About  |  What You Can Do

Endnotes

[E: In the original printed edition, there were both unnumbered footnotes and numbered endnotes. In this digital edition, all notes have been converted to endnotes and re-numbered. The numbers of the printed edition endnotes are shown in parentheses. Footnotes of the printed edition are also shown in parentheses, but with the format (<chapter number>:<page number>:<footnote symbol>). Thus, the footnote ** from Chapter 6, page 268, would be shown as (6:268:**). Some endnotes have been added or modified by the author or the digital editor, and these are surrounded in double square brackets [[]], with those of the editor prefixed with "E:".]

1. (1) Detective Jay Einhorn, interview with author.

2. (2) Nancy Gibbs,"The Blood of Innocents," Time, 5/1/95.

3. (3) Ibid..

4. (4) According to "journalist" Larry Myers, McVeigh exited the vehicle and met Hanger between the two cars. Hanger asked McVeigh for his license. He then informed the cop that he was moving from Arkansas, at which point Hanger walked back to his vehicle and ran McVeigh's license. Hanger's video camera was on, as well as his microphone. As he walked back to McVeigh, he noticed a bulge under his jacket, and as he handed McVeigh his license, he quietly flipped the snap on his holster. He asked McVeigh if he was carrying a gun, and McVeigh informed him he was, at which point Hanger drew his weapon, shoved McVeigh against the car and spread his legs. McVeigh told Hanger that he had a concealed carry permit and showed him is old Burns Security badge. McVeigh sat in the passenger side of the patrol car and talked about the bombing as it flashed over the radio. When he arrived at the jailhouse, he asked, "when's chow?"

5. See Partin Report and diagrams in appendix.

6. (5) Sam Cohen's letter to Representative Key, 6/29/95, copy in author's possession.

7. (6) William Jasper, "Explosive Evidence of a Cover-Up," The New American, 8/7/95.

8. (7) Ibid.

9. The Atlas Powder Co. is in Dallas, Texas.

10. (8) Christine Gorman, "Bomb Lurking in the Garden Shed", Time magazine, 5/1/95.

11. (9) Rick Sherrow, interview with author.

12. (10) Linda Jones, trial transcript, U.S. v. McVeigh.

13. (11) Sacramento Bee, 4/30/95.

14. (12) Brian Ford, "McVeigh Placed at Kansas Store," Tulsa World, 9/12/97.

15. (1:5:*) They claimed they didn't know where it was built.

16. (13) Military Explosives, TM 9-1910/TO 11A-1-34, Dept. of the Army and the Air Force, 4/14/55, p. 121.

17. (14) Michele Marie Moore, Oklahoma City: Day One (Eagar, AZ: Harvest Trust, 1996), p. 122.

18. (15) KFOR-TV, 4/19/95.

19. (16) USA Today, 4/28/95.

20. (17) New York Times, 10/19/95.

21. (18) Memorandum to all US Attorneys from Acting Assistant Attorney General John C. Keeney, 1/4/96, and letter of Frederick Whitehurst, 1/9/96 copy in author's possession.

22. (19) "Outside Experts to Review FBI Crime Lab,"Wall Street Journal, 9/19/95; OIG report, copy in author's possession.

23. (1:7:*) "Williams' report also states that the initiator for the Primadet or the detonating cord was a non-electric detonator; non-electric, burning type fuse of either hobby fuse or a commercial safety fuse was used as a safe separation and time delay system; and the time delay for the burning fuse was approximately 2 minutes and 15 seconds.… No evidence of a non-electric detonator or the named fuses, however, were found at the crime scene.… Williams also stated in his report that [a] fertilizer base explosive, such as ANFO… among other commercial and improvised explosives, has an approximate VOD of 13,000 fps. The statement of the VOD of ANFO, however, is incomplete because ANFO has a broad VOD range. For example, the Dupont Blasters' Handbook (Dupont) shows commercial ANFO products with VODs in the 7,000-15,600 feet-per-second range. When Williams wrote his Oklahoma City report, he was aware of this range.…"

24. (20) The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Building, Oklahoma City, April 19, 1995, 11/1/96, copy in author's possession.

25. (21) Ibid.

26. As the OIG report states: "Whitehurst questions Williams' conclusion that none of the structural damage evident within the Murrah building was caused by secondary explosive devices or explosions."

27. (1:8:*) Partin pointed out that while the truck bomb that damaged the World Trade Center was in an enclosed space, thereby creating a much higher destructive force than a bomb out in the open, it did not destroy the support column next to it.

28. (22) Richard Sherrow, "Bombast, Bomb Blasts & Baloney,"Soldier of Fortune, 6/95.

29. (23) Rabauch's letter to Partin dated 7/18/95, copy in author's possession.

30. (24) CNN World News, 6/26/96.

31. (25) Jim Loftis, interview with author.

32. (1:10:*) The Israelis' host in the U.S. was Oklahoma City business leader Moshe Tal, an Israeli. According to William Northrop, another Israeli and Oklahoma City resident, Tal initially circulated the report, which was three pages and mentioned the Middle-Eastern bomb signature. After Tal was summoned to Israel, he returned denying those aspects of the report. It was suddenly, in keeping with the U.S. Government's position, no longer a Middle-Eastern bomb, and the report itself incredibly shrank from three pages to only one.

33. (26) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Flynn, "Were Feds Warned Before OKC Bomb Built?" Rocky Mountain News, 2/6/97. The fuel dealer reported the purchasing attempt to the ATF, but the agency did not follow up.

34. (27) Gronning's letter to Key, dated 6/27/95, copy in author's possession.

35. (28) James L. Pate, "Bloody April: Waco Anniversary Triggers Oklahoma City Atrocity," Soldier of Fortune, August, 1995.

36. (29) Larens Imanyuel, interview with author.

37. (30) Engineering News, May 1, 1995, page 10-11.

38. (31) The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Building, Oklahoma City, April 19, 1995, 11/1/96, copy in author's possession.

39. (32) Larens Imanyuel,"The Bombing of the Oklahoma City Federal Building: Was a Cruise Missile Warhead Design Used?" Veritas, 12/18/95.

40. (33) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 35.

41. (34) Ramona McDonald, interview with author.

42. (35) "The Worst Terrorist Attack on U.S. Soil: April 19, 1995," CNN, 12/20/95.

43. (1:13:*) Other people who were working in office buildings at the time reported that sparks flew out from their computers just before the blast. The manager of the Journal Record parking garage, two blocks from the Murrah Building, reported that the electronic computers in at least half a dozen cars had malfunctioned as a result of the blast.

44. (36) Sam Cohen, interview with author.

45. (37) Gene Wheaton, "The Covert Culture," Portland Free Press, May/June 1996.

46. (38) David Noble, "Professors of Terror," Third World Resurgence (Penang, Malaysia), February-March, 1992, p. 34, quoted in Ramsey Clark, The Fire This Time, (New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992), p. 44.

47. (39) Adel Darwick and Gregory Alexander, Unholy Babylon, (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991), p. 104.

48. (40) Harry M., confidential letter to author.

49. (41) "Iraq Also Worked on Hydrogen Bomb," Associated Press, quoted in The Nashville Tennessean, 10/9/91, as quoted in Charles T. Harrison, "Hell in a Hand Basket: The Threat of Portable Nuclear Weapons," Military Review, May, 1993.

50. (42) E-Mail message to Tony Scarlatti; Interview with author.

51. (1:15:*) Within the last few years, articles have appeared in the U.S., European, and even Russian media dealing with an exotic new material known as 'Red Mercury' which had been developed by the Russians and allegedly held properties capable of producing far more efficient nuclear fission warheads than the conventional explosives developed thus far."

52. (43) Harrison, Op Cit.

53. New Yorker magazine, date unknown, quoted by nuclear physicist Galen Winsor on Radio Free America, 3/23/93.

54. (44) Edward Zehr, "Turning Point: Resolving The Enigma of Oklahoma City," Washington Weekly, 11/18/96.

