George J. Edwards: The Grand Jury: Index

INDEX

The references are to pages.

ABATEMENT

  • objections to indictment made by plea in, 86.
  • two or more pleas in, may be filed, 86.
  • when plea in sustained, 80.
  • plea of sustained where initials of defendant used, 152.
  • objections made by plea of, in England, 84.
  • neglect to challenge, not ground for plea in, 71.
  • relationship as ground for plea in, 81.

ABOLITION OF GRAND JURY, 35.

  • Arguments pro and con, 35.
  • opinion of Daniel Davis, 36.
  • English view, 38, 39.
  • American view, 40.
  • in Western States, 44.

ABSENCE

  • of officer when selection made, 58.

ACCOMPLICE

  • indictment found on uncorroborated evidence of, 144.

ACCUSE

  • duty of thanes to, 3.

ACCUSED

  • asks instructions to grand jury, 126.

ACCUSING BODY. AND SEE ACCUSING INQUEST.

  • known as inquest or jury, 2.
  • unknown to Normans, 4.
  • number composing, 6, 23, 24.
  • its slow growth, 5.
  • importance promoted by appeal, 7.
  • reading articles to, 20.
  • presentment by, 10, 11, 21.
  • failure of, to present, 13.
  • indictment by, 22, 24.
  • disappearance of in hundred, 27.

ACCUSING INQUEST. AND SEE ACCUSING BODY.

  • scope of, 10.
  • duty to accuse, 3.
  • to answer capitula fully, 11.
  • secrecy observed by, 21, 27.
  • knowledge of, as to offenders, 11.

ACTION

  • against grand juror, when maintainable, 166.

ACTS

  • presumption of regularity of official, 59.
  • accused may take advantage of irregular, 64.
  • wrongful, of grand jurors, 166.

ADDISON, JUDGE,

  • charges to grand juries, 101, 124, 131, 141.

ADJOURNMENT

  • of grand jury from time to time, 160.

AFFIDAVIT

  • when necessary to sheriff's return, 54.
  • in support of challenge to array, 68.

AFFINITY

  • grand jurors related to accused by, 81.

AFFIRMATION. AND SEE OATH.

  • of grand jurors, 91, 137.

AFFORCIAMENT

  • when employed, 24.

AGE OF GRAND JURORS

  • exemption by reason of, 72.

ALABAMA

  • oath of grand juror in, 95n.
  • investigation of sufficiency of official bonds, 122.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 136.

ALIEN

  • not a competent grand juror, 60, 63, 77.
  • cannot demand grand jury de medietate linguae, 64.

AMENDMENT

  • of writ of venire, 48.
  • of sheriff's return, 50.
  • of record nunc pro tunc, 93.
  • of indictment, 154, 155.
  • Fifth, to Constitution of United States, 32, 131.
    • applies solely to offences against United States, 33.
    • does not apply to Cherokee Nation, 33n.
  • Sixth, to Constitution of United States, 57.
  • Fourteenth, to Constitution of United States, 33, 66.
    • does not prevent states from prosecuting by information, 33.
    • gives white man no additional rights, 67.

AMERCEMENT

  • of hundred for escape of offender, 4.

AMERCERS

  • pledges taken by, 20.

AMERICA

  • grand jury brought to, in settlement of, 31.
  • civil rights become strongly developed in, 32.
  • modern view of grand jury in, 40.

AMICUS CURIAE

  • challenge by attorney as, 71.

ANCIENT

  • oath of grand jury, 20, 92, 98.
  • grand jury, powers of, broader than modern, 99.

ANGLO-SAXON

  • origin of grand jury, 2.
  • sectatores, 3.

APPEAL

  • a Norman institution, 3.
  • rise of the, 9, 10.
  • a personal action, 9.
  • cognizable in the King's Court, 9.
  • prosecution of, 13.
  • promotes importance of accusing body, 7.
  • how made, 12.
  • exceptions to, 17, 21.
  • trial by country when woman makes, 21.

APPELLEE

  • may elect between
    • battle and ordeal, 10, 12.
    • battle and country, 21.
  • right to decline battle, 17.
  • could not retract after choice made, 21.

APPELLOR

  • enrolment of complaint, 12.
  • hearing of, 12.
  • reading of coroner's rolls, 12.
  • hearing before justices in eyre, 12.

APPOINTMENT OF FOREMAN. SEE FOREMAN.

ARIZONA

  • oath of grand juror in, 98n.

ARKANSAS

  • qualifications of grand jurors, 62.
  • excusing grand jurors, presumption of, 85.
  • oath of grand juror, 96n.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

ARMORIES

  • workmen in, exempt from jury service, 73.

ARRAY

  • objections to, 65.
  • motion to quash, when not sustained, 67.
  • if quashed, tales not to issue, 52
  • challenge to, must be substantiated by oath, 68.
    • causes of, 66.
    • when made, 68, 85.
    • how made, 70
    • in Federal Courts, 69, 85.

ARREST

  • indictment found without previous, 114.

ARREST OF JUDGMENT. SEE JUDGMENT.

ARSENALS

  • workmen in, exempt from jury service, 73.

ARTICLES OF INQUIRY, 11.

  • reading of to accusing body, 20.

ASHFORD vs. THORNTON,

  • wager of battle, 13.

ASSENT

  • of grand jury to amendment of indictment, 154.

ASSIZE

  • writs awarding, 17.
  • of Clarendon, 7, 8, 11, 14, 17, 18.
    • its provisions, 7.
    • offenders to be tried by ordeal, 7
    • itinerant courts created by, 7.
    • four townspeople referred to in, 7, 23.
    • marks important change in law, 7.
    • implied prohibition of, 8.
    • Prof. Thayer on, 18.
  • of Northampton, 7, 11, 17.
    • provisions of, 9.
    • divided kingdom into six circuits, 8, 9.

ASYLUMS

  • investigation into, 121.

ATHENIANS,

  • existence of juries among, 1.

ATTACHMENT,

  • to compel attendance of witnesses, 133.
  • of grand juror for misconduct, 166.

ATTENDANCE.

  • of grand jurors, differences in statutes requiring, 47.
    • at time fixed by statute, 48.
    • before and after regular term, 54.
    • immaterial how procured, 54.
    • after jury empaneled and sworn, 51.
    • of improper person, 49, 139.
    • in Pennsylvania, 52.
    • in Federal Courts, 55.
    • in England, 57.
  • of witnesses, grand jurors cannot compel, 104.
    • how procured, 132.

