[E: In the original printed edition, there were both unnumbered
footnotes and numbered endnotes. In this digital edition, all notes have been
converted to endnotes and re-numbered. The numbers of the printed edition
endnotes are shown in parentheses. Footnotes of the printed edition are also
shown in parentheses, but with the format (<chapter number>:<page
number>:<footnote symbol>). Thus, the footnote ** from Chapter 6, page
268, would be shown as (6:268:**). Some endnotes have been added or modified by
the author or the digital editor, and these are surrounded in double square
brackets [], with those of the editor prefixed with "E:".]
1. (1) Detective Jay Einhorn, interview with
2. (2) Nancy Gibbs,"The Blood of Innocents,"
3. (3) Ibid..
4. (4) According to "journalist" Larry Myers, McVeigh
exited the vehicle and met Hanger between the two cars. Hanger asked McVeigh
for his license. He then informed the cop that he was moving from Arkansas, at
which point Hanger walked back to his vehicle and ran McVeigh's license.
Hanger's video camera was on, as well as his microphone. As he walked back to
McVeigh, he noticed a bulge under his jacket, and as he handed McVeigh his
license, he quietly flipped the snap on his holster. He asked McVeigh if he was
carrying a gun, and McVeigh informed him he was, at which point Hanger drew his
weapon, shoved McVeigh against the car and spread his legs. McVeigh told Hanger
that he had a concealed carry permit and showed him is old Burns Security
badge. McVeigh sat in the passenger side of the patrol car and talked about the
bombing as it flashed over the radio. When he arrived at the jailhouse, he
asked, "when's chow?"
5. See Partin Report and diagrams in appendix.
6. (5) Sam Cohen's letter to Representative Key,
6/29/95, copy in author's possession.
7. (6) William Jasper, "Explosive Evidence of a
Cover-Up," The New American, 8/7/95.
8. (7) Ibid.
9. The Atlas Powder Co. is in Dallas, Texas.
10. (8) Christine Gorman, "Bomb Lurking in the Garden
Shed", Time magazine, 5/1/95.
11. (9) Rick Sherrow, interview with author.
12. (10) Linda Jones, trial transcript, U.S. v.
13. (11) Sacramento Bee, 4/30/95.
14. (12) Brian Ford, "McVeigh Placed at Kansas
Store," Tulsa World, 9/12/97.
15. (1:5:*) They claimed they didn't know where it
16. (13) Military Explosives, TM 9-1910/TO
11A-1-34, Dept. of the Army and the Air Force, 4/14/55, p. 121.
17. (14) Michele Marie Moore, Oklahoma City: Day
One (Eagar, AZ: Harvest Trust, 1996), p. 122.
18. (15) KFOR-TV, 4/19/95.
19. (16) USA Today, 4/28/95.
20. (17) New York Times, 10/19/95.
21. (18) Memorandum to all US Attorneys from Acting
Assistant Attorney General John C. Keeney, 1/4/96, and letter of Frederick
Whitehurst, 1/9/96 copy in author's possession.
22. (19) "Outside Experts to Review FBI Crime
Lab,"Wall Street Journal, 9/19/95; OIG report, copy in author's
23. (1:7:*) "Williams' report also states that the
initiator for the Primadet or the detonating cord was a non-electric detonator;
non-electric, burning type fuse of either hobby fuse or a commercial safety
fuse was used as a safe separation and time delay system; and the time delay
for the burning fuse was approximately 2 minutes and 15 seconds.… No
evidence of a non-electric detonator or the named fuses, however, were found at
the crime scene.… Williams also stated in his report that [a] fertilizer
base explosive, such as ANFO… among other commercial and improvised
explosives, has an approximate VOD of 13,000 fps. The statement of the VOD of
ANFO, however, is incomplete because ANFO has a broad VOD range. For example,
the Dupont Blasters' Handbook (Dupont) shows commercial ANFO products with VODs
in the 7,000-15,600 feet-per-second range. When Williams wrote his Oklahoma
City report, he was aware of this range.…"
24. (20) The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the
Alfred P. Murrah Building, Oklahoma City, April 19, 1995, 11/1/96, copy in
25. (21) Ibid.
26. As the OIG report states: "Whitehurst questions
Williams' conclusion that none of the structural damage evident within the
Murrah building was caused by secondary explosive devices or explosions."
27. (1:8:*) Partin pointed out that while the truck
bomb that damaged the World Trade Center was in an enclosed space, thereby
creating a much higher destructive force than a bomb out in the open, it did
not destroy the support column next to it.
28. (22) Richard Sherrow, "Bombast, Bomb Blasts &
Baloney,"Soldier of Fortune, 6/95.
29. (23) Rabauch's letter to Partin dated 7/18/95,
copy in author's possession.
30. (24) CNN World News, 6/26/96.
31. (25) Jim Loftis, interview with author.
32. (1:10:*) The Israelis' host in the U.S. was
Oklahoma City business leader Moshe Tal, an Israeli. According to William
Northrop, another Israeli and Oklahoma City resident, Tal initially circulated
the report, which was three pages and mentioned the Middle-Eastern bomb
signature. After Tal was summoned to Israel, he returned denying those aspects
of the report. It was suddenly, in keeping with the U.S. Government's position,
no longer a Middle-Eastern bomb, and the report itself incredibly shrank from
three pages to only one.
33. (26) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Flynn, "Were Feds
Warned Before OKC Bomb Built?" Rocky Mountain News, 2/6/97. The fuel
dealer reported the purchasing attempt to the ATF, but the agency did not
34. (27) Gronning's letter to Key, dated 6/27/95,
copy in author's possession.
35. (28) James L. Pate, "Bloody April: Waco
Anniversary Triggers Oklahoma City Atrocity," Soldier of Fortune,
36. (29) Larens Imanyuel, interview with author.
37. (30) Engineering News, May 1, 1995, page
38. (31) The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the
Alfred P. Murrah Building, Oklahoma City, April 19, 1995, 11/1/96, copy in
39. (32) Larens Imanyuel,"The Bombing of the Oklahoma
City Federal Building: Was a Cruise Missile Warhead Design Used?"
40. (33) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of
Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 35.
41. (34) Ramona McDonald, interview with author.
42. (35) "The Worst Terrorist Attack on U.S. Soil:
April 19, 1995," CNN, 12/20/95.
43. (1:13:*) Other people who were working in office
buildings at the time reported that sparks flew out from their computers just
before the blast. The manager of the Journal Record parking garage, two
blocks from the Murrah Building, reported that the electronic computers in at
least half a dozen cars had malfunctioned as a result of the blast.
44. (36) Sam Cohen, interview with author.
45. (37) Gene Wheaton, "The Covert Culture,"
Portland Free Press, May/June 1996.
46. (38) David Noble, "Professors of Terror,"
Third World Resurgence (Penang, Malaysia), February-March, 1992, p. 34,
quoted in Ramsey Clark, The Fire This Time, (New York, NY: Thunder's
Mouth Press, 1992), p. 44.
47. (39) Adel Darwick and Gregory Alexander,
Unholy Babylon, (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991), p. 104.
48. (40) Harry M., confidential letter to author.
49. (41) "Iraq Also Worked on Hydrogen Bomb,"
Associated Press, quoted in The Nashville Tennessean, 10/9/91, as quoted
in Charles T. Harrison, "Hell in a Hand Basket: The Threat of Portable Nuclear
Weapons," Military Review, May, 1993.
50. (42) E-Mail message to Tony Scarlatti; Interview
51. (1:15:*) Within the last few years, articles have
appeared in the U.S., European, and even Russian media dealing with an exotic
new material known as 'Red Mercury' which had been developed by the Russians
and allegedly held properties capable of producing far more efficient nuclear
fission warheads than the conventional explosives developed thus far."
52. (43) Harrison, Op Cit.
53. New Yorker magazine, date unknown, quoted
by nuclear physicist Galen Winsor on Radio Free America, 3/23/93.
54. (44) Edward Zehr, "Turning Point: Resolving The
Enigma of Oklahoma City," Washington Weekly, 11/18/96.
55. Some rescue workers, it was also rumored, had
become ill with mysterious illnesses. They suffered from physical exhaustion
and could barely drag themselves to work, it was reported, although these
reports have not been substantiated. Of the 43 FEMA dogs that took part in the
rescue effort, four died and one became ill. Rumors quickly spread that the
dogs had died of radiation poisoning. The body of one of the deceased dogs, it
was claimed, had been exhumed, his lungs found to be radioactive. The culprit
was supposedly a radioactive isotope called Tritium. A heavy form of hydrogen,
Tritium is an essential ingredient in nuclear weapons. In microscopic
quantities it is also used as a "tracer" in medical procedures — injected
into the bloodstream as an aid in radiology scanning. According to Larry
Jacobson, Executive Vise President of the National Association of Search &
Rescue (NASR) in Fairfax, Virginia, "We don't know of any dog coming out of the
Oklahoma thing that had any more then cut paws… it was a totally baseless
rumor." Mike Nozer, head of the Tulsa, Oklahoma K-9 Search & Rescue team,
was busy assembling his team for the Heroes of the Heart parade in Bethany on
April 19, 1996. He explained that all eight of his dogs were still active, in
fact were at the parade that day. "My dogs were the first ones in the
building," said Nozer, whose team worked for six days to pull people out of the
wreckage. "I didn't have any one of my dogs down due to radiation." Nozer also
explained that the Fire Department had sprayed a chemical in the building on
the evening of the fourth day to prevent contamination from decaying bodies
still inside. However, according to Nozer, this would not have affected the
dogs. Skip Hernandez of Miami's Metro Dade Fire Department, worked with his
dogs in the "pit," an area likely to have been contaminated. "Before we allow
the dogs to go in, we ask certain questions [of] the hazardous materials guys
because the dogs work very low to the ground," explained Hernandez. "All the
dogs went thorough a thorough physical. None of our dogs left there
injured…We would have known if there was radiation in there." Hernandez
also said that the dog that died was an older dog, who died of cancer. The dog
that had died was supposedly from a team in Virginia or Maryland. Sgt. Lavelle
of Maryland Task Force 1, told me one dog became sick from lyme disease, but he
didn't think it was related to the bombing. As to the rumor of Tritium
poisoning, he said, "That's the first we've ever heard of it." Jacobson, who
works with the team in Virginia, said absolutely no dog died as a result of
being in the Murrah Building. I asked Samuel Cohen about the possibility of
Tritium poisoning. "Tritium could have been mixed up with ANFO," said Cohen.
"But it seems far-fetched that they could have gotten that much into their
systems to do any serious radiation damage. It's very unlikely to do damage
unless it gets into the system in huge doses. The culprit would have to steal
more Tritium than exists in any single lab on earth. He would need pounds. And
Tritium is not cheap stuff. The last I checked, it was a few thousand dollars a
gram." But whether search and rescue dogs actually died of radiation poisoning
is another matter. A Rotweiler named Weinachten Gator Von Scott CD, who lived
with his owner Jacob Scott in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, died in June of 1996, of
a broken neck after a fall. Gator had pulled the last survivor out of the
Murrah Building. Another dog, a member of the Oklahoma County Sheriff's K-9
Unit named Chita, was hit by a car after escaping from her pen during a hail
storm. While some have suggested that the dogs were killed to hide evidence of
radiation poisoning, there is no evidence that either animal was suffering from
such a malady. Yet considering the extent of the cover-up underway at the time,
and the number of people who feared for their jobs, the autopsy reports on the
dogs could have been faked. Certainly any revelation of a nuclear explosion
would not only cause the government's already shaky premise to fall apart, but
would cause widespread panic among the population.
56. Sam Cohen, interview with author.
57. (45) Sam Cohen, Journal of Civil Defense,
Fall, 1995, quoted by F.R. Suplantier in Behind the Headlines.
58. According to demolition experts, simply wrapping
Primacord around the column supports 27 times would be enough to destroy
59. (1:15:**) Authorities later backtracked on the
leg, claiming that it belonged to Airforce recruit Lakesha Levy. They
originally said the leg belonged to a light-skinned male in his 30s. They then
said it belonged to a black female, in order to match it with Levy.
