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INDEX

The references are to pages.

ABATEMENT

  • objections to indictment made by plea in, 86.
  • two or more pleas in, may be filed, 86.
  • when plea in sustained, 80.
  • plea of sustained where initials of defendant used, 152.
  • objections made by plea of, in England, 84.
  • neglect to challenge, not ground for plea in, 71.
  • relationship as ground for plea in, 81.

ABOLITION OF GRAND JURY, 35.

  • Arguments pro and con, 35.
  • opinion of Daniel Davis, 36.
  • English view, 38, 39.
  • American view, 40.
  • in Western States, 44.

ABSENCE

  • of officer when selection made, 58.

ACCOMPLICE

  • indictment found on uncorroborated evidence of, 144.

ACCUSE

  • duty of thanes to, 3.

ACCUSED

  • asks instructions to grand jury, 126.

ACCUSING BODY. AND SEE ACCUSING INQUEST.

  • known as inquest or jury, 2.
  • unknown to Normans, 4.
  • number composing, 6, 23, 24.
  • its slow growth, 5.
  • importance promoted by appeal, 7.
  • reading articles to, 20.
  • presentment by, 10, 11, 21.
  • failure of, to present, 13.
  • indictment by, 22, 24.
  • disappearance of in hundred, 27.

ACCUSING INQUEST. AND SEE ACCUSING BODY.

  • scope of, 10.
  • duty to accuse, 3.
  • to answer capitula fully, 11.
  • secrecy observed by, 21, 27.
  • knowledge of, as to offenders, 11.

ACTION

  • against grand juror, when maintainable, 166.

ACTS

  • presumption of regularity of official, 59.
  • accused may take advantage of irregular, 64.
  • wrongful, of grand jurors, 166.

ADDISON, JUDGE,

  • charges to grand juries, 101, 124, 131, 141.

ADJOURNMENT

  • of grand jury from time to time, 160.

AFFIDAVIT

  • when necessary to sheriff's return, 54.
  • in support of challenge to array, 68.

AFFINITY

  • grand jurors related to accused by, 81.

AFFIRMATION. AND SEE OATH.

  • of grand jurors, 91, 137.

AFFORCIAMENT

  • when employed, 24.

AGE OF GRAND JURORS

  • exemption by reason of, 72.

ALABAMA

  • oath of grand juror in, 95n.
  • investigation of sufficiency of official bonds, 122.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 136.

ALIEN

  • not a competent grand juror, 60, 63, 77.
  • cannot demand grand jury de medietate linguae, 64.

AMENDMENT

  • of writ of venire, 48.
  • of sheriff's return, 50.
  • of record nunc pro tunc, 93.
  • of indictment, 154, 155.
  • Fifth, to Constitution of United States, 32, 131.
    • applies solely to offences against United States, 33.
    • does not apply to Cherokee Nation, 33n.
  • Sixth, to Constitution of United States, 57.
  • Fourteenth, to Constitution of United States, 33, 66.
    • does not prevent states from prosecuting by information, 33.
    • gives white man no additional rights, 67.

AMERCEMENT

  • of hundred for escape of offender, 4.

AMERCERS

  • pledges taken by, 20.

AMERICA

  • grand jury brought to, in settlement of, 31.
  • civil rights become strongly developed in, 32.
  • modern view of grand jury in, 40.

AMICUS CURIAE

  • challenge by attorney as, 71.

ANCIENT

  • oath of grand jury, 20, 92, 98.
  • grand jury, powers of, broader than modern, 99.

ANGLO-SAXON

  • origin of grand jury, 2.
  • sectatores, 3.

APPEAL

  • a Norman institution, 3.
  • rise of the, 9, 10.
  • a personal action, 9.
  • cognizable in the King's Court, 9.
  • prosecution of, 13.
  • promotes importance of accusing body, 7.
  • how made, 12.
  • exceptions to, 17, 21.
  • trial by country when woman makes, 21.

APPELLEE

  • may elect between
    • battle and ordeal, 10, 12.
    • battle and country, 21.
  • right to decline battle, 17.
  • could not retract after choice made, 21.

APPELLOR

  • enrolment of complaint, 12.
  • hearing of, 12.
  • reading of coroner's rolls, 12.
  • hearing before justices in eyre, 12.

APPOINTMENT OF FOREMAN. SEE FOREMAN.

ARIZONA

  • oath of grand juror in, 98n.

ARKANSAS

  • qualifications of grand jurors, 62.
  • excusing grand jurors, presumption of, 85.
  • oath of grand juror, 96n.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

ARMORIES

  • workmen in, exempt from jury service, 73.

ARRAY

  • objections to, 65.
  • motion to quash, when not sustained, 67.
  • if quashed, tales not to issue, 52
  • challenge to, must be substantiated by oath, 68.
    • causes of, 66.
    • when made, 68, 85.
    • how made, 70
    • in Federal Courts, 69, 85.

ARREST

  • indictment found without previous, 114.

ARREST OF JUDGMENT. SEE JUDGMENT.

ARSENALS

  • workmen in, exempt from jury service, 73.

ARTICLES OF INQUIRY, 11.

  • reading of to accusing body, 20.

ASHFORD vs. THORNTON,

  • wager of battle, 13.

ASSENT

  • of grand jury to amendment of indictment, 154.

ASSIZE

  • writs awarding, 17.
  • of Clarendon, 7, 8, 11, 14, 17, 18.
    • its provisions, 7.
    • offenders to be tried by ordeal, 7
    • itinerant courts created by, 7.
    • four townspeople referred to in, 7, 23.
    • marks important change in law, 7.
    • implied prohibition of, 8.
    • Prof. Thayer on, 18.
  • of Northampton, 7, 11, 17.
    • provisions of, 9.
    • divided kingdom into six circuits, 8, 9.

ASYLUMS

  • investigation into, 121.

ATHENIANS,

  • existence of juries among, 1.

ATTACHMENT,

  • to compel attendance of witnesses, 133.
  • of grand juror for misconduct, 166.

ATTENDANCE.

  • of grand jurors, differences in statutes requiring, 47.
    • at time fixed by statute, 48.
    • before and after regular term, 54.
    • immaterial how procured, 54.
    • after jury empaneled and sworn, 51.
    • of improper person, 49, 139.
    • in Pennsylvania, 52.
    • in Federal Courts, 55.
    • in England, 57.
  • of witnesses, grand jurors cannot compel, 104.
    • how procured, 132.

ATTORNEY GENERAL

  • authority of, to prefer indictment, 107, 111.
  • acting without leave of court, 111.
  • cannot stipulate what the evidence is, 120n.
  • moves to expunge presentment in Georgia, 160.
  • for the crown, authority of, 113.

AUTHORITY

  • of attorney general for the crown, 113.
  • of district attorney to prefer indictment, 107, 110.
  • of ancient grand jury broader than modern, 99.
  • of grand jury, limitation upon in time of Cromwell, 99.
    • differences in extent of, 102, 109.
    • Chief Justice Chase on, 102.
    • to inquire into all offences within jurisdiction, 103.
    • restraint upon, 102, 165.
    • to punish witnesses, 104, 165.
  • inquisitorial, of grand jury, 104.
  • devolving upon grand jurors by statute, 121.
  • to administer oath to witnesses, 137, 165.
  • grand jurors exceed, in making report, 157.
  • of court over grand jurors, 163.
  • delegation of, by officer, 58.
  • of de facto officers, 58.

AWARD

  • of writ of inquest in real actions, 17.

BAILIFF

  • inquest summoned by, 2.
  • inhabitants of hundred enrolled by, 20.

BALWIN, JUDGE,

  • Rector v. Smith, 159.

BANISHMENT, 9.

BATTLE

  • wager of, 3, 6, 7, 10, 21.
  • trial by, rise of, 9.
  • last instance of, 13.
  • exceptions to, 17, 21.
  • when awarded or refused, 10.
  • appellee's election between ordeal and, 10.
  • right to choose, 21.
  • right to decline, 17.
  • appeals of felony, 21.
  • in real actions, 17.

BENTHAM

  • secrecy in grand juror's oath, 116.

BIAS OF GRAND JUROR. SEE FAVOR.

BIENNIAL VISIT OF SHERIFF, 5.

BIGAMY. SEE POLYGAMY.

BILL. SEE INDICTMENT; TRUE BILL.

BILLA VERA, 147.

  • se defendo, 148.

BLACKSTONE, SIR WILLIAM

  • view of leet and tourn, 5.
  • on qualification of grand jurors, 61.
  • powers of attorney general for the crown, 113.

BOOKS AND PAPERS

  • production of, how procured, 133.
  • relevancy of, 133, 143.

BOROUGH

  • incorporation of, 121.
    • court will not review facts as to, 121.

BRACTON

  • four freeman of every vill, 15.
    • no part of inquest, 15.
  • institution of prosecutions, 19.
  • indictment by grand jury, 24.
  • grand jurors, qualifications of, 60, 62.
    • oath of, 20, 98, 116.
    • wholly under control of court, 163.
  • trial by jury, 21.
    • proceedings before petit jury, 22.
    • peremptory challenges not known, 75.
    • oath of petit jurors, 22.

BRADFORD, ATTORNEY GENERAL

  • powers of grand jury, 100.

BRANCH'S CASE

  • evidence heard in public, 117.

BREWER, MR. JUSTICE.

  • Case of In re Wilson, 47.

BRIDGES

  • presentment of inquest in relation to, 25, 121.
  • appropriations for, 127n.

BRITTON

  • grand jury in time of, 25.
    • oath of, 25, 99, 116.
    • duties of, 25.
    • wholly under control of court, 163.
  • peremptory challenges not known, 75.

BROWN vs. STATE,

  • administration of oath, 92.

BRYAN, JUDGE,

  • Oswald's case, 31.

BURR, AARON, TRIAL OF.

  • challenge for favor, 74, 82.
  • supplemental charge to grand jury, 125.

BUSONES

  • called by itinerant justices, 20.

BYSTANDERS

  • selection of talesmen from, 50.
  • Federal grand jurors not selected from, 55.
  • talesman chosen from, appointed foreman, 90n.

CALIFORNIA

  • grand jury in, 44.
  • oath of grand juror, 97n.

CAPITAL CRIME. SEE INFORMATION.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

  • conscientious scruples against, 76.

CAPITULA

  • or articles of inquiry, 11.
  • inquest to answer fully, 11.
  • reading of, 99.