ATTORNEY GENERAL

  • authority of, to prefer indictment, 107, 111.
  • acting without leave of court, 111.
  • cannot stipulate what the evidence is, 120n.
  • moves to expunge presentment in Georgia, 160.
  • for the crown, authority of, 113.

AUTHORITY

  • of attorney general for the crown, 113.
  • of district attorney to prefer indictment, 107, 110.
  • of ancient grand jury broader than modern, 99.
  • of grand jury, limitation upon in time of Cromwell, 99.
    • differences in extent of, 102, 109.
    • Chief Justice Chase on, 102.
    • to inquire into all offences within jurisdiction, 103.
    • restraint upon, 102, 165.
    • to punish witnesses, 104, 165.
  • inquisitorial, of grand jury, 104.
  • devolving upon grand jurors by statute, 121.
  • to administer oath to witnesses, 137, 165.
  • grand jurors exceed, in making report, 157.
  • of court over grand jurors, 163.
  • delegation of, by officer, 58.
  • of de facto officers, 58.

AWARD

  • of writ of inquest in real actions, 17.

BAILIFF

  • inquest summoned by, 2.
  • inhabitants of hundred enrolled by, 20.

BALWIN, JUDGE,

  • Rector v. Smith, 159.

BANISHMENT, 9.

BATTLE

  • wager of, 3, 6, 7, 10, 21.
  • trial by, rise of, 9.
  • last instance of, 13.
  • exceptions to, 17, 21.
  • when awarded or refused, 10.
  • appellee's election between ordeal and, 10.
  • right to choose, 21.
  • right to decline, 17.
  • appeals of felony, 21.
  • in real actions, 17.

BENTHAM

  • secrecy in grand juror's oath, 116.

BIAS OF GRAND JUROR. SEE FAVOR.

BIENNIAL VISIT OF SHERIFF, 5.

BIGAMY. SEE POLYGAMY.

BILL. SEE INDICTMENT; TRUE BILL.

BILLA VERA, 147.

  • se defendo, 148.

BLACKSTONE, SIR WILLIAM

  • view of leet and tourn, 5.
  • on qualification of grand jurors, 61.
  • powers of attorney general for the crown, 113.

BOOKS AND PAPERS

  • production of, how procured, 133.
  • relevancy of, 133, 143.

BOROUGH

  • incorporation of, 121.
    • court will not review facts as to, 121.

BRACTON

  • four freeman of every vill, 15.
    • no part of inquest, 15.
  • institution of prosecutions, 19.
  • indictment by grand jury, 24.
  • grand jurors, qualifications of, 60, 62.
    • oath of, 20, 98, 116.
    • wholly under control of court, 163.
  • trial by jury, 21.
    • proceedings before petit jury, 22.
    • peremptory challenges not known, 75.
    • oath of petit jurors, 22.

BRADFORD, ATTORNEY GENERAL

  • powers of grand jury, 100.

BRANCH'S CASE

  • evidence heard in public, 117.

BREWER, MR. JUSTICE.

  • Case of In re Wilson, 47.

BRIDGES

  • presentment of inquest in relation to, 25, 121.
  • appropriations for, 127n.

BRITTON

  • grand jury in time of, 25.
    • oath of, 25, 99, 116.
    • duties of, 25.
    • wholly under control of court, 163.
  • peremptory challenges not known, 75.

BROWN vs. STATE,

  • administration of oath, 92.

BRYAN, JUDGE,

  • Oswald's case, 31.

BURR, AARON, TRIAL OF.

  • challenge for favor, 74, 82.
  • supplemental charge to grand jury, 125.

BUSONES

  • called by itinerant justices, 20.

BYSTANDERS

  • selection of talesmen from, 50.
  • Federal grand jurors not selected from, 55.
  • talesman chosen from, appointed foreman, 90n.

CALIFORNIA

  • grand jury in, 44.
  • oath of grand juror, 97n.

CAPITAL CRIME. SEE INFORMATION.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

  • conscientious scruples against, 76.

CAPITULA

  • or articles of inquiry, 11.
  • inquest to answer fully, 11.
  • reading of, 99.

CASE OF

  • Aaron Burr, 74, 82, 125.
  • Ashford v. Thornton, trial by battle, 13.
  • Branch, evidence heard in public, 117.
  • Brown v. State, administration of oath, 92.
  • College, Stephen, ignoramus, 28.
  • Com. v. Crans, approaching grand juror, 162.
  • Com. v. English, authority of district attorney, 111.
  • Com. v. Knapp, list of witnesses, 136.
  • Com. v. Morton, talesmen, 54.
  • Crowley v. United States, disqualification of grand juror, 74,
  • Ellis, disregarding oath, 166.
  • Ex Parte Bain, altering indictment, 155.
  • Hardy, attendance of crown solicitor, 127.
  • In re Wilson, lawful grand jury, 47, 56.
  • Jillard v. Com., swearing witnesses, 138.
  • Lewis, standing jurors aside, 83.
  • Oswald, coercion of grand jury, 31.
  • People v. Petrea, de facto grand jury, 58.
  • Rector v. Smith, libellous report of grand jury, 158.
  • Rex v. Dickinson, witnesses not sworn, 139.
  • Rowand v. Com., second bill sent to grand jury, 112.
  • Scarlett, unlawfully procuring indictments, 42, 117.
  • Shaftesbury, ignoramus, 29, 117, 129.
  • Sheridan, challenge, 75.
  • State v. Cowan, control of court over grand jury, 165.
  • Summerhayes, contempt of court, 165.
  • Windham, fining grand jurors, 164.
  • Zenger, ignoramus, 32.

CAUSE

  • challenge for, 69, 77, 82n.
  • individual jurors may be challenged for, 70.
  • to be shown on challenge for favor, 74.

CAUSEWAYS

  • presentment of inquest in relation to, 25.

