Haines: The Revival of Natural Law Concepts

CONTENTS

PART I

A SURVEY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL LAW DOCTRINES

I. ANCIENT AND MEDIAEVAL NATURAL LAW THEORIES . . 3

1. Graeco-Roman Concepts ............ 4

2. Natural Law in the Middle Ages ......... 12

3. Theories following the Reformation ........ 17

4. Types of Natural Law Ideas in Ancient and Mediaeval Times ................. 24

II. ENGLISH HIGHER LAW DOCTRINES .......... 28

1. Natural Law Ideas and English Doctrines relating to Fundamental Laws .............. 29

2. Natural Law and the Doctrine of the Supremacy of the Law ................... 32

3. Evidences of Natural Law Ideas in Judicial Decisions 39

4. Types of Natural Law Theories applied in English Law..................... 43

5. Differences between the Anglo-American and the Continental Legal Points of View ........ 44

III. AMERICAN AND FRENCH NATURAL LAW DOCTRINES . . 49

1. Transition from Natural Law Doctrines to Theories of Natural Rights ................ 49

2. American Theories of Natural Law and of Inalienable Rights ................... 52

3. French Natural Law Concepts .......... 59

4. The Decline of the Natural Rights Philosophy ... 65

PART II

THE ACCEPTANCE OF NATURAL LAW OR SUPERIOR LAW CONCEPTS IN THE PUBLIC LAW OF THE UNITED STATES

IV. JUDICIAL CONSTRUCTION or IMPLIED LIMITS ON AMERICAN LEGISLATURES ................. 75

1. Denial of the Application of Natural Law Concepts . 75

2. Natural Law Theories in the Formative Period of American Law ................ 77

3. Higher Law Theories as a Sanction for the Establishment of the Review of Legislative Acts by Courts 80

4. Limits on Legislatures resulting from the Nature of the Social Compact and from the Nature of Free Republican Governments ............ 86

5. Construction of Limits on Legislatures to protect Vested Rights ................ 88

6. The Main Purpose of the Establishment of Express and Implied Limits on Legislative Powers .... 95

7. A Reaction from the Federalist Doctrine of Limiting Legislative Activities ............. 97

8. The Return to the Former Natural Law Theories . . 99

V. NATURAL LAW THEORIES AND DUE PROCESS OF LAW . . 104

1. Divergent Views on the Meaning of Due Process of Law..................... 104

2. Due Process of Law as applied by the Justices of the State Courts prior to 1870 ........... 108

3. Cooley's Efforts to extend the Meaning of Due Process of Law........ ......... 116

4. Economic and Legal Bases for a Revival of Natural Law Thinking ................ 117

5. Due Process of Law made an Agency for the Maintenance of Reactionary Tendencies ........ 122

PART III

THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT AND NATURAL LAW THEORIES

VI. THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT TO THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION AND DUE PROCESS OF LAW ...... 143

1. Period of Restricted Interpretation ........ 145

2. Economic and Political Pressure brings about a Change in Supreme Court Decisions .......... 149

3. Reversal of the Former Opinions on the Meaning of Due Process of Law .............. 154

(a) Due Process of Law applied to the Procedure in the Regulation of Public Utilities ...... 154

(6) Due Process of Law and Liberty of Contract . . 160

VII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERAL RULE OF REASON TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF LEGISLATIVE ACTS . . 166

1. Arbitrary Legislative and Administrative Acts are Void .................... 166

2. Acts Contrary to Fundamental Rights are Void . . 172

3. Police Regulations must be Reasonable ...... 177

4. Results of the Extension of the Meaning of Due Process of Law ................ 182

5. Some Examples of Higher Law Concepts in Recent Supreme Court Decisions ........... 185

VIII. NATURAL LAW DOCTRINES AID IN CHANGING THE BASIS FOR JUDICIAL REVIEW OF LEGISLATIVE ACTS ..... 196

1. Conservative Doctrines and Judicial Review of Legislation .................... 198

2. Underlying Purpose of the Revival of the Natural Law Philosophy in American Constitutional Law . 210

3. Types of Natural Law applied in the United States . 216

Appendix ... ............... 232

PART IV

THE REVIVAL OF DROIT NATUREL, NATURRECHT, AND SUPERIOR LAW DOCTRINES IN THE JURISTIC PHILOSOPHY OF EUROPEAN WRITERS

IX. THE BACKGROUND FOR RECENT THEORIES OF NATURAL LAW AND THE GERMAN DOCTRINE OF A "RECHTSSTAAT" 237

1. Continuance of Natural Law Theories in Europe . . 237

2. German Doctrine of a Rechtsstaat ......... 245

3. Current Views Relating to Natural Law in Germany 246

X. FRENCH THEORIES RELATING TO SUPERIOR LAW: HIGHER LAW DOCTRINES OF KRABBE .......... 252

1. Views of Saleilles and Charmont ......... 252

2. Views of Duguit and Hauriou .......... 260

3. Higher Law Doctrines of Krabbe ......... 274

XI. REVIVAL OF NATURAL LAW IN METAPHYSICAL AND THEOLOGICAL SPECULATIONS; NATURAL LAW THEORIES AND INTERNATIONAL LAW ............ 278

1. Natural Law Doctrines of Del Vecchio ....... 279

2. Theological Interpretation of Natural Law by Victor Cathrein .................. 286

3. Metaphysical Doctrines of Geny ......... 288

4. Natural Law Theories and International Law ... 294

5. Theories of Natural Law Prevalent in Europe ... 302

PART V

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE REVIVAL OF HIGHER LAW CONCEPTS IN THE PUBLIC LAW OF EUROPE AND OF AMERICA

XII. OBJECTIVES IN THE MODERN REVIVAL OF NATURAL LAW THINKING .................. 309

1. Natural Law as a Device to introduce Ethical Concepts into the Law .............. 310

2. Natural Law as an Ideal or Philosophical Standard . 316

3. Higher Laws to guide Judges as Legislators..... 323

4. Higher Law Theories as a Basis for Limits on State Sovereignty .................. 331

5. Limits on the Power to amend Constitutions in America due to Fundamental Principles and Rights 336

6. Concluding Comments ............. 342

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................... 353

TABLE OF CASES .................... 373

INDEX ........................ 381



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