CASE OF

  • Aaron Burr, 74, 82, 125.
  • Ashford v. Thornton, trial by battle, 13.
  • Branch, evidence heard in public, 117.
  • Brown v. State, administration of oath, 92.
  • College, Stephen, ignoramus, 28.
  • Com. v. Crans, approaching grand juror, 162.
  • Com. v. English, authority of district attorney, 111.
  • Com. v. Knapp, list of witnesses, 136.
  • Com. v. Morton, talesmen, 54.
  • Crowley v. United States, disqualification of grand juror, 74,
  • Ellis, disregarding oath, 166.
  • Ex Parte Bain, altering indictment, 155.
  • Hardy, attendance of crown solicitor, 127.
  • In re Wilson, lawful grand jury, 47, 56.
  • Jillard v. Com., swearing witnesses, 138.
  • Lewis, standing jurors aside, 83.
  • Oswald, coercion of grand jury, 31.
  • People v. Petrea, de facto grand jury, 58.
  • Rector v. Smith, libellous report of grand jury, 158.
  • Rex v. Dickinson, witnesses not sworn, 139.
  • Rowand v. Com., second bill sent to grand jury, 112.
  • Scarlett, unlawfully procuring indictments, 42, 117.
  • Shaftesbury, ignoramus, 29, 117, 129.
  • Sheridan, challenge, 75.
  • State v. Cowan, control of court over grand jury, 165.
  • Summerhayes, contempt of court, 165.
  • Windham, fining grand jurors, 164.
  • Zenger, ignoramus, 32.

CAUSE

  • challenge for, 69, 77, 82n.
  • individual jurors may be challenged for, 70.
  • to be shown on challenge for favor, 74.

CAUSEWAYS

  • presentment of inquest in relation to, 25.

CHALLENGE

  • error to refuse right of, 65.
  • legislature cannot take away right of, 70.
  • defendant must demand right to, 71.
  • to array, 66, 68.
  • when made, 68, 85.
  • must be substantiated by affidavit, 68.
  • state's attorney cannot challenge panel, 70.
  • peremptory, not allowed, 75, 82.
  • unknown in time of Bracton and Britton, 75.
  • for favor, 70, 73, 74, 76, 77, 82.
  • how determined, 82.
  • to be made before grand juror sworn, 74.
  • where opinion formed and expressed, 76.
  • upon ground of relationship, 80.
  • examination on voir dire not permitted on, 81.
  • of grand juror for cause, 69, 77, 82.
  • how made, 70.
  • by whom made, 71.
  • absence from domicile, 81.
  • made and withdrawn cannot be assigned for error, 70.
  • exclusion of grand juror on, 72.
  • when not allowed in Iowa, 70.
  • in Federal Courts, 69.
  • Federal grand jury depleted by, 55.
  • of petit jurors for cause, 23, 25.

CHARGE OF THE COURT

  • when made, 124.
  • as means of communication with public, 124.
  • effect of omission of, 124n.
  • supplemental, when given, 125.
  • at whose request made, 125.
  • in Aaron Burr's case, 125.
  • Judge Cranch's view, 126.
  • when inflammatory, 126.
  • delivered by Chief Justice Shaw, 43.

CHARGES TO GRAND JURIES,

  • Judge Addison's, 101, 124.

CHARLES II,

  • attack on grand jury, 28, 31.

CHASE, CHIEF JUSTICE,

  • powers of grand jury, 102.

CHEROKEE NATION

  • powers of, not affected by Constitution, 33n.

CHITTY,

  • qualifications of grand jurors, 60.

CHOOSING GRAND JURY, 20.

CHRISTIAN, MR.,

  • secrecy in grand juror's oath, 116, 118.

CIRCUITS

  • division of kingdom into six, 8, 9.

CIVIL CAUSES

  • only considered by sectatores and nambda, 3.

CIVIL RIGHTS

  • brought to America by Englishmen, 31.
  • become strongly developed, 32.

CLARENDON, ASSIZE OF, 7, 8, 11, 14, 17, 18.

  • its provisions, 7.
  • offenders to be tried by ordeal, 7.
  • marks important change in law, 7.
  • itinerant courts created by, 7.
  • implied prohibition of, 8.
  • four townspeople referred to in, 7, 23.
  • Prof. Thayer on, 18.

CLARK, MR. JUSTICE, 129.

CLERGY

  • forbidden to participate in ordeal, 18.

CLERICAL ERRORS IN INDICTMENT, 154.

CLERK

  • of grand jury,
    • how selected, 91.
    • not to disclose secrets, 120.
    • signing name of foreman, 148n.
  • of court,
    • to swear witnesses, 137.
    • to record finding, 156.

COERCION

  • of grand jury,
    • in College's Case, 28.
    • in Shaftesbury's Case, 29.
    • in Pennsylvania, 31.
    • in Mississippi in 1902, 31n.
  • affidavits of grand jurors received to show, 119.
  • of sheriffs in return of grand jury panel, 30.

COKE, LORD

  • views of on origin of number of grand jury, 6.
  • on evils of grand jury system, 41.
  • comment on unlawful grand jurors, 60.

COLLATERAL PROCEEDINGS

  • objections to irregularity cannot be raised in, 88.
  • attack on order of discharge, 162.

COLLEGE, STEPHEN,

  • Case of, 28.

COLORADO

  • oath of grand juror in, 97n.

COMMISSION

  • oath of grand juror as his, 94.

COMMISSIONERS. SEE JURY COMMISSIONERS.

COMMITMENT OF WITNESSES, 132n.

COMMITTING MAGISTRATE. SEE MAGISTRATE.

COMMON FAME. SEE PUBLIC FAME.

COMMON LAW

  • Statute of Ethelred declaratory of, 5.
  • disqualification imposed by, 73.
  • right, challenge for favor a, 74.
  • examination of witnesses by grand jurors, 127.
  • method of swearing witnesses, 137.

COMMONWEALTH

  • v. Crans. Approaching grand juror, 162:
  • v. English. Power of district attorney, 111.
  • v. Knapp. List of witnesses, 136.
  • v. Morton. Talesmen, 54.
  • v. Sheppard. Authority of district attorney, 114.

COMMUNICATION

  • with grand jury forbidden except through court, 103, 162.
  • sent to grand jury by court, 126.
  • privileged, 143, 159.
  • report of grand jury not a privileged, 159.

COMPETENCY OF GRAND JUROR

  • challenge to array does not extend to, 68.
  • when objection waived, 72.
  • age as affecting, 72.
  • restored before service, 76.
  • opinion as affecting, 80.
  • relationship as affecting, 80.

COMPLAINT OF APPELLOR, enrollment of. 12.

COMPURGATION

  • trial by, 4.
  • disappearance of, in criminal cases, 8.

CONCEALMENT, of proceedings by inquest, 21.

CONCURRENCE

  • of twelve grand jurors to find bill, 26, 56, 108, 147.
  • when grand juror may testify as to, 119.

CONNECTICUT

  • forfeiture by grand juror in, 12n.
  • oath of grand juror in, 95n.
  • defendant may appear before grand jury in, 103.
  • town meeting chooses grand jurors in, 122.

CONSANGUINITY

  • grand jurors related to accused by, 81.

CONSCIENTIOUS SCRUPLES

  • against capital punishment, 76.
  • against taking oath, 91n.

CONSERVATIVE VIEW of Grand Jury, 43.

CONSTITUTION

  • of United States omits grand jury, 32.
  • remedied by Fifth Amendment, 32, 132.
  • Fourteenth Amendment to, 33.
  • does not affect powers of Cherokee Nation, 33n
  • of Pennsylvania, 33.
    • declaration of rights in, 34.

CONTEMPT

  • witness refusing to testify in, 88, 133.
  • when witness not in, 121, 133.
  • when grand juror in, 165.

CONTROL of Court over grand jurors, 163.

CONTINUANCE OF FRANK PLEDGE under the Normans, 6.

CONVICTION

  • evidence to justify, 102, 105, 141.

CORONER

  • duty to enrol appellor's complaint, 12.
  • rolls of,
    • when read, 12.
    • disagreement in, 12.
  • when member of jury disqualified as grand juror, 80.
  • to summon grand jurors when sheriff disqualified, 59.

CORSNED, trial by, 4.

COUNT

  • finding as to one or more, 147.
  • finding as to part of, void, 147.

COUNTRY, TRIAL BY THE. See Trial by Jury.

COUNTY ATTORNEY, 127n, 128n.

COUNTY BRIDGE, grand jury to authorize, 121.

COURT,

  • suitors of the, 3.
    • interrogation of grand jury by the, 21, 27, 116.
    • order or precept issued by, 48.
    • seal of, 48.
    • may order signing of sheriff's return, 49.
  • orders summoning of talesmen, 50.
  • not to furnish names, 51.
    • implied power of to summon grand jurors, 52.
  • grand jury, summoned prior to regular term of, 54.
    • detention after expiration of term of, 54.
  • may not arbitrarily remove grand juror, 84.
  • may excuse grand juror, 84.
    • unfavorable to technical objections, 86.
  • illegally impaneling grand jury, 89.
  • foreman appointed by, 90.
  • matters given in charge of grand jury by, 101, 106.
  • to order additional testimony produced, 104.
  • district attorney to obtain leave of, 111, 115.
  • hearing of evidence in open, 117, 127, 163.
  • contempt of, 121, 165.
  • charges grand jury when, 124.
  • when grand jury in, 130.
  • swearing witnesses in open, 137.
  • will not inquire as to sufficiency of evidence, 146.
  • findings not read in open, 156.
  • how indictments brought into, 156.
  • relation of grand jury to, 163.

COURT LEET, 5, 8.

COURT ROLLS of the eyres, 11, 24.

COURTS, ITINERANT. SEE ITINERANT COURTS.

CRABB

  • on question whether grand jury also tried offenders, 22.

CRANCH, JUDGE,

  • supplemental charge, 126.

CRIMINAL CASES

  • disappearance of compurgation in, 8.
  • petit jury in, 10.

CRIMINAL PLEAS

  • not considered by nambda, 3.

CRIMINATE

  • where testimony of witness will tend to, 133.

CROMWELL, OLIVER, oath in time of, 99.

CROWLEY vs. UNITED STATES. R. S. U. S. Sec. 1025, 74.

CROWN

  • growth of influence of, 8.
  • pleas of, administered by itinerant justices, 8.
  • authority of attorney general for, 113.

CRY, HUE AND, 4, 12.

CURIA REGIS, sheriff selected from justices of, 8.

CUSTOM

  • as to number of grand jurors, 6.
  • grand jury a growth of, 26.
  • of weregild, 4.
    • disuse of, 9.

DATE

  • of finding bill, endorsement of, 151.
  • of filing bill, endorsement of, 157.

DA VIS, DANIEL

  • opinion on grand jury, 36.
  • condemns grand jury reports, 158.
  • re-assembling grand jury after discharge, 161.

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS (PA.), 34.

DE FACTO

  • officers, authority of, 58.
  • grand jury, 58.

DEFECT

  • what is, within meaning of R. S. U. S. Sec. 1025, 74.
  • appearing on face of indictment, ground for demurrer, 86.
  • cannot be attacked in collateral proceeding, 88.
  • in record, may be amended, 93.
  • in indictment may be amended, 154.

DEFECTIVE PROCEEDINGS

when cured by plea, 56.

DEFENDANT

  • presence of, when evidence heard, 103, 140.
  • tampering with witnesses, 143.
  • voluntarily testifying before grand jury, 144.
  • compelled to testify against himself, 145.
  • found to be insane, 148.
  • initials of, used in bill, 152.
  • held in bail after ignoramus, 153.

DEFICIENCY

  • in number of grand jurors, 51, 55.