CHALLENGE

  • error to refuse right of, 65.
  • legislature cannot take away right of, 70.
  • defendant must demand right to, 71.
  • to array, 66, 68.
  • when made, 68, 85.
  • must be substantiated by affidavit, 68.
  • state's attorney cannot challenge panel, 70.
  • peremptory, not allowed, 75, 82.
  • unknown in time of Bracton and Britton, 75.
  • for favor, 70, 73, 74, 76, 77, 82.
  • how determined, 82.
  • to be made before grand juror sworn, 74.
  • where opinion formed and expressed, 76.
  • upon ground of relationship, 80.
  • examination on voir dire not permitted on, 81.
  • of grand juror for cause, 69, 77, 82.
  • how made, 70.
  • by whom made, 71.
  • absence from domicile, 81.
  • made and withdrawn cannot be assigned for error, 70.
  • exclusion of grand juror on, 72.
  • when not allowed in Iowa, 70.
  • in Federal Courts, 69.
  • Federal grand jury depleted by, 55.
  • of petit jurors for cause, 23, 25.

CHARGE OF THE COURT

  • when made, 124.
  • as means of communication with public, 124.
  • effect of omission of, 124n.
  • supplemental, when given, 125.
  • at whose request made, 125.
  • in Aaron Burr's case, 125.
  • Judge Cranch's view, 126.
  • when inflammatory, 126.
  • delivered by Chief Justice Shaw, 43.

CHARGES TO GRAND JURIES,

  • Judge Addison's, 101, 124.

CHARLES II,

  • attack on grand jury, 28, 31.

CHASE, CHIEF JUSTICE,

  • powers of grand jury, 102.

CHEROKEE NATION

  • powers of, not affected by Constitution, 33n.

CHITTY,

  • qualifications of grand jurors, 60.

CHOOSING GRAND JURY, 20.

CHRISTIAN, MR.,

  • secrecy in grand juror's oath, 116, 118.

CIRCUITS

  • division of kingdom into six, 8, 9.

CIVIL CAUSES

  • only considered by sectatores and nambda, 3.

CIVIL RIGHTS

  • brought to America by Englishmen, 31.
  • become strongly developed, 32.

CLARENDON, ASSIZE OF, 7, 8, 11, 14, 17, 18.

  • its provisions, 7.
  • offenders to be tried by ordeal, 7.
  • marks important change in law, 7.
  • itinerant courts created by, 7.
  • implied prohibition of, 8.
  • four townspeople referred to in, 7, 23.
  • Prof. Thayer on, 18.

CLARK, MR. JUSTICE, 129.

CLERGY

  • forbidden to participate in ordeal, 18.

CLERICAL ERRORS IN INDICTMENT, 154.

CLERK

  • of grand jury,
    • how selected, 91.
    • not to disclose secrets, 120.
    • signing name of foreman, 148n.
  • of court,
    • to swear witnesses, 137.
    • to record finding, 156.

COERCION

  • of grand jury,
    • in College's Case, 28.
    • in Shaftesbury's Case, 29.
    • in Pennsylvania, 31.
    • in Mississippi in 1902, 31n.
  • affidavits of grand jurors received to show, 119.
  • of sheriffs in return of grand jury panel, 30.

COKE, LORD

  • views of on origin of number of grand jury, 6.
  • on evils of grand jury system, 41.
  • comment on unlawful grand jurors, 60.

COLLATERAL PROCEEDINGS

  • objections to irregularity cannot be raised in, 88.
  • attack on order of discharge, 162.

COLLEGE, STEPHEN,

  • Case of, 28.

COLORADO

  • oath of grand juror in, 97n.

COMMISSION

  • oath of grand juror as his, 94.

COMMISSIONERS. SEE JURY COMMISSIONERS.

COMMITMENT OF WITNESSES, 132n.

COMMITTING MAGISTRATE. SEE MAGISTRATE.

COMMON FAME. SEE PUBLIC FAME.

COMMON LAW

  • Statute of Ethelred declaratory of, 5.
  • disqualification imposed by, 73.
  • right, challenge for favor a, 74.
  • examination of witnesses by grand jurors, 127.
  • method of swearing witnesses, 137.

COMMONWEALTH

  • v. Crans. Approaching grand juror, 162:
  • v. English. Power of district attorney, 111.
  • v. Knapp. List of witnesses, 136.
  • v. Morton. Talesmen, 54.
  • v. Sheppard. Authority of district attorney, 114.

COMMUNICATION

  • with grand jury forbidden except through court, 103, 162.
  • sent to grand jury by court, 126.
  • privileged, 143, 159.
  • report of grand jury not a privileged, 159.

COMPETENCY OF GRAND JUROR

  • challenge to array does not extend to, 68.
  • when objection waived, 72.
  • age as affecting, 72.
  • restored before service, 76.
  • opinion as affecting, 80.
  • relationship as affecting, 80.

COMPLAINT OF APPELLOR, enrollment of. 12.

COMPURGATION

  • trial by, 4.
  • disappearance of, in criminal cases, 8.

CONCEALMENT, of proceedings by inquest, 21.

CONCURRENCE

  • of twelve grand jurors to find bill, 26, 56, 108, 147.
  • when grand juror may testify as to, 119.

CONNECTICUT

  • forfeiture by grand juror in, 12n.
  • oath of grand juror in, 95n.
  • defendant may appear before grand jury in, 103.
  • town meeting chooses grand jurors in, 122.

CONSANGUINITY

  • grand jurors related to accused by, 81.

CONSCIENTIOUS SCRUPLES

  • against capital punishment, 76.
  • against taking oath, 91n.

CONSERVATIVE VIEW of Grand Jury, 43.

CONSTITUTION

  • of United States omits grand jury, 32.
  • remedied by Fifth Amendment, 32, 132.
  • Fourteenth Amendment to, 33.
  • does not affect powers of Cherokee Nation, 33n
  • of Pennsylvania, 33.
    • declaration of rights in, 34.

CONTEMPT

  • witness refusing to testify in, 88, 133.
  • when witness not in, 121, 133.
  • when grand juror in, 165.

CONTROL of Court over grand jurors, 163.

CONTINUANCE OF FRANK PLEDGE under the Normans, 6.

CONVICTION

  • evidence to justify, 102, 105, 141.

CORONER

  • duty to enrol appellor's complaint, 12.
  • rolls of,
    • when read, 12.
    • disagreement in, 12.
  • when member of jury disqualified as grand juror, 80.
  • to summon grand jurors when sheriff disqualified, 59.

CORSNED, trial by, 4.

COUNT

  • finding as to one or more, 147.
  • finding as to part of, void, 147.

COUNTRY, TRIAL BY THE. See Trial by Jury.

COUNTY ATTORNEY, 127n, 128n.