55. Some rescue workers, it was also rumored, had become ill with mysterious illnesses. They suffered from physical exhaustion and could barely drag themselves to work, it was reported, although these reports have not been substantiated. Of the 43 FEMA dogs that took part in the rescue effort, four died and one became ill. Rumors quickly spread that the dogs had died of radiation poisoning. The body of one of the deceased dogs, it was claimed, had been exhumed, his lungs found to be radioactive. The culprit was supposedly a radioactive isotope called Tritium. A heavy form of hydrogen, Tritium is an essential ingredient in nuclear weapons. In microscopic quantities it is also used as a "tracer" in medical procedures — injected into the bloodstream as an aid in radiology scanning. According to Larry Jacobson, Executive Vise President of the National Association of Search & Rescue (NASR) in Fairfax, Virginia, "We don't know of any dog coming out of the Oklahoma thing that had any more then cut paws… it was a totally baseless rumor." Mike Nozer, head of the Tulsa, Oklahoma K-9 Search & Rescue team, was busy assembling his team for the Heroes of the Heart parade in Bethany on April 19, 1996. He explained that all eight of his dogs were still active, in fact were at the parade that day. "My dogs were the first ones in the building," said Nozer, whose team worked for six days to pull people out of the wreckage. "I didn't have any one of my dogs down due to radiation." Nozer also explained that the Fire Department had sprayed a chemical in the building on the evening of the fourth day to prevent contamination from decaying bodies still inside. However, according to Nozer, this would not have affected the dogs. Skip Hernandez of Miami's Metro Dade Fire Department, worked with his dogs in the "pit," an area likely to have been contaminated. "Before we allow the dogs to go in, we ask certain questions [of] the hazardous materials guys because the dogs work very low to the ground," explained Hernandez. "All the dogs went thorough a thorough physical. None of our dogs left there injured…We would have known if there was radiation in there." Hernandez also said that the dog that died was an older dog, who died of cancer. The dog that had died was supposedly from a team in Virginia or Maryland. Sgt. Lavelle of Maryland Task Force 1, told me one dog became sick from lyme disease, but he didn't think it was related to the bombing. As to the rumor of Tritium poisoning, he said, "That's the first we've ever heard of it." Jacobson, who works with the team in Virginia, said absolutely no dog died as a result of being in the Murrah Building. I asked Samuel Cohen about the possibility of Tritium poisoning. "Tritium could have been mixed up with ANFO," said Cohen. "But it seems far-fetched that they could have gotten that much into their systems to do any serious radiation damage. It's very unlikely to do damage unless it gets into the system in huge doses. The culprit would have to steal more Tritium than exists in any single lab on earth. He would need pounds. And Tritium is not cheap stuff. The last I checked, it was a few thousand dollars a gram." But whether search and rescue dogs actually died of radiation poisoning is another matter. A Rotweiler named Weinachten Gator Von Scott CD, who lived with his owner Jacob Scott in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, died in June of 1996, of a broken neck after a fall. Gator had pulled the last survivor out of the Murrah Building. Another dog, a member of the Oklahoma County Sheriff's K-9 Unit named Chita, was hit by a car after escaping from her pen during a hail storm. While some have suggested that the dogs were killed to hide evidence of radiation poisoning, there is no evidence that either animal was suffering from such a malady. Yet considering the extent of the cover-up underway at the time, and the number of people who feared for their jobs, the autopsy reports on the dogs could have been faked. Certainly any revelation of a nuclear explosion would not only cause the government's already shaky premise to fall apart, but would cause widespread panic among the population.

56. Sam Cohen, interview with author.

57. (45) Sam Cohen, Journal of Civil Defense, Fall, 1995, quoted by F.R. Suplantier in Behind the Headlines.

58. According to demolition experts, simply wrapping Primacord around the column supports 27 times would be enough to destroy them.

59. (1:15:**) Authorities later backtracked on the leg, claiming that it belonged to Airforce recruit Lakesha Levy. They originally said the leg belonged to a light-skinned male in his 30s. They then said it belonged to a black female, in order to match it with Levy.

60. (46) "A classified Pentagon study determines Oklahoma bombing was caused by more than one bomb," Strategic Investment Newsletter, 3/20/96.

61. (47) William Jasper, "Multiple Blasts: More Evidence," The New American, date unknown.

62. (48) "The Oklahoma City Bombing: Improved building performance through multi-hazard mitigation," FEMA, quoted in Relevance magazine, April, 1997.

63. (49) General Benton K. Partin, interview with author.

64. (50) New American, date unknown.

65. (1:18:*) David Hall, manager of KPOC-TV in Ponca City, who has done considerable investigation into the bombing, told me that two Southwestern Bell employees called him and claimed they had a surveillance tape that showed the Murrah Building shaking before the truck bomb detonated.

66. (51) Sam Cohen, interview with author.

67. (52) Jeff Bruccelari, Oklahoma Radio Network, interview with Dr. Ray Brown, 2/18/97.

68. (53) Jerry Longspaugh, Cover-Up in Oklahoma City video, 1996.

69. Emphasis mine.

70. (54) Ramona McDonald, interview with author.

71. Although the tape was confiscated by the FBI it was later returned, likely altered, just as the FBI likely altered the famous Zapruder film of the JFK assassination by reversing the frames that showed the president's head being blown back.

72. (55) William Jasper,"Seismic Support," The New American, 8/7/95, 1995.

73. (56) Nolan Clay, "Scientists Debate Meaning of Bombing Seismograms", The Daily Oklahoman, 11/21/95.

74. (57) Moore, Op Cit., p. 223.

75. (58) William Jasper,"Seismic Support", The New American, 8/7/95, 1995. Brown later added that the one-fourth of the building collapsing on 4/19 could have created a larger pulse if it had help, say, from high-explosives, "so you wouldn't need quite as much building to be collapsing to cause the same sized pulse that we observed on the day of the explosion."

76. (59) William Jasper, "Were There Two Explosions?", The New American, 6/12/95.

77. (60) Washington Post, 4/23/95.

78. (61) Moore, Op Cit., p. 223.

79. (62) Hassan Muhammad, interview with author.

80. (63) "William Jasper," OKC Investigator Under Attack," The New American, 6/23/97; video deposition of Jane C. Graham, 7/20/97, copy in author's possession.

81. (64) "Oklahoma City: What Really Happened?", video by Chuck Allen, 1995.

82. (65) Media Bypass, June, 1995.

83. (66) Jasper, Op Cit., 6/12/95.

84. (1:23:*) Unfortunately, Partin shot himself in the foot in his first letter to Congress by insinuating that the bombing was the work of a Communist conspiracy (The Third Socialist International), thereby possibly portraying himself in the eyes of some as a Right-Wing "kook." But in spite of his politics, his technical credentials are beyond reproach.

85. (1:23:**) This is reminiscent of the cover-up of the JFK assassination, where Secret Service agents carefully washed down the president's limo immediately after the shooting with buckets of water to remove all traces of bullet fragments, and had Governor Connolly's clothes, bullet holes and all, cleaned and pressed.

86. (67) Guy Rubsamen, interview with author.

87. (1:24:*) Such a situation is reminiscent of JFK's visit to Dallas, where the plotters made sure the President's protective bubble was removed from his limousine, and made sure the Secret Service never bothered to check the many open windows around Dealy Plaza — a standard security procedure in such a situation.

88. (68) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author.

89. (69) "Witness Accounts Vary in Oklahoma City Bombing," Dallas Morning News, 10/8/95; Associated Press, 8/27/95; Associated Press, 9/9/95.

90. (70) Statement of unidentified witness taking by Rep. Charles Key, copy in author's possession.

[91]. After publication of this book, Jane Graham was shown a photograph of German national Andreas Strassmeir, discussed later, and identified him as one of the men she saw.

92. (71) Graham, Op Cit. One of the men was tall, late '30s, nice-looking, very dark hair, mustache, black cowboy hat, jeans. The others were slightly older; wearing khakis, short sleeves, all Caucasians. The FBI agent who interviewed Graham was Joe Schwecke .

93. (72) Interviews with Paul Renfroe, OG&E; Thom Hunter, Southwestern Bell; Don Sherry, Oklahoma Natural Gas. Interviews with approximately 20 construction companies involved with a renovation bid by GSA. Contractor list supplied by GSA to author.

94. (73) David Hall, interview with author.

95. (74) J.D. Cash & Jeff Holladay, "Secondary Explosion Revealed in Murrah Blast," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 5/4/95.

96. (75) Allen, Op Cit.

97. (76) Jon Rappaport, Oklahoma City Bombing — The Suppressed Truth (Los Angeles, CA: Blue Press, 1995).

98. (77) Veritas, 10/9/95.