DELIBERATIONS OF GRAND JURY

  • to be private, 28, 29, 119.
  • presence of district attorney during, 128.
    • unauthorized person, 139

DE MEDIETATE LINGUAE, 64.

DEMURRER

  • filed when defect on face of indictment, 86.
  • cannot be sustained for omission of prosecutor's name, 135n.

DEPOSITIONS

  • of witnesses, when received, 143.

DEVELOPMENT OF GRAND JURY in time of Edward III, 26.

DILIGENTLY INQUIRE

  • duty of grand jury to, 101, 105.
  • meaning of in Pennsylvania, 101.

DIRECTORY

  • statutory provisions held to be, 49, 81, 136.
  • statute, grand jurors irregularly drawn under, 57.
  • provisions for filing are generally, 157.

DISAGREEMENT of Coroner's Rolls, 12.

DISAPPEARANCE

  • of compurgation in criminal cases, 8.
  • of accusing bodies of hundreds, 27.

DISCHARGE

  • of grand juror for cause by the court, 84.
  • of grand jury presumed, 89, 160.
    • illegally empaneled, 89.
    • for contempt of court, 165.
    • upon completion of duties, 160.
    • reassembling after, 160.
  • collateral attack on order of, 162.
  • of foreman presumed, 91.

DISCLOSURE

  • of evidence, when to be made, 118.
  • of proceedings, 162.
  • of how juror voted, 119.
  • of knowledge to fellow jurors, 132.

DISQUALIFICATION

  • of Federal grand jurors, 63, 69, 73.
  • and exemption, distinction between, 72.
  • imposed by statute or common law, 73.
  • ruling in Crowley v. United States, 74.
  • absence from domicile as a, 81.
  • religious belief not a, 81.
  • of grand juror cured before service, 76.
  • of foreman, 90.

DISQUALIFIED PERSON, presence of one will vitiate indictment, 87.

DISTRICT

  • Federal grand jurors selected from body of, 55.
  • summoned from part of, 56.

DISTRICT ATTORNEY

  • improperly excludes grand juror, 84.
  • gives matters in charge of grand jury, 101, 107, 110.
  • cannot permit defendent's witnesses to appear before grand jury, 103, 141.
  • may summon additional witnesses, 104.
  • private prosecutor to complain to, 109, 162.
  • to obtain leave of court, 111, 115.
  • bill to be earmarked, 114.
  • authority of, in Pennsylvania, 130.
  • to sign indictment, 134.
  • hands indictments to foreman, 134.
  • attends grand jury, 127.
  • to conduct examination of witnesses, 139.
  • not to express opinion to grand jury, 142.
  • presence during deliberations, 128.
  • indictments sent into court by, 156.
  • may enter nolle pros, 142.
  • may not testify, when, 120.
  • stenographer as assistant to, 139.

DISUSE OF WEREGILD, 9.

DIVERSE VIEWS,

  • as to origin of grand jury, 1.
  • as to utility and abolition of grand jury, 35.

DOCUMENTS. SEE BOOKS AND PAPERS.

DOMICILE

  • when absence from will disqualify, 81.

DRAWING. SEE SELECTION.

DRUNKENNESS OF GRAND JUROR, 166.

DUE PROCESS OF LAW, 33.

  • defined in Hurtado v. California, 110 U. S. 516, 39n.

DUTY

  • of twelve thanes to accuse, 3.
  • of accusing body to present offenders, 11.
  • of king's sergeants to enroll appellor's complaint, 12.
  • of coroner to enroll appellor's complaint, 12.

EARL OF SHAFTESBURY'S CASE, 29.

EASTERN STATES

  • conservatism of, on grand jury, 44.

EDWARD III

  • and rise of grand jury, 2.
  • development of grand jury in time of, 26.

ELECTION

  • by appellor between battle and ordeal, 10.

ELECTOR. SEE VOTER.

ELLIS' CASE, disregarding oath, 166.

EMPANELED

  • when grand jurors are, 88, 89.
  • grand jury may be, at any time during term, 88.
  • when grand jury illegally, discharge of, 89.
  • may investigate offence committed after being, 103.

EMPANELING

  • irregularity in, 68, 85n, 89.
    • witness must testify although, 88.
  • objections to grand jurors before, 64n, 69n, 85n.
  • talesmen may be added after, 51.
  • record must show, 89.
  • after new statue prescribes different method, 89.

ENDORSEMENT

  • on bill, not evidence of empaneling, 89.
    • of names of witnesses, 135.
    • of name of prosecutor, 135.
    • of finding, 146, 148, 151.
    • of date of finding, 151.
    • of date of filing, 157.
    • effect of, when printed, 151.
  • parcel of indictment, 150.
  • sufficiency of, 150.
  • manner of, when directed by statute, 151.

ENGLAND

  • selection and summoning grand jurors, 57.
  • court cannot order grand juror to withdraw, 84.
  • evidence upon which bill found, 105.
  • when new bill sent to subsequent grand jury, 152.
  • modern view of grand jury in, 38.
  • grand jury brought to America, 31.

ENROLMENT

  • of appellor's complaint, 12.

ERROR

  • in venire, 49.
  • in returning bill, 147n.

ESCAPES

  • from gaol, inquiry by inquest into, 25.

ETHELRED II.

  • law of, 2, 3.
    • declaratory of common law, 5.
    • ordained as frith-bot, 6.
  • oath in time of, 98.

EVIDENCE

  • challenge to array to be supported by, 68.
  • of appointment of foreman, 90.
  • of formation of opinion not clear, 78.
  • of prosecution only to be heard, 103.
  • presence of defendant at hearing of, 103, 140.
  • grand jurors may demand production of additional, 104.
  • incompetent, not to be heard, 142.
  • hearsay and irrelevant, not to be received, 142.
  • uncorroborated, of accomplice, 144.
  • which tends to incriminate, 133.
  • production of books and papers as, 133.
  • grand jurors governed by ordinary rules of, 142.
  • presentment after hearing, 105.
  • to justify finding true bill, 102, 105, 141.
  • grand jury to determine sufficiency of, 142.
  • sufficiency of, 146.
  • to be heard or indictment void, 132, 155.
  • when not to be revealed, 118.
  • attorney general cannot stipulate as to, 120n.
  • hearing of, in open court, 117, 127, 163.
  • record offered in, 119.

EXAMINATION

  • of witnesses by district attorney, 139.

EXCEPTIONS TO APPEAL, 17, 21.

EXCLUSION

  • of negroes from panel, 66.
    • white man cannot complain, 67.
  • of grand juror on challenge, effect of, 72.
    • by district attorney, 84.
  • of foreman for disqualification, 90.

EXCUSING GRAND JURORS, 84, 160.

  • presumption of in Arkansas, 85.

EXEMPTION

  • from service as grand jurors, 72.
  • distinction between disqualification and, 72.

EXISTENCE

  • of grand jury among Athenians, 1.

EX PARTE BAIN, altering indictments, 155.

EXPUNGING presentment from minutes, 160.

EYRE

  • held every seven years, 9, 12.
  • held by itinerant justices, 8, 19.
  • how held, 19.
  • hearing appellor before justices in, 12.
  • court rolls of, 11.
  • of 1218-19, order of King in Council, 18.

FAME, PUBLIC. SEE PUBLIC FAME.

FAVOR

  • grand jurors must stand indifferent, 62, 81.
  • individual jurors may be challenged for, 70, 73.
  • challenge for,
    • a common law right, 74.
    • when prosecutor on grand jury, 78.
    • upon ground of relationship, 80, 81.
    • examination on voir dire, 81.
    • cannot be made after indictment, 85.
    • in Aaron Burr's Case, 74, 82.
  • conscientious scruples against capital punishment, 76.

FEALTY

  • pledge of, by amercers, 20.

FEDERAL COURTS

  • number of grand jurors in, 45.
  • selecting and drawing grand jurors, 55.
  • qualifications of grand jurors, 63, 73, 74.
  • challenge to array, when made, 69, 85.
  • standing aside grand jurors, 83.
  • swearing witnesses, 137.
  • when witnesses disclose other offences, 110.
  • view of authority of grand jurors, 100.
  • extent of grand jury's powers, 102, 109.
  • objections to indictment made by plea in abatement, 86.
  • averse to quashing on technical grounds, 86.
  • district attorney to sign indictment, 134.
    • may summon additional witnesses, 104.
  • proceedings by information, 115.
  • rule as to treason, 144.
  • contempt of, 165.

FELONY

  • trial by battle in appeal of, 21.

FIELD, MR. JUSTICE, powers of grand jury, 108.

FIFTH AMENDMENT. SEE AMENDMENT.

FILING OF INDICTMENTS, 157.

FINDING OF GRAND JURY

  • cannot be impeached, 119.
  • influenced by district attorney, 128.
  • endorsement of, on bill, 146, 148, 150.
  • number to concur, 147.
  • as to part of a count void, 147.
  • true bill as to some of the defendants, 148.
  • incomplete or insensible, 148.
  • omission of words "true bill," 149.
  • name of offence no part of, 150.
  • reconsideration of, 150.
  • failure to endorse, 151.
  • date of, to be endorsed on bill, 151.
  • not read in open court, 156.
  • must be recorded, 156.
  • freedom from control of court in, 164.
  • if improper, may be recommitted, 165.

FINING GRAND JURORS

  • declared illegal, 164.
  • Ellis' Case, 166.

FLORIDA

  • age limit for grand jurors, 72.
  • oath of grand juror, 95n.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

FOREMAN

  • how selected, 90.
  • appointment of, noted on minutes of court, 90, 151.
  • to be sworn, 93.
  • should not be illiterate, 90.
  • pro tem. may be chosen, 90.
  • need not be reappointed when vacancy filled, 85.
  • receives indictments from district attorney, 134.
  • authority of, to swear witnesses, 137.
  • hands indictment to crier, 154.
  • when to sign return, 150.
  • signature of,
    • as evidence of empaneling, 89.
    • vouches for regularity of proceedings, 151.
    • to final report, 157.
  • name of,
    • signed by clerk, 148n.
    • variance in, 149.
  • when endorsed as prosecutor, 136.
  • discharge of, when presumed, 91.

FORM

  • amendment of matter of, 154.

FORSYTH

  • reference to the four townships, 16.
  • participation of grand jury in trial of offenders, 21.

FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT. SEE AMENDMENT.

FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL

  • abolishes ordeal, 18.
  • Professor Thayer on, 18.

FOUR TOWNSHIPS. SEE TOWNSHIPS.

FRANK PLEDGE

  • system of, 3, 4, 5.
  • view of, 5, 8.
  • continuance under Normans, 6.
  • falls into disuse, 8.

FREE AND LEGAL MEN. SEE QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JURORS.

FREEHOLDERS. SEE QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JURORS.

FREEMEN

  • four of every vill, 14, 15.
  • mentioned by Bracton, 15.
  • no part of the inquest, 15.
  • use of, not obligatory, 16.
  • limited to concurrence in finding of inquest, 16.

FRITH-BOT, 6.

FUGITIVE FROM JUSTICE

  • district attorney may act when defendant is, 110.