60. (46) "A classified Pentagon study determines
Oklahoma bombing was caused by more than one bomb," Strategic Investment
61. (47) William Jasper, "Multiple Blasts: More
Evidence," The New American, date unknown.
62. (48) "The Oklahoma City Bombing: Improved
building performance through multi-hazard mitigation," FEMA, quoted in
Relevance magazine, April, 1997.
63. (49) General Benton K. Partin, interview with
64. (50) New American, date unknown.
65. (1:18:*) David Hall, manager of KPOC-TV in Ponca
City, who has done considerable investigation into the bombing, told me that
two Southwestern Bell employees called him and claimed they had a surveillance
tape that showed the Murrah Building shaking before the truck bomb detonated.
66. (51) Sam Cohen, interview with author.
67. (52) Jeff Bruccelari, Oklahoma Radio Network,
interview with Dr. Ray Brown, 2/18/97.
68. (53) Jerry Longspaugh, Cover-Up in Oklahoma
City video, 1996.
69. Emphasis mine.
70. (54) Ramona McDonald, interview with author.
71. Although the tape was confiscated by the FBI it
was later returned, likely altered, just as the FBI likely altered the famous
Zapruder film of the JFK assassination by reversing the frames that showed the
president's head being blown back.
72. (55) William Jasper,"Seismic Support," The New
American, 8/7/95, 1995.
73. (56) Nolan Clay, "Scientists Debate Meaning of
Bombing Seismograms", The Daily Oklahoman, 11/21/95.
74. (57) Moore, Op Cit., p. 223.
75. (58) William Jasper,"Seismic Support", The New
American, 8/7/95, 1995. Brown later added that the one-fourth of the
building collapsing on 4/19 could have created a larger pulse if it had help,
say, from high-explosives, "so you wouldn't need quite as much building to be
collapsing to cause the same sized pulse that we observed on the day of the
76. (59) William Jasper, "Were There Two
Explosions?", The New American, 6/12/95.
77. (60) Washington Post, 4/23/95.
78. (61) Moore, Op Cit., p. 223.
79. (62) Hassan Muhammad, interview with author.
80. (63) "William Jasper," OKC Investigator Under
Attack," The New American, 6/23/97; video deposition of Jane C. Graham,
7/20/97, copy in author's possession.
81. (64) "Oklahoma City: What Really Happened?",
video by Chuck Allen, 1995.
82. (65) Media Bypass, June, 1995.
83. (66) Jasper, Op Cit., 6/12/95.
84. (1:23:*) Unfortunately, Partin shot himself in
the foot in his first letter to Congress by insinuating that the bombing was
the work of a Communist conspiracy (The Third Socialist International), thereby
possibly portraying himself in the eyes of some as a Right-Wing "kook." But in
spite of his politics, his technical credentials are beyond reproach.
85. (1:23:**) This is reminiscent of the cover-up of
the JFK assassination, where Secret Service agents carefully washed down the
president's limo immediately after the shooting with buckets of water to remove
all traces of bullet fragments, and had Governor Connolly's clothes, bullet
holes and all, cleaned and pressed.
86. (67) Guy Rubsamen, interview with author.
87. (1:24:*) Such a situation is reminiscent of JFK's
visit to Dallas, where the plotters made sure the President's protective bubble
was removed from his limousine, and made sure the Secret Service never bothered
to check the many open windows around Dealy Plaza — a standard security
procedure in such a situation.
88. (68) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author.
89. (69) "Witness Accounts Vary in Oklahoma City
Bombing," Dallas Morning News, 10/8/95; Associated Press, 8/27/95;
Associated Press, 9/9/95.
90. (70) Statement of unidentified witness taking by
Rep. Charles Key, copy in author's possession.
. After publication of this book, Jane Graham was
shown a photograph of German national Andreas Strassmeir, discussed later, and
identified him as one of the men she saw.
92. (71) Graham, Op Cit. One of the men was
tall, late '30s, nice-looking, very dark hair, mustache, black cowboy hat,
jeans. The others were slightly older; wearing khakis, short sleeves, all
Caucasians. The FBI agent who interviewed Graham was Joe Schwecke .
93. (72) Interviews with Paul Renfroe, OG&E; Thom
Hunter, Southwestern Bell; Don Sherry, Oklahoma Natural Gas. Interviews with
approximately 20 construction companies involved with a renovation bid by GSA.
Contractor list supplied by GSA to author.
94. (73) David Hall, interview with author.
95. (74) J.D. Cash & Jeff Holladay, "Secondary
Explosion Revealed in Murrah Blast," McCurtain Daily Gazette,
96. (75) Allen, Op Cit.
97. (76) Jon Rappaport, Oklahoma City Bombing
— The Suppressed Truth (Los Angeles, CA: Blue Press, 1995).
98. (77) Veritas, 10/9/95.
99. (1:27:*) According to Army technical manual on
military explosives, Mercury Fulminate is only safe to handle if it is
100. (78) Craig Roberts, "The Bombing of the Murrah
Federal Building: An Investigative Report," (prepared for the Tulsa Office of
the FBI), 6/4/95, copy in author's possession.
101. (1:27:**) It was the presence of military
ordinance that brought the 61st EOD (Explosive Ordinance Demolition) team from
Fort Sill in to examine and defuse the bombs.
102. (1:27:†) The Army had a recruiting office
in the building, which would have made the presence of military personnel
inconspicuous. The Department of Agriculture also had an office in the
building. The Department of Agriculture has been used as a front for IRS
intelligence, and also the 113th M.I.G. (Military Intelligence Group) in
Chicago in 1970. Given the easy access to military personnel in the building,
it would have been easy for military personnel to go through the building
103. (79) General Benton K. Partin, interview with
104. (80) KFOR-TV.
105. (1:29:*) According to the September, 1995
edition of Firehouse magazine, there were three bomb scares: one at
10:22, one at 10:45, and one at 1:51. (See Radio logs, Appendix)
106. Taped interview of Tiffany Smith by Rep. Charles
107. (81) Jim Keith, OKBOMB — Conspiracy and
Cover-Up (Lilburn, GA: Illuminit Press, 1996).
108. (82) Edward Comeau, "Fire Investigation Report:
Oklahoma City Bombing and Rescue Operation," National Fire Protection
109. It was rumored that one of the devices was taken
to Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, NM. Fred Shannon of the Ellis
County Press in Albuquerque claimed his source is too frightened to come
forward. If this account is true, it is curious to say the least, why a bomb
would be taken to a remote military base, when Tinker Air Force base is less
than 10 miles away. Interestingly, a branch of Sandia Labs is located at
Kirkland Air Force Base. The Sandia Corporation, headquartered in Albuquerque,
and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Alameda County, CA,
have cooperated on the development of highly sophisticated explosives,
including nuclear weapons. Sandia often conducts it's tests at the White Sands
Missile Test Range, just west of Alamagordo. White Sands was the home to the
ATF's "Dipole Might" experiments (see below). Was the government taking one of
its bombs back home to Momma?
110. (83) Allen, Op Cit.
111. (84) Moore, Op Cit., p. 221. Ricks made
this statement the day of the bombing.
112. (85) General Benton K. Partin, interview with
113. (86) Rick Sherrow, interview with author.
114. (1:30:*) The TOW missile, inspected by the 61st
EOD team out of Ft. Sill was inert, as reported on the Oklahoma County
Sheriff's Evidence/Ordinance Acceptance Form, dated 4/19/95, copy in author's
115. (87) BATF RAC Dewy Webb, interview with author;
OCPD Officer Don Browning, interview with author.
116. This author requested the Sheriff's video under
the Oklahoma Open Records Act. I subsequently received the original version
from a friend. It seems the Sheriff sent me an edited version, with the
ordinance being removed edited out.
117. (88) J.D. Cash & Jeff Holladay, "Worker
Helped Remove Munitions, Missile from Murrah Building," McCurtain Daily
118. (89) Ibid.
119. The BATF lied about the presence of a
methamphetamine lab on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas in order to
circumvent the Posse Comitatus Act, which prevents the military from being used
for domestic law enforcement. Consequently, tanks from the Army's Joint Task
Force Six were used (driven the FBI) to demolish and gas the Branch Davidian
compound. Eighty-six men, women and children were either crushed to death or
burned alive. The FBI, ludicrously enough, claimed that the tanks were there to
knock holes in the walls in order to allow people to escape — an
absolutely ridiculous assertion — they could have simply used the windows
120. (90) Relevance magazine, 7/95.
121. (91) Moore, Op Cit., p. 107.
122. (92) Ibid.
123. (1:33:*) This author interviewed a retired Army
criminal investigator who complained about Lester Martz's stonewalling a
similar investigation he was involved in.
124. (93) Allen, Op Cit.; Moore, Op
125. (94) Ibid., p. 116.
126. (95) Richard L. Sherrow, "Aftershocks and
Subterfuge: Cloud of Doubt Lingers Over Government Cover-up," Soldier of
Fortune, April, 1996; Moore, p. 106.
127. This was reported briefly in the New York
Times and the Wall Street Journal. The two articles were then
quickly buried in scrap-heap of history.
128. (96) Lawrence W. Myers, "Bureau of ANFO
Truck-Bomb Fabrication," Media Bypass, November, 1996.
129. (97) "Who Are They? The Oklahoma Blast Reveals
The Paranoid Life and Times of Accused Bomber Timothy McVeigh and His
Right-Wing Associates." Time, 5/1/95.
130. (98) Dale Russakock & Serge Kovaleski, "An
Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage; After a Long Search For Order, Timothy
McVeigh Finally Found a World He Could Fit Into,"Washington Post,
131. (99) John Kifner, "Oklahoma Bombing Suspect:
Unraveling a Frayed Life," New York Times, 12/31/95.
132. (100) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage,"
Washington Post, 7/2/95.
133. (101) Robert D. McFadden, "Terror in Oklahoma:
The Suspect — One Man's Complex Path to Extremism," New York Times,
134. (2:36:*) Lori Fortier originally told the press,
"It truly sickens me when I see my friend's face, yes my friend's face,
portrayed on the cover of Time magazine as the face of evil."
135. (102) Sheffield Anderson, interview with
136. (2:36:**) Noble County Assistant Attorney Mark
Gibson, who has prosecuted many killers, said "You could just feel the evil in
them." Yet he said of McVeigh, "I looked at him and realized I felt no
repulsion or fear."
137. (103) Prime Time Live, 5/10/95.
138. (104) "Biography: McVeigh, Part II," Media
Bypass, May, 1996. Myers would later rescind this statement to me, saying
he thought McVeigh was the "most maniacal terrorist in U.S. history."
139. (105) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage,"
Washington Post, 7/2/95.
140. (106) Media Bypass. May, 1996.
141. (2:40:*) Real estate agent Anne Marie
Fitzpatrick said McVeigh was "very dynamic" and had "a twinkle in his eye and a
smile." (Washington Post 7/2/95. )
142. (107) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage",
Washington Post, 7/2/95.
143. (108) Media Bypass. 5/96.
144. (109) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
145. (110) Media Bypass. May, 1996.
146. (111) Robert D. McFadden, "Terror in Oklahoma: A
Special Report — John Doe No. 1, A Life of Solitude and Obsessions,"
New York Times, 5/4/95.
147. (112)Washington Post, 7/2/95.
148. (113) Media Bypass. May, 1996.
149. (114) Lana Padilla and Ron Delpit, By Blood
Betrayed, (New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1995), p. 63.
150. (2:43:*) Padilla told me later that the
information about McVeigh's so-called demolitions expertise was provided by
co-writer Ron Delpit.
151. (115) David Hackworth & Peter Annin, "The
Suspect Speaks Out," Newsweek, 7/3/95.
152. (116) Newsweek, 5/15/95.
153. (117) John Kifner, "The Gun Network: McVeigh's
World — A Special Report; Bomb Suspect Felt at Home Riding the Gun-Show
Circuit." New York Times, 7/5/95.