99. (1:27:*) According to Army technical manual on military explosives, Mercury Fulminate is only safe to handle if it is "dead-pressed."

100. (78) Craig Roberts, "The Bombing of the Murrah Federal Building: An Investigative Report," (prepared for the Tulsa Office of the FBI), 6/4/95, copy in author's possession.

101. (1:27:**) It was the presence of military ordinance that brought the 61st EOD (Explosive Ordinance Demolition) team from Fort Sill in to examine and defuse the bombs.

102. (1:27:†) The Army had a recruiting office in the building, which would have made the presence of military personnel inconspicuous. The Department of Agriculture also had an office in the building. The Department of Agriculture has been used as a front for IRS intelligence, and also the 113th M.I.G. (Military Intelligence Group) in Chicago in 1970. Given the easy access to military personnel in the building, it would have been easy for military personnel to go through the building unnoticed.

103. (79) General Benton K. Partin, interview with author.

104. (80) KFOR-TV.

105. (1:29:*) According to the September, 1995 edition of Firehouse magazine, there were three bomb scares: one at 10:22, one at 10:45, and one at 1:51. (See Radio logs, Appendix)

106. Taped interview of Tiffany Smith by Rep. Charles Key.

107. (81) Jim Keith, OKBOMB — Conspiracy and Cover-Up (Lilburn, GA: Illuminit Press, 1996).

108. (82) Edward Comeau, "Fire Investigation Report: Oklahoma City Bombing and Rescue Operation," National Fire Protection Association, 11/12/95.

109. It was rumored that one of the devices was taken to Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, NM. Fred Shannon of the Ellis County Press in Albuquerque claimed his source is too frightened to come forward. If this account is true, it is curious to say the least, why a bomb would be taken to a remote military base, when Tinker Air Force base is less than 10 miles away. Interestingly, a branch of Sandia Labs is located at Kirkland Air Force Base. The Sandia Corporation, headquartered in Albuquerque, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Alameda County, CA, have cooperated on the development of highly sophisticated explosives, including nuclear weapons. Sandia often conducts it's tests at the White Sands Missile Test Range, just west of Alamagordo. White Sands was the home to the ATF's "Dipole Might" experiments (see below). Was the government taking one of its bombs back home to Momma?

110. (83) Allen, Op Cit.

111. (84) Moore, Op Cit., p. 221. Ricks made this statement the day of the bombing.

112. (85) General Benton K. Partin, interview with author.

113. (86) Rick Sherrow, interview with author.

114. (1:30:*) The TOW missile, inspected by the 61st EOD team out of Ft. Sill was inert, as reported on the Oklahoma County Sheriff's Evidence/Ordinance Acceptance Form, dated 4/19/95, copy in author's possession.

115. (87) BATF RAC Dewy Webb, interview with author; OCPD Officer Don Browning, interview with author.

116. This author requested the Sheriff's video under the Oklahoma Open Records Act. I subsequently received the original version from a friend. It seems the Sheriff sent me an edited version, with the ordinance being removed edited out.

117. (88) J.D. Cash & Jeff Holladay, "Worker Helped Remove Munitions, Missile from Murrah Building," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/7/95.

118. (89) Ibid.

119. The BATF lied about the presence of a methamphetamine lab on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas in order to circumvent the Posse Comitatus Act, which prevents the military from being used for domestic law enforcement. Consequently, tanks from the Army's Joint Task Force Six were used (driven the FBI) to demolish and gas the Branch Davidian compound. Eighty-six men, women and children were either crushed to death or burned alive. The FBI, ludicrously enough, claimed that the tanks were there to knock holes in the walls in order to allow people to escape — an absolutely ridiculous assertion — they could have simply used the windows and doors.

120. (90) Relevance magazine, 7/95.

121. (91) Moore, Op Cit., p. 107.

122. (92) Ibid.

123. (1:33:*) This author interviewed a retired Army criminal investigator who complained about Lester Martz's stonewalling a similar investigation he was involved in.

124. (93) Allen, Op Cit.; Moore, Op Cit.

125. (94) Ibid., p. 116.

126. (95) Richard L. Sherrow, "Aftershocks and Subterfuge: Cloud of Doubt Lingers Over Government Cover-up," Soldier of Fortune, April, 1996; Moore, p. 106.

127. This was reported briefly in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. The two articles were then quickly buried in scrap-heap of history.

128. (96) Lawrence W. Myers, "Bureau of ANFO Truck-Bomb Fabrication," Media Bypass, November, 1996.

129. (97) "Who Are They? The Oklahoma Blast Reveals The Paranoid Life and Times of Accused Bomber Timothy McVeigh and His Right-Wing Associates." Time, 5/1/95.

130. (98) Dale Russakock & Serge Kovaleski, "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage; After a Long Search For Order, Timothy McVeigh Finally Found a World He Could Fit Into,"Washington Post, 7/2/95.

131. (99) John Kifner, "Oklahoma Bombing Suspect: Unraveling a Frayed Life," New York Times, 12/31/95.

132. (100) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage," Washington Post, 7/2/95.

133. (101) Robert D. McFadden, "Terror in Oklahoma: The Suspect — One Man's Complex Path to Extremism," New York Times, 4/23/95.

134. (2:36:*) Lori Fortier originally told the press, "It truly sickens me when I see my friend's face, yes my friend's face, portrayed on the cover of Time magazine as the face of evil."

135. (102) Sheffield Anderson, interview with author.

136. (2:36:**) Noble County Assistant Attorney Mark Gibson, who has prosecuted many killers, said "You could just feel the evil in them." Yet he said of McVeigh, "I looked at him and realized I felt no repulsion or fear."

137. (103) Prime Time Live, 5/10/95.

138. (104) "Biography: McVeigh, Part II," Media Bypass, May, 1996. Myers would later rescind this statement to me, saying he thought McVeigh was the "most maniacal terrorist in U.S. history."

139. (105) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage," Washington Post, 7/2/95.

140. (106) Media Bypass. May, 1996.

141. (2:40:*) Real estate agent Anne Marie Fitzpatrick said McVeigh was "very dynamic" and had "a twinkle in his eye and a smile." (Washington Post 7/2/95. )

142. (107) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage", Washington Post, 7/2/95.

143. (108) Media Bypass. 5/96.

144. (109) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

145. (110) Media Bypass. May, 1996.

146. (111) Robert D. McFadden, "Terror in Oklahoma: A Special Report — John Doe No. 1, A Life of Solitude and Obsessions," New York Times, 5/4/95.

147. (112)Washington Post, 7/2/95.

148. (113) Media Bypass. May, 1996.

149. (114) Lana Padilla and Ron Delpit, By Blood Betrayed, (New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1995), p. 63.

150. (2:43:*) Padilla told me later that the information about McVeigh's so-called demolitions expertise was provided by co-writer Ron Delpit.

151. (115) David Hackworth & Peter Annin, "The Suspect Speaks Out," Newsweek, 7/3/95.

152. (116) Newsweek, 5/15/95.

153. (117) John Kifner, "The Gun Network: McVeigh's World — A Special Report; Bomb Suspect Felt at Home Riding the Gun-Show Circuit." New York Times, 7/5/95.

154. (118) FBI 302 Statement of Carl. E. Lebron, Jr., 4/22/95, copy in author's possession.

155. (119) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

156. (120) New York Times, 5/4/95.

157. (121) Media Bypass, March, 1995.

158. (122) New York Times 5/4/95.

159. (123) Media Bypass, March, 1995.

160. (124) New York Times, 5/4/95.

161. (125) Ibid.

162. While other soldiers and airmen were quoted during the war making statements like "shooting fish in a barrel" … "We hit the jackpot" … "a turkey shoot," only McVeigh "killed Iraqis." For a detailed account of atrocities committed by U.S. forces, see: Ramsey Clark, The Fire This Time: U.S. War Crimes in the Gulf , (New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992).

163. (126) Media Bypass, March, 1995.

164. (127) "Oklahoma Bombing Suspect: Unraveling a Frayed Life," New York Times, 12/31/95.

165. (128) Padilla, Delpit, Op Cit., p. 153.

166. (129) Keith, Op Cit., p. 41.

167. (130) "McVeigh's Army Pals Join Bid to Save His Life," CNN, 6/9/97.

