Table of Contents

PART I.
ITS ORIGIN, HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT.

An institution of English-speaking countries ............ 1

Of historic, political and legal interest ............ 1

Extravagantly praised and bitterly condemned ............ 1

Differing opinions as to origin ............ 1

Law of Ethelred II. ............ 2

The petit jury a Norman institution ............ 2

Nambda and Sectatores ............ 3

Ancient Norman and English methods of bringing offenders to justice ............ 3

The custom of weregild ............ 4

Compurgation ............ 4

English system of frank-pledge ............ 4

Statute of Ethelred II, declaratory of existing law ............ 5

Fixes number composing inquest at twelve ............ 6

Lord Coke's view of the number of twelve ............ 6

Appeal promotes importance of inquest ............ 7

Accusing body confirmed by Assize of Clarendon ............ 7

The itinerant courts created ............ 7

The implied prohibition abolishes compurgation ............ 8

Justices of the curia regis become sheriffs ............ 8

Accusing body confirmed by Assize of Northampton ............ 8

The kingdom divided into six circuits ............ 9

The accusing body in the time of Glanville ............ 9

Offences prosecuted by appeal or by presentment on suspicion ............ 10

Authority to make inquisitions concerning nuisances ............ 10

The inquest to answer capitula ............ 11

Rolls of the Itinerant courts ............ 11

When inquest exercised right of presentment ............ 11

Presentments made where person appealed ............ 12

How appeal was made ............ 12

Case of Ashford v. Thornton ............ 13

Inquiry of the four townships after presentment ............ 14

Their office not clear ............ 14

Glanville silent regarding them ............ 14

No part of inquest in Bracton's time ............ 15

Townships act only after presentment on suspicion ............ 15

Optional with Justices to inquire of four townships ............ 16

Mr. Forsyth's opinion ............ 16

Methods of trial in force ............ 16

Trial by battle upon appeals ............ 17

Trial by jury ............ 17

Allowed by payment of money to the king ............ 17

Writs awarding inquest not to be sold ............ 17

Doubted if this applied to criminal cases ............ 17

Ordeal abolished by Fourth Lateran Council ............ 18

Itinerant justices in doubt as to mode of trial ............ 18

Directed to use their discretion ............ 18

Bracton describes methods of prosecuting offenders ............ 19

Procedure in holding an eyre ............ 19

Oath of the principal juror ............ 20

Oath of his fellow jurors ............ 20

Pledge of secrecy ............ 21

Method of trial with relation to manner of instituting prosecution ............ 21

Appellee permitted to put himself upon the country ............ 21

Trial by same jurors who accused doubted ............ 21

Defendant permitted to challenge for cause ............ 22

Oath of the trial jurors ............ 22

Four townspeople act with petit jurors ............ 23

Difference between oaths of accusing and trial jurors ............ 23

Trial jury a jury of witnesses ............ 24

Doctrine of afforciament ............ 24

Instances of trial by special petit jury ............ 24

Accusing jury in the time of Britton ............ 25

Increase of its duties ............ 25

Jury enlarged in reign of Edward III. ............ 26

Le graunde inquest ............ 26

Decline of the hundred inquests ............ 26

The grand jury a growth ............ 26

Completion of period of formation ............ 27

An arm of the government ............ 27

Effect of the requirement of secrecy ............ 27

Independence of grand jury established ............ 28

Trial of Stephen College ............ 28

Attempt to indict Earl of Shaftesbury ............ 29

Reason for the ignoramus considered ............ 29

Attempt to reform panels of grand jurors under Statute 3, Henry VIII ............ 30

Sheriffs demur but finally yield ............ 30

Chief Justice McKean attempts to overawe Pennsylvania grand jury ............ 31

The grand jury in America ............ 31

Refusal to indict John Peter Zenger ............ 32

No provision for grand jury in Constitution of the United States ............ 32

Adoption of Amendment V to remedy omission ............ 32

Applies only to offences triable in United States Courts ............ 33

Fourteenth amendment does not prohibit States from prosecuting by information ............ 33