154. (118) FBI 302 Statement of Carl. E. Lebron, Jr.,
4/22/95, copy in author's possession.
155. (119) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
156. (120) New York Times, 5/4/95.
157. (121) Media Bypass, March, 1995.
158. (122) New York Times 5/4/95.
159. (123) Media Bypass, March, 1995.
160. (124) New York Times, 5/4/95.
161. (125) Ibid.
162. While other soldiers and airmen were quoted
during the war making statements like "shooting fish in a barrel" … "We
hit the jackpot" … "a turkey shoot," only McVeigh "killed Iraqis." For a
detailed account of atrocities committed by U.S. forces, see: Ramsey Clark,
The Fire This Time: U.S. War Crimes in the Gulf , (New York, NY:
Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992).
163. (126) Media Bypass, March, 1995.
164. (127) "Oklahoma Bombing Suspect: Unraveling a
Frayed Life," New York Times, 12/31/95.
165. (128) Padilla, Delpit, Op Cit., p.
166. (129) Keith, Op Cit., p. 41.
167. (130) "McVeigh's Army Pals Join Bid to Save His
Life," CNN, 6/9/97.
168. (131) Kenneth Stern, A Force Upon the Plain:
The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate, (New York, NY:
Simon and Schuster, 1996), p. 190; New York Times, 5/4/95.
169. Stern's book, written on behalf of the American
Jewish Committee with the tacit approval of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of
the B'Nai B'rith, seeks to completely discredit all factions of the emerging
Patriot and Militia movements. Stern begins with the premise that McVeigh is
guilty, and then attempts to indict the militia movement by association. Most
all of Stern's sources derive from mainstream press accounts and ADL and SPLC
(Southern Poverty Law Center) reports. There is no indication from his source
notes that the author ever interviewed any of McVeigh's friends or associates,
or did any independent research on the bombing whatsoever.
170. (2:49:*) Rice is president of New England
Investigations. He teaches the only accredited course in the subject of
profiling, and has testified in state and federal court in regards to
handwriting analysis, and Moore runs an executive assessment firm in
Washington, D.C. that specializes in assessing personality traits of applicants
based on their handwriting samples.
171. (132) "Inside the Mind of McVeigh." Media
Bypass, April, 1996.
172. (133) "Biography: McVeigh, Part II," Media
Bypass, May, 1996.
173. (134) New York Times, 12/31/95.
174. (135) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
175. (136) New York Times, 12/31/95.
176. (137) New York Times, 5/4/95.
177. (138) New York Times, 7/5/95.
178. (139) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
179. (140) "The Suspect Speaks Out," Newsweek.
180. (141) Released by McVeigh's attorney Stephen
Jones to the Washington Post.
181. (142) Newsweek, 7/3/95.
182. (143) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
183. (144) Media Bypass, March, 1995.
184. (145) Report of Investigation, David B.
Fechheimer, 12/13/96, addressed to Stephen Jones, copy in author's
185. (146) Released by McVeigh's attorney Stephen
Jones to the Washington Post.
186. (147) New York Times, 5/4/95.
187. (2:52:*) McVeigh himself admitted that it "was
delayed in my case."
188. (148) Washington Post, 7/2/95,
189. (2:52:**) This was confirmed to me by Terry
Nichols' ex-wife, Lana Padilla: "Terry told me that. Terry just said that when
he was in the Gulf War, they had implanted that to keep track of him."
190. (149) Glenn Krawczk, "Mind Control and the New
World Order," Nexus magazine, Feb-March, 1993, quoted in Keith.
191. (150) Ibid., p. 196.
192. (2:53:*) The firm does classified research for
both NASA and the Air Force, and is a ranking subcontractor for Sentar, Inc.,
an advanced science and engineering firm capable, according to company
literature, of creating artificial intelligence systems. Sentar's customers
include the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command, the Advanced
Research Projects Agency (see discussion of ARPA later in this chapter),
Rockwell International, Teledyne, Nichols Research Corp. and TRW. Their sales
literature boasts a large energy shock tunnel, radar facilities "a
radio-frequency (RF) simulator facility for evaluating electronic warfare
193. (151) Constantine, Op Cit.
194. (152) Nexus, Feb-March, 1993, quoted in
195. (153) The U.S. General Accounting Office issued
a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD
and other national security agencies studied hundreds of thousands of human
subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances. GAO stated
that some tests and experiments were conducted in secret. Medical research
involving the testing of nerve agents, nerve agent antidotes, psychochemicals,
and irritants was often classified. Additionally, some work conducted for DOD
by contractors still remains classified today. For example, the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) has not released the names of 15 of the approximately
80 organizations that conducted experiments under the MKULTRA program, which
gave psychochemical drugs to an undetermined number of people without their
knowledge or consent. According to the GAO report, the CIA has not released
this information because the organizations do not want to be identified. ("Is
Military Research Hazardous To Veterans' Health? Lessons Spanning Half A
Century," The Rockefeller Report (Senator Jay Rockefeller), 12/8/94.)
196. (2:55:*) After his arrest, Bryant said that he
had been "gotten to," and "had been programmed." "Sleepers" such as Bryant were
most likely programmed to kill their victims in order to precipitate law and
order crack-downs, such as occurred in the aftermath of the Australian melee,
where the government recently outlawed almost all types of guns.
197. "A Caution From Down Under," Portland Free
Press, July/October, 1997.
198. (154) "A By the Book Officer, 'Suspicious By
Nature,' Spots Trouble and acts fast," New York Times, 4/23/95.
199. (155) Dick Russell, The Man Who Knew Too
Much, (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf), 1992, p. 679.
200. (156) Project MKULTRA, The CIA's Program of
Research in Behavioral Modification, Joint Hearing Before the Senate Committee
on Intelligence, 8/3/77. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.
201. In fact, according to Ted Gundersen, West did
indeed examine McVeigh. When pressed on the accuracy of his source, Gundersen
insisted he was "100 percent reliable."
202. Russell, Op Cit., p. 211-212.
203. Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams:
The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York, NY: Grove Press,
1985), pp. 22, 189-90; Gordon Thomas, Journey Into Madness, Bantam
204. The 1957 American Psychiatric Association roster
notes that 1,253 of its 7,104 members came from Germany and the Eastern
205. Tim Kelsey, "The Oklahoma Suspect Awaits Day of
Reckoning," London Sunday Times, date unknown.
206. (157) Thomas, Op Cit., p. 116.
207. (158) Russell, Op Cit., p. 673.
208. (159) William M. Turner and John G. Christian,
The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy: A Searching Look at the Conspiracy
and Cover-Up 1968-1978, (New York, NY: Random House, p. 197), Quoted in
Constantine, p. 12.
209. (160) Russell, Op Cit., p. 681.
210. (161) Ibid., p. 675.
211. (162) Ibid., p. 673. (Warren Commission
Report, Vol. 5, p. 105.)
212. Alex Constantine, Psychic Dictatorship in the
U.S.A., (Portland, OR: Feral House Press), 1995, p. 6.
213. Hugh MacDonald, Appointment in Dallas,
Zebra, pp. 107-108, quoted in Constantine, p. 6.
214. On February 7, 1976, Ambassador Walter J.
Stoessel, Jr. told some of the 125 members of his staff that the Russians were
using microwaves beams to listen in on conversations inside the embassy, and
that such radiation could be hazardous to their health. (Paul Broudeur, The
Zapping of America, (New York, NY: W.W. Norton) 1977, p. 95.
215. Ibid., p. 95.
216. (163) Ibid., p. 19.
217. (164) Art Ford & Lincoln Lawrence, Were
We Controlled, (New York, NY: University Books), 1967, quoted in
218. (165) Robert O. Becker, M.D. and Gary Selden,
The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, (New
York, NY: William Morrow & Co.), p. 1085, quoted in "Bioeffects of
Microwave Radiation," Unclassfied, Vol. IV, No. 3, June/July, 1992,
National Association of Security Alumni.
219. (166) Turner and Christian, Op. Cit.,
Anthony Sampson, The Arms Basaar: From Lebanon to Lockheed (New York,
NY: Viking Press, 1977), p. 276, quoted in Constantine, p. 12.
220. (2:60:*) Apparently, McVeigh was not there the
entire time. Phone records indicate he made steady calls until the 7th of
April, when he was seen at a bar in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The phone calls resume on
221. New York Times, 5/4/95.
223. (169) Sherman Skolnick, Conspiracy
Nation, June, 1996.
224. (170) Constantine, "The Good Soldier."
227. In 1987, police in Tallahassee, Florida
discovered six small children living in a van driven by two men dressed in
suits. The children were naked, bruised and dirty, and acting like animals.
They were unaware of the function and purpose of telephones, televisions or
toilets. They were not allowed to live indoors, and were only given food as a
reward. The case was turned over to U.S. Customs agents, who were contacted by
detectives from the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Police Dept., then
investigating a cult known as the "Finders." When officers searched the their
premises, they discovered instructions for kidnapping and purchasing children,
avoiding police detection, information on the use of explosives and terrorism,
and the international transfer of currency. The officers also found a photo
album showing pornographic photos of children, adults and children
participating in blood rituals involving the disembowelment of goats, and an
alter surrounded with jars of urine and feces. Formerly called the "Seekers,"
the "cult" was run by Marion David Pettie. An unconfirmed memo states that
Pettie was trained in counterintelligence; his CIA handler was Colonel Leonard
N. Weigner, a career Air Force and CIA operative. When Customs agents attempted
to follow up on the MPD investigation, they were told that "the activity of the
Finders had become a CIA internal matter. The MPD report has been classified
secret and was not available for review." Martinez was subsequently "advised
that the FBI had withdrawn from the investigation several weeks prior and that
the FBI Foreign Counter Intelligence Division had directed MPD not to advise
the FBI Washington Field Office of anything that had transpired." What police
and Customs agents were describing was undoubtledy part of Operation "Monarch,"
a program of CIA mind control involving the use of small children raised in
captivity to respond to various stimuli invoked by their CIA captors. One of
the chief field operatives of Operation Monarch was none other than Michael
Aquino. (U.S. Customs Report: Detective Jim Bradley of the Washington, D.C.
Metropolitan Police Dept. Daniel Brandt, Name Base Newsline, No. 5,
April-June 1994: "Cults, Anti-Cultists, and the Cult of Intelligence."
Department of the Treasury, United States Customs Service: Report of
Investigation. Subject: "Finders." 2/12/87. Agent Raymond J. Martinez.)
Probably the best known case is Jonestown, a cult of over 900 followers
in Guyana who committed "mass suicide" in 1978. led by the Reverend Jim Jones.
Jonestown was a veritable prison where all the classic mind control techniques
were utilized. While little more than a swamp, it nevertheless contained a
modern hospital, from which massive quantities of behavioral modification drugs
were recovered. One of Jones' top aides, George Philip Blakely, who recruited
mercenaries for the CIA in Angola, was the son-in-law of Dr. Lawrence Layton, a
former Army biochemical warfare specialist. Researchers have speculated that
Jonestown was part of the CIA's MKULTRA experiments. (Joe Holsinger, "Statement
to the Forum Entitled 'Psycho-Social Implications of the Jonestown
Phenomenon,'" 23 May 1980, Miyako Hotel, San Francisco, quoted in Brandt,
Name Base Newsline, No. 5, April-June 1994: "Cults, Anti-Cultists, and
the Cult of Intelligence.") "Guyanese troops discovered a large cache of drugs,
enough to control the entire population of Georgetown, Guyana (pop. 200,000),
for over a year. One footlocker contained 11,000 doses of Thorazine, a
dangerous tranquilizer, and others such as sodium pentothal (truth serum),
chloral hydrate (a hypnotic), demerol, Thallium (confuses thinking),
haliopareael and Largatil (powerful tranquilizers) and many others. It was very
evident that Jonestown was a tightly-run concentration camp, complete with
medical and psychiatric experimentation." Bo Gritz, Called to Serve. The
members of Jonestown were reported to have died from cyanide-laced punch, but
many were found shot-to-death by the compound's guards. The military
purposefully took over a week to remove the bodies, ensuring, as in the Waco
case, that no autopsies could be performed. National Security Advisor
Brzezinski's office ordered that "all politically sensitive papers and forms of
identification" be removed from the bodies, and Jonestown's mysterious
financial resources were found scattered in banks and investments, estimated to
be from $26 million to $ 2 billion. (Kenneth Wooden, The Children of Jonestown
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1981), p. 196, quoted in Brandt.)