COUNTY BRIDGE, grand jury to authorize, 121.

COURT,

  • suitors of the, 3.
    • interrogation of grand jury by the, 21, 27, 116.
    • order or precept issued by, 48.
    • seal of, 48.
    • may order signing of sheriff's return, 49.
  • orders summoning of talesmen, 50.
  • not to furnish names, 51.
    • implied power of to summon grand jurors, 52.
  • grand jury, summoned prior to regular term of, 54.
    • detention after expiration of term of, 54.
  • may not arbitrarily remove grand juror, 84.
  • may excuse grand juror, 84.
    • unfavorable to technical objections, 86.
  • illegally impaneling grand jury, 89.
  • foreman appointed by, 90.
  • matters given in charge of grand jury by, 101, 106.
  • to order additional testimony produced, 104.
  • district attorney to obtain leave of, 111, 115.
  • hearing of evidence in open, 117, 127, 163.
  • contempt of, 121, 165.
  • charges grand jury when, 124.
  • when grand jury in, 130.
  • swearing witnesses in open, 137.
  • will not inquire as to sufficiency of evidence, 146.
  • findings not read in open, 156.
  • how indictments brought into, 156.
  • relation of grand jury to, 163.

COURT LEET, 5, 8.

COURT ROLLS of the eyres, 11, 24.

COURTS, ITINERANT. SEE ITINERANT COURTS.

CRABB

  • on question whether grand jury also tried offenders, 22.

CRANCH, JUDGE,

  • supplemental charge, 126.

CRIMINAL CASES

  • disappearance of compurgation in, 8.
  • petit jury in, 10.

CRIMINAL PLEAS

  • not considered by nambda, 3.

CRIMINATE

  • where testimony of witness will tend to, 133.

CROMWELL, OLIVER, oath in time of, 99.

CROWLEY vs. UNITED STATES. R. S. U. S. Sec. 1025, 74.

CROWN

  • growth of influence of, 8.
  • pleas of, administered by itinerant justices, 8.
  • authority of attorney general for, 113.

CRY, HUE AND, 4, 12.

CURIA REGIS, sheriff selected from justices of, 8.

CUSTOM

  • as to number of grand jurors, 6.
  • grand jury a growth of, 26.
  • of weregild, 4.
    • disuse of, 9.

DATE

  • of finding bill, endorsement of, 151.
  • of filing bill, endorsement of, 157.

DA VIS, DANIEL

  • opinion on grand jury, 36.
  • condemns grand jury reports, 158.
  • re-assembling grand jury after discharge, 161.

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS (PA.), 34.

DE FACTO

  • officers, authority of, 58.
  • grand jury, 58.

DEFECT

  • what is, within meaning of R. S. U. S. Sec. 1025, 74.
  • appearing on face of indictment, ground for demurrer, 86.
  • cannot be attacked in collateral proceeding, 88.
  • in record, may be amended, 93.
  • in indictment may be amended, 154.

DEFECTIVE PROCEEDINGS

when cured by plea, 56.

DEFENDANT

  • presence of, when evidence heard, 103, 140.
  • tampering with witnesses, 143.
  • voluntarily testifying before grand jury, 144.
  • compelled to testify against himself, 145.
  • found to be insane, 148.
  • initials of, used in bill, 152.
  • held in bail after ignoramus, 153.

DEFICIENCY

  • in number of grand jurors, 51, 55.

DELIBERATIONS OF GRAND JURY

  • to be private, 28, 29, 119.
  • presence of district attorney during, 128.
    • unauthorized person, 139

DE MEDIETATE LINGUAE, 64.

DEMURRER

  • filed when defect on face of indictment, 86.
  • cannot be sustained for omission of prosecutor's name, 135n.

DEPOSITIONS

  • of witnesses, when received, 143.

DEVELOPMENT OF GRAND JURY in time of Edward III, 26.

DILIGENTLY INQUIRE

  • duty of grand jury to, 101, 105.
  • meaning of in Pennsylvania, 101.

DIRECTORY

  • statutory provisions held to be, 49, 81, 136.
  • statute, grand jurors irregularly drawn under, 57.
  • provisions for filing are generally, 157.

DISAGREEMENT of Coroner's Rolls, 12.

DISAPPEARANCE

  • of compurgation in criminal cases, 8.
  • of accusing bodies of hundreds, 27.

DISCHARGE

  • of grand juror for cause by the court, 84.
  • of grand jury presumed, 89, 160.
    • illegally empaneled, 89.
    • for contempt of court, 165.
    • upon completion of duties, 160.
    • reassembling after, 160.
  • collateral attack on order of, 162.
  • of foreman presumed, 91.

DISCLOSURE

  • of evidence, when to be made, 118.
  • of proceedings, 162.
  • of how juror voted, 119.
  • of knowledge to fellow jurors, 132.

DISQUALIFICATION

  • of Federal grand jurors, 63, 69, 73.
  • and exemption, distinction between, 72.
  • imposed by statute or common law, 73.
  • ruling in Crowley v. United States, 74.
  • absence from domicile as a, 81.
  • religious belief not a, 81.
  • of grand juror cured before service, 76.
  • of foreman, 90.

DISQUALIFIED PERSON, presence of one will vitiate indictment, 87.

DISTRICT

  • Federal grand jurors selected from body of, 55.
  • summoned from part of, 56.

DISTRICT ATTORNEY

  • improperly excludes grand juror, 84.
  • gives matters in charge of grand jury, 101, 107, 110.
  • cannot permit defendent's witnesses to appear before grand jury, 103, 141.
  • may summon additional witnesses, 104.
  • private prosecutor to complain to, 109, 162.
  • to obtain leave of court, 111, 115.
  • bill to be earmarked, 114.
  • authority of, in Pennsylvania, 130.
  • to sign indictment, 134.
  • hands indictments to foreman, 134.
  • attends grand jury, 127.
  • to conduct examination of witnesses, 139.
  • not to express opinion to grand jury, 142.
  • presence during deliberations, 128.
  • indictments sent into court by, 156.
  • may enter nolle pros, 142.
  • may not testify, when, 120.
  • stenographer as assistant to, 139.

DISUSE OF WEREGILD, 9.

DIVERSE VIEWS,

  • as to origin of grand jury, 1.
  • as to utility and abolition of grand jury, 35.

DOCUMENTS. SEE BOOKS AND PAPERS.