Prosecution by information in Pennsylvania rarely employed ............ 34

Present anomalous position of grand jury ............ 34

Attacks on the grand jury ............ 35

Preliminary hearing makes its work superfluous ............ 35

Unwise to have prosecution sustained without sanction of impartial body ............ 36

Indictments improperly ignored or found ............ 36

Innocent defendant not harmed ............ 37

Judgment of committing magistrate should be reviewed ............ 37

English stipendiary magistrates ............ 38

Combined knowledge of grand jurors productive of correct findings ............ 39

Irresponsibility of the grand jury ............ 40

Oppressive use of grand jury caused adoption of Statute 3, Henry VIII. C. 12 ............ 41

Scarlet's Case ............ 42

No injury from secrecy of the grand jury ............ 42

Conservative view of institution expressed by Chief Justice Shaw ............ 43

Grand jury abolished in some states ............ 44

Power of the California grand jury ............ 44

Conservatism of the Eastern States ............ 44

Judge King's warning ............ 44

PART II.
ORGANIZATION AND QUALIFICATIONS.

Number composing grand jury ............ 45

Only twenty-three sworn ............ 45

Reason of the rule ............ 45

Presence of greater number will vitiate indictment ............ 46

Empaneling statutory number ............ 46

In re Wilson ............ 47

Selection of grand jurors regulated by statute ............ 47

General method of selection ............ 48

Failure to summon at designated time ............ 48

Requisites of the venire ............ 49

Errors in names of grand jurors ............ 49

Return to venire ............ 49

Failure to sign return ............ 50

May be amended ............ 50

Deficiency in number of grand jurors ............ 50

Judge not to furnish names of talesmen ............ 50

Record must show deficiency ............ 51

Juror appearing after grand jury begins duties may act ............ 51

When tales may issue ............ 52

Selection of talesmen from improper class ............ 52

Selection of grand jurors in Pennsylvania ............ 52

Manner of drawing ............ 53

How summoned ............ 54

Sheriff's return to venire ............ 54

Grand jury detained after end of term ............ 54

When tales may issue ............ 54

Number of talesmen to be summoned ............ 54

Drawing grand jurors in Federal Courts ............ 55

How summoned ............ 55

Manner of supplying deficiency ............ 55

Number to be summoned ............ 56

Indictment sustained if twelve present and concur ............ 56

Summoning grand jurors from part of district ............ 56

Not in conflict with sixth amendment ............ 57

Selection of grand jurors in England ............ 57

Irregularity in drawing ............ 57

Absence of officer when drawing made ............ 58

De facto officers and grand jurors ............ 58

Case of People v. Petrea ............ 58

By whom grand jurors summoned ............ 59

Presumption that official acts are lawfully performed ............ 59

Qualifications of grand jurors ............ 60

Views of Bracton, Chitty and Coke ............ 60

Qualifications defined by II Hen. IV. ............ 61

Present qualifications of English grand jurors ............ 61

In Pennsylvania ............ 61

When grand juror must be a freeholder ............ 62

To have no suit against any man ............ 62

Nor be charged with any offence ............ 63

In some instances must be qualified voters ............ 63

Shall have paid taxes for previous year ............ 63

Women may not serve in State of Washington ............ 63

Qualifications of Federal grand juror ............ 63

Alien not competent ............ 64

When advantage may be taken of irregular proceedings ............ 64

When right of challenge wrongfully refused ............ 65

Causes of challenge to array ............ 66

When array will not be quashed ............ 67

Time of making motion in Federal Courts ............ 68

When challenge to array does not extend to entire panel ............ 69

Legislature may determine time of making challenge ............ 70

Person making challenge must be under prosecution ............ 70

State's Attorney cannot challenge panel ............ 70

But may challenge individual jurors ............ 70

Defendant failing to challenge waives right ............ 71

By whom it may be made ............ 71

Exemption from grand jury service ............ 72

Distinction between disqualifications and exemptions ............ 72

Objections to personal qualifications of grand juror ............ 73

Rule in Federal Courts ............ 73

Case of Crowley v. United States ............ 74

Challenge for favor a common law right ............ 74

No right of challenge in England ............ 75