Another well-known case is the Temple of Set, a satanic cult in San
Francisco run by former Army psychological warfare specialist Lt. Colonel
Michael Aquino, who has written about the control of mass populations. Aquino
was accused by an Army Chaplain of molesting several young children at the
Presidio. The case was investigated by the SFPD, then turned over to the Army's
C.I.D. (Criminal Investigations Division), where it was subsequently dropped.
Freedom of Information Act requests I made about Aquino's investigation while
editor of the Free Press were stonewalled. Aquino himself picked up on
my interest and began bombarding me with letters both dismissing these and all
related allegations as "mass-hysteria," while backing up his claims with the
threat of a libel suit. (Aquino once announced that he is the Devil incarnate.
I still wonder to this day why the Devil needed to take me to Municipal Court
to extract his vengeance.)
228. Deposition of anonymous Naval Intelligence
officer, copy in author's possession.
229. (171) Brandon Stickney, All American Monster:
The Unauthorized Biography of Timothy McVeigh (New York, NY: Prometheus
Books, 1996), p. 226.
230. For an excellent account of the potential of
hynosis and its use in military applications, see Science Digest, April
1971, "Hypnosis Comes of Age," by G.H. Estabrooks.
231. Marchetti and Marks, Op Cit., p. 279.
232. (172) Scott Anderson, "Globe publishers'
Viet tour in mind warfare," Now Magazine, Toronto, Canada, 5/26/94,
Quoted in Keith, p. 179.
233. (2:62:*) Former intelligence operative Gene
"Chip" Tatum described a recent massive heroin and cocaine smuggling operation
being run by rogue elements of the U.S. Government across the Canadian border
into Montana with the complicity of local officials. "These officials were
recruited to assist in the smuggling operations, thinking they were part of a
government-sanctioned covert operation." (Excerpt of a letter from Tatum to the
Montana Senate Judiciary Committee, 3/22/97).
234. (173) Gene Wheaton, memo, copy in author's
possession; interview with author.
235. Pitzer was later found "suicided" like Admiral
Boorda, shot in the chest with a .45. The left-handed Pitzer was found holding
the gun in his right hand. As Craig Roberts writes in JFK: The Dead
Witnesses, "Pitzer, a consummate note taker and maker, left no suicide
note, and no autopsy report was ever released to either the public or the
family.… all references to Pitzer being present at the autopsy of John F.
Kennedy have been removed from government records." Neither does Pitzer's
family believe he committed suicide.
236. (174) Jay Wrolstad, "Smoking Gun: Does Dan
Marvin Have Evidence of a Kennedy Assassination Conspiracy?" The Ithaca
Times, 8/22/96; Franklin Crawford, "Local Man Tells JFK Story," The
Ithaca Journal, 11/16/95; Daniel Marvin, "Bits & Pieces: A Green Beret
on the Periphery of the JFK Assassination," The Fourth Decade, May,
1995; Colonel Daniel Marvin, interview on Tex Marrs' World of Prophecy, WWCR
shortwave, 4/20/96. Marvin's authenticity and credibility have been established
by respected Kennedy researchers, as well as Professor L. Pearce Williams of
Cornell University, and Jacqueline Powers, former managing editor of the
Ithaca Journal, who said "[Col. Marvin] had evidence to back up what he
was claiming. I believe him. Everything he has said to me has been true; he's
willing to tell what he knows, which can't be easy for him."
237. Captain David V. Vanek, who took the
assassination course with Marvin, was allegedly asked by the CIA to assassinate
Pitzer after Marvin refused. Vanek denied the allegations in an affivavit.
238. (175) Jonathan Kwitny, The Crimes of
Patriots (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1987), p. 103; Affidavit of
Colonel Edward P. Cutolo, commander of the 10th Special Forces Group
(Airborne), 1st Special Forces, 3/11/80, copy in author's possession.
239. (176) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with
240. (177) "The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of
the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, April 19, 1995,
copy in author's possession.
241. (178) Russell, Op Cit.
242. (179) "Something Big is Going to Happen,"
Time Magazine, 5/8/95.
243. (180) Washington Post, 5/4/95.
244. (2:66:*) The term "sheep-dipped" is best
clarified by former CIA-Department of Defense liaison L. Fletcher Prouty, in
his classic work on the CIA, The Secret Team (Prentice Hall). "It is an
intricate Army-devised process by which a man who is in the service as a full
career soldier or officer agrees to go through all the legal and official
motions of resigning from the service. Then, rather than actually being
released, his records are pulled from the Army personnel files and transferred
to a special Army intelligence file. Substitute but nonetheless real-appearing
records are then processed, and the man "leaves" the service."
245. (195) New York Times, 4/23/95.
246. (196) "Terror in Oklahoma: The Suspect; Arizona
Neighbors Recall a Man's Love of Weaponry and 'Poor Attitude'", New York
247. (197) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
248. (198) Marylin Hart, Interview with author,
1/15/96 & 4/1/96.
249. (199) Rob Rangin, Interview with author,
250. (200) John Kifner, "Arizona Trailer Park Owner
Remembered the Wrong Man," New York Times, 4/25/95.
251. (201) Marylin Hart, Interview with author,
252. (202) New York Times, 4/23/95.
253. (203) Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed
the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown.
254. (204) FBI 302 of Lebron, Op Cit.
255. (205) Patrick E. Cole, "I'm Just Like Anyone
Else," Time, 4/15/96.
256. (206) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage",
Washington Post, 7/2/95.
257. (207) New York Times, 4/24/95.
258. (208) Mark Schaffer, "Gun Class Sheds New Light
On McVeigh," The Arizona Republic, 5/28/95, quoted in Keith.
259. (209) New York Times, 12/31/95.
260. (210) Kevin Flynn and Lou Kilzer, "John Doe 2
Remains a Mystery: OKC Bombing Case's Unknown Suspect Could be More Than One
Man, Investigators Believe," Rocky Mountain News, 3/3/97.
261. (211) New York Times, 4/24/95.
262. (*) The child protective services went to the
compound, knocked on the door, walked in, and interviewed the children. They
found no evidence of abuse and left.
263. (*) This will be explored more fully in Volume
264. (212) Media Bypass, March, 1995.
265. (213) New York Times, 7/5/95.
266. (214) Tim Kelsey, "The Oklahoma Suspect Awaits
Day of Reckoning," London Sunday Times, 4/21/96.
267. (215) Robert Vito, "Three Soldiers," CNN News,
268. (216) Trial of Timothy McVeigh.
269. (217) Opening statement of lead prosecutor
Joseph Hartzler at Timothy McVeigh's trial.
270. (218) Howard Pankartz and George Lane, "Sister
Testifies Against Brother," Denver Post, 5/6/97.
271. (219) George Lane, "Letters Provide Damaging
Evidence," Denver Post, 5/6/97; "Sister's Role Seen as Pivitol,"
Denver Post, 5/6/97.
272. (220) Time, 5/1/95.
273. (221) New York Times, 5/4/95.
274. (222) "Oklahoma Bombing Plotted for Months,
Officials Say, but Suspect Is Not Talking," New York Times, 4/25/95,
quoted in Keith, p. 28.
275. (*) Nichols' discharge in the spring of 1989 for
"hardship" reasons is also interesting. Another parallel is that of Thomas
Martinez, the FBI infiltrator within the radical right Silent Brotherhood, who
was given an honorable discharge during basic training. The Army choose not to
explained why. (Keith, Op Cit.)
276. (223) Emma Gilbey, "Brothers in Arms with a
Destructive Hobby," London Sunday Telegraph, 3/24/95.
277. (224) Affidavit of FBI Agent Patrick W.
278. (225) Newsweek, 5/15/95.
279. (226) Robert Jerlow, interview with author.
280. (*) The letter to the girlfriend apparently was
indicative of plans to bomb other locations. Interesting that the suspect would
leave such an curiously incriminating trail of evidence.
281. (227) New York Times, 7/5/95.
282. (228) Dateline, NBC, 2/13/96.
283. (229) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
284. (230) New York Times, 7/5/95.
285. (231) Ibid.; Washington Post, 7/5/95.
286. (232) The Spotlight, 5/26/97.
287. (*) Catina told London Sunday Telegraph
reporter Ambrose Evans-Pritchard that the man was "always" there. "He seemes
out of place, but he was always around."
288. (233) Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the
Assassins, (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1988), p. 157.
289. (*) In a rather prophetic statement, Michael
Fortier's mother was heard to remark that McVeigh led "a double life."
290. (234) Media Bypass, 3/95; New York
291. (235) Beth Hawkins, "The Michigan Militia Greet
the Media Circus," Detroit Metro Times, 3/26/95.
292. (236) David Van Biema, Time, 6/26/95.
293. (*) In what may appear to be an ominous
coincidence, America in Peril made its debut just as the ATF and FBI
were making their own apocalyptic plans for the Branch Davidians in Waco,
294. (**) The Michigan Militia has officially
295. (237) Washington Post, 7/2/95.
296. (238) Ken Armstrong, No Amateur Did This
(Aptos, CA: Blackeye Press, 1996), p. 17.
297. (*) Interestingly, Jennifer was found burning
papers on an outdoor grill when the FBI showed up on April 23.
298. (239) J.D. Cash, "McVeigh's Sister Laundered
Bank Robbery Proceeds: ATF Surveillance Confirmed by Informant," McCurtain
Daily Gazette, 1/28/97.
299. (*) Interestingly, authorities wouldn't find any
traces of ammonium nitrate in these lockers.
300. (*) As pointed out previously, FBI chief chemist
Frederick Whitehurst, who tested McVeigh's clothes, said no explosive residue
was found. Whitehurst has since gone on to publicly accuse the FBI of
manufacturing and tainting evidence in dozens of cases.
301. (240) Arnold Hamilton, "Bombing Accounts are
Varied," Dallas Morning News, 10/8/95.
302. (241) Connie Smith, interview with author. These
accounts appeared in the McCurtain Gazette, The New American, and
the Denver Post, among other places.
303. (242) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author.
304. (243) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with
305. (244) Trish Wood, The Fifth Estate, Canadian
Broadcasting Corporation; J.D. Cash, "Is a Videotape From a Tulsa Topless Bar
the 'Smoking Gun' in Oklahoma City Bombing?" McCurtain Daily Gazette,
306. (245) Tony Boller, Assistant Project Manager,
Goodwill Industries, interview with author.
307. (246) Jane Graham, interview with author. Graham
is a friend and co-worker of Joan's.
308. (247) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Daily Gazette,
309. (248) Sherie, confidential interview with
310. (*) She saw the truck at 6:00 a.m. at the diner,
then it left before 7:00 a.m. She then saw it at Geary Lake in the afternoon on
her way to Junction City, then saw it there on return trip around 3:00-4:00
p.m. The mainstream-press originally said Whittenberg saw the truck on Tuesday,
parroting the FBI's line that McVeigh had rented the truck on the 17th.
311. (249) Dan Parker, "McVeigh Defense Questions
Co-Defendant's Claim," Daily Oklahoman, date unknown; Steve Wilmsen and
Mark Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown;
Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 36.
312. (250) Linda Kuhlman and Phyliss Kingsley,
interviews with author.
313. (251) Mark Eddy, "Witnesses tell a different
story," Denver Post, 6/16/96.
314. (*) What is interesting is that McVeigh's friend
James Nichols said that McVeigh never wore a baseball cap, much less backwards.
He said McVeigh only wore an Army-issue cap.
315. (252) Chuck Allen, interview with author.
316. (253) Ibid.
317. (254) Jane Graham, interview with author. Graham
is a friend and co-worker of Johnston's.