DOMICILE

  • when absence from will disqualify, 81.

DRAWING. SEE SELECTION.

DRUNKENNESS OF GRAND JUROR, 166.

DUE PROCESS OF LAW, 33.

  • defined in Hurtado v. California, 110 U. S. 516, 39n.

DUTY

  • of twelve thanes to accuse, 3.
  • of accusing body to present offenders, 11.
  • of king's sergeants to enroll appellor's complaint, 12.
  • of coroner to enroll appellor's complaint, 12.

EARL OF SHAFTESBURY'S CASE, 29.

EASTERN STATES

  • conservatism of, on grand jury, 44.

EDWARD III

  • and rise of grand jury, 2.
  • development of grand jury in time of, 26.

ELECTION

  • by appellor between battle and ordeal, 10.

ELECTOR. SEE VOTER.

ELLIS' CASE, disregarding oath, 166.

EMPANELED

  • when grand jurors are, 88, 89.
  • grand jury may be, at any time during term, 88.
  • when grand jury illegally, discharge of, 89.
  • may investigate offence committed after being, 103.

EMPANELING

  • irregularity in, 68, 85n, 89.
    • witness must testify although, 88.
  • objections to grand jurors before, 64n, 69n, 85n.
  • talesmen may be added after, 51.
  • record must show, 89.
  • after new statue prescribes different method, 89.

ENDORSEMENT

  • on bill, not evidence of empaneling, 89.
    • of names of witnesses, 135.
    • of name of prosecutor, 135.
    • of finding, 146, 148, 151.
    • of date of finding, 151.
    • of date of filing, 157.
    • effect of, when printed, 151.
  • parcel of indictment, 150.
  • sufficiency of, 150.
  • manner of, when directed by statute, 151.

ENGLAND

  • selection and summoning grand jurors, 57.
  • court cannot order grand juror to withdraw, 84.
  • evidence upon which bill found, 105.
  • when new bill sent to subsequent grand jury, 152.
  • modern view of grand jury in, 38.
  • grand jury brought to America, 31.

ENROLMENT

  • of appellor's complaint, 12.

ERROR

  • in venire, 49.
  • in returning bill, 147n.

ESCAPES

  • from gaol, inquiry by inquest into, 25.

ETHELRED II.

  • law of, 2, 3.
    • declaratory of common law, 5.
    • ordained as frith-bot, 6.
  • oath in time of, 98.

EVIDENCE

  • challenge to array to be supported by, 68.
  • of appointment of foreman, 90.
  • of formation of opinion not clear, 78.
  • of prosecution only to be heard, 103.
  • presence of defendant at hearing of, 103, 140.
  • grand jurors may demand production of additional, 104.
  • incompetent, not to be heard, 142.
  • hearsay and irrelevant, not to be received, 142.
  • uncorroborated, of accomplice, 144.
  • which tends to incriminate, 133.
  • production of books and papers as, 133.
  • grand jurors governed by ordinary rules of, 142.
  • presentment after hearing, 105.
  • to justify finding true bill, 102, 105, 141.
  • grand jury to determine sufficiency of, 142.
  • sufficiency of, 146.
  • to be heard or indictment void, 132, 155.
  • when not to be revealed, 118.
  • attorney general cannot stipulate as to, 120n.
  • hearing of, in open court, 117, 127, 163.
  • record offered in, 119.

EXAMINATION

  • of witnesses by district attorney, 139.

EXCEPTIONS TO APPEAL, 17, 21.

EXCLUSION

  • of negroes from panel, 66.
    • white man cannot complain, 67.
  • of grand juror on challenge, effect of, 72.
    • by district attorney, 84.
  • of foreman for disqualification, 90.

EXCUSING GRAND JURORS, 84, 160.

  • presumption of in Arkansas, 85.

EXEMPTION

  • from service as grand jurors, 72.
  • distinction between disqualification and, 72.

EXISTENCE

  • of grand jury among Athenians, 1.

EX PARTE BAIN, altering indictments, 155.

EXPUNGING presentment from minutes, 160.

EYRE

  • held every seven years, 9, 12.
  • held by itinerant justices, 8, 19.
  • how held, 19.
  • hearing appellor before justices in, 12.
  • court rolls of, 11.
  • of 1218-19, order of King in Council, 18.

FAME, PUBLIC. SEE PUBLIC FAME.

FAVOR

  • grand jurors must stand indifferent, 62, 81.
  • individual jurors may be challenged for, 70, 73.
  • challenge for,
    • a common law right, 74.
    • when prosecutor on grand jury, 78.
    • upon ground of relationship, 80, 81.
    • examination on voir dire, 81.
    • cannot be made after indictment, 85.
    • in Aaron Burr's Case, 74, 82.
  • conscientious scruples against capital punishment, 76.

FEALTY

  • pledge of, by amercers, 20.

FEDERAL COURTS

  • number of grand jurors in, 45.
  • selecting and drawing grand jurors, 55.
  • qualifications of grand jurors, 63, 73, 74.
  • challenge to array, when made, 69, 85.
  • standing aside grand jurors, 83.
  • swearing witnesses, 137.
  • when witnesses disclose other offences, 110.
  • view of authority of grand jurors, 100.
  • extent of grand jury's powers, 102, 109.
  • objections to indictment made by plea in abatement, 86.
  • averse to quashing on technical grounds, 86.
  • district attorney to sign indictment, 134.
    • may summon additional witnesses, 104.
  • proceedings by information, 115.
  • rule as to treason, 144.
  • contempt of, 165.

FELONY

  • trial by battle in appeal of, 21.

FIELD, MR. JUSTICE, powers of grand jury, 108.

FIFTH AMENDMENT. SEE AMENDMENT.

FILING OF INDICTMENTS, 157.

FINDING OF GRAND JURY

  • cannot be impeached, 119.
  • influenced by district attorney, 128.
  • endorsement of, on bill, 146, 148, 150.
  • number to concur, 147.
  • as to part of a count void, 147.
  • true bill as to some of the defendants, 148.
  • incomplete or insensible, 148.
  • omission of words "true bill," 149.
  • name of offence no part of, 150.
  • reconsideration of, 150.
  • failure to endorse, 151.
  • date of, to be endorsed on bill, 151.
  • not read in open court, 156.
  • must be recorded, 156.
  • freedom from control of court in, 164.
  • if improper, may be recommitted, 165.