Juror incompetent when drawn may become qualified ............ 75

Challenges for individual disqualification ............ 76

Prosecutor as grand juror ............ 78

When forming and expressing opinion disqualifies ............ 78

Submission of new bill to same grand jury ............ 78

Case of State v. Gillick ............ 79

Petit juror on former trial as grand juror ............ 80

Grand juror related to prosecutor ............ 80

When change of domicile will disqualify ............ 81

Religious belief will not disqualify ............ 81

Grand juror cannot be examined on voir dire ............ 81

When triers appointed on challenge for favor ............ 82

Peremptory challenges not allowed ............ 82

Exclusion of competent grand juror by district attorney ............ 84

Court may excuse on application ............ 84

And dismiss for cause ............ 84

Presumption that jurors were excused ............ 85

Challenges may be made after grand jury sworn ............ 85

And after indictment found ............ 85

By motion to quash and plea in abatement ............ 86

Court will not quash where defendant not prejudiced ............ 86

Objection too late after general issue pleaded ............ 87

Cannot be raised in collateral proceeding ............ 88

Empaneling of grand jury ............ 88

Must be shown by record ............ 89

Two grand juries at same term illegal ............ 89

Empaneling grand jury where statute changed ............ 89

Selection of foreman ............ 90

Appointment to be shown by record ............ 90

Selection of clerk ............ 91

Manner of swearing grand jurors ............ 91

Administration of oath to be shown by record ............ 92

PART III.
THE OATH, POWERS AND DUTIES OF GRAND JURORS.

The oath as his commission ............ 94

Form of oath administered to foreman ............ 94

Short form taken by the jurors generally ............ 97

Oath of the Twelve Thanes ............ 98

The oath in Bracton's period ............ 98

In the time of Button ............ 99

Book of Oaths of Cromwell's period ............ 99

Oath as limiting grand juror's power ............ 99

Right to institute all proceedings ............ 100

Views of Attorney General Bradford ............ 100

The Pennsylvania rule ............ 101

Judge Addison's charge ............ 101

"Diligently inquire and true presentment" denned ............ 101

Charge of Chief Justice Taney ............ 102

Chief Justice Chase construes powers of Federal grand jury ............ 102

May not summon witnesses ............ 103

When additional testimony will be submitted ............ 104

Inquisitorial powers in certain states ............ 104

Presentment made when evidence heard ............ 105

Evidence to warrant finding true bill ............ 105

Limitation upon their inquiry ............ 105

Judge King's opinion ............ 106

Mr. Justice Field's opinion ............ 108

Wherein the powers of grand jurors in Pennsylvania and the Federal Courts coincide ............ 110

Additional powers of Federal grand jurors ............ 110

District Attorney's right to prefer indictment ............ 110

Seldom exercised without leave of court ............ 111

Case of Rowand v. Commonwealth ............ 112

The legality of such action questioned ............ 112

Sustained by Judge Pratt ............ 113

His opinion not supported by the authority cited ............ 113

Refusal to quash equivalent to prior sanction ............ 114

District Attorney's bill to be earmarked ............ 114

Right to file information in Federal Courts ............ 115

Adopted in certain states ............ 115

Grand jury as defender of liberty of the press ............ 115

Public press attacks grand jury ............ 116

Grand juror's oath enjoins secrecy ............ 116

Purpose of this requirement ............ 116

Originally not a grand juror's prerogative ............ 116

Cases of Scarlet and Lord Shaftesbury ............ 117

Case of State v. Branch ............ 117

Grand jurors may testify in certain cases ............ 118

But may not impeach their finding ............ 119

Provision for secrecy includes district attorney ............ 120

Does not include witnesses ............ 120

Grand juror refusing to disclose how he voted not in contempt ............ 121

Duties imposed upon grand jurors by statute ............ 121

Incorporation of boroughs ............ 121

Erection of county buildings and bridges ............ 121

In Connecticut to inform justices of peace of violations of law ............ 122

Examination of county books ............ 122

And sufficiency of official bonds ............ 122

In Vermont to arrest without warrant for violation of liquor laws ............ 122

Grand jurors not sworn in any cause ............ 122

PART IV.
HOW THE GRAND JURY TRANSACTS BUSINESS
AND ITS RELATION TO THE COURT.