318. (*) It is interesting that McVeigh would choose
to hang around the scene of the crime, along with his easily identifiable
yellow Mercury Marquis, minutes after it occurred. Johnston described the John
Doe 2 as shorter and darker than McVeigh.
319. (255) "Feds Charge Terry Nichols in Bombing,"
Los Angeles Times, 5/10/95, quoted in Keith, p. 185.
320. (256) FBI FD-383 (FBI Facial Identification Fact
Sheet) of Tom Kessinger, dated 4/20/95, copy in author's possession.
321. (257) London Sunday Times, 4/21/96.
322. (258) Affidavit of FBI Special Agent Henry C.
Gibbons, 4/21/95, copy in author's possession.
323. (259) Garrison, Op Cit., p.65, 77.
324. (260) Bid, p.66.
325. (261) Ibid., p. 79.
326. (262) Julie DelCour, "Informant Says Tulsan
Talked About Local, OC Bombings," Tulsa World, 2/9/97.
327. (263) "TNT, $5 a stick. Need more. Call after 1
May, see if I can get some more."
328. (264) William Pepper, Orders to Kill: The
Truth Behind the Murder of Dr. Martin Luther King, (New York, NY: Carol
& Graf), 1995, p.156.
329. (265) London Sunday Times, 4/21/96.
330. (266) Kevin Johnson, "McVeigh Lawyer Says FBI
Agents Using Trickery," USA Today, 8/14/95, quoted in Keith, Op
Cit, p. 57.
331. (267) Lana Padilla, interview with author.
332. (268) Bob Papovich, interview with author.
333. (269) "A Look at Terry Nichols," Associated
334. (270) Lana Padilla, interview with author, Diane
Sawyer, ABC News Prime Time Live, 5/10/95.
335. (271) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p.
336. (272) Associated Press, 4/5/96.
337. (273) Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed
the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown.
338. (274) Serge F. Kovaleski, "In a Mirror, Nichols
Saw a Victim," Washington Post, 7/3/95.
339. (275) "A look at Terry Nichols," Associated
340. (276) Media Bypass, date unknown.
341. (277) Ibid.
342. (278) Kovaleski, Op Cit.
343. (279) Padilla and Delpit,Op Cit., p.
344. (280) Keith, Op Cit., p. 179.
345. (281) Kovaleski, Op Cit.
346. (*) In October of 1959, Lee Harvey Oswald
appeared suddenly at the American Embassy in Moscow, and dramatically handed
over his U.S. Passport and a letter renouncing his American citizenship.
347. (282) Associated Press, 4/5/96.
348. (283) Kovaleski, Op Cit.
349. (284) Lana Padilla, interview with author.
350. (285) Elizabeth Gleick, "Who Are They? The
Oklahoma blast reveals the paranoid life and times of accused bomber Timothy
McVeigh and his right-wing associates." Time, 5/1/95.
351. (286) Ibid.
352. (287) Barbara Whittenberg, interview with
353. (288) Washington Post, 7/3/95.
354. (289) Denver Post, date unknown.
355. (290) Kovaleski, Op Cit..
356. (291) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit.,
357. (*) When I questioned her about this apparent
contradiction, she told me her later statement was correct, and the book's
account was wrong.
358. (292) Lana Padilla, interview with author.
359. (**) Nichols became interested in selling
military surplus in December of 93' to April of 94' according to Padilla.
360. (293) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 6;
interview with author.
361. (294) KFOR interview with Lana Padilla.
Interview with author.
362. (295) Padilla, Op Cit., p.5, 9.
363. (296) Lana Padilla, interview with author.
364. (297) Padilla, Op Cit., p. 12.
365. (298) Lana Padilla, interview with author.
366. (299) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Floyd, "McVeigh Team
Tries Again for Delay," Rocky Mountain News, 3/26/97; Timothy McVeigh's
Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97.
367. (300) Telephone records of Terry Nichols, copy
in author's possession.
368. (*) Earlier, McVeigh had told Padilla, "I'll
write to him (Nichols), but I guess I'd better do it in code, because there are
a lot of nosy people."
369. (301) David Jackson, Linnet Myers, Flynn
McRoberts, Chicago Tribune, 5/11/95.
370. (302) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p.
371. (*) Nichols' attorney Michael Tigar claimed his
client's use of aliases while renting the storage lockers was to prevent the
credit card companies from coming after him.
372. (*) McVeigh Defense attorney Christopher Tritico
questioned the analysis, noting the FBI laboratory isn't accredited by any
agency for such a test. Tritico also used photographs of a test hole drilled
into lead by the bit to argue that grooves and scratches didn't resemble those
in the hole closely enough to call them a match.
373. (303) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Gazette, date
374. (304) "McVeigh Appeals Conviction, Sentence,"
375. (305) Barbara Whittenberg, interview with
376. (306) Nolan Clay, Robby Trammell, Diana Baldwin
and Randy Ellis, "Nichols, Bomb Materials Linked," Daily Oklahoman, date
377. (307) Jerri-Lynn Backhous, interview with
378. (308) Dorinda J. "Wendy" Hermes, interview with
379. (*) Butler and Snell also reportedly had
connections to Jack Oliphant of Kingman, Arizona.
380. (309) New York Times, 5/20/95.
381. (310) Edward Zehr, "Oklahoma City Cover-up
Exposed: But the Mainstream Media are Still in Denial," Washington
382. (311) "The Company They Keep," Transcript of the
Canadian Broadcasting Company "Fifth Estate" piece on Oklahoma City, originally
broadcast on 22 October 1996, Host, Bob Oxley, Voice-Over Announcer, Trish
Wood, Francine Pelletier; Guest, Robert Millar, Leader, Elohim City; Kerry
Noble, Formerly Of CSA; Steven Jones, Timothy McVeigh's Lawyer; Joe Adams,
Bailiff; Ross Mcleod, Security Agency Owner.
383. (312) Warren Gotcher, interview with author.
384. (313) Anthony Thornton, "Bomb Plans Found in
Defendant's Home, FBI Agent Testifies," The Daily Oklahoman, 4/3/96.
"Anthony Thornton, "Three Defendants Found Guilty in Bomb Plot, The Daily
Oklahoman. date unknown.
385. (314) Judy Thomas, "We Are Not Dangerous, Leader
of Separatists Says" Kansas City Star, 3/17/96.
386. (315) Mark Fazlollah, Michael Matza, Maureen
Graham and Larry King, "FBI: Heist Trail Led to White Supremacists,"
Philadelphia Inquirer, 6/30/96.
387. (*) Mathews himself was the Northwest
representative of William Pierce's National Alliance.
388. (316) "Bank Bandits Tied to Rightists,"
Associated Press, 1/21/96; J.D. Cash with Jeff Holladay, "Rebels With a Cause,
Part 3: The Aryan Republican Army, McCurtain Daily Gazette,
389. (317) Bill Morlin, "Devoted to Making Nation
'Ungovernable': Group Patterns its Organization After Irish Republican Army,"
390. (318) J.D. Cash, "The Spy Who Came in From the
Cold," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 2/11/97.
391. (319) J.D. Cash with Jeff Holladay, "Rebels With
a Cause, Part Four: An Ex-Wife's Suspicions In The OKBOMB Case," McCurtain
Daily Gazette, 12/31/96.
392. (320) Andreas Strassmeir, interview with
393. (321) Judy L. Thomas, "Man Target of Bank
Robbery Inquiry," Kansas City Star, 1/29/97.
394. (322) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, The Secret
Life of Bill Clinton: The Unreported Stories (Washington, DC: Regnery), p.
395. (*) It may be telling that part of Strassmeir's
training involved feeding people disinformation.
396. (323) Pritchard, Op Cit.; William Jasper,
"More Pieces to the OKC Puzzle," The New American, 6/24/96.
397. (324) February, 1996 press release from the
Cause Foundation, quoted in The New American.
398. (*) Around the same time, the caller telephoned
the National Alliance office in Arizona. The National Alliance is the
organization formed by William Pierce, who wrote The Turner Diaries.
399. (325) Laura Frank, "Oklahoma City Probe May
Touch Tennessee," The Tennessean, 6/30/96.
400. (326) J.D. Cash, "Is a Videotape From a Tulsa
Topless Bar the 'Smoking Gun' in Oklahoma City Bombing?" McCurtain Daily
401. (327) Judy Thomas, Kansas City Star,
402. (328) Dennis Mahon, interview with William
403. (329) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of
Mandamus, 3/25/97, pp. 44-45.
404. (330) Jeff Steinberg, interview with author.
405. (331) The members, Gene Schroder, Alvin Jenkins,
and Ed Petruski, met with Iraqi Ambassador Mohammed Mashat before the start of
Desert Storm. The Iraqis took notice of the group's patriotic activities, and
invited them to Washington. "They were hoping to open up negotiations with
America," explained Schroder, a farmer and veterinarian from Campo, Colorado.
"They knew that we'd meet with them and push the issue some with our
Representatives and Congressmen." The entire affair was completely legitimate
and well-publicized, having been reported in at least one local newspaper in
Colorado. The Constitutionalists and anti-war activists also had the support of
Senators Hank Brown and Bob Dole. "We called the State Department and
everything was cleared," they explained. Yet it seemed Jones' was trying to
portray the meeting as part of a broader conspiracy between Iraqis and American
dissidents. The attorney referred to the three men as Posse Comitatus members
— a tax-protest organization of the mid-'80s with anti-Semitic overtones
and connections to white supremacist groups. All three denied belonging to the
group. Jones then mentioned that Petruski lived an hour's drive from bombing
defendant Terry Nichols' house. Petruski denied knowing Nichols. (Eugene
Schroder, Alvin Jenkins, and Ed Petruskie, interviews with author; Timothy
McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97.)
406. (*) Although Jones only refers to "Suspect I,"
it is well-known that he is referring to Nichols, because he says he was "A
subject of the FBI and Grand Jury investigation.…" There were only two
people investigated by the Federal Grand Jury: Timothy McVeigh and Terry
407. (332) Pritchard, Op Cit., 3/30/97.
408. (333) Ingo Hasselbach with Tom Reiss,
Fuhrer-Ex: Memoirs of a Former Neo-Nazi (New York, NY: Random House,
1996), p. 215; John Michael Johnston, "Investigative Report Concerning
Fact-Finding Trip to Germany," 5/15/96, copy in author's possession.
409. (*) The El Rukn case is documented in the
Federal Reporter in Unites States v. McAnderson, 914 F. 2d 934 (7th Cir.
1990). "The El Rukns sought to impress the Libyans and to demonstrate the depth
of their commitment by discussing specific terrorist acts, among them
destroying a government building, planting a bomb, blowing up an airplane, and
simply committing a wanton 'killing here and a killing there' to get the
Libyans' attention. Eventually, the leader of the El Rukns decided that the
Libyans would only be impressed by the use of powerful explosives." (Jones,
Writ of Mandamus, p. 85)
410. (334) "Black History and the Class Struggle,"
The Separatist League, No. 11, August, 1994. In a letter to his
followers concerning his strange alliance with the NOI, Rockwell wrote: "I was
amazed to learn how much they and I agree on things: they think that blacks
should get out of this country and go back to Africa or to some other place and
so do we. They want to get black men to leave white women alone, and white men
to leave black women alone, and so do we. The Honorable Elijah Muhammad and I
have worked out an agreement of mutual assistance in which they will help us on
some things and we will help them on others.("
411. (335) Washington Times, 9/30/85.
412. (336) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "IRA supplied
detonator for Oklahoma terror bomb," London Sunday Telegraph,
413. (*) British officials no doubt took the
implications seriously. Jones had spent considerable time consulting with
British explosives experts who planned to testify on behalf of the defense, as
well as officials from MI5, Britain's domestic intelligence service and even an
unnamed IRA member.( (Associate Press, 3/30/97.)
414. (337) Tom Conlon and Helen Curtin, Dublin
Sunday Times, 7/13/97, quoted in McCurtain Daily Gazette,
415. (338) Rita Cosby reporting, KOKH, FOX, 4/2/97;
Andreas Strassmeir, interview with author.