168. (131) Kenneth Stern, A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate, (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1996), p. 190; New York Times, 5/4/95.

169. Stern's book, written on behalf of the American Jewish Committee with the tacit approval of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of the B'Nai B'rith, seeks to completely discredit all factions of the emerging Patriot and Militia movements. Stern begins with the premise that McVeigh is guilty, and then attempts to indict the militia movement by association. Most all of Stern's sources derive from mainstream press accounts and ADL and SPLC (Southern Poverty Law Center) reports. There is no indication from his source notes that the author ever interviewed any of McVeigh's friends or associates, or did any independent research on the bombing whatsoever.

170. (2:49:*) Rice is president of New England Investigations. He teaches the only accredited course in the subject of profiling, and has testified in state and federal court in regards to handwriting analysis, and Moore runs an executive assessment firm in Washington, D.C. that specializes in assessing personality traits of applicants based on their handwriting samples.

171. (132) "Inside the Mind of McVeigh." Media Bypass, April, 1996.

172. (133) "Biography: McVeigh, Part II," Media Bypass, May, 1996.

173. (134) New York Times, 12/31/95.

174. (135) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

175. (136) New York Times, 12/31/95.

176. (137) New York Times, 5/4/95.

177. (138) New York Times, 7/5/95.

178. (139) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

179. (140) "The Suspect Speaks Out," Newsweek. 7/3/95.

180. (141) Released by McVeigh's attorney Stephen Jones to the Washington Post.

181. (142) Newsweek, 7/3/95.

182. (143) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

183. (144) Media Bypass, March, 1995.

184. (145) Report of Investigation, David B. Fechheimer, 12/13/96, addressed to Stephen Jones, copy in author's possession.

185. (146) Released by McVeigh's attorney Stephen Jones to the Washington Post.

186. (147) New York Times, 5/4/95.

187. (2:52:*) McVeigh himself admitted that it "was delayed in my case."

188. (148) Washington Post, 7/2/95, 4/23/95.

189. (2:52:**) This was confirmed to me by Terry Nichols' ex-wife, Lana Padilla: "Terry told me that. Terry just said that when he was in the Gulf War, they had implanted that to keep track of him."

190. (149) Glenn Krawczk, "Mind Control and the New World Order," Nexus magazine, Feb-March, 1993, quoted in Keith.

191. (150) Ibid., p. 196.

192. (2:53:*) The firm does classified research for both NASA and the Air Force, and is a ranking subcontractor for Sentar, Inc., an advanced science and engineering firm capable, according to company literature, of creating artificial intelligence systems. Sentar's customers include the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (see discussion of ARPA later in this chapter), Rockwell International, Teledyne, Nichols Research Corp. and TRW. Their sales literature boasts a large energy shock tunnel, radar facilities "a radio-frequency (RF) simulator facility for evaluating electronic warfare techniques." (Constantine)

193. (151) Constantine, Op Cit.

194. (152) Nexus, Feb-March, 1993, quoted in Keith.

195. (153) The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied hundreds of thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances. GAO stated that some tests and experiments were conducted in secret. Medical research involving the testing of nerve agents, nerve agent antidotes, psychochemicals, and irritants was often classified. Additionally, some work conducted for DOD by contractors still remains classified today. For example, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has not released the names of 15 of the approximately 80 organizations that conducted experiments under the MKULTRA program, which gave psychochemical drugs to an undetermined number of people without their knowledge or consent. According to the GAO report, the CIA has not released this information because the organizations do not want to be identified. ("Is Military Research Hazardous To Veterans' Health? Lessons Spanning Half A Century," The Rockefeller Report (Senator Jay Rockefeller), 12/8/94.)

196. (2:55:*) After his arrest, Bryant said that he had been "gotten to," and "had been programmed." "Sleepers" such as Bryant were most likely programmed to kill their victims in order to precipitate law and order crack-downs, such as occurred in the aftermath of the Australian melee, where the government recently outlawed almost all types of guns.

197. "A Caution From Down Under," Portland Free Press, July/October, 1997.

198. (154) "A By the Book Officer, 'Suspicious By Nature,' Spots Trouble and acts fast," New York Times, 4/23/95.

199. (155) Dick Russell, The Man Who Knew Too Much, (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf), 1992, p. 679.

200. (156) Project MKULTRA, The CIA's Program of Research in Behavioral Modification, Joint Hearing Before the Senate Committee on Intelligence, 8/3/77. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

201. In fact, according to Ted Gundersen, West did indeed examine McVeigh. When pressed on the accuracy of his source, Gundersen insisted he was "100 percent reliable."

202. Russell, Op Cit., p. 211-212.

203. Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York, NY: Grove Press, 1985), pp. 22, 189-90; Gordon Thomas, Journey Into Madness, Bantam Books, 1989.

204. The 1957 American Psychiatric Association roster notes that 1,253 of its 7,104 members came from Germany and the Eastern European countries.

205. Tim Kelsey, "The Oklahoma Suspect Awaits Day of Reckoning," London Sunday Times, date unknown.

206. (157) Thomas, Op Cit., p. 116.

207. (158) Russell, Op Cit., p. 673.

208. (159) William M. Turner and John G. Christian, The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy: A Searching Look at the Conspiracy and Cover-Up 1968-1978, (New York, NY: Random House, p. 197), Quoted in Constantine, p. 12.

209. (160) Russell, Op Cit., p. 681.

210. (161) Ibid., p. 675.

211. (162) Ibid., p. 673. (Warren Commission Report, Vol. 5, p. 105.)

212. Alex Constantine, Psychic Dictatorship in the U.S.A., (Portland, OR: Feral House Press), 1995, p. 6.

213. Hugh MacDonald, Appointment in Dallas, Zebra, pp. 107-108, quoted in Constantine, p. 6.

214. On February 7, 1976, Ambassador Walter J. Stoessel, Jr. told some of the 125 members of his staff that the Russians were using microwaves beams to listen in on conversations inside the embassy, and that such radiation could be hazardous to their health. (Paul Broudeur, The Zapping of America, (New York, NY: W.W. Norton) 1977, p. 95.

215. Ibid., p. 95.

216. (163) Ibid., p. 19.

217. (164) Art Ford & Lincoln Lawrence, Were We Controlled, (New York, NY: University Books), 1967, quoted in Russell.

218. (165) Robert O. Becker, M.D. and Gary Selden, The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, (New York, NY: William Morrow & Co.), p. 1085, quoted in "Bioeffects of Microwave Radiation," Unclassfied, Vol. IV, No. 3, June/July, 1992, National Association of Security Alumni.

219. (166) Turner and Christian, Op. Cit., Anthony Sampson, The Arms Basaar: From Lebanon to Lockheed (New York, NY: Viking Press, 1977), p. 276, quoted in Constantine, p. 12.

220. (2:60:*) Apparently, McVeigh was not there the entire time. Phone records indicate he made steady calls until the 7th of April, when he was seen at a bar in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The phone calls resume on April 11.

221. New York Times, 5/4/95.

222. Ibid.

223. (169) Sherman Skolnick, Conspiracy Nation, June, 1996.

224. (170) Constantine, "The Good Soldier."

225. Ibid.

226. Ibid.

227. In 1987, police in Tallahassee, Florida discovered six small children living in a van driven by two men dressed in suits. The children were naked, bruised and dirty, and acting like animals. They were unaware of the function and purpose of telephones, televisions or toilets. They were not allowed to live indoors, and were only given food as a reward. The case was turned over to U.S. Customs agents, who were contacted by detectives from the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Police Dept., then investigating a cult known as the "Finders." When officers searched the their premises, they discovered instructions for kidnapping and purchasing children, avoiding police detection, information on the use of explosives and terrorism, and the international transfer of currency. The officers also found a photo album showing pornographic photos of children, adults and children participating in blood rituals involving the disembowelment of goats, and an alter surrounded with jars of urine and feces. Formerly called the "Seekers," the "cult" was run by Marion David Pettie. An unconfirmed memo states that Pettie was trained in counterintelligence; his CIA handler was Colonel Leonard N. Weigner, a career Air Force and CIA operative. When Customs agents attempted to follow up on the MPD investigation, they were told that "the activity of the Finders had become a CIA internal matter. The MPD report has been classified secret and was not available for review." Martinez was subsequently "advised that the FBI had withdrawn from the investigation several weeks prior and that the FBI Foreign Counter Intelligence Division had directed MPD not to advise the FBI Washington Field Office of anything that had transpired." What police and Customs agents were describing was undoubtledy part of Operation "Monarch," a program of CIA mind control involving the use of small children raised in captivity to respond to various stimuli invoked by their CIA captors. One of the chief field operatives of Operation Monarch was none other than Michael Aquino. (U.S. Customs Report: Detective Jim Bradley of the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Police Dept. Daniel Brandt, Name Base Newsline, No. 5, April-June 1994: "Cults, Anti-Cultists, and the Cult of Intelligence." Department of the Treasury, United States Customs Service: Report of Investigation. Subject: "Finders." 2/12/87. Agent Raymond J. Martinez.)