GAOLS

  • inquest to inquire as to, 25.
  • illegal detention of persons therein, by sheriff, 25.
  • escapes from, inquiry into, 25.

GEMOT, meeting of, 5.

GLANVILLE

  • institution of prosecutions in time of, 10.
  • four townships not mentioned by, 14.
  • presentment on suspicion, 15.
  • great interest of treatise of, 9.

GEORGIA

  • oath of grand juror, 95n.
  • grand jurors to revise taxes, 122.
  • when indictment founded on presentment, 132.
  • expunging improper presentment, 159.

GRAND JURORS

  • instructions to, 20.
  • number of indeterminate, 6.
  • superstition in number of, 6.
  • manner of procuring attendance of, regulated by statute, 47.
  • names to be set forth in venire, 49.
  • impersonation of, 49.
  • may act after jury empaneled and sworn, 51.
  • selection of,
    • in Pennsylvania, 52.
    • in Federal Courts, 55.
    • in England, 57.
    • from improper class, 52.
  • by whom summoned, 59.
  • manner of summoning immaterial, 54.
  • where incompetent persons summoned as, 52.
  • talesmen summoned as, 51.
  • qualifications of, 60, 62, 63.
    • statute
      • 2 Henry IV, C. 9, 61.
      • 6 George IV, C. 50, 61.
    • in Pennsylvania, 61.
    • Federal Courts, 61, 73, 74.
  • Blackstone on qualifications of, 61.
  • objections to personal qualifications of, 73.
  • incompetent, may become competent, 76.
  • objections to, when made, 64, 73n, 85.
  • challenge
    • for favor, 70, 73, 80, 81.
    • by whom made, 71.
  • exclusion of, on challenge, 72.
  • exemption from service as, 72.
  • forming of opinion by, 76.
  • absence from domicile, 81.
  • religious belief, 81.
  • standing aside, 83.
  • wrongfully excluded, 84.
  • may be excused, 84, 160.
  • dismissed for cause, 84.
  • empaneling of, 89.
    • where manner of drawing changed by statute, 89.
  • administering oath to, 91.
  • not sworn in any cause, 122.
  • oath of, their commission, 94.
  • restraint upon authority of, 102, 109.
  • to hear witnesses for prosecution only, 103.
  • may ask for additional evidence, 104.
  • conduct examination of witnesses, 127.
  • twelve must concur to find bill, 26, 56, 107.
  • may testify when, 118.
  • sworn as witnesses, 132.
  • to investigate into public institutions, 121.
  • exceed authority when making report, 157.
  • relation to the court, 163.
  • finding of, unlawful, 164, 166.
  • drunkenness of, 166.
  • when in contempt, 121, 165.
  • not responsible for wrongful acts, 166.
  • forfeiture by, in Connecticut, 12n.

GRAND JURY

  • its origin, 1, 2.
  • law of Ethelred II, 2.
    • declaratory of common law, 5.
  • Edward III and rise of, 2.
    • development in time of, 26.
  • le graunde inquest, 2, 26.
  • an accusing body, 2.
    • its slow growth, 5.
    • duty to present offences, 11.
    • knowledge of, as to, 11.
    • failure to present offenders, 13.
  • summoned by bailiffs in each hundred, 2.
  • panel of twenty-four knights, 2.
  • Norman origin of, disputed, 2.
  • not a Norman institution, 4.
  • Assize of Clarendon, 7, 11.
  • Northampton, statute of, 7, 11.
  • Glanville, institution of prosecutions in time of, 10.
  • accusing inquest, its scope, 10.
  • articles of inquiry or capitula, 11, 99.
  • first instance of "ignoramus," 14n.
  • four freemen of every vill, 15.
  • four townships,
    • their part in presentments, 14.
    • part of trial jury, 23.
  • presentment on suspicion, 15.
  • instructions of 1194, 16.
  • choosing twelve knights, 20.
  • oath of,
    • in Bracton's time, 20, 23, 98, 116.
    • in time of Britton, 25, 99, 116.
    • in modern times, 94.
  • instructions to, 20.
  • concealment of proceedings by, 21.
  • pledge of secrecy, 21, 99, 116.
  • confusion between petit and, 21, 22, 23.
  • administering oath, 23, 91.
  • separation of petit and, 24, 25.
  • in time of Britton, 25.
  • increase in number in time of Edward III, 26.
  • an arm of the government, 27.
  • interrogation of,
    • by the court, 27, 116.
    • in what cases not permitted, 46.
  • independence established, 28.
  • attack on by Charles II, 28.
  • case of Stephen College, 28.
  • Shaftesbury's Case, 29.
  • statute of 3 Henry VIII C. 12, 30.
    • improper use of, 41.
  • coercion of, in Pennsylvania, 31.
  • early instances of, in United States, 31n.
  • Case of John Peter Zenger, 32.
  • Constitution of United States omits reference to, 32.
  • remedied by Fifth Amendment, 32.
  • Constitution of Pennsylvania, as to, 33.
  • abolition of, 35.
    • in Western States, 44.
  • an irresponsible body, 40.
  • conservative view of, 43.
  • number composing, 2, 5, 7, 9, 20, 25, 45.
  • drawn and summoned by sheriff, 48.
  • failure to summon, at fixed time, 48, 68.
  • talesmen summoned to complete, 51.
  • implied power of the court to summon, 52.
  • summoning prior to regular term of court, 54
  • detention of, after expiration of term, 54.
  • de facto grand jury, 58.
  • irregularity in selecting and empaneling, 68, 89.
  • challenge to array or polls of, 70.
  • irregularity in, attacked in collateral proceeding, 88.
  • empaneling of, 88, 89.
  • two organized at same term, 89.
  • when manner of drawing changed by statute, 89.
  • appointment of foreman, 90.
  • clerk of, how selected, 91.
  • powers of ancient broader than modern, 99.
  • view of authority of in Federal Courts, 100.
  • prosecutions initiated before, 100.
  • Judge Addison's charges to, 101.
  • summoning of witnesses before, 101.
  • charged with matters by the court, 101, 110, 116.
  • difference in extent of authority of, 102, 109.
  • restraint upon authority of, 102, 165.
  • extent of inquiry of, 103.
  • inquisitorial power of, 104.
  • by whom matters submitted to, 107, 110, 114.
  • as defender of liberty of press, 115.
  • compelled to hear evidence in open court, 117.
  • impeaching finding of, 119.
  • to pass on public improvements, 121.
  • to investigate all crimes, 122.
  • charged by court, 124.
  • attended by district attorney, 127.
  • power of, to swear witnesses, 137.
  • defendant not to be present before, 140.
  • governed by ordinary rules of evidence, 142.
  • to determine sufficiency of evidence, 142.
  • finding of bill by, 146.
  • new bill submitted to, after ignoramus, 152.
  • presentment of finding by, 154.
  • report of, on completion of duties, 157.
  • whether improper report of, will be allowed to stand, 159
  • discharged when duties completed, 160.
  • re-assembling members of, 160.
  • relation of, to the court, 163.
  • discharge of, presumed, 89n, 160.

GUILT

  • forming opinion as to innocence or, 76.
  • prima facie presumption of, 141.

HABEAS CORPUS

  • discharge upon, refused in case of In re Wilson, 47.

HAMILTON, ANDREW

  • defends Zenger, 32.

HARDY, TRIAL OF, 127.

HEARSAY EVIDENCE not to be received, 142.

HENRY VIII, Statute of 3, C. 12, 30, 41.

HIGHWAYS

  • presentment of inquest in relation to, 25.

HOUSEHOLDER. SEE QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JUROR.

HUE AND CRY, 4, 12.

HUNDRED COURTS,

  • compurgation in, 8, 26, 27.

HUNDRED

  • inquest summoned by bailiff's, 2.
  • amerced for escape of offender, 4.
  • meeting of gemot in, 5.
  • disappearance of accusing bodies of, 27.
  • grand jurors to be of, from which chosen, 60.

HUSTON, MR. JUSTICE, Huidekoper v. Cotton, 118.

IDAHO, oath of grand juror in, 96n.

IGNORAMUS

  • first instance of, 14n.
  • return of,
    • in Stephen College's Case, 29.
    • in Shaftesbury's Case, 29.
  • upon many cases returned by magistrates, 35.
  • when to be found, 146.
  • reconsideration of, 150.
  • new bill may be submitted after, 112, 152.
  • defendant held in bail after, 153.
  • information filed after return of, 115.

IGNORANCE

  • of right to challenge no excuse, 71, 74.

ILLINOIS, oath of grand juror, 96n.

IMPEACH

  • finding of grand jury, 119.

IMPERSONATION

  • of grand juror, 49, 51n.

IMPLIED PROHIBITION

  • of Assize of Clarendon, 8.

INCOMPETENT

  • persons summoned as grand jurors, 52.
  • exempt persons are not, 72.
  • when absence from domicile will render grand juror, 81.
  • witness, indictment found upon evidence of, 143, 144.
  • evidence not to be received, 142.
  • witness testifying under objection, 145.

INCORPORATION OF BOROUGH

  • grand jury to pass upon, 121.

INDEPENDENCE of grand jury

  • established, 28.
  • asserted in College's and Shaftesbury's Cases, 30.
  • from control of court, 163.

INDEPENDENT GAZETTE, Oswald's Case. 31.

INDIANA, oath of grand jurors in, 96n.

INDIAN TERRITORY, oath of grand juror in, 98n.

INDICTMENT

  • by accusing inquest, 22, 24.
  • upon knowledge of one grand juror, 24.
  • no guaranty of, in Constitution of United States, 32.
  • where 24 grand jurors sworn and act, 45.
  • twelve must concur to find, 26, 56, 108.
  • effect of less than minimum number of grand jurors on, 46, 47.
  • when no precept issued, 48n.
  • error in grand juror's name, 49.
  • invalid when selection made from improper class, 52.
  • effect of irregularity in drawing and selecting, 57.
  • found by grand jury unlawfully constituted, 56.
  • by de facto grand jury sustained, 58.
  • effect of Statute 11 Henry IV, C. 9, upon, 61.
  • disqualification of grand juror, 62, 63.
  • failure of defendant to challenge, 71.
  • service of exempt person, effect on, 72.
  • objections
    • to grand jury
      • before indictment, 73n, 85.
      • after indictment, 64, 73, 85.
    • raised by motion to quash or plea in abatement, 86.
    • when made by demurrer, 86.
  • plea to, a waiver of defects, 87.
  • one disqualified person will vitiate, 87, 139.
  • void if grand jury organized contrary to statute, 88, 89.
  • endorsement on, as evidence of empanelling, 89.
  • inability of foreman to write, effect on, 90.
  • sustained though no foreman appointed, 91.
  • district attorney
    • may submit bill of,
      • to grand jury, 110.
      • to be earmarked, 114.
    • present when vote taken, 128.
    • hands bill to foreman, 134.
    • signature of, 134.
  • submitting new, after ignoramus, 112.
  • may embrace additional charges, 114.
  • not invalidated by failure to charge, 124n.
  • and presentment, 131.
  • definition of, 131.
  • when based upon presentment, 132.
  • witnesses
    • not heard in support of, 132.
    • names of, endorsed on, 135.
  • finding, 146.
  • when to be ignored, 146.
  • finding part of count of, void, 147.
  • found as to some of the defendants, 148.
  • billa vera se defendo, 148.
  • charging murder and found for manslaughter, 148.
  • reconsideration of, 150.
  • never alleges organization or action of grand jury, 151.
  • handed to crier by foreman, 154.
  • amendment of, 154.
  • resubmission of, to grand jury, 154.
  • reading of, to grand jury, 155.
  • sent into court by messenger, 156.
  • should be filed, 157.