416. (*) Information obtained from the Military
Records Center by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard reveals that Petruski served in the
Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), retiring in 1975. His
dalliance with the military included a stint as a Foreign Intelligence Officer
in Vietnam, then Special Projects Officer, Special Activities Branch,
Counterintelligence Division in Washington, D.C. He was reactivated with a
"sensitive" assignment during the Gulf War.
417. (339) "Strassmeir, OKC, And The CIA," The New
418. (340) Phil Bacharach, "Casting Doubts: Were
Others Involved in the Federal Building Bombing?" Oklahoma Gazette,
419. (*) Curiously, when the FBI queried various
federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies to determine if Strassmeir
was a cooperating witness or a confidential informant, only the CIA reported
that it held any records on him. These records were turned over to prosecutors,
but not made available to McVeigh's defense team, despite a court order
compelling their disclosure.
420. (341) J.D. Cash, with Jeff Holladay "Weeks
Before OKC Bombing, ATF Had 'Wanted' Posters On Strassmeir," McCurtain
County Gazette, 7/28/96.
421. (342) J.D. Cash, "Agents Probe OKC Bombing Links
To Bank Robberies," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/16/96.
422. (*) Interestingly, cases involving violence or
planned violence by militias from around the U.S. show a recurring theme of
government penetration and infiltration of militia groups. For example,
testimony in the Muskogee bombing case showed that the FBI was literally paying
the operating expenses, including the phone bills for the Tri-State
423. (*) OHP pilot Ken Stafford, ATF technician Pat
McKinley, and acting ATF SAC Tommy Wittman flew over Elohim City on February 7,
1995, and reported to Finley-Graham.
424. (*) BATF regional director Lester Martz denies
that the BOLO was put out by the ATF.
425. (343) Tulsa Police Intelligence, confidential
interview with author.
426. (344) An INS memo of January 10 stated: "Per
your note, I talked to Angela Finely, ATF. It may be awhile before the subject
is contacted or arrested, but we will probably be called to assist."
427. (*) It seems the ATF and FBI were also concerned
about the possiblity of an "intramural fire fight" between their respective
agencies at Elohim City.
428. (345) Cash, Op Cit.
429. (*) Howe's allegations of federal malfeasance
dovetailed with those of federal informant Cary Gagan, who was inside the
Middle Eastern cell tied to the bombing.
430. (346) Pritchard, Op Cit.
431. (347) Ibid.; The OHP officer who made the
arrest was Vernon Phillips.
432. (348) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Daily Gazette,
7/14/96. Dennis Mahon also admitted that Strassmeir worked for the GSG-9.
433. (*) The FBI didn't go to any great lengths to
question Strassmeir, nor his roommate Michael Brescia. Months after the
bombing, the FBI places a leisurely call to Strassmeir's home in Berlin. They
made no attempt to question or arrest Brescia.
434. (**) When Middle Eastern suspect Hussain
al-Hussaini came under scrutiny by KFOR and other investigators for his role in
the bombing, the FBI "debunked" the "rumors" about him, too. Was he also an
agent? (See Chapter 6)
435. (349) J.D. Cash and Jeff Holliday, "Weeks Before
Bombing, ATF Had Out "Wanted" Posters, McCurtain Gazette, 7/29/96,
quoted in American Freedom, September, 1996.
436. (*) The ostensible purpose of the raid was to
recover bomb-making materials — materials which had been obtained by Howe
at the request of her ATF handler — Finley-Graham!
437. (350) J.D. Cash, "Controversy Over Howe's True
Loyalties Become Focus of Her Trial," McCurtain Daily Gazette,
438. (351) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Gazette,
7/14/96. The source claimed that classified computer records of the ATF
contained evidence that Strassmeir was indeed a key component in the agency's
espionage operation at Elohim City, and numerous neo-Nazi groups throughout the
439. (352) London Sunday Telegraph. date
440. (353) "Hate and the Law: Kirk Lyons, Esq."
Anti-Defamation League, Special Edition, June, 1991.
441. (354) Lyons had this to say about Mahon in an
interview with Volkstreue, a German Neo-Nazi magazine: "I have great
respect for the Klan historically but sadly, the Klan today is ineffective and
sometimes even destructive. There are many spies in it and most of its best
leaders have left the Klan to do more effective work within the movement. It
would be good if the Klan followed the advice of former Klansman Robert Miles:
'Become invisible. Hang the robes and hoods in the cupboard and become an
underground organization.' This would make the Klan stronger than ever
442. (355) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard & Andrew
Gimson, "Did Agents Bungle US Terror Bomb?", date unknown. Some of the dialogue
was added from Pritchard's 1997 release, The Secret Life of Bill
Clinton(Washongton, DC: Regnery), p. 90.
443. (*) "When The New American asked
Evans-Pritchard if he believed Strassmeir was referring to himself when
speaking in the third person of the 'informant,' he replied, 'Of course,
there's no doubt that is exactly what he meant to convey. He was stating it as
plainly as he could' without admitting criminal culpability on his own part."
(William Jasper, "Elohim, Terror and Truth," The New American, 3/31/97.)
444. (356) Andreas Strassmeir, interview with
445. (357) Alex Constantine, "The Nazification of the
Citizen's Militias and the Transformation of Timothy McVeigh from
Hyper-Military 'Robot' to Mad Bomber," 12/9/95.
446. (358) Petition for Writ of Mandamus of Timothy
McVeigh, 3/25/97, p. 44.
447. (359) Constantine, Op Cit.
448. (360) Ibid.
449. (361) William Jasper, "Elohim, Terror, and
Truth," New American, 3/31/97.
450. (362) Charles, Op Cit. In her report of
September 26, 1994, Finley-Graham indicates that Mahon "gave 183 approximately
2 feet of green safety fuse, a can of gun powder and a plastic funnel," and
said he would "instruct 183 how to assemble hand grenades."
451. (363) James Ridgeway, "Lone Assassins?: A Series
of Arrests May Link the Oklahoma City Bombing Suspects to a Larger Plot,"
Village Voice, 2/5/97; Mark Eddy, "Others Eyed in Bomb Probe?" Denver
452. (364) Cash, Op Cit.
453. (365) Zehr, Op Cit.
454. (*) According to reports, it was Cash who
"persuaded" Mahon to make the recording.
455. (366) ATF ROI 53270-94-0124-B, 1/11/95.
456. (367) Ibid.
457. (368) Letter read into testimony at Howe's
458. (369) ATF ROI, 9/26/94. "Andy also told 183 that
there exists a black market dealer who can get grenades, C-4 and a range of
459. (*) Dawson was also a paid informant for the
Greensboro Police Department.
460. (**) With a map of the parade route supplied by
Greensboro Police Department Detective Jerry Cooper, Dawson, Butkovich, and
their KKK and neo-Nazi comrades were able to select the most advantageous site
for their ambush. Although Cooper and other officers surveilled the house where
the killers had assembled and took down license numbers, they inexplicably
decided to take a lunch break less then 45 minutes before the march. By the
time the shooting started, the tactical squad assigned to monitor the
demonstration was still out to lunch. Even more inexplicably, two officers
responding to a domestic call at the Morningside projects, the site of the CWP
march, noted the suspicious absence of patrol cars usually assigned to the
area. One of the cops, Officer Wise, later reported receiving a bizarre call
from police dispatch, advising him to "clear the area as soon as possible." The
incident resulted in an ATF/FBI-led cover-up similar in most respects to the
Oklahoma City whitewash, with most of the suspects being acquitted of first
degree murder charges. Echoing the factitious rants of federal officials in
Oklahoma, FBI Director William Webster called the charges of federal complicity
"utterly absurd." Although the killers had been recruited, organized and led on
their murderous rampage by ATF and FBI operatives, none ever served a day of
jail-time. ((*) Frank Donner, Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police
Repression in America, (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, University of
California Press: 1990), p. 360; Michael Novick, "Blue by Day, White by Night:
Organized White Supremacist Groups in Law Enforcement Agencies," People Against
Racist Terror, 2/3/93, p. 3.)
461. (370) Ivo Dawnay, "Informant Accuses FBI Over
Oklahoma Bomb," Electronic Telegraph, 7/20/97.
462. (*) Just as federal informant Cary Gagan
provided the FBI and U.S. Marshals with warnings.
463. (371) Kay Clarke, interview with author.
Snider's half-sister, Kay Clarke, testified that she drew the composite sketch
of the man Snider saw.
464. (372) Diana Baldwin and Ed Godfrey, "Separatist
Asks for Immunity — Witness Takes the Fifth Before Grand Jury," Daily
465. (373) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "'Master of
Disguise' Ready to Run," London Sunday Telegraph, 3/30/97.
466. (374) Diana Baldwin, "Former Klansman Identifies
Aryan Leader as John Doe 2," Daily Oklahoman, 10/8/97.
467. (375) Cash, Op Cit.
468. (*) When McVeigh's defense team asked federal
prosecutors for Howe's reports in pre-trial discovery, they were informed the
records didn't exist. When it was shown that the records did indeed exist, an
angry Judge Matsch ordered the records delivered to the defense and threatened
the prosecutors with removal from the case if they lied one more time.
469. (*) Finley-Graham admitted during Howe's
subsequent trial that she was listed as an "active informant" through December
18, 1996, but offered an interesting explanation for that status. Both
Finley-Graham and federal prosecutors claimed that removing her from the
official listing might have led to the destruction of records regarding the
bombing. "That was especially intriguing and troubling," writes New
American editor Bill Jasper, "because it left unanswered who would have
destroyed which records, and why any records concerning the deadliest terrorist
attack on American soil would have been destroyed, especially while the
investigation is ongoing and a trial is pending."
470. (376) William F. Jasper, "Undercover: The Howe
Revelations," The New American, 9/15/97.
471. (*) Her live-in neo-Nazi boyfriend, James
Viefhaus Jr., had been arrested earlier for allegedly promoting a call-in
message advocating the bombing of federal buildings in 15 different cities. The
message, reportedly connected to the National Socialist Alliance of Oklahoma,
also endorsed the April 19th bombing. The FBI claimed to have discovered
bomb-making materials in Viefhaus' home.
472. (377) "Ex-Informant Indicted on Charges,"
Associated Press, 3/13/97, Indictment No. 97-CR-05-C, Northern District of
473. (378) Richard Leiby, "How a Wheaton Kid Became a
Neo-Nazi Bank Robber, and One Confused Human," Washington Post,
474. (379) James Ridgeway, Village Voice,
7/23/96; Cash, Op Cit.
475. (380) Fazlollah, et al., Op Cit.
477. (382) Leiby, Op Cit.
478. (383) Morlin, Op Cit.
479. (384) Leiby, Op Cit.
480. (*) Chevie and Cheyne Kehoe, two brothers who
opened fire on police in Ohio in February of 1997 during a routine traffic
stop, also lived at Elohim City. Were they some of the people trained in
weaponry by Strassmeir?
481. (385) Paul Queary, "Bombing Informant Ruffles
Case," Associate Press, 2/23/97.
482. (386) Robert Heibel, interview with author.
483. (387) Walter Goodman, "Terror in Oklahoma City:
TV Critics' Notebook; Wary Network Anchors Battle Dubious Scoops, New York
484. (388) Craig Roberts, interview with author.
485. (*) Lipkin also told Roberts that Stinger
missiles have been smuggled into the country. A Stinger is thought to have been
responsible for the attack on TWA flight 800.
486. (389) Arnold Hamiltion, "Oklahoma City Car bomb
Kills at Least 31; Scores Missing in Rubble of Office Building," Dallas
Morning News, 4/20/95.
487. (390) Hugh Davies, "Rental Car is Key Clue on
Trail of Terrorists," London Sunday Telegraph, 4/21/95. Abdul Yasin,
another Iraqi, was released and returned to Iraq. Abdul Basit is Yousef's real
488. (*) No evidence was produced for the so-called
assassination attempt. The allegations were reminiscent of the tale of Iraqi
soldiers pulling babies out of incubators, which turned out to be a lie.