Probably the best known case is Jonestown, a cult of over 900 followers in Guyana who committed "mass suicide" in 1978. led by the Reverend Jim Jones. Jonestown was a veritable prison where all the classic mind control techniques were utilized. While little more than a swamp, it nevertheless contained a modern hospital, from which massive quantities of behavioral modification drugs were recovered. One of Jones' top aides, George Philip Blakely, who recruited mercenaries for the CIA in Angola, was the son-in-law of Dr. Lawrence Layton, a former Army biochemical warfare specialist. Researchers have speculated that Jonestown was part of the CIA's MKULTRA experiments. (Joe Holsinger, "Statement to the Forum Entitled 'Psycho-Social Implications of the Jonestown Phenomenon,'" 23 May 1980, Miyako Hotel, San Francisco, quoted in Brandt, Name Base Newsline, No. 5, April-June 1994: "Cults, Anti-Cultists, and the Cult of Intelligence.") "Guyanese troops discovered a large cache of drugs, enough to control the entire population of Georgetown, Guyana (pop. 200,000), for over a year. One footlocker contained 11,000 doses of Thorazine, a dangerous tranquilizer, and others such as sodium pentothal (truth serum), chloral hydrate (a hypnotic), demerol, Thallium (confuses thinking), haliopareael and Largatil (powerful tranquilizers) and many others. It was very evident that Jonestown was a tightly-run concentration camp, complete with medical and psychiatric experimentation." Bo Gritz, Called to Serve. The members of Jonestown were reported to have died from cyanide-laced punch, but many were found shot-to-death by the compound's guards. The military purposefully took over a week to remove the bodies, ensuring, as in the Waco case, that no autopsies could be performed. National Security Advisor Brzezinski's office ordered that "all politically sensitive papers and forms of identification" be removed from the bodies, and Jonestown's mysterious financial resources were found scattered in banks and investments, estimated to be from $26 million to $ 2 billion. (Kenneth Wooden, The Children of Jonestown (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1981), p. 196, quoted in Brandt.)

Another well-known case is the Temple of Set, a satanic cult in San Francisco run by former Army psychological warfare specialist Lt. Colonel Michael Aquino, who has written about the control of mass populations. Aquino was accused by an Army Chaplain of molesting several young children at the Presidio. The case was investigated by the SFPD, then turned over to the Army's C.I.D. (Criminal Investigations Division), where it was subsequently dropped. Freedom of Information Act requests I made about Aquino's investigation while editor of the Free Press were stonewalled. Aquino himself picked up on my interest and began bombarding me with letters both dismissing these and all related allegations as "mass-hysteria," while backing up his claims with the threat of a libel suit. (Aquino once announced that he is the Devil incarnate. I still wonder to this day why the Devil needed to take me to Municipal Court to extract his vengeance.)

228. Deposition of anonymous Naval Intelligence officer, copy in author's possession.

229. (171) Brandon Stickney, All American Monster: The Unauthorized Biography of Timothy McVeigh (New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 1996), p. 226.

230. For an excellent account of the potential of hynosis and its use in military applications, see Science Digest, April 1971, "Hypnosis Comes of Age," by G.H. Estabrooks.

231. Marchetti and Marks, Op Cit., p. 279.

232. (172) Scott Anderson, "Globe publishers' Viet tour in mind warfare," Now Magazine, Toronto, Canada, 5/26/94, Quoted in Keith, p. 179.

233. (2:62:*) Former intelligence operative Gene "Chip" Tatum described a recent massive heroin and cocaine smuggling operation being run by rogue elements of the U.S. Government across the Canadian border into Montana with the complicity of local officials. "These officials were recruited to assist in the smuggling operations, thinking they were part of a government-sanctioned covert operation." (Excerpt of a letter from Tatum to the Montana Senate Judiciary Committee, 3/22/97).

234. (173) Gene Wheaton, memo, copy in author's possession; interview with author.

235. Pitzer was later found "suicided" like Admiral Boorda, shot in the chest with a .45. The left-handed Pitzer was found holding the gun in his right hand. As Craig Roberts writes in JFK: The Dead Witnesses, "Pitzer, a consummate note taker and maker, left no suicide note, and no autopsy report was ever released to either the public or the family.… all references to Pitzer being present at the autopsy of John F. Kennedy have been removed from government records." Neither does Pitzer's family believe he committed suicide.

236. (174) Jay Wrolstad, "Smoking Gun: Does Dan Marvin Have Evidence of a Kennedy Assassination Conspiracy?" The Ithaca Times, 8/22/96; Franklin Crawford, "Local Man Tells JFK Story," The Ithaca Journal, 11/16/95; Daniel Marvin, "Bits & Pieces: A Green Beret on the Periphery of the JFK Assassination," The Fourth Decade, May, 1995; Colonel Daniel Marvin, interview on Tex Marrs' World of Prophecy, WWCR shortwave, 4/20/96. Marvin's authenticity and credibility have been established by respected Kennedy researchers, as well as Professor L. Pearce Williams of Cornell University, and Jacqueline Powers, former managing editor of the Ithaca Journal, who said "[Col. Marvin] had evidence to back up what he was claiming. I believe him. Everything he has said to me has been true; he's willing to tell what he knows, which can't be easy for him."

237. Captain David V. Vanek, who took the assassination course with Marvin, was allegedly asked by the CIA to assassinate Pitzer after Marvin refused. Vanek denied the allegations in an affivavit.

238. (175) Jonathan Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1987), p. 103; Affidavit of Colonel Edward P. Cutolo, commander of the 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, 3/11/80, copy in author's possession.

239. (176) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with author.

240. (177) "The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, April 19, 1995, copy in author's possession.

241. (178) Russell, Op Cit.

242. (179) "Something Big is Going to Happen," Time Magazine, 5/8/95.

243. (180) Washington Post, 5/4/95.

244. (2:66:*) The term "sheep-dipped" is best clarified by former CIA-Department of Defense liaison L. Fletcher Prouty, in his classic work on the CIA, The Secret Team (Prentice Hall). "It is an intricate Army-devised process by which a man who is in the service as a full career soldier or officer agrees to go through all the legal and official motions of resigning from the service. Then, rather than actually being released, his records are pulled from the Army personnel files and transferred to a special Army intelligence file. Substitute but nonetheless real-appearing records are then processed, and the man "leaves" the service."

245. (195) New York Times, 4/23/95.

246. (196) "Terror in Oklahoma: The Suspect; Arizona Neighbors Recall a Man's Love of Weaponry and 'Poor Attitude'", New York Times, 4/23/95.

247. (197) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

248. (198) Marylin Hart, Interview with author, 1/15/96 & 4/1/96.

249. (199) Rob Rangin, Interview with author, 4/1/96.

250. (200) John Kifner, "Arizona Trailer Park Owner Remembered the Wrong Man," New York Times, 4/25/95.

251. (201) Marylin Hart, Interview with author, 1/15/96.

252. (202) New York Times, 4/23/95.

253. (203) Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown.

254. (204) FBI 302 of Lebron, Op Cit.

255. (205) Patrick E. Cole, "I'm Just Like Anyone Else," Time, 4/15/96.

256. (206) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage", Washington Post, 7/2/95.

257. (207) New York Times, 4/24/95.

258. (208) Mark Schaffer, "Gun Class Sheds New Light On McVeigh," The Arizona Republic, 5/28/95, quoted in Keith.

259. (209) New York Times, 12/31/95.

260. (210) Kevin Flynn and Lou Kilzer, "John Doe 2 Remains a Mystery: OKC Bombing Case's Unknown Suspect Could be More Than One Man, Investigators Believe," Rocky Mountain News, 3/3/97.