INDICTOR,

  • not to serve upon petit jury, 25.

INDIFFERENT

  • where grand juror does not stand, 73, 81.

INFAMOUS CRIME. SEE INFORMATION.

  • witness convicted of, 143.

INFLAMMATORY CHARGE when error, 126.

INFORMATION

  • effect of Fifth Amendment on right to file, 33.
  • Fourteenth Amendment does not prevent States from proceeding by, 33.
  • prosecution by in Pennsylvania, 34, 113.
  • filed in all cases in California, 44.
  • cannot be filed for capital or infamous crime, 33, 153.
  • sometimes filed when bill ignored by grand jury, 33.
  • offences not contained in original, 114.
  • proceeding by, in Federal Courts, 115.
  • district attorney must obtain leave to file, 115.
  • filed when bill ignored, 115.

INGERSOLL

  • on question whether offenders tried by grand jury, 22.
  • on secrecy in grand juror's oath, 116.

INITIAL

  • error in grand jurors' name, 49.
  • use of, in foreman's signature, 149.
  • of defendant used in bill, 152.

INNOCENCE

  • presumption of, 37.
    • must be overcome, 105n.
  • establishment of, before petit jury, 37.
  • forming opinion as to guilt or, 76, 78.

INQUEST, ACCUSING. SEE ACCUSING INQUEST.

INQUEST, LE GRAUNDE, 2.

INQUEST

  • writs awarding, 17.
    • not to be bought or sold, 17.
    • provisions of Magna Charta as to, 17.

INQUIRE

  • grand jurors to diligently, 101, 105.
    • meaning of in Pennsylvania, 101.

INQUIRY

  • articles of, 11.
  • of grand jury within territorial jurisdiction, 103.

INQUISITORIAL POWER

  • of grand jurors in California, 44.
  • of Federal grand jurors, 102.
  • of grand jurors in Tennessee, Missouri and Maryland, 104.

INSANE

  • bill finding defendant, 148.

INSTRUCTIONS

  • of 1194, 11, 16.
  • to accusing body, 20.

INTEREST OF GRAND JUROR. SEE FAVOR. INTERPRETER

  • presence of in grand jury room, 140n.

INTERROGATION

  • of grand jurors by court, 27, 116.
    • in what cases not permitted, 46.

IOWA

  • when challenge not permitted in, 70.
  • oath of grand juror, 98n.
  • affidavits received to show coercion of grand jury, 119.

IRREGULARITY

  • in selecting and drawing, 57, 66, 68.
  • in record, 51.
  • in empaneling, 85n.
  • in finding, 148.
  • district attorney present when vote taken, 128.
  • accused persons may take advantage of every, 64.
  • in organization, technical objections to not favored, 86.
  • cannot be attached in collateral proceeding, 88.

IRRELEVANT EVIDENCE

  • not to be received, 142.

ITER. SEE ITINERANT JUSTICES.

ITINERANT COURTS, 7.

ITINERANT JUSTICES

  • none in Normandy, 8.
  • pleas of crown administered by, 8.
  • increased jurisdiction of, 11.
  • capitula delivered to, 11.
  • hearing appeals before, 12.
  • optional to inquire of four townships, 16.
  • order of King in Council to Eyre 1218-19, 18, 19.
  • reading of writs, 19.
  • call four or six busones, 19, 20.
  • read articles of inquiry to inquest, 20, 99.
  • may require disclosure of reasons upon which inquest acted, 21.
  • presentment indented and one part delivered to, 25.
  • control of, over grand jurors, 163.

JAILS

  • inquest to inquire as to, 25, 121.
  • illegal detention of persons therein by sheriff, 25.
  • escapes from, inquiry into, 25.

JAMES II flees to France, 31.

JILLARD vs. COMMONWEALTH, swearing witnesses, 138.

JOHNSON, CHIEF JUSTICE, administration of oath, 92.

JUDGES

  • participation of, in settling grand jury, 53, 58n.
  • standing grand jurors aside by, 83.
  • cannot organize two grand juries at same term, 89.
  • improperly influencing grand jury, 119.
  • may be temporarily absent from bench, 137n.
  • control over grand jurors, 163, 165.
  • in Federal Courts may commit for contempt, 165.

JUDGMENT, ARREST OF,

  • objections to array or polls cannot be raised by, 87.
  • omission of prosecutor's name not ground for, 135n.
  • objections in, cannot be raised after plea, 138.
  • admission of irrelevant evidence, not ground for, 143.
  • when motion will be sustained, 147.
  • when words "true bill" printed on bill, 151.
  • when finding not recorded, 156.

JURISDICTION

  • of itinerant justices increased, 11.
  • territorial, inquiry into offences within, 103.
  • of grand jury over its own members, 166.

JURORS. SEE GRAND JURORS.

JURY COMMISSIONERS

  • return need not show service of venire upon, 49.
  • in Pennsylvania, 53.
  • need not swear jurors returned according to law, 54.
  • cannot delegate authority to another, 58.
  • failure to file oath, array not quashed, 66.
  • irregularities by, 67.

JURY, GRAND. SEE GRAND JURY.

JURY. PETIT. SEE PETIT JURY.

JURY, TRIAL BY,

  • among Scandinavians, 3.
  • system carried into Normandy by Rollo, 3.
  • introduced into England, 6.

JUSTICE OF THE PEACE

  • as grand juror, 137.

JUSTICES, ITINERANT. SEE ITINERANT JUSTICES.

JUSTICES, power of, over grand jury panel, 30, 41.

KANSAS, oath of grand juror, 96n.

KENTUCKY

  • oath of grand juror, 95n.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

KING JOHN

  • trial by jury first used in reign of, 17.

KING, JUDGE

  • warning of, 44.
  • opinion on powers of grand jurors, 106, 164.
    • as obiter dictum, 111, 112.

KING

  • order of, in Council to Justices in Eyre, 18, 19.
  • to sue on behalf of his peace, 19.

KING'S MERCY, inquest in, 13.

KING'S SERGEANTS

  • duty to enrol appellor's complaint, 12.

KNIGHTS

  • panel of twenty-four, 2.
  • presentment by twelve, 8.
  • choosing of, by sergeants, 20.
  • qualifications of twelve, 20.

KNOWLEDGE

  • matters within grand juror's, 101, 108.
  • of offence against United States, 109.
  • grand jurors to disclose how, acquired, 117.
  • of grand jurors,
    • presentment upon, 119, 132.
    • in Pennsylvania, 108, 110, 131.

LATERAN COUNCIL. SEE FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL.

LAW

  • of Reignerus surnamed Lodbrog, 3.
  • due process of, 33, 39n.
  • of the land, 39n.
  • every person bound to know the, 133.
  • changing method of empaneling, 89.
  • Territorial, effect of when State created, 90.

LEET. SEE COURT LEET.

LEGISLATURE

  • may regulate manner of making objections, 70.
  • cannot take away right of challenge, 70.

LE GRAUNDE INQUEST, 2, 26.

  • growth of influence of, 26.

LEWIS' TRIAL, standing jurors aside, 83.

LIBEL

  • grand jury ignores prosecutions for, 115.
  • by grand juror in report, 158.

LIBERTY OF THE PRESS, 115.

LIMITATIONS, STATUTE OF

  • investigations barred by, 103.

LIST

  • challenge to array for irregularity in, 66.
  • identity between poll book and registry, 68.
  • of witnesses furnished to defendant, 136.

LLOYD AND CARPENTER'S CASE, 44.

LODBROG, law of, 3.

LOUISIANA, qualifications of grand juror in, 63.

LUDLOW, JUDGE, Grand Jury and the Public Press, 116.

MAGISTRATE

  • preliminary hearing before, 35.
  • many cases returned by, ignored, 35.
  • grand jury review judgment of, 37.
  • selected because of political services, 38.
  • stipendiary, in England, 38.
  • as grand juror, 78.
  • private prosecutor to begin proceedings before, 109.
  • indictments charging offences not raised before, 114.

MAGNA CHARTA

  • Article 36, writs of inquest, 17.
  • applies to writs of assize, 17.
  • "law of the land," Art. 29, Hurtado v. California, 110 U. S. 516, 39n.

MAINE, oath of grand juror, 94n.

MARSHAL

  • summons Federal grand jurors, 55.

MARSHALL, CHIEF JUSTICE, 82, 125, 131.

MARYLAND, inquisitorial powers of grand jury in, 104.

MASSACHUSETTS

  • oath of grand juror, 94n.
  • names of witnesses not endorsed on bill, 136.

MATERIAL, books and papers when, 133.

MAYHEM

  • where appellor has a, 10, 21.

McKEAN, CHIEF JUSTICE

  • Oswald's Case, 31.
  • explains meaning of "diligently enquire," 101.
  • presence of witnesses for defendant, 140.

MESSENGER

  • indictments brought into court by, 156.

MICHIGAN, oath of grand juror, 96n.

MINNESOTA, oath of grand juror, 96n.

MINUTES OF COURT

  • show appointment of foreman, 90.
  • grand jury sworn, 92.
  • expunging presentment from, 160.

MISCONDUCT

  • of district attorney, 128.
  • of grand juror, 165.

MISSISSIPPI

  • coercion of grand jury, 31n.
  • oath of grand juror, 96n.
  • examination of tax collectors' books, 122.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135, 136.
  • witnesses' names not returned with indictment, 137.

MISSOURI

  • oath of grand juror, 96n.
  • inquisitorial power of grand jurors, 104.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

MONTANA, oath of grand juror, 98n.

NAMBDA

  • used by Scandinavians, 3.
  • civil cases only considered by, 3.
  • criminal pleas not considered by, 3.
  • similarity to sectatores, 4.

NAME

  • error in grand juror's name, 49.
  • of talesmen not to be furnished by judge, 51.
  • irregularity in selection, 67.
  • identity of, in lists, 68.
  • foreman unable to write, 90.
  • of foreman,
    • signed by clerk, 148n.
    • variance in, 149.
    • abbreviation of, 149.
  • of witnesses endorsed on bill, 135.
  • of prosecutor endorsed on bill, 135.
  • of offence endorsed on bill, 150.
  • ignorance of, by grand jury, 152.

NEBRASKA, oath of grand juror, 96n.

NEGROES

exclusion of from panel, 66.

NEVADA, oath of grand juror, 97n.

NEW BILL

  • may be sent to grand jury after ignoramus, 152.
  • may be found when first bill defective, 155.