489. (391) Patrick Cockburn, "Defector Exposes
Saddam's Lies on Chemical Weapons," The Independent, 5/7/96. "General
Sammara'i says that the committee in charge of sabotage on which he served, and
which uses a special 600-strong military unit called 888 to carry out
operations, still exists and he suspects it was involved in giving support to
490. (392) Paul Anderson, Metro Correspondent
Chicago, IL "Threat of Terrorism Further Increases," Net News Service ,
491. (393) Ibid., Center for National Security
Policy, No. 95-D23 11 April 1995 Decision Brief.
492. (394) William Carley, "A Trail of Terror,"
Wall Street Journal, 6/16/93, p. A1, quoted in James Phillips, "The
Changing Face Of Middle Eastern Terrorism," Heritage Foundation Report,
493. (395) Jack Anderson, Dale Van Atta, "Iraq
Reported to Send Terrorists to U.S.," Washington Post, 1/28/91.
494. (*) A note on Steven Emerson: Although there is
no evidence contradicting these claims, it should be noted that Emerson has, in
the past, served as an official mouthpiece for the U.S. government, as a
consultant to the Pentagon. He played a large role in covering up the truth of
the Pan Am 103 bombing, by attacking and smearing Lester Coleman, Juval Aviv,
and any others who tried to bring forth the truth. Emerson also went on the
Heraldo Rivera show in June of 1997 and attempted to bash Kevin Flynn of the
Rocky Mountain News who had uncovered connections between Terry Nichols
and suspects in the Philippines. The author attempts in this instance merely to
report a few basic facts as related by Emerson, who does have some experience
in Middle East terrorism. The author, however, holds Emerson's dubious
connections with elements of the government in question.
495. (396) The bombings included a Jewish community
center in Buenos Aires and the Israeli embassy, the downing of a commuter plane
in Panama, and a Jewish charity organization in London. It is assumed that the
July, 1994 attacks by Hizbollah — which coincided with King Hussein's
peace-making trip to Washington — were primarily to disrupt the
Israeli/PLO peace talks.
496. (397) According to Phillips: "Islamic radicals
also often have a different audience in mind than Palestinian nationalists.
Instead of using terrorism to influence Western powers to change their
policies, they often use terrorism to punish Western powers and inspire other
Muslims to rise up against the West. This focus on the Muslim audience rather
than an American audience helps explain how the bombers of the World Trade
Center could rationalize their bloody actions. The bombing was meant to
demonstrate the power of Islamic radicals and the vulnerability of the U.S.,
not to lead the U.S. to rethink its Middle East policy."
497. (398) Confidential report of William Northrop to
KFOR, 5/10/96. Copy in author's possession.
498. (399) Phillips, Op Cit. "Between 1980
and 1989 over 400 terrorist actions spilled over from the Middle East to other
regions, with 87 percent of these actions occurring in Western Europe." Paul
Wilkinson, "Terrorism, Iran and the Gulf Region," Jane's Intelligence Review,
May 1992, p. 222.
499. (400) "Jihad in America," PBS Documentary,
500. (*) Shimon Havitz, an Israeli General attached
to the Prime Minister's office, also told McVeigh Defense Attorney Stephen
Jones that the Israelis had issued a warning to the Americans.
501. (401) Yehizkel Zadok, "The FBI is Conducting a
Search for 'Three Middle Easterners,'" Yediot Arhonot, 4/20/95.
502. (402) Report of William Northrop, and interview
503. (403) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of
Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 81. Jones points out, given the issue of the credibility
of the information, that the head of Saudi Intelligence is the King's own
504. (*) Jones said that Lipkin met with his U.S.
"counterpart," Phil Wilcox, the U.S. State Department's coordinator for
terrorism, after the bombing to "compare notes." The reader will also recall
that two Israeli bomb experts traveled to Oklahoma City after the bombing to
analyze the bomb signature.
505. (*) Jones originally said that the meeting took
place in Kingman, AZ. According to Gagan, that was incorrect, and was to
protect Gagan's information.
506. (*) Gagan had intermittent contact with the
Soviets throughout the mid-'80s. In 1982, Gagan met a Soviet spy named Edward
Bodenzayer while in Puerto Vallerta. Bodenzayer had been exporting classified
technology to Russia through his import/export business. He was eventually
arrested as a result of a joint FBI/Customs counterintelligence sting operation
known as Operation Aspen Leaf.
507. (404) Cary Gagan, interview with author.
508. (405) Deposition of Cary James Gagan, 7/14/95.
Copy in author's possession.
509. (*) Gagan later seemed to waver on this point:
"I don't care what they say — where he was supposedly — he was
there." He later said: "I'm not sure, but it sure looked like him. He just
510. (**) Gagan recalls that Omar threw something in
the trash. Gagan later fished it out. They were technical diagrams in Spanish
that appeared to be bomb plans.
511. (*) According to Gagan, his Arab friends were
interested in buying the Postal Center, and asked Gagan to propose a cash deal
to Colombo. They were apparently interested in its mail and truck rental
512. (406) Mike Levine, interview with author.
513. (407) Report of Craig Roberts, 5/8/95, copy in
author's possession. Roberts is the author's partner on the Oklahoma City
514. (*) What is interesting, considering the FBI's
lack of response, is that the Tulsa office of the FBI had commissioned Roberts
to provide a report on the bombing.
515. (**) Gagan coyly admitted to knowing Iran-Contra
drug runner and pilot Barry Seal.
516. (408) Gagan contacted Dave Floyd at the U.S.
Marshals Office. He said 'We've got to get moving on this right away.' I said,
'Well, I've got to have immunity.'"
517. (*) Gagan was referring to a Middle Eastern man
who flew in from Oklahoma City. Gagan had never seen him before.
518. (*) Gagan gave accurate and specific
descriptions of street addresses he had been in Kingman, and provided receipts
for his travels to the Arizona town. He also provided receipts for hotel rooms
in which he claims bomb planning meetings were held. He said the original plot
involved blowing up a Jewish convention center in Denver where President
Clinton was speaking.
519. (409) FBI Agent Mark Holtslaw, interview with
520. (410) Hand-written letter from Gagan to Tina
Rowe, copy in author's possession.
521. (*) Jayna Davis,
KFOR-TV broadcast, June, 1995. U.S. Marshals Service head Tina Rowe said,
regarding Cary Gagan's hand-delivered letter: "I work in a federal building and
all my friends work in federal buildings, and it's not something that anyone
working in that environment would ever overlook." KFOR then uncovered a copy of
Gagan's envelope, on which the matching signature of a Marshals Service
employee was found. The Marshals Service claimed it was suspicious, because
it's office policy to sign both the first and last name, and to stamp all
522. (**) The Judge who sent Gagan to the mental
hospital, John P. Gately, was later termed incompetent and disbarred due to
523. (411) Kevin Flynn, "Romer, Norton get Bomb
Threats: CBI Informant's Reliability in Question; He Also Warned of Federal
Building Blast," Rocky Mountain News, 8/12/95. Gagan was worried about
what had happened in Mexico with the Soviets, and didn't want to accept a plea
524. (412) Federal Public Defender, confidential
interview with author.
525. (*) A voice stress analysis the author ran on
Gagan's interview tapes showed he was telling the truth.
526. (**) Reports indicating that Gagan had been of
assistance to the DEA were illegally removed from his informant file in an
attempt to discredit him.
527. (413) Letter of Immunity from U.S. Justice Dept.
signed by Henry Solano, to Gary James Gagan, copy in author's possession.
528. (414) "FBI Furor," Unclassified, Summer,
529. (415) Gail Gibson, "The Strange Murder-For-Hire
Trial of Chuck Hayes Got Even Stranger Yesterday," Lexington
Herald-Leader, 1/16/97. Myers claimed that Hayes, a former CIA operative,
had tried to hire a hit-man with a mere $5,000, using an open phone line.
530. (416) Former Army C.I.D. investigator,
confidential interview with author.
531. (417) Dick Russell, "Spook Wars In Cyberspace:
Is the FBI Railroading Charles Hayes?" High Times, June, 1997.
532. (*) Gagan says the Letter of Immunity was not
filed with the court, in violation of standard procedure. He also asserts that
Allison's signature was signed by his secretary, and is no good.
533. (418) Florida police detective, confidential
interview with author.
534. (*) Gagan claims that on January 15, 1997, as he
was waiting for a bus at 1st and Lincoln in downtown Denver, a dark four-door
Buick came careening around the corner, firing at him with a silenced automatic
weapon. A check with Doug Packston at the Colorado Transit Authority revealed a
bullet hole in the bus shelter and glass that had been replaced.
535. (*) It is unlikely that Gagan could have known
about King's story, which was not widely reported.
536. (**) The Florida police detective I spoke with
told me that the FBI and state authorities "didn't want to investigate this,"
referring to the connections he uncovered between Arab-Americans, the PLO, and
the Cali Cartel, in the mid-80s. He believes the FBI's head of
Counterintelligence came to Florida disguised as an agent, found out what they
were working on, and took off. As he said, "Things weren't right.… It was
as if someone were looking at this and saying 'stay away from it.'" His
experience ties into that of an Army C.I.D. officer who investigated the
brother of one of the Middle-Easterners allegedly involved in the bombing, who
was involved in military espionage in Huntsville, Alabama in the mid-80s. He
said the FBI "stonewalled" the case. (More on this later)
537. (419) OCPD Dispatch of 4/19/95.
538. (420) David Harper, "Just who is Carol Howe?
Jurors Will Have To Decide Who the Real Woman Is," Tulsa World, 7/28/97.
"Howe said she heard a 'powerful murmur' in the fall of 1995 that Tulsa could
be the target of a major bombing in the spring of 1996. Howe said Thursday she
left messages in 1995 but that her calls weren't returned."
539. (*) A specific warning regarding flight 103 was
also passed on from a Mossad Agent working at the Frankfurt airport.
540. (**) What is interesting is that Oliver "Buck"
Revell, former Counter-Terrorism chief of the FBI, pulled his son and
daughter-in-law off Pan Am 103 minutes before the flight. Did Revell know
something the rest of us did not? (Steven Emerson doesn't bother mentioning
that little fact in his psyop piece entitled The Fall of Pan Am 103 ,
which, incidentally, leaves out the entire CIA/drug connection that many feel
was linked to the bombing.
541. (**) Was Solano pressured to ignore Gagan's
warning? The Denver U.S. Attorney had earlier intended to proceed with an
investigation into corruption by top U.S. officials connected with Boulder
Partnerships, Ltd., Twin Cities Bank of Little Rock, and MDC Holdings of
Denver, until he realized who was involved — friends of Bill Clinton and
George Herbert Walker Bush.
542. (421) Robert Rudolph, "Lawmen Get Warning of
Plot on U.S. Targets," Newark Star Ledger, 3/22/95.
543. (422) Wendy Holden and David Millward, "Oklahoma
Bomb Suspect Seized at Heathrow," London Sunday Telegraph. date
544. (423) Ibid.
545. (424) Ibid.
546. (425) Steven Emerson and Brian Duffy, The
Fall of Pan Am 103, (New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's), 1990, p. 176; also see
"The Maltese Double Cross," a British TV documentary on Pan Am 103.
547. (*) Ahmed's detention produced a flurry of
responses from the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), who were notified by
Ahmed's friend Sam Khalid. The ACLU has long been funded (some say taken over)
by the Roger Baldwin Foundation, a CIA front. Perhaps they wanted their man
Ahmed released, just as the CIA wanted Jordanian Marwan Kreeshat released.
548. (**) Haider Al Saiidi, one of Khalid's workers,
had a wife who miscarriaged after the bombing due to harassment. When Haider
made that public, Khalid fired him. If Clear's theory is true, it is curious
why Khalid fired him.
549. (426) Police Report of arrest of Hussain
Al-Hussaini. Sharon Twilley also stated she believed she had seen McVeigh in a
bar on NW 10th Street, and had seen Hussaini and other Khalid employees in the
same bar at different times.
must be pointed out again is that the FBI is claiming McVeigh rented the Ryder
truck the following Monday, April 17, which he did. This account indicates that
two Ryder trucks were involved in the operation, not one, as the FBI claims.