FINING GRAND JURORS

  • declared illegal, 164.
  • Ellis' Case, 166.

FLORIDA

  • age limit for grand jurors, 72.
  • oath of grand juror, 95n.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

FOREMAN

  • how selected, 90.
  • appointment of, noted on minutes of court, 90, 151.
  • to be sworn, 93.
  • should not be illiterate, 90.
  • pro tem. may be chosen, 90.
  • need not be reappointed when vacancy filled, 85.
  • receives indictments from district attorney, 134.
  • authority of, to swear witnesses, 137.
  • hands indictment to crier, 154.
  • when to sign return, 150.
  • signature of,
    • as evidence of empaneling, 89.
    • vouches for regularity of proceedings, 151.
    • to final report, 157.
  • name of,
    • signed by clerk, 148n.
    • variance in, 149.
  • when endorsed as prosecutor, 136.
  • discharge of, when presumed, 91.

FORM

  • amendment of matter of, 154.

FORSYTH

  • reference to the four townships, 16.
  • participation of grand jury in trial of offenders, 21.

FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT. SEE AMENDMENT.

FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL

  • abolishes ordeal, 18.
  • Professor Thayer on, 18.

FOUR TOWNSHIPS. SEE TOWNSHIPS.

FRANK PLEDGE

  • system of, 3, 4, 5.
  • view of, 5, 8.
  • continuance under Normans, 6.
  • falls into disuse, 8.

FREE AND LEGAL MEN. SEE QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JURORS.

FREEHOLDERS. SEE QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JURORS.

FREEMEN

  • four of every vill, 14, 15.
  • mentioned by Bracton, 15.
  • no part of the inquest, 15.
  • use of, not obligatory, 16.
  • limited to concurrence in finding of inquest, 16.

FRITH-BOT, 6.

FUGITIVE FROM JUSTICE

  • district attorney may act when defendant is, 110.

GAOLS

  • inquest to inquire as to, 25.
  • illegal detention of persons therein, by sheriff, 25.
  • escapes from, inquiry into, 25.

GEMOT, meeting of, 5.

GLANVILLE

  • institution of prosecutions in time of, 10.
  • four townships not mentioned by, 14.
  • presentment on suspicion, 15.
  • great interest of treatise of, 9.

GEORGIA

  • oath of grand juror, 95n.
  • grand jurors to revise taxes, 122.
  • when indictment founded on presentment, 132.
  • expunging improper presentment, 159.

GRAND JURORS

  • instructions to, 20.
  • number of indeterminate, 6.
  • superstition in number of, 6.
  • manner of procuring attendance of, regulated by statute, 47.
  • names to be set forth in venire, 49.
  • impersonation of, 49.
  • may act after jury empaneled and sworn, 51.
  • selection of,
    • in Pennsylvania, 52.
    • in Federal Courts, 55.
    • in England, 57.
    • from improper class, 52.
  • by whom summoned, 59.
  • manner of summoning immaterial, 54.
  • where incompetent persons summoned as, 52.
  • talesmen summoned as, 51.
  • qualifications of, 60, 62, 63.
    • statute
      • 2 Henry IV, C. 9, 61.
      • 6 George IV, C. 50, 61.
    • in Pennsylvania, 61.
    • Federal Courts, 61, 73, 74.
  • Blackstone on qualifications of, 61.
  • objections to personal qualifications of, 73.
  • incompetent, may become competent, 76.
  • objections to, when made, 64, 73n, 85.
  • challenge
    • for favor, 70, 73, 80, 81.
    • by whom made, 71.
  • exclusion of, on challenge, 72.
  • exemption from service as, 72.
  • forming of opinion by, 76.
  • absence from domicile, 81.
  • religious belief, 81.
  • standing aside, 83.
  • wrongfully excluded, 84.
  • may be excused, 84, 160.
  • dismissed for cause, 84.
  • empaneling of, 89.
    • where manner of drawing changed by statute, 89.
  • administering oath to, 91.
  • not sworn in any cause, 122.
  • oath of, their commission, 94.
  • restraint upon authority of, 102, 109.
  • to hear witnesses for prosecution only, 103.
  • may ask for additional evidence, 104.
  • conduct examination of witnesses, 127.
  • twelve must concur to find bill, 26, 56, 107.
  • may testify when, 118.
  • sworn as witnesses, 132.
  • to investigate into public institutions, 121.
  • exceed authority when making report, 157.
  • relation to the court, 163.
  • finding of, unlawful, 164, 166.
  • drunkenness of, 166.
  • when in contempt, 121, 165.
  • not responsible for wrongful acts, 166.
  • forfeiture by, in Connecticut, 12n.