261. (211) New York Times, 4/24/95.

262. (*) The child protective services went to the compound, knocked on the door, walked in, and interviewed the children. They found no evidence of abuse and left.

263. (*) This will be explored more fully in Volume Two.

264. (212) Media Bypass, March, 1995.

265. (213) New York Times, 7/5/95.

266. (214) Tim Kelsey, "The Oklahoma Suspect Awaits Day of Reckoning," London Sunday Times, 4/21/96.

267. (215) Robert Vito, "Three Soldiers," CNN News, 8/9/95.

268. (216) Trial of Timothy McVeigh.

269. (217) Opening statement of lead prosecutor Joseph Hartzler at Timothy McVeigh's trial.

270. (218) Howard Pankartz and George Lane, "Sister Testifies Against Brother," Denver Post, 5/6/97.

271. (219) George Lane, "Letters Provide Damaging Evidence," Denver Post, 5/6/97; "Sister's Role Seen as Pivitol," Denver Post, 5/6/97.

272. (220) Time, 5/1/95.

273. (221) New York Times, 5/4/95.

274. (222) "Oklahoma Bombing Plotted for Months, Officials Say, but Suspect Is Not Talking," New York Times, 4/25/95, quoted in Keith, p. 28.

275. (*) Nichols' discharge in the spring of 1989 for "hardship" reasons is also interesting. Another parallel is that of Thomas Martinez, the FBI infiltrator within the radical right Silent Brotherhood, who was given an honorable discharge during basic training. The Army choose not to explained why. (Keith, Op Cit.)

276. (223) Emma Gilbey, "Brothers in Arms with a Destructive Hobby," London Sunday Telegraph, 3/24/95.

277. (224) Affidavit of FBI Agent Patrick W. Wease.

278. (225) Newsweek, 5/15/95.

279. (226) Robert Jerlow, interview with author.

280. (*) The letter to the girlfriend apparently was indicative of plans to bomb other locations. Interesting that the suspect would leave such an curiously incriminating trail of evidence.

281. (227) New York Times, 7/5/95.

282. (228) Dateline, NBC, 2/13/96.

283. (229) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

284. (230) New York Times, 7/5/95.

285. (231) Ibid.; Washington Post, 7/5/95.

286. (232) The Spotlight, 5/26/97.

287. (*) Catina told London Sunday Telegraph reporter Ambrose Evans-Pritchard that the man was "always" there. "He seemes out of place, but he was always around."

288. (233) Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins, (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1988), p. 157.

289. (*) In a rather prophetic statement, Michael Fortier's mother was heard to remark that McVeigh led "a double life."

290. (234) Media Bypass, 3/95; New York Times, 7/5/95.

291. (235) Beth Hawkins, "The Michigan Militia Greet the Media Circus," Detroit Metro Times, 3/26/95.

292. (236) David Van Biema, Time, 6/26/95.

293. (*) In what may appear to be an ominous coincidence, America in Peril made its debut just as the ATF and FBI were making their own apocalyptic plans for the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas.

294. (**) The Michigan Militia has officially disowned him.

295. (237) Washington Post, 7/2/95.

296. (238) Ken Armstrong, No Amateur Did This (Aptos, CA: Blackeye Press, 1996), p. 17.

297. (*) Interestingly, Jennifer was found burning papers on an outdoor grill when the FBI showed up on April 23.

298. (239) J.D. Cash, "McVeigh's Sister Laundered Bank Robbery Proceeds: ATF Surveillance Confirmed by Informant," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 1/28/97.

299. (*) Interestingly, authorities wouldn't find any traces of ammonium nitrate in these lockers.

300. (*) As pointed out previously, FBI chief chemist Frederick Whitehurst, who tested McVeigh's clothes, said no explosive residue was found. Whitehurst has since gone on to publicly accuse the FBI of manufacturing and tainting evidence in dozens of cases.

301. (240) Arnold Hamilton, "Bombing Accounts are Varied," Dallas Morning News, 10/8/95.

302. (241) Connie Smith, interview with author. These accounts appeared in the McCurtain Gazette, The New American, and the Denver Post, among other places.

303. (242) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author.

304. (243) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with author.

305. (244) Trish Wood, The Fifth Estate, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; J.D. Cash, "Is a Videotape From a Tulsa Topless Bar the 'Smoking Gun' in Oklahoma City Bombing?" McCurtain Daily Gazette, 9/25/96.

306. (245) Tony Boller, Assistant Project Manager, Goodwill Industries, interview with author.

307. (246) Jane Graham, interview with author. Graham is a friend and co-worker of Joan's.

308. (247) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/14/96.

309. (248) Sherie, confidential interview with author.

310. (*) She saw the truck at 6:00 a.m. at the diner, then it left before 7:00 a.m. She then saw it at Geary Lake in the afternoon on her way to Junction City, then saw it there on return trip around 3:00-4:00 p.m. The mainstream-press originally said Whittenberg saw the truck on Tuesday, parroting the FBI's line that McVeigh had rented the truck on the 17th.

311. (249) Dan Parker, "McVeigh Defense Questions Co-Defendant's Claim," Daily Oklahoman, date unknown; Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown; Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 36.

312. (250) Linda Kuhlman and Phyliss Kingsley, interviews with author.

313. (251) Mark Eddy, "Witnesses tell a different story," Denver Post, 6/16/96.

314. (*) What is interesting is that McVeigh's friend James Nichols said that McVeigh never wore a baseball cap, much less backwards. He said McVeigh only wore an Army-issue cap.

315. (252) Chuck Allen, interview with author.

316. (253) Ibid.

317. (254) Jane Graham, interview with author. Graham is a friend and co-worker of Johnston's.

318. (*) It is interesting that McVeigh would choose to hang around the scene of the crime, along with his easily identifiable yellow Mercury Marquis, minutes after it occurred. Johnston described the John Doe 2 as shorter and darker than McVeigh.

319. (255) "Feds Charge Terry Nichols in Bombing," Los Angeles Times, 5/10/95, quoted in Keith, p. 185.

320. (256) FBI FD-383 (FBI Facial Identification Fact Sheet) of Tom Kessinger, dated 4/20/95, copy in author's possession.

321. (257) London Sunday Times, 4/21/96.

322. (258) Affidavit of FBI Special Agent Henry C. Gibbons, 4/21/95, copy in author's possession.

323. (259) Garrison, Op Cit., p.65, 77.

324. (260) Bid, p.66.

325. (261) Ibid., p. 79.

326. (262) Julie DelCour, "Informant Says Tulsan Talked About Local, OC Bombings," Tulsa World, 2/9/97.

327. (263) "TNT, $5 a stick. Need more. Call after 1 May, see if I can get some more."

328. (264) William Pepper, Orders to Kill: The Truth Behind the Murder of Dr. Martin Luther King, (New York, NY: Carol & Graf), 1995, p.156.

329. (265) London Sunday Times, 4/21/96.

330. (266) Kevin Johnson, "McVeigh Lawyer Says FBI Agents Using Trickery," USA Today, 8/14/95, quoted in Keith, Op Cit, p. 57.

331. (267) Lana Padilla, interview with author.

332. (268) Bob Papovich, interview with author.

333. (269) "A Look at Terry Nichols," Associated Press, 4/5/96.

334. (270) Lana Padilla, interview with author, Diane Sawyer, ABC News Prime Time Live, 5/10/95.

335. (271) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 36.

336. (272) Associated Press, 4/5/96.

337. (273) Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown.

338. (274) Serge F. Kovaleski, "In a Mirror, Nichols Saw a Victim," Washington Post, 7/3/95.

339. (275) "A look at Terry Nichols," Associated Press, 4/5/96.

340. (276) Media Bypass, date unknown.

341. (277) Ibid.

342. (278) Kovaleski, Op Cit.

343. (279) Padilla and Delpit,Op Cit., p. 168.

344. (280) Keith, Op Cit., p. 179.

345. (281) Kovaleski, Op Cit.

346. (*) In October of 1959, Lee Harvey Oswald appeared suddenly at the American Embassy in Moscow, and dramatically handed over his U.S. Passport and a letter renouncing his American citizenship.

347. (282) Associated Press, 4/5/96.

348. (283) Kovaleski, Op Cit.

349. (284) Lana Padilla, interview with author.