NEW HAMPSHIRE, oath of grand juror, 94n.

NEW MEXICO, oath of grand jurors, 98n.

NEW TRIAL, when awarded, 145.

NEW YORK

  • Case of John Peter Zenger, 32.
  • de facto grand jury, 58.
  • oath of grand juror, 95n.

NOLLE PROS

  • district attorney may enter, 42, 142.
  • prosecution by information after entry of, 115n.
  • new indictment for same offence after, 132.

NORMAN

  • origin of grand jury disputed, 2.
  • institution,
    • petit jury a, 2.
    • grand jury not a, 4.
  • appeal, 3.
  • occupation, frank pledge continues under, 6.
  • laws, introduction of, 7.

NORMANDY

  • no itinerant justices in, 8.

NORTH CAROLINA

  • qualifications of grand juror, 62.
  • Branch's Case, 117.
  • endorsement of prosecutor, 136.
  • indictment found upon, testimony of interested witnesses, 143.

NORTH DAKOTA, oath of grand juror, 98n.

NORTHAMPTON

  • Assize of, 7, 11, 17.
  • divided kingdom into six circuits, 8, 9.
  • provisions of, 9.

NORTH, LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, in case of Stephen College, 28.

NOT FOUND

  • return of, 147.

NUMBER

  • composing grand jury, 2, 5, 9, 20, 25, 45, 55.
  • increased to twenty-four in time of Edward III, 26.
  • twelve must concur to find bill, 26, 56, 108, 147.
  • presence of more than twenty-four will invalidate indictment, 46.
  • effect of less than minimum number on indictment, 46, 47.
  • grand jurors in excess of legal, excused, 85.
  • concurring testimony of grand jurors as to, 119.
  • of talesmen to be summoned, 54.
  • composing petit jury, 3, 22, 23, 24.

NUNC PRO TUNC

  • amendment of record, 93.

OATH

  • of grand jurors, 20, 98.
  • in time of
    • Bracton, 20, 98.
    • Britton, 20, 99.
    • Ethelred II, 98.
    • Cromwell, 99.
  • of trial jurors, 22.
  • of four townspeople, 22.
  • how administered to petit jurors, 23.
  • clause of secrecy in, 21, 25, 27, 116, 162.
  • grand juror appearing after administration of, 51.
  • objections by defendant before and after, 64, 85.
  • of jury commissioners, array not quashed for failure to file, 66.
  • taken by sheriff, record need not show, 68.
  • need not be readministered to foreman, 85.
  • how administered to grand jurors, 91.
  • as his commission, 94. form of, 94.
  • grant of power in, 105.
  • not intended to punish innocent, 118.
  • not violated, when, 120.
  • grand jurors not sworn in any cause, 122.
  • of witnesses, administration by grand jurors, 138.

OBJECTIONS

  • to array, 65.
  • made and withdrawn, effect of, 70.
  • to personal qualifications of grand jurors, 73.
  • to grand jurors,
    • when made, 64, 74.
    • legislature may regulate making of, 70.
    • before indictment found, 73.
    • when to be by plea, 75, 84, 86.
  • raised by motion to quash indictment, 86.
  • technical, not favored by courts, 86.
  • waived by plea of general issue, 87.
  • made before verdict, 149.
  • incompetent witness testifying under, 145.

OFFICER

  • absence of, when selection made, 58.
  • cannot delegate authority to another, 58.
  • de facto, 58.
  • presumption of regularity of acts of, 59.
  • irregularity in acts of, 67.
  • accused may take advantage of irregular acts of, 64.
  • failing to file oath, array not quashed, 66.
  • of government, grand jury to summon as witness, 102.
  • exceptional power of prosecuting, 112.
  • investigating accounts of public, 121.
  • of crown attends grand jury, 127.
  • presence of, in grand jury room, 128, 140n.

OHIO

  • oath of grand juror, 96n.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

OKLAHOMA, oath of grand jury, 98n.

OPINION

  • forming and expressing, 76, 77.
  • district attorney not to express, 142.
  • Judge King's, on powers of grand jurors, 106.
  • Mr. Justice Field's, on powers of grand jurors, 108.

ORANGE, WILLIAM OF, 31.

ORDEAL

  • of fire or water, trial by, 4.
  • when awarded or refused, 10, 14.
  • assize of Clarendon prescribes trial by, 7, 8.
  • assize of Northampton prescribes trial by, 9.
  • abolished by Fourth Lateran Council, 18.
  • supplanted on presentments by trial by jury, 18.

ORDER. AND SEE PRECEPT.

  • directing issuance of venire, 48, 55.
  • to whom issued, 48.
  • need not be entered of record, 48n.
  • verbal, sufficient, 48n, 51n.
  • indictment quashed where no order issued, 48n.
  • need not be served on sheriff, 48n.
  • to summon talesmen, 50.
  • directing selection from improper class, 52.
  • of King in Council to Eyre of 1218-19, 18, 19.

OREGON, oath of grand juror, 97n.

ORGANIZATION

  • of grand jury, technical objection to irregularity in, 86.
  • of two grand juries at same term, 89.
  • indictment never alleges, 151.

ORIGIN

  • of grand jury, I, 2.
  • Anglo-Saxon, 2.
  • Norman disputed, 2.

OSWALD'S CASE, Independent Gazette, 31.

PANEL

  • of twenty-four knights, 2.
  • power of justices over, 30, 41.
  • drawn and summoned by sheriff, 48.
  • substitutes not to be received for, 51.
  • reduced below number necessary to indict, 50, 54.
  • exclusion of negroes from, 66.
  • challenge to, 68.
  • State's attorney cannot challenge, 70.
  • exclusion of grand juror from, 84.
  • disqualified person on, will vitiate indictment, 87.
  • incomplete when oath administered, 92.

PAPERS. SEE BOOKS AND PAPERS.

PARKER, CHIEF JUSTICE, 50.

PARSONS, JUDGE, Com. v. Crans, 162, 165.

PEACE

  • king to sue on behalf of, 19.

PEARSON, CHIEF JUSTICE, State v. Branch, 117.

PEMBERTON, LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, Shaftesbury's Case, 29.

PENNSYLVANIA

  • Constitution of, 33.
    • Declaration of Rights in, 34.
  • all offences indictable, 34, 113.
  • beginning prosecutions in, 101.
  • selecting and procuring attendance of grand jurors, 52,
  • challenge for favor, how determined, 82.
  • meaning of "diligently inquire," 101.
  • extent of grand jury's powers, 102, 109.
  • grand jury to authorize public improvements, 121.
  • authority of grand jurors to swear witnesses, 137.
  • knowledge of grand jurors, 131.
  • attacks on grand jury by. press, 115.
  • coercion of grand jury, 31.
  • early presentments in, 31n.
  • when presentment made, 132.
  • formal defects may be amended, 154
  • authority of district attorney, 130.
  • improper communication with grand jurors in, 162.
  • contempt of court, 165.
  • drunkenness of grand juror. 166.
  • jury de medietate abolished, 63n.

PEOPLE vs. PETREA, de facto grand jury, 58.

PEREMPTORY CHALLENGE

  • favor not a, 74.
  • never allowed, 75, 82.
  • not known in time of Bracton and Britton, 75.

PERJURY

  • committed before grand jury, 108, 118.
  • secrecy in oath to eliminate perjury, 116.
  • witnesses convicted of, 144.

PETIT JURY

  • a Norman institution, 2.
  • use of, in criminal cases, 10.
  • confusion of grand and, 21, 22, 23.
  • proceedings before, described by Bracton, 22.
  • removal of member of, on suspicion, 22.
  • oath of, 22.
  • not limited to twelve jurors, 23.
  • how sworn, 23.
  • challenge for cause, 23.
  • a jury of witnesses, 24.
  • doctrine of "afforciament" employed on, 24.
  • separation of, from grand jury, 24, 25.
  • indictor not to serve upon, 25.
  • defendant may establish innocence before, 37.

PHILADELPHIA

  • selection of grand jurors, 53n.
  • qualifications of grand jurors in, 62n.

PLEA

  • will cure defects in proceedings, 56, 87, 138.
  • challenge to
    • array must be made before, 68.
    • individual jurors before, 72, 73.
  • objections to grand jurors to be by, 75, 86.
  • in abatement,
    • when sustained, 80.
    • upon ground of relationship. 81.
    • two or more may be filed, 86.

PLEADING IN ABATEMENT. SEE ABATEMENT.

POLLS, CHALLENGE TO

  • how made, 70.
  • when made, 85.

POLYGAMY

  • conscientious scruples against indicting for, 76.
  • challenge to grand jurors on ground of, 82.

POWERS

  • of ancient grand jury broader than modern, 99.
  • of grand jury,
    • limitation upon in time of Cromwell, 99.
    • difference in extent of, 102, 109.
    • Chief Justice Chase on, 102.
    • restraint upon, 102, 165.
    • view of, in Federal Courts, 100.
    • extent of, to investigate, 103.
    • to punish witnesses, 104, 165.
    • inquisitorial, 104.
    • grant of, in oath, 105.
  • devolving upon grand jury by statute, 121.

PRATT, JUDGE. Com. v. English, 111, 113.

PRECEPT. And see ORDER.

  • directing issuance of venire, 48, 55.
  • to whom issued, 48.
  • need not be entered of record, 48n.
  • verbal, sufficient, 48n.
  • indictment quashed where no, issued, 48n.

PRESENTMENT

  • by twelve senior thanes, 3, 8.
  • by seven jurors, 6.
  • by twelve knights, 8.
  • by twelve grand jurors, 56, 119.
  • by accusing body, 10, 11, 21, 24.
  • upon public fame or suspicion, 13, 15, 19.
  • made only when appeal failed, 12.
  • failure of inquest to make, 13.
  • inquest in King's mercy for false, 13.
  • part taken by townships in making, 14.
  • made in writing and indented, 25.
  • early, in Pennsylvania, 31n.
  • when made in Pennsylvania, 132.
  • no guaranty of in Constitution of United States, 32.
  • remedied by Amendment V, 32.
  • when void under 11 Henry IV, c. 9, 61.
  • limitations on power of, 99.
  • prosecutions instituted by, 107.
  • grand jurors to make true, 101.
  • making of by grand jury, 154
  • when made, 105.
  • definition of, 107, 130.
  • upon knowledge of grand jurors, 119.
  • and indictment, 131.
  • when indictment based upon, 132.
  • Daniel Davis on improper, 158.
  • whether improper, will be allowed to stand, 159.
  • making false, 163.

PRESS

  • grand jury the defender of liberty of, 115.
  • attacks on, by grand jury, 115.

PRESUMPTION. And see INNOCENCE.

  • of innocence, 37.
    • must be overcome, 105.
  • of regularity of official acts, 59.
  • that reason existed for excusing grand juror, 84.
  • that grand jurors were excused in Arkansas, 85.
  • that grand jury was discharged, 89, 160.
  • of discharge of foreman, 91.
  • that witnesses were sworn, 138.
  • prima facie, of guilt, 141.

PRIMA FACIE

  • presumption of guilt, 141.
  • case made out by evidence, 146.