GRAND JURY

  • its origin, 1, 2.
  • law of Ethelred II, 2.
    • declaratory of common law, 5.
  • Edward III and rise of, 2.
    • development in time of, 26.
  • le graunde inquest, 2, 26.
  • an accusing body, 2.
    • its slow growth, 5.
    • duty to present offences, 11.
    • knowledge of, as to, 11.
    • failure to present offenders, 13.
  • summoned by bailiffs in each hundred, 2.
  • panel of twenty-four knights, 2.
  • Norman origin of, disputed, 2.
  • not a Norman institution, 4.
  • Assize of Clarendon, 7, 11.
  • Northampton, statute of, 7, 11.
  • Glanville, institution of prosecutions in time of, 10.
  • accusing inquest, its scope, 10.
  • articles of inquiry or capitula, 11, 99.
  • first instance of "ignoramus," 14n.
  • four freemen of every vill, 15.
  • four townships,
    • their part in presentments, 14.
    • part of trial jury, 23.
  • presentment on suspicion, 15.
  • instructions of 1194, 16.
  • choosing twelve knights, 20.
  • oath of,
    • in Bracton's time, 20, 23, 98, 116.
    • in time of Britton, 25, 99, 116.
    • in modern times, 94.
  • instructions to, 20.
  • concealment of proceedings by, 21.
  • pledge of secrecy, 21, 99, 116.
  • confusion between petit and, 21, 22, 23.
  • administering oath, 23, 91.
  • separation of petit and, 24, 25.
  • in time of Britton, 25.
  • increase in number in time of Edward III, 26.
  • an arm of the government, 27.
  • interrogation of,
    • by the court, 27, 116.
    • in what cases not permitted, 46.
  • independence established, 28.
  • attack on by Charles II, 28.
  • case of Stephen College, 28.
  • Shaftesbury's Case, 29.
  • statute of 3 Henry VIII C. 12, 30.
    • improper use of, 41.
  • coercion of, in Pennsylvania, 31.
  • early instances of, in United States, 31n.
  • Case of John Peter Zenger, 32.
  • Constitution of United States omits reference to, 32.
  • remedied by Fifth Amendment, 32.
  • Constitution of Pennsylvania, as to, 33.
  • abolition of, 35.
    • in Western States, 44.
  • an irresponsible body, 40.
  • conservative view of, 43.
  • number composing, 2, 5, 7, 9, 20, 25, 45.
  • drawn and summoned by sheriff, 48.
  • failure to summon, at fixed time, 48, 68.
  • talesmen summoned to complete, 51.
  • implied power of the court to summon, 52.
  • summoning prior to regular term of court, 54
  • detention of, after expiration of term, 54.
  • de facto grand jury, 58.
  • irregularity in selecting and empaneling, 68, 89.
  • challenge to array or polls of, 70.
  • irregularity in, attacked in collateral proceeding, 88.
  • empaneling of, 88, 89.
  • two organized at same term, 89.
  • when manner of drawing changed by statute, 89.
  • appointment of foreman, 90.
  • clerk of, how selected, 91.
  • powers of ancient broader than modern, 99.
  • view of authority of in Federal Courts, 100.
  • prosecutions initiated before, 100.
  • Judge Addison's charges to, 101.
  • summoning of witnesses before, 101.
  • charged with matters by the court, 101, 110, 116.
  • difference in extent of authority of, 102, 109.
  • restraint upon authority of, 102, 165.
  • extent of inquiry of, 103.
  • inquisitorial power of, 104.
  • by whom matters submitted to, 107, 110, 114.
  • as defender of liberty of press, 115.
  • compelled to hear evidence in open court, 117.
  • impeaching finding of, 119.
  • to pass on public improvements, 121.
  • to investigate all crimes, 122.
  • charged by court, 124.
  • attended by district attorney, 127.
  • power of, to swear witnesses, 137.
  • defendant not to be present before, 140.
  • governed by ordinary rules of evidence, 142.
  • to determine sufficiency of evidence, 142.
  • finding of bill by, 146.
  • new bill submitted to, after ignoramus, 152.
  • presentment of finding by, 154.
  • report of, on completion of duties, 157.
  • whether improper report of, will be allowed to stand, 159
  • discharged when duties completed, 160.
  • re-assembling members of, 160.
  • relation of, to the court, 163.
  • discharge of, presumed, 89n, 160.

GUILT

  • forming opinion as to innocence or, 76.
  • prima facie presumption of, 141.

HABEAS CORPUS

  • discharge upon, refused in case of In re Wilson, 47.

HAMILTON, ANDREW

  • defends Zenger, 32.

HARDY, TRIAL OF, 127.

HEARSAY EVIDENCE not to be received, 142.

HENRY VIII, Statute of 3, C. 12, 30, 41.

HIGHWAYS

  • presentment of inquest in relation to, 25.

HOUSEHOLDER. SEE QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JUROR.

HUE AND CRY, 4, 12.

HUNDRED COURTS,

  • compurgation in, 8, 26, 27.

HUNDRED

  • inquest summoned by bailiff's, 2.
  • amerced for escape of offender, 4.
  • meeting of gemot in, 5.
  • disappearance of accusing bodies of, 27.
  • grand jurors to be of, from which chosen, 60.

HUSTON, MR. JUSTICE, Huidekoper v. Cotton, 118.

IDAHO, oath of grand juror in, 96n.

IGNORAMUS

  • first instance of, 14n.
  • return of,
    • in Stephen College's Case, 29.
    • in Shaftesbury's Case, 29.
  • upon many cases returned by magistrates, 35.
  • when to be found, 146.
  • reconsideration of, 150.
  • new bill may be submitted after, 112, 152.
  • defendant held in bail after, 153.
  • information filed after return of, 115.

IGNORANCE

  • of right to challenge no excuse, 71, 74.

ILLINOIS, oath of grand juror, 96n.

IMPEACH

  • finding of grand jury, 119.

IMPERSONATION

  • of grand juror, 49, 51n.

IMPLIED PROHIBITION

  • of Assize of Clarendon, 8.

INCOMPETENT

  • persons summoned as grand jurors, 52.
  • exempt persons are not, 72.
  • when absence from domicile will render grand juror, 81.
  • witness, indictment found upon evidence of, 143, 144.
  • evidence not to be received, 142.
  • witness testifying under objection, 145.

INCORPORATION OF BOROUGH

  • grand jury to pass upon, 121.

INDEPENDENCE of grand jury

  • established, 28.
  • asserted in College's and Shaftesbury's Cases, 30.
  • from control of court, 163.

INDEPENDENT GAZETTE, Oswald's Case. 31.

INDIANA, oath of grand jurors in, 96n.

INDIAN TERRITORY, oath of grand juror in, 98n.

INDICTMENT

  • by accusing inquest, 22, 24.
  • upon knowledge of one grand juror, 24.
  • no guaranty of, in Constitution of United States, 32.
  • where 24 grand jurors sworn and act, 45.
  • twelve must concur to find, 26, 56, 108.
  • effect of less than minimum number of grand jurors on, 46, 47.
  • when no precept issued, 48n.
  • error in grand juror's name, 49.
  • invalid when selection made from improper class, 52.
  • effect of irregularity in drawing and selecting, 57.
  • found by grand jury unlawfully constituted, 56.
  • by de facto grand jury sustained, 58.
  • effect of Statute 11 Henry IV, C. 9, upon, 61.
  • disqualification of grand juror, 62, 63.
  • failure of defendant to challenge, 71.
  • service of exempt person, effect on, 72.
  • objections
    • to grand jury
      • before indictment, 73n, 85.
      • after indictment, 64, 73, 85.
    • raised by motion to quash or plea in abatement, 86.
    • when made by demurrer, 86.
  • plea to, a waiver of defects, 87.
  • one disqualified person will vitiate, 87, 139.
  • void if grand jury organized contrary to statute, 88, 89.
  • endorsement on, as evidence of empanelling, 89.
  • inability of foreman to write, effect on, 90.
  • sustained though no foreman appointed, 91.
  • district attorney
    • may submit bill of,
      • to grand jury, 110.
      • to be earmarked, 114.
    • present when vote taken, 128.
    • hands bill to foreman, 134.
    • signature of, 134.
  • submitting new, after ignoramus, 112.
  • may embrace additional charges, 114.
  • not invalidated by failure to charge, 124n.
  • and presentment, 131.
  • definition of, 131.
  • when based upon presentment, 132.
  • witnesses
    • not heard in support of, 132.
    • names of, endorsed on, 135.
  • finding, 146.
  • when to be ignored, 146.
  • finding part of count of, void, 147.
  • found as to some of the defendants, 148.
  • billa vera se defendo, 148.
  • charging murder and found for manslaughter, 148.
  • reconsideration of, 150.
  • never alleges organization or action of grand jury, 151.
  • handed to crier by foreman, 154.
  • amendment of, 154.
  • resubmission of, to grand jury, 154.
  • reading of, to grand jury, 155.
  • sent into court by messenger, 156.
  • should be filed, 157.

