge box. — Ambrose Bierce
— Good source for news and information on firearms issues.
Let us remember, that 'if we suffer tamely a lawless
attack upon our liberty, we encourage it, and involve others in our
doom.' It is a very serious consideration, which should deeply impress
our minds, that millions yet unborn may be the miserable sharers in the
event. — Samuel Adams
Scholars, lawyers, and Useful Resources
— Eugene Volokh's compilation of links to scholars on gun rights and
the Second Amendment.
P. Halbrook — Attorney specializing in constitutional cases,
especially involving the Second Amendment.
Grossack — Constitutional attorney based in Massachusetts.