350. (285) Elizabeth Gleick, "Who Are They? The Oklahoma blast reveals the paranoid life and times of accused bomber Timothy McVeigh and his right-wing associates." Time, 5/1/95.

351. (286) Ibid.

352. (287) Barbara Whittenberg, interview with author.

353. (288) Washington Post, 7/3/95.

354. (289) Denver Post, date unknown.

355. (290) Kovaleski, Op Cit..

356. (291) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p.3.

357. (*) When I questioned her about this apparent contradiction, she told me her later statement was correct, and the book's account was wrong.

358. (292) Lana Padilla, interview with author.

359. (**) Nichols became interested in selling military surplus in December of 93' to April of 94' according to Padilla.

360. (293) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 6; interview with author.

361. (294) KFOR interview with Lana Padilla. Interview with author.

362. (295) Padilla, Op Cit., p.5, 9.

363. (296) Lana Padilla, interview with author.

364. (297) Padilla, Op Cit., p. 12.

365. (298) Lana Padilla, interview with author.

366. (299) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Floyd, "McVeigh Team Tries Again for Delay," Rocky Mountain News, 3/26/97; Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97.

367. (300) Telephone records of Terry Nichols, copy in author's possession.

368. (*) Earlier, McVeigh had told Padilla, "I'll write to him (Nichols), but I guess I'd better do it in code, because there are a lot of nosy people."

369. (301) David Jackson, Linnet Myers, Flynn McRoberts, Chicago Tribune, 5/11/95.

370. (302) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 201.

371. (*) Nichols' attorney Michael Tigar claimed his client's use of aliases while renting the storage lockers was to prevent the credit card companies from coming after him.

372. (*) McVeigh Defense attorney Christopher Tritico questioned the analysis, noting the FBI laboratory isn't accredited by any agency for such a test. Tritico also used photographs of a test hole drilled into lead by the bit to argue that grooves and scratches didn't resemble those in the hole closely enough to call them a match.

373. (303) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Gazette, date unknown.

374. (304) "McVeigh Appeals Conviction, Sentence," Reuters, 1/16/98.

375. (305) Barbara Whittenberg, interview with author.

376. (306) Nolan Clay, Robby Trammell, Diana Baldwin and Randy Ellis, "Nichols, Bomb Materials Linked," Daily Oklahoman, date unknown.

377. (307) Jerri-Lynn Backhous, interview with author.

378. (308) Dorinda J. "Wendy" Hermes, interview with author.

379. (*) Butler and Snell also reportedly had connections to Jack Oliphant of Kingman, Arizona.

380. (309) New York Times, 5/20/95.

381. (310) Edward Zehr, "Oklahoma City Cover-up Exposed: But the Mainstream Media are Still in Denial," Washington Weekly, 2/17/97.

382. (311) "The Company They Keep," Transcript of the Canadian Broadcasting Company "Fifth Estate" piece on Oklahoma City, originally broadcast on 22 October 1996, Host, Bob Oxley, Voice-Over Announcer, Trish Wood, Francine Pelletier; Guest, Robert Millar, Leader, Elohim City; Kerry Noble, Formerly Of CSA; Steven Jones, Timothy McVeigh's Lawyer; Joe Adams, Bailiff; Ross Mcleod, Security Agency Owner.

383. (312) Warren Gotcher, interview with author.

384. (313) Anthony Thornton, "Bomb Plans Found in Defendant's Home, FBI Agent Testifies," The Daily Oklahoman, 4/3/96. "Anthony Thornton, "Three Defendants Found Guilty in Bomb Plot, The Daily Oklahoman. date unknown.

385. (314) Judy Thomas, "We Are Not Dangerous, Leader of Separatists Says" Kansas City Star, 3/17/96.

386. (315) Mark Fazlollah, Michael Matza, Maureen Graham and Larry King, "FBI: Heist Trail Led to White Supremacists," Philadelphia Inquirer, 6/30/96.

387. (*) Mathews himself was the Northwest representative of William Pierce's National Alliance.

388. (316) "Bank Bandits Tied to Rightists," Associated Press, 1/21/96; J.D. Cash with Jeff Holladay, "Rebels With a Cause, Part 3: The Aryan Republican Army, McCurtain Daily Gazette, 12/29/96.

389. (317) Bill Morlin, "Devoted to Making Nation 'Ungovernable': Group Patterns its Organization After Irish Republican Army," Spokesman-Review, 12/29/96.

390. (318) J.D. Cash, "The Spy Who Came in From the Cold," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 2/11/97.

391. (319) J.D. Cash with Jeff Holladay, "Rebels With a Cause, Part Four: An Ex-Wife's Suspicions In The OKBOMB Case," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 12/31/96.

392. (320) Andreas Strassmeir, interview with author.

393. (321) Judy L. Thomas, "Man Target of Bank Robbery Inquiry," Kansas City Star, 1/29/97.

394. (322) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, The Secret Life of Bill Clinton: The Unreported Stories (Washington, DC: Regnery), p. 80.

395. (*) It may be telling that part of Strassmeir's training involved feeding people disinformation.

396. (323) Pritchard, Op Cit.; William Jasper, "More Pieces to the OKC Puzzle," The New American, 6/24/96.

397. (324) February, 1996 press release from the Cause Foundation, quoted in The New American.

398. (*) Around the same time, the caller telephoned the National Alliance office in Arizona. The National Alliance is the organization formed by William Pierce, who wrote The Turner Diaries.

399. (325) Laura Frank, "Oklahoma City Probe May Touch Tennessee," The Tennessean, 6/30/96.

400. (326) J.D. Cash, "Is a Videotape From a Tulsa Topless Bar the 'Smoking Gun' in Oklahoma City Bombing?" McCurtain Daily Gazette, 9/25/96.

401. (327) Judy Thomas, Kansas City Star, 3/17/96.

402. (328) Dennis Mahon, interview with William Jasper.

403. (329) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, pp. 44-45.

404. (330) Jeff Steinberg, interview with author.

405. (331) The members, Gene Schroder, Alvin Jenkins, and Ed Petruski, met with Iraqi Ambassador Mohammed Mashat before the start of Desert Storm. The Iraqis took notice of the group's patriotic activities, and invited them to Washington. "They were hoping to open up negotiations with America," explained Schroder, a farmer and veterinarian from Campo, Colorado. "They knew that we'd meet with them and push the issue some with our Representatives and Congressmen." The entire affair was completely legitimate and well-publicized, having been reported in at least one local newspaper in Colorado. The Constitutionalists and anti-war activists also had the support of Senators Hank Brown and Bob Dole. "We called the State Department and everything was cleared," they explained. Yet it seemed Jones' was trying to portray the meeting as part of a broader conspiracy between Iraqis and American dissidents. The attorney referred to the three men as Posse Comitatus members — a tax-protest organization of the mid-'80s with anti-Semitic overtones and connections to white supremacist groups. All three denied belonging to the group. Jones then mentioned that Petruski lived an hour's drive from bombing defendant Terry Nichols' house. Petruski denied knowing Nichols. (Eugene Schroder, Alvin Jenkins, and Ed Petruskie, interviews with author; Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97.)

406. (*) Although Jones only refers to "Suspect I," it is well-known that he is referring to Nichols, because he says he was "A subject of the FBI and Grand Jury investigation.…" There were only two people investigated by the Federal Grand Jury: Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols.

407. (332) Pritchard, Op Cit., 3/30/97.

408. (333) Ingo Hasselbach with Tom Reiss, Fuhrer-Ex: Memoirs of a Former Neo-Nazi (New York, NY: Random House, 1996), p. 215; John Michael Johnston, "Investigative Report Concerning Fact-Finding Trip to Germany," 5/15/96, copy in author's possession.

409. (*) The El Rukn case is documented in the Federal Reporter in Unites States v. McAnderson, 914 F. 2d 934 (7th Cir. 1990). "The El Rukns sought to impress the Libyans and to demonstrate the depth of their commitment by discussing specific terrorist acts, among them destroying a government building, planting a bomb, blowing up an airplane, and simply committing a wanton 'killing here and a killing there' to get the Libyans' attention. Eventually, the leader of the El Rukns decided that the Libyans would only be impressed by the use of powerful explosives." (Jones, Writ of Mandamus, p. 85)

410. (334) "Black History and the Class Struggle," The Separatist League, No. 11, August, 1994. In a letter to his followers concerning his strange alliance with the NOI, Rockwell wrote: "I was amazed to learn how much they and I agree on things: they think that blacks should get out of this country and go back to Africa or to some other place and so do we. They want to get black men to leave white women alone, and white men to leave black women alone, and so do we. The Honorable Elijah Muhammad and I have worked out an agreement of mutual assistance in which they will help us on some things and we will help them on others.("

411. (335) Washington Times, 9/30/85.