PRINTED ENDORSEMENT ON BILL, effect of, 151.

PRIVATE COUNSEL

  • presence of, 128.
  • make application to send new bill to subsequent grand jury, 153.

PRIVILEGE

  • of challenge, waiver of, 71, 72.

PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION. See COMMUNICATION. PROCESS to summon witnesses, 104.

PROHIBITION, IMPLIED, of Assize of Clarendon, 8.

PROPTER AFFECTUM, 76.

PROSECUTION

  • defendant challenging must show he is under, 70.
  • evidence for, only to be heard, 103, 140.
  • institution of, Judge King's opinion, 106.
  • for libel, grand jury defends press in, 115.

PROSECUTIONS

  • institution of
    • in time of Glanville, 10.
    • in time of Bracton, 19.
  • trial awarded with relation to manner of, 21.

PROSECUTOR

  • right of, to initiate proceedings before grand jury, 100.
  • private, not to intrude upon grand jury, 109.
  • presence of private counsel for, 128.
  • grand juror may testify who was, 119.
  • asking instruction to grand jury, 126.
  • name of, endorsed on bill, 135.
  • as member of grand jury, 77, 78.

PUBLIC FAME

  • presentment on, 13, 19, 24.

PUBLIC

  • institutions, investigation into, 121.
  • officials, investigating accounts of, 121.
  • improvements, supervision over, 121.
  • buildings approved by two grand juries, 121.

PUBLIC POLICY

  • examination on voir dire, against, 81.
  • wrongful acts of grand juror upheld upon, 166.

PUBLICATION

  • of finding of grand jury, 156.

QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JURORS

  • in Bracton's time, 60, 62.
  • in Sixteenth Century, 60.
  • Coke's comments on, 60.
  • Blackstone's comments on, 61.
  • Chitty's comments on, 60.
  • Statute 11 Henry IV, c. 9, defines, 61.
  • under 6 George IV, c. 50, 61.
  • in Federal Courts, 63.
  • in Pennsylvania, 61.
  • in Tennessee, West Virginia, Arkansas, South Carolina and North Carolina, 62.
  • in Louisiana and Washington, 63.
  • need not be freeholders, 60, 62.
  • should be freeholders, 61, 62, 77.
  • aliens not competent, 60, 63, 77.
  • age as one of the, 72.
  • domicile as affecting, 81.
  • objections to personal, 73, 77.
  • legislature may regulate making of objections to, 70.

QUASH, MOTION TO. And see INDICTMENT.

  • where grand jury not summoned at proper time, 48.
  • when drawing and selecting irregular, 57.
  • where record irregular, 51.
    • does not show empaneling, 89.
  • array,
    • when sustained, 66.
    • when not sustained, 67. how made, 68.
    • objections after indictment raised by, 86.
  • not sustained where no effort to challenge made, 71.
  • cannot be made after general issue pleaded, 87.
  • error in name, 49.
  • where juror disqualified, 62, 63.
  • for exclusion of negroes, 67.
  • when leave of court not obtained, 114.
  • for improperly swearing witnesses, 138.
  • where defendant compelled to testify against himself, 145.
  • where indictment found on testimony of incompetent witnesses, 144.
  • when improper report made, 159.
  • not sustained for admission of irrelevant evidence, 143.

QUASHED

  • tales not to issue when array, 52.
  • if exempt person serves, indictment will not be, 72.

READING

  • of sheriff's roll, 13.
  • indictment to grand jury, 155.

REAL ACTIONS

  • award of writ of inquest in, 17.

RE-ASSEMBLING grand jury after discharge, 160.

REBELLION

  • against United States as disqualification, 63, 73.

RECOGNIZANCE

  • witnesses bound by, to appear, 132.
  • defendant held in, after bill ignored, 153.

RECOMMITTING

  • improper finding to grand jury, 165.

RECONSIDERATION

  • of finding, 150.

RECONVENE

  • when grand jury may, 160.

RECORD

  • to disclose necessity for talesmen, 51.
  • need not show oath taken by sheriff, 68.
  • must show empaneling of grand jury, 89.
  • appointment of foreman noted on, 90.
  • to show that foreman was sworn, 93.
  • to show that grand jurors were sworn, 92.
  • offered in evidence, 119.
  • finding to be entered, 156.
  • striking improper report from, 159.
  • may be amended nunc pro tunc, 93.

RECTOR vs. SMITH, libellous report by grand jury, 158.

REDRESS

  • of defendant from malicious acts of grand juror, 166.

REEVES, MR.

  • as to participation of grand jury in trial of offenders, 22.

REGULARITY OF OFFICIAL ACTS

  • presumption of, 59.

REIGNERUS LAW OF, 3.

RELATIONSHIP

  • when grand juror disqualified by, 80.

RELIGIOUS BELIEF

  • of grand juror, 81.

RELEVANT

  • whether books and papers produced are, 133.

REPORT

  • of grand jurors upon completion of work, 157.
  • containing libellous statements, 158.
  • whether improper, will be allowed to stand, 159.

RESUBMISSION

  • of bill to grand jury, 154.

RETURN

  • to writ of venire, 49.
  • may be signed after verdict, 50.
  • may be amended, 50.
  • necessity of affidavit to, 54.
  • challenge to array for irregularity in, 66.
  • of grand jury, signature of foreman, 148, 150.

REX vs. DICKINSON, witnesses not sworn, 139.

RHODE ISLAND, oath of grand juror, 94n.

RICE, JUDGE, Com. v. Sheppard, 114.

ROLLO carries jury system into Normandy, 3.

ROLLS OF ITINERANT COURTS, 11, 24.

ROWAND vs. COM.

  • Second bill sent to grand jury, 112.

RULES OF EVIDENCE

  • grand jury governed by, 142.

SAWYER, SIR ROBERT, Attorney General, 30.

SCANDINAVIANS

  • trial by jury among, 3.
  • nambda used by, 3.

SCARLETT'S CASE, unlawfully procuring indictments, 42, 117.

SEAL

  • venire should be under seal of court, 48.

SECRECY

  • in conveying names of evil doers to sheriff, 20.
  • observed by amercers, 20.
  • purpose of observing, 21, 116.
  • did not apply to inquiries made by justices, 21, 27.
  • condemned as an evil, 42.
  • a bar to inquiry into grand jury's action, 46, 118.
  • pledge of, in ancient oath, 99.
  • provision for, in modern oath, 116, 162.
  • ancient views regarding provision for, 118.
  • when oath as to, not violated, 120.
  • clerk of grand jury to testify when, 120.
  • district attorney bound by requirement of, 120.
  • in hearing witnesses, 127.

SELECTION

  • of grand jurors
    • now regulated by statute, 47.
    • from improper class of persons, 52.
    • in Pennsylvania, 52.
    • in Federal Courts, 55.
    • in England, 57.
  • effect of absence of officer from, 58, 67.
  • irregularity in making, 66, 67, 68.
  • by de facto officers, 58.
  • from registries of voters, 68.
  • of foreman, 90.
  • of clerk, 91.

SECTATORES

  • of the Anglo-Saxons, 3.
  • their number, 3, 6.
  • unanimity not required, 3.
  • civil causes only considered by, 3.
  • similarity to nambda, 4.

SERGEANT, KING'S. See KING'S SERGEANT.

SERGEANT

  • inhabitants of hundred enrolled by, 20.
  • to choose four knights, 20.

SHAFTESBURY'S CASE, 29, 117, 129.

SHAW, CHIEF JUSTICE, charge of, 43.

SHERIDAN'S TRIAL, 75.

SHERIFF

  • the king's officer, 8.
  • authority of, in the county, 8.
  • selected from justices of curia regis, 8.
  • to seize persons of evil repute, 20.
  • arbitrarily increases number of grand jurors to twenty-four, 26.
  • compelled to return panel as reformed by justices, 30, 41.
  • when order or precept not served upon, 48n.
  • to draw and summon jurors, 48, 49, 54, 57, 59.
  • to make return to writ, 49.
  • need not swear jurors returned according to law, 54.
  • to summon talesmen, 50.
  • incompetent persons summoned by, 52.
  • cannot delegate authority to another, 58.
  • absence of, when selection made, 67.

SHERIFF'S ROLL, reading of, 13.

SHERIFF'S TOURN held semi-annually, 4, 5.

SHIPPEN, MR. JUSTICE, 34.

SIGNATURE

  • of foreman as evidence of empaneling, 89.
  • when to be affixed to endorsement, 148.
  • vouches for regularity of proceedings, 151.
  • of district attorney when necessary, 134.

SOLICITOR GENERAL

  • no such officer in Tennessee, 134.

SOUTH CAROLINA

  • qualifications of grand jurors, 62.

SOUTH DAKOTA, oath of grand juror, 98n.

SPELLING

  • error in, name of grand juror, 49.

STANDING ASIDE

  • of grand jurors, 83.

STATE vs. COWAN, control of court over grand jurors, 165.

STATES

  • may prosecute by information, 33.
  • prosecution of offences by information in, 115.
  • Western, abolition of grand jury in, 44.
  • Eastern, conservatism of, on grand jury, 44.
  • qualifications of Federal grand jurors determined by laws of, 63.

STATE'S ATTORNEY

  • cannot challenge panel, 70.

STATUTE

  • of Ethelred II, 2, 3, 5.
  • of 3 Henry VIII, c. 12, 30, 41.
  • of 11 Henry IV, c. 9, 61.
  • of 6 George IV, c. 50, 57, 61.
  • when held to be directory, 49, 81, 136.
  • selection of grand jurors under unconstitutional, 58.
  • grand jurors irregularly drawn under directory, 57, 81
  • disqualification imposed by, 73.
  • exempting persons from grand jury service, 72.
  • changing method of drawing and summoning, 89.
  • of limitations, 103.
  • as to disclosure of evidence, 120.
  • imposing additional duties on grand jurors, 121.
  • allowing eight grand jurors to concur on indictment unconstitutional, 147n.

STENOGRAPHER

  • presence of in grand jury room, 139.

STEPHEN COLLEGE, case of, 28.

STIPENDIARY MAGISTRATES. See MAGISTRATES.

STRANGER

  • presence of, in grand jury room, 139.

SUBPOENA

  • attendance of witnesses procured by, 104, 132.
  • duces tecum to compel production of books and papers, 133.

SUBSTANCE

  • matter of, statutory disqualification is a, 74.
  • amendment of matter of, not permitted, 154, 155.

SUBSTITUTES

  • not to be received for grand jurors, 51.

SUMMERHAYES CASE, contempt of court, 165.

SUMMONED

  • number of grand jurors, 45.
  • at fixed time, 49, 68.
  • when improper persons, 49.
  • when talesmen should be, 50.
  • improper persons, as talesmen, 52.
  • number of talesmen to be, 54.
  • implied power of court to order grand jurors, 52.
  • immaterial how grand juror, 54.
  • grand juror becoming competent after being, 76.
  • by whom grand jurors, 59.
  • how Federal grand jurors are, 55.
  • from part of the district, 56, 57.
  • under English statutes, 57.
  • removal from domicile after being, 81.
  • foreman selected from persons, 90.
  • witnesses before grand jury, how, 101.