The charge of the court ............ 124

A means of communication with the public ............ 124

When a supplementary charge may be delivered ............ 125

First suggested on the trial of Aaron Burr ............ 125

Judge Cranch's opinion ............ 126

Part of grand jury may be specially charged ............ 126

Use of inflammatory language ............ 126

Attendance of district attorney on grand jury ............ 127

When his presence is improper ............ 128

Presence of private counsel improper ............ 128

Mr. Justice dark's opinion as to presence of district attorney ............ 129

The "right" of the district attorney to be present ............ 129

Presentment defined ............ 130

Whether defendant may be tried upon presentment without indictment ............ 131

Indictment defined ............ 131

Presentment not found upon testimony of witnesses ............ 131

Indictment void unless evidence heard ............ 132

Procuring attendance of witnesses ............ 132

Production of documents ............ 133

Court to determine their relevancy ............ 133

Witness not compelled to incriminate himself ............ 133

Must claim constitutional privilege ............ 133

Where witness refuses to testify ............ 133

Signing of indictment by district attorney ............ 134

Invalid where signed by improper official ............ 134

Witnesses' names endorsed on bill ............ 135

Prosecutor's name to be endorsed ............ 135

When not essential ............ 136

Governor of state endorsed as prosecutor ............ 136

When witnesses' names not endorsed ............ 136

Witnesses must be sworn ............ 137

When foreman may administer oath ............ 137

Indictment quashed if witnesses not sworn ............ 138

But judgment will not be arrested ............ 138

Grand jurors may interrogate witnesses ............ 139

Presence of improper person in grand jury room ............ 139

Defendant's witness not to appear ............ 140

Incompetent evidence not to be received ............ 142

When an indictment will be quashed upon this ground ............ 143

When sustained ............ 145

All witnesses must be heard before bill ignored ............ 146

The finding of the grand jury ............ 147

Twelve must concur ............ 147

Cannot find for part of a count ............ 147

Finding endorsed on bill ............ 148

When to be signed by foreman ............ 148

Variance in name of foreman ............ 149

Omission of words "a true bill" ............ 149

Reconsideration of finding ............ 150

Sufficient endorsement of finding ............ 150

Failure to endorse finding ............ 151

Date of finding to be endorsed on bill ............ 151

Defendant indicted by initials of Christian name ............ 152

If bill ignored new bill may be submitted ............ 152

Mr. Justice Woodward's opinion ............ 152

When leave of court to be obtained ............ 153

Manner of returning indictments into court ............ 154

Obtaining assent of grand jury to amendment of matter of form ............ 154

Pennsylvania Act of March 31, 1860 ............ 154

Altering indictment in matter of substance ............ 154

Ex Parte Bain ............ 155

Bill not read to grand jury ............ 155

Findings need not be read in open court ............ 156

Failure to record finding ............ 156

Bills to be filed after finding recorded ............ 157

Report of grand jury upon completion of their labors ............ 157

Recommendations outside their authority ............ 157

The practice condemned ............ 158

Libellous statements in report of grand jury ............ 158

Expunging report from minutes ............ 159

Discharge of grand jury ............ 160

Resummoning after discharge ............ 160

Grand juror not to disclose secrets of grand jury room ............ 162

Attempt to influence grand jurors ............ 162

Case of Commonwealth v. Crans ............ 162

Control of court over grand jury ............ 162

Fining of Sir Hugh Wyndham illegal ............ 164

Grand jury uncontrolled in their finding ............ 164

Extent of court's control ............ 164

Contempt by grand juror ............ 165

Misconduct of grand juror ............ 166

Exemption from personal liability for official acts ............ 166


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