552. (427) Craig Freeman and Dennis Jackson,
interviews with author.
553. (428) Sharon Cohen, Associated Press,
554. (429) Ruby Foos, interview with author; Davies,
Op Cit., 4/21/95.
555. (430) Jim Polk, CNN, 4/20/95; Sharon Cohen,
Associated Press, 4/21/95.
556. (431) William Jasper, "The Trial of John Doe No.
2," The New American, 5/13/96.
557. (432) J.D. Cash, "Lose Your Illusion," Media
Bypass, February, 1996.
558. (433) Margaret Hohmann and Ann Domin, interviews
559. (434) Debra Burdick, interview with author.
560. (435) Jayna Davis, KFOR, shadow interview with
Kay H., 6/17/95.
561. (436) David Snider, interview with author.
562. (437) OKPD Dispatch of 4/19/95.
563. (438) David Hall, interview with author.
564. (*) A source in the Sheriff's Office interviewed
by Jayna Davis said the FBI refused to explain why it had cancelled the APB.
David Hall said the APB was canceled by an FBI agent named Webster. Yet
according to OCPD officer Don Browning, the FBI later "admitted" to
"fabricating" the APB.
565. (**) Both Ernie Cranfield and neighbors saw the
brown pick-up at Sahara Properties.
566. (439) Ernie Cranfield, interview with
567. (*) Heather Khalid also told Cranfield in a
secretly-taped interview that she had not been able to find any time record on
Hussaini for April 19, so she made one up and gave it to Dave Balut, a reporter
for KWTV. Khalid employee Terry Holliday, told a reporter at KOCO-TV that
Hussaini had been painting the house at NW 31st Street on April 19, then later
told Cranfield that Hussaini had not actually been there on the 19th. Heather
claimed that she had taken some supplies to Hussaini that morning, but Holliday
claimed she had never been there. Khalid worker Barnaby Machuca also repeatedly
changed his story regarding Hussaini's whereabouts.
568. (*) Numerous FBI and law enforcement sources
Davis contacted agreed that Hussaini resembled the sketch of John Doe 2, and
believed there was a Middle Eastern connection to the bombing, possibly
connected to the World Trade Center bombing. (KFOR's Response to Plaintiff's
Interrogatories, Hussaini vs. KFOR).
569. (440) OCPD D.U.I. report, copy in author's
570. (* FBI spokesman Steve
Mullins wouldn't confirm or deny whether Hussaini was a suspect; FBI agent
James Strickland, who would later investigate Khalid's alleged shooting of his
secretary, Sharon Twilley, also declined to comment on whether Hussaini was a
571. (441) George Lang, "Out on a Limb," date
572. (442) Dave Balut reporting, KWTV, 10:00 p.m.
573. (443) Sam Khalid, interview with author.
574. (*) William Northrop is an ex-Isreali
intelligence officer who was indicted by former U.S. Attorney Rudolph Gulianni,
and testified against Israel's role in Iran-Contra. A friend of the late CIA
Director William Casey, Northrop's name was reportedly found in Casey's diary
upon his death.
575. (*( Khalid, speaking on behalf of Hussaini,
claimed his INS records were "stolen."
576. (*) Yousef arrived in New York on September 1,
1992. Many New York law enforcement officials reportedly believe that Iraq was
involved [in the Trade Center bombing], although they can not prove it. (Laurie
Mylroie, "World Trade Center Bombing — The Case of Secret Cyanide," The
Wall Street Journal, July 26, 1994, p. A16.), quoted in James Phillips, The
Changing Face of Middle Eastern Terrorism," The Heritage Foundation,
Backgrounder, #1005, 10/6/94.
577. (444) Mylroie, Op Cit. Yousef, who grew
up in Kuwait, was also identified by Kuwaiti Interior Minister Sheik Ali al
Sabah al Salim as an Iraqi collaborator during Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait.
(Charles Wallace, "Weaving a Wide Web of Terror," Los Angeles Times,
578. (*) Hussain al-Hussaini moved to Houston after
going public and suing KFOR.
579. (445) Louis Champon, interview with author.
According to Champon, who is suing the federal government, Peter Kawaja, who
was head of security for Champon's plant, hired Wackenhut. Kawaja was later
given immunity to act as an informant. Said Robert Bickel, a Customs informant
and investigator familiar with the case: "Hell, Barbouti was treated more like
a damn state bird than a terrorist."
580. (*) Louis Champon said he saw Barbouti meet with
Secord at the Fountain Blue Hotel in Miami in 1988.
581. (446) Mike Johnston, interview with author. John
Conally, "Inside the Shadow CIA," Spy magazine, September, 1992; Said
Louis Champon, "They are so well-protected by an entity in our own government,
that they have put up a wall.…"
582. (*) Yet according to Champon's former head of
security Peter Kawaja, and Iraqgate investigator Robert Bickel, Champon himself
isn't so innocent. "Champon had to know about the cyanide leaving the plant,"
said Bickel. "He was there every day, while the plant was being built and
operated." Nevertheless, Champon went public, and was threatened and shut down
by U.S. Customs and the I.R.S.
583. (447) TK-7 is a chemical company in Oklahoma
City owned by Moshe Tal, an Israeli. Barbouti had attempted to purchase a
formula from them that could extend the range of rocket fuel for the Iraqi SCUD
584. (*) While Ishan Barbouti allegedly "died" of
heart failure in London in July of 1990, he was reportedly seen afterwards
alive and well flying between Aman, Jordan and Tripoli, Libya. Other accounts
indicate that he is living safe and well in Florida.
585. (448) Clark, Op Cit,
586. (449) Ibid., pp. 70-72, Quoted in William
Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War
II (Common Courage Press, 1996), p. 335; "The Gulf War and its Aftermath,"
The 1992 Information Please Almanac (Boston, 1992), p. 974, Quoted in
Blum, p. 335.
587. (450) Laurie Garrett (medical writer for
Newsday), "The Dead," Columbia Journalism Review, May/June, 1991,
p. 32, quoted in Blum, p. 335.
588. (451) Needless Deaths Op. Cit., p. 135,
quoted in Blum, p.335.
589. (452) Ibid., pp. 201-24; Clark, pp. 72-4;
Los Angeles Times, 1/31/91; 2/3/91, quoted in Blum, p. 336.
590. (453) Bill Moyers, PBS Special Report: After
the War, Spring, 1991, quoted in Clark, p. 53.
591. (454) "Biography: McVeigh, Part Two, Media
Bypass, March, 1995.
592. (*) World Trade Center bomber Mahmud Abouhalima
told Egyptian intelligence that the World Trade Center bombing had been
approved by Iranian intelligence.
593. (455) Yossef Bodansky, Terror: The Inside
Story of the Terrorist Conspiracy in America (New York, NY: SPI Books,
1994), quoted in Keith, Op Cit., p. 154.
594. (456) Ibid., p. 153.
595. (457) Indeed, a major terrorism summit sponsored
by Tehran in June of 1996 saw delegates from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, and other Mid-East and African states, as well as Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Germany, France, Britain, Canada, and the U.S. come together to form a joint
working committee under the command of the new HizbAllah International —
transforming that group into "the vanguard of the revolution" of the Muslim
596. (458) Defense & Foreign Affairs,
597. (459) Ibid.
598. (460) Ronald W. Lewis, "Uncivil Air War" (The
Shootdown of TWA Flight 800)," Air Forces Monthly, No. 104, November
1996, posted by S.A.F.A.N. Internet Newsletter, No. 213, December 21,
599. (461) Dr. Laurie Mylroie, Ph.D., "Terrorism in
Our Face," American Spectator, April, 1997.
600. (*) This will be explored more fully in Volume
601. (462) Phillips, Op Cit. It is reported
that hundreds of them are also being trained by Iranian Revolutionary Guards in
Sudanese training camps.
602. (463) See Edward Gargan, "Where Arab Militants
Train and Wait," New York Times, 8/ 11/93; Tim Weiner, "Blowback From
the Afghan Battlefield," New York Times Magazine, 3/13/94; Daniel
Klaidman and Gregory L. Vistica, "In Search of a Killer," Newsweek,
603. (464) "The New Era of Global Terrorism," MSA
News, date unknown, posted on Internet. The leaders of Abu Sayyaf are:
Abdurajak Abubakr Janjalani, Amilhussin Jumaani, Edwin Angeles, Asmad Abdul.
604. (465) "U.S. Forces in Gulf on High Security
Alert," Reuter, 4/7/97.
605. (466) Patrick Cockburn, "Defector exposes
Saddam's Lies on Chemical Weapons," The Independent, 5/7/96. "General
Sammara'i says that the committee in charge of sabotage on which he served, and
which uses a special 600-strong military unit called 888 to carry out
operations, still exists and he suspects it was involved in giving support to
606. (*) Abdul Rahman Yassin, an Iraqi indicted for
his part in the World Trade Center bombing fled to Baghdad. His brother, Musab
Yasin, provided a safehouse for the later plots. While the New York office of
the FBI wanted to arrest him, curiously, the Washington office objected.
Another Iraqi with a Ph.D. in microbiology, currently living in New Jersey, is
607. (467) Charles Wallace, "Weaving a Wide Web of
Terror," Los Angeles Times, 5/28/95; Robert D. McFadden, "Nine Suspected
of Terrorism are Arrested in Manila," New York Times, 12/30/96.
608. (*) The nine suspects are: Yousef's brother,
Adel Anonn (alias Adel Bani); Abdul Kareem Jassim Bidawi; Haleem Jassim Bidawi;
Jamaal Jaloud; Ibrahim Abid; and Najim Nasser (Iraqis); Emad Almubarak
(Sudanese); Saleh Al Quuwaye, and Zaid Al Amer (Saudis).
609. (**) Angeles told Jones that there are links to
Philippine mail-order-bride businesses and criminal/terrorist activity. It was
not clear from Jones' brief exactly what this entailed.
610. (468) Ibid., p.3.
611. (469) Lana Padilla, interview with author.
612. (**) Referring to the place in Davao, Angeles
said, "It was also the place where Muslims were taught in bomb making."
613. (470) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Floyd, "McVeigh Team
Tries Again for Delay," Rocky Mountain News, 3/26/97; Timothy McVeigh's
Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97.
614. (471) Lana Padilla, interview with author.
615. (472) "Petition For Writ of Mandamus of
Petitioner-Defendant, Timothy James McVeigh and Brief in Support", Case No.
616. (*) A source close to Jones said that attorney
Jim Hankins actually prepared the Writ.
617. (*) Northrop claims that when he tried to run
the information down in Kingman he came up empty. His source in the U.S.
Marshals Service, who was looking into the matter, received a call from the
Justice Department, and was promptly stonewalled, he said.
618. (*) Casinos have been used to launder money. A
drug dealer or other criminal enters the casino with dirty money, buys large
quantities of chips, gambles a bit, then cashes in the chips for clean money.
Russbacher told Stich that the process also works in reverse. He explained in
one case how the CIA, through Shamrock Overseas Disbursement Corporation, gave
money to the casino, who in turn would give gambling chips to the recipients
when they arrived, then the chips were cashed in. Russbacher named three Las
Vegas casinos allegedly involved in the operation, including the Frontier,
Stardust, and Binyon's Horseshoe.
619. († Considering the reports from dancers at
two stripper bars — one in Tulsa and one in Junction City — McVeigh
and Nichols had a penchant for these types of places.
620. (473) As interrogatory answers filed by KFOR in
its defense against al-Hussaini state: [Lana] Padilla said that her son, Josh,
went to Las Vegas about once a month, where he was with Tim McVeigh, Terry
Nichols, and Middle-Eastern men. Padilla expressed the opinion that there was a
Middle-Eastern connection to the Oklahoma City bombing.
621. (474) "Omar Khalif was one of the aliases listed
on Khalid's 1990 federal indictment.
622. (475) Melissa Klinzing, former KFOR news
director, interview with author.