SUPPLEMENTAL CHARGE

  • when delivered, 125.
  • at whose request made, 125.
  • in Aaron Burr's Case, 125.
  • Judge Cranch's view, 126.

SUSPICION

  • presentment on, 15, 19.
  • Glanville comments on presentment on, 15.
  • of petit juror by defendant and townspeople, 22.

SWORN

  • how grand jurors are, 91.
  • grand jurors not, in any particular cause, 122.
  • objections before grand jurors, 64, 74n.
  • after grand jurors, 64, 73, 85.
  • grand jurors, as witnesses, 132n.
  • witnesses to be, 137.
  • when witness not, 138, 146.
  • indictment need not show that witnesses, 138.

TALES

  • not to issue when array quashed, 52.

TALES DE CIRCUMSTANTIBUS. See TALESMEN.

TALESMEN

  • when summoned, 50.
  • venire not to issue, 51.
  • number to be summoned, 54, 56.
  • necessity for, to be shown by record, 51.
  • may be summoned when all jurors disqualified, 52.
  • selected from improper persons, 52.
  • names not to be furnished by judge, 51.
  • designated by court to fill vacancy, 84.
  • may be appointed foreman, 90n.
  • in Federal Courts, 55.

TAMPERING WITH WITNESSES, 143.

TANEY, CHIEF JUSTICE, evidence necessary to convict, 102.

TAXES

  • payment of, as grand juror's qualification, 63, 81.
  • grand jurors to fix rate of, 121.
  • as board of revision of, 122.

TECHNICAL FORM

  • in presentment, 131.

TENNESSEE

  • qualifications of grand jurors, 62.
  • grand juror related to accused, 81.
  • oath of grand juror, 95n.
  • inquisitorial powers of grand jurors, 104.
  • investigation of sufficiency of bonds in, 122.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

TERM

  • two grand juries at same term, 89.

TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION

  • inquiry within, 103.

TERRITORY

  • admitted as state, how grand jurors empaneled, 89.

TESTE

  • venire to bear, 48.
  • may be amended, 48.

TESTIMONY

  • witnesses in contempt for refusing to give, 88, 133.
  • additional, may be given when required, 104.
  • presentment made without hearing, 132.
  • indictment found upon unsworn, 138, 146.
  • voluntary, of defendant, 144.
  • of defendant involuntarily given against himself, 145.
  • when to be kept secret, 118.
  • of grand jurors, when received, 118.
  • of clerk of grand jury, 120.
  • of district attorney, 120.
  • district attorney not to comment on, 128.

TEXAS, oath of grand juror, 95n.

THANES

  • presentment by, 3, 8.
  • duty of, to accuse, 3.
  • oath of twelve, 98.

THAYER, PROF.

  • on effect of Assize of Clarendon, 18.
  • on order of Lateran Council, 18.

TOURN. See SHERIFF'S TOURN.

TOWN MEETING in Connecticut, 122.

TOWNSHIPS

  • their part in presentments, 14, 16.
  • did not act in all cases, 14, 16.
    • until inquest had presented, 15, 16.
  • not mentioned by Glanville, 14.
  • identity with four freemen of every vill, 15.
  • no part of the inquest, 15.
  • power of, 16.
  • use of, not obligatory, 16.
  • limited to concurrence in finding of inquest, 16.
  • Mr. Forsyth's reference to, 16.
  • part of trial jury, 23.

TOWNSPEOPLE. And see TOWNSHIPS.

  • challenge of juror by, 22.
  • oath taken by, 22.
  • form part of trial jury, 23.

TREASON

  • indictment for when quashed, 144.

TRESPASS

  • when prosecutor's name must be endorsed, 136.

TRIERS

  • on challenge for favor, 82.

TRIAL JURY. See PETIT JURY.

TRIAL

  • by battle, 3, 6, 7, 10, 21.
    • rise of, 9.
    • when awarded or refused, 10.
    • exceptions to, 17.
    • right of appellee to decline, 17.
    • in real actions, 17.
    • and country, appellees election between, 21.
    • and ordeal, appellees election between, 10, 12.
    • last instance of in England, 13.
    • abolished by 59 Geo. III, c. 46, 13.
  • by ordeal, when awarded or refused, 10.
    • abolished, 18.
    • of fire or water, 4.
    • prescribed by
      • Assize of Clarendon, 7, 8.
      • Assize of Northampton, 9.
  • by corsned or morsel of execration, 4.
  • by compurgation, 4.
    • disappearance of in criminal cases, 8.

TRIAL BY JURY

  • among Scandinavians, 3.
  • introduced into England, 6.
  • first use of in criminal cases, 17.
  • provisions of Magna Charta as to, 17.
  • takes place of ordeal upon presentments, 18.
  • mentioned by Bracton, 21.
  • described by Bracton, 22.
  • choosing of, by appellee, 21.
  • upon appeal made by woman, 21.
  • not awarded upon appeal of felony, 21.
  • removal of jurors on suspicion, 22.
  • challenge of juror for cause, 23.
  • afforciament in, 24.
  • dispensed with in New Haven Colony, 31n.

TRUE BILL

  • found upon concurrence of twelve jurors, 56.
  • endorsement of, as evidence of empaneling, 89.
  • evidence to justify finding, 102, 105, 141.
  • when grand jury may find, 146.
  • number to concur in finding, 147.
  • as to one or more counts, 147.
  • cannot be found for part of a count, 147.
  • as to some of the defendants, 148.
  • omission of words, 149.
  • when printed as endorsement on bill, 151.

UNANIMITY

  • of grand jurors when requisite, 26, 27.
  • of petit jurors, 26.

UNCONSTITUTIONAL STATUTE. See STATUTE.

UNITED STATES

  • Constitution omits indictment by grand jury, 32.
    • remedied by Amendment V, 32.
  • Fifth Amendment applies only to offences against, 33.
  • Sixth Amendment to Constitution, 57.
  • courts, grand jury in, 55.
  • challenge to array in, when made, 69.
  • workmen in arsenals and armories exempt, 73.
  • rebellion against, will disqualify, 63, 73.
  • knowledge of grand jurors of offence against, 109.

UTAH

  • unlawful cohabitation in, 82n.
  • oath of grand juror, 97n.

VACANCY

  • in grand jury, how filled, 84.

VARIANCE

  • in name of foreman, 149.
  • between indictment and evidence, 152.

VENIRE

  • issues upon precept, 48, 55.
  • command of, 48.
  • should be under seal of court, 48.
  • may be amended, 48.
  • requisites of, 49.
  • return of sheriff to, 49.
  • not to issue to summon talesmen, 51.
  • to issue when array quashed, 52.
  • array challenged for irregularity in, 66.
  • selection of foreman from whole, 90n.
  • shown by records of court, 151.

VERDICT

  • sheriff's return signed after, 50.
  • influenced by incompetent evidence, 145.
  • objection made before, 149.

VERMONT

  • oath of grand juror, 94n.
  • act as excise officers in, 122.

VILL

  • four freemen of, 14, 15.

VIRGINIA

  • oath of grand juror, 95n.
  • endorsement of prosecutor's name, 135.

VITIATE

  • presence of disqualified person will, 87, 139.

VOID

  • disregard of statute will make indictments, 88.
  • unlawfully empaneling grand jury will make indictments, 89.

VOIR DIRE

  • grand jurors cannot be examined on, 81.

VOTE

  • Negroes denied right to, 67.
  • grand jurors not to testify as to, 118, 119.
  • presence of district attorney during taking of, 128.

VOTER

  • grand juror must be qualified, 63, 77.

VOTERS

  • selection of grand jurors from registries of, 68.

VOTING

  • unauthorized person participating in, 139.

WAGER OF BATTLE. See TRIAL BY BATTLE.

WAIVER

  • of right of challenge by silence, 71, 72, 87.
    • to exemption from service, 72.
    • by not objecting before plea, 87.

WAPENTAKE. See HUNDRED.

WASHINGTON

  • qualifications of grand jurors, 63.
  • women not qualified as grand jurors, 63.
  • oath of grand juror, 97n.

WEEKLY JOURNAL, in Zenger's Case, 32.

WEREGILD

  • custom of, 4.
  • disuse of, 9.

WESTERN STATES, abolition of grand jury in, 44.

WEST VIRGINIA

  • qualifications of grand jurors in, 62.
  • oath of grand jurors, 96n.

WHARTON, DR., control of court over grand jury, 164.

WHEEL

  • irregularity in keeping jury, 66, 67.

WHITE, JUDGE, Rowand v. Com., 112.

WILDE, JUDGE, Com. v. Knapp, 136.

WILLIAM OF ORANGE, 31.

WILMORE, MR., forced to flee beyond seas, 29.

WILSON, IN RE, 140 U. S. 575, 47, 56.

WILSON, JUDGE

  • oath of grand juror, 94.
  • power of grand jury, 100.
  • charge to grand jury, 124.

WINDHAM, SIR HUGH, fining grand jurors, 164.

WISCONSIN, oath of grand juror, 96n.

WITNESSES

  • four townships acted as, 16.
  • trial jurors as, 23, 24.
  • summoning of, before grand jury, 101, 104, 132.
  • appearing before grand jury, 100.
  • for prosecution only heard, 42, 103, 140.
  • to be sworn, 137.
  • manner of swearing, 137.
  • when, not sworn, 138, 146.
  • examination of, by district attorney, 139.
  • by private counsel, 129.
  • by grand jurors, 127.
  • in open court, 117, 127.
  • only one present at a time, 139.
  • grand jurors may require production of additional, 104.
  • indictment found upon evidence of interested, 143.
  • incompetent, 143, 144.
  • two, on indictment for treason, 144.
  • must all be examined before bill ignored, 146.
  • disclose other offences, 110.
  • committing perjury before grand jury, 108, 118.
  • cannot be compelled to criminate themselves, 133.
  • refusing to testify in contempt, 88, 120, 133.
  • commitment of, 132n.
  • may disclose what transpires in grand jury room, 120.
  • presentment not based upon testimony of, 132.
  • failure to hear, in support of indictment, 132.
  • list of, furnished to defendant, 136.
  • names of, endorsed on bill, 135.
  • tampering with, 143.
  • testifying under objection, 145.
  • convicted of infamous crime, 143.
  • perjury, 144.
  • punishment of, 104, 165.

WOMAN, appeal made by, 10, 11, 21.

WOMEN

  • not qualified as grand jurors, 63.
  • unlawful cohabitation with, in Utah, 82.
  • married, when incompetent as prosecutrix, 135n.

WOODWARD, MR. JUSTICE, Rowand v. Com., 112.

WYOMING, oath of grand juror, 97n.

WRITS

  • awarding inquest, 17.
  • not to be bought or sold, 17.
  • provisions of Magna Charta as to, 17.
  • awarding assize, 17.
  • of venire facias, 48.
    • return of sheriff to, 49.
  • of tales de circumstantibus, 54.

ZENGER, case of John Peter, 32.


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