INDICTOR,

  • not to serve upon petit jury, 25.

INDIFFERENT

  • where grand juror does not stand, 73, 81.

INFAMOUS CRIME. SEE INFORMATION.

  • witness convicted of, 143.

INFLAMMATORY CHARGE when error, 126.

INFORMATION

  • effect of Fifth Amendment on right to file, 33.
  • Fourteenth Amendment does not prevent States from proceeding by, 33.
  • prosecution by in Pennsylvania, 34, 113.
  • filed in all cases in California, 44.
  • cannot be filed for capital or infamous crime, 33, 153.
  • sometimes filed when bill ignored by grand jury, 33.
  • offences not contained in original, 114.
  • proceeding by, in Federal Courts, 115.
  • district attorney must obtain leave to file, 115.
  • filed when bill ignored, 115.

INGERSOLL

  • on question whether offenders tried by grand jury, 22.
  • on secrecy in grand juror's oath, 116.

INITIAL

  • error in grand jurors' name, 49.
  • use of, in foreman's signature, 149.
  • of defendant used in bill, 152.

INNOCENCE

  • presumption of, 37.
    • must be overcome, 105n.
  • establishment of, before petit jury, 37.
  • forming opinion as to guilt or, 76, 78.

INQUEST, ACCUSING. SEE ACCUSING INQUEST.

INQUEST, LE GRAUNDE, 2.

INQUEST

  • writs awarding, 17.
    • not to be bought or sold, 17.
    • provisions of Magna Charta as to, 17.

INQUIRE

  • grand jurors to diligently, 101, 105.
    • meaning of in Pennsylvania, 101.

INQUIRY

  • articles of, 11.
  • of grand jury within territorial jurisdiction, 103.

INQUISITORIAL POWER

  • of grand jurors in California, 44.
  • of Federal grand jurors, 102.
  • of grand jurors in Tennessee, Missouri and Maryland, 104.

INSANE

  • bill finding defendant, 148.

INSTRUCTIONS

  • of 1194, 11, 16.
  • to accusing body, 20.

INTEREST OF GRAND JUROR. SEE FAVOR. INTERPRETER

  • presence of in grand jury room, 140n.

INTERROGATION

  • of grand jurors by court, 27, 116.
    • in what cases not permitted, 46.

IOWA

  • when challenge not permitted in, 70.
  • oath of grand juror, 98n.
  • affidavits received to show coercion of grand jury, 119.

IRREGULARITY

  • in selecting and drawing, 57, 66, 68.
  • in record, 51.
  • in empaneling, 85n.
  • in finding, 148.
  • district attorney present when vote taken, 128.
  • accused persons may take advantage of every, 64.
  • in organization, technical objections to not favored, 86.
  • cannot be attached in collateral proceeding, 88.

IRRELEVANT EVIDENCE

  • not to be received, 142.

ITER. SEE ITINERANT JUSTICES.

ITINERANT COURTS, 7.

ITINERANT JUSTICES

  • none in Normandy, 8.
  • pleas of crown administered by, 8.
  • increased jurisdiction of, 11.
  • capitula delivered to, 11.
  • hearing appeals before, 12.
  • optional to inquire of four townships, 16.
  • order of King in Council to Eyre 1218-19, 18, 19.
  • reading of writs, 19.
  • call four or six busones, 19, 20.
  • read articles of inquiry to inquest, 20, 99.
  • may require disclosure of reasons upon which inquest acted, 21.
  • presentment indented and one part delivered to, 25.
  • control of, over grand jurors, 163.

JAILS

  • inquest to inquire as to, 25, 121.
  • illegal detention of persons therein by sheriff, 25.
  • escapes from, inquiry into, 25.

JAMES II flees to France, 31.

JILLARD vs. COMMONWEALTH, swearing witnesses, 138.

JOHNSON, CHIEF JUSTICE, administration of oath, 92.

JUDGES

  • participation of, in settling grand jury, 53, 58n.
  • standing grand jurors aside by, 83.
  • cannot organize two grand juries at same term, 89.
  • improperly influencing grand jury, 119.
  • may be temporarily absent from bench, 137n.
  • control over grand jurors, 163, 165.
  • in Federal Courts may commit for contempt, 165.

JUDGMENT, ARREST OF,

  • objections to array or polls cannot be raised by, 87.
  • omission of prosecutor's name not ground for, 135n.
  • objections in, cannot be raised after plea, 138.
  • admission of irrelevant evidence, not ground for, 143.
  • when motion will be sustained, 147.
  • when words "true bill" printed on bill, 151.
  • when finding not recorded, 156.

JURISDICTION

  • of itinerant justices increased, 11.
  • territorial, inquiry into offences within, 103.
  • of grand jury over its own members, 166.

JURORS. SEE GRAND JURORS.

JURY COMMISSIONERS

  • return need not show service of venire upon, 49.
  • in Pennsylvania, 53.
  • need not swear jurors returned according to law, 54.
  • cannot delegate authority to another, 58.
  • failure to file oath, array not quashed, 66.
  • irregularities by, 67.

JURY, GRAND. SEE GRAND JURY.

JURY. PETIT. SEE PETIT JURY.

JURY, TRIAL BY,

  • among Scandinavians, 3.
  • system carried into Normandy by Rollo, 3.
  • introduced into England, 6.

JUSTICE OF THE PEACE

  • as grand juror, 137.