412. (336) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "IRA supplied detonator for Oklahoma terror bomb," London Sunday Telegraph, 3/30/97.

413. (*) British officials no doubt took the implications seriously. Jones had spent considerable time consulting with British explosives experts who planned to testify on behalf of the defense, as well as officials from MI5, Britain's domestic intelligence service and even an unnamed IRA member.( (Associate Press, 3/30/97.)

414. (337) Tom Conlon and Helen Curtin, Dublin Sunday Times, 7/13/97, quoted in McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/15/97.

415. (338) Rita Cosby reporting, KOKH, FOX, 4/2/97; Andreas Strassmeir, interview with author.

416. (*) Information obtained from the Military Records Center by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard reveals that Petruski served in the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), retiring in 1975. His dalliance with the military included a stint as a Foreign Intelligence Officer in Vietnam, then Special Projects Officer, Special Activities Branch, Counterintelligence Division in Washington, D.C. He was reactivated with a "sensitive" assignment during the Gulf War.

417. (339) "Strassmeir, OKC, And The CIA," The New American, 7/22/96.

418. (340) Phil Bacharach, "Casting Doubts: Were Others Involved in the Federal Building Bombing?" Oklahoma Gazette, 2/13/97.

419. (*) Curiously, when the FBI queried various federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies to determine if Strassmeir was a cooperating witness or a confidential informant, only the CIA reported that it held any records on him. These records were turned over to prosecutors, but not made available to McVeigh's defense team, despite a court order compelling their disclosure.

420. (341) J.D. Cash, with Jeff Holladay "Weeks Before OKC Bombing, ATF Had 'Wanted' Posters On Strassmeir," McCurtain County Gazette, 7/28/96.

421. (342) J.D. Cash, "Agents Probe OKC Bombing Links To Bank Robberies," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/16/96.

422. (*) Interestingly, cases involving violence or planned violence by militias from around the U.S. show a recurring theme of government penetration and infiltration of militia groups. For example, testimony in the Muskogee bombing case showed that the FBI was literally paying the operating expenses, including the phone bills for the Tri-State Militia.

423. (*) OHP pilot Ken Stafford, ATF technician Pat McKinley, and acting ATF SAC Tommy Wittman flew over Elohim City on February 7, 1995, and reported to Finley-Graham.

424. (*) BATF regional director Lester Martz denies that the BOLO was put out by the ATF.

425. (343) Tulsa Police Intelligence, confidential interview with author.

426. (344) An INS memo of January 10 stated: "Per your note, I talked to Angela Finely, ATF. It may be awhile before the subject is contacted or arrested, but we will probably be called to assist."

427. (*) It seems the ATF and FBI were also concerned about the possiblity of an "intramural fire fight" between their respective agencies at Elohim City.

428. (345) Cash, Op Cit.

429. (*) Howe's allegations of federal malfeasance dovetailed with those of federal informant Cary Gagan, who was inside the Middle Eastern cell tied to the bombing.

430. (346) Pritchard, Op Cit.

431. (347) Ibid.; The OHP officer who made the arrest was Vernon Phillips.

432. (348) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/14/96. Dennis Mahon also admitted that Strassmeir worked for the GSG-9.

433. (*) The FBI didn't go to any great lengths to question Strassmeir, nor his roommate Michael Brescia. Months after the bombing, the FBI places a leisurely call to Strassmeir's home in Berlin. They made no attempt to question or arrest Brescia.

434. (**) When Middle Eastern suspect Hussain al-Hussaini came under scrutiny by KFOR and other investigators for his role in the bombing, the FBI "debunked" the "rumors" about him, too. Was he also an agent? (See Chapter 6)

435. (349) J.D. Cash and Jeff Holliday, "Weeks Before Bombing, ATF Had Out "Wanted" Posters, McCurtain Gazette, 7/29/96, quoted in American Freedom, September, 1996.

436. (*) The ostensible purpose of the raid was to recover bomb-making materials — materials which had been obtained by Howe at the request of her ATF handler — Finley-Graham!

437. (350) J.D. Cash, "Controversy Over Howe's True Loyalties Become Focus of Her Trial," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/30/97.

438. (351) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Gazette, 7/14/96. The source claimed that classified computer records of the ATF contained evidence that Strassmeir was indeed a key component in the agency's espionage operation at Elohim City, and numerous neo-Nazi groups throughout the country.

439. (352) London Sunday Telegraph. date unknown.

440. (353) "Hate and the Law: Kirk Lyons, Esq." Anti-Defamation League, Special Edition, June, 1991.

441. (354) Lyons had this to say about Mahon in an interview with Volkstreue, a German Neo-Nazi magazine: "I have great respect for the Klan historically but sadly, the Klan today is ineffective and sometimes even destructive. There are many spies in it and most of its best leaders have left the Klan to do more effective work within the movement. It would be good if the Klan followed the advice of former Klansman Robert Miles: 'Become invisible. Hang the robes and hoods in the cupboard and become an underground organization.' This would make the Klan stronger than ever before."

442. (355) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard & Andrew Gimson, "Did Agents Bungle US Terror Bomb?", date unknown. Some of the dialogue was added from Pritchard's 1997 release, The Secret Life of Bill Clinton(Washongton, DC: Regnery), p. 90.

443. (*) "When The New American asked Evans-Pritchard if he believed Strassmeir was referring to himself when speaking in the third person of the 'informant,' he replied, 'Of course, there's no doubt that is exactly what he meant to convey. He was stating it as plainly as he could' without admitting criminal culpability on his own part." (William Jasper, "Elohim, Terror and Truth," The New American, 3/31/97.)

444. (356) Andreas Strassmeir, interview with author.

445. (357) Alex Constantine, "The Nazification of the Citizen's Militias and the Transformation of Timothy McVeigh from Hyper-Military 'Robot' to Mad Bomber," 12/9/95.

446. (358) Petition for Writ of Mandamus of Timothy McVeigh, 3/25/97, p. 44.

447. (359) Constantine, Op Cit.

448. (360) Ibid.

449. (361) William Jasper, "Elohim, Terror, and Truth," New American, 3/31/97.

450. (362) Charles, Op Cit. In her report of September 26, 1994, Finley-Graham indicates that Mahon "gave 183 approximately 2 feet of green safety fuse, a can of gun powder and a plastic funnel," and said he would "instruct 183 how to assemble hand grenades."

451. (363) James Ridgeway, "Lone Assassins?: A Series of Arrests May Link the Oklahoma City Bombing Suspects to a Larger Plot," Village Voice, 2/5/97; Mark Eddy, "Others Eyed in Bomb Probe?" Denver Post, 1/29/97.

452. (364) Cash, Op Cit.

453. (365) Zehr, Op Cit.

454. (*) According to reports, it was Cash who "persuaded" Mahon to make the recording.

455. (366) ATF ROI 53270-94-0124-B, 1/11/95.

456. (367) Ibid.

457. (368) Letter read into testimony at Howe's trial.

458. (369) ATF ROI, 9/26/94. "Andy also told 183 that there exists a black market dealer who can get grenades, C-4 and a range of explosives."

459. (*) Dawson was also a paid informant for the Greensboro Police Department.

460. (**) With a map of the parade route supplied by Greensboro Police Department Detective Jerry Cooper, Dawson, Butkovich, and their KKK and neo-Nazi comrades were able to select the most advantageous site for their ambush. Although Cooper and other officers surveilled the house where the killers had assembled and took down license numbers, they inexplicably decided to take a lunch break less then 45 minutes before the march. By the time the shooting started, the tactical squad assigned to monitor the demonstration was still out to lunch. Even more inexplicably, two officers responding to a domestic call at the Morningside projects, the site of the CWP march, noted the suspicious absence of patrol cars usually assigned to the area. One of the cops, Officer Wise, later reported receiving a bizarre call from police dispatch, advising him to "clear the area as soon as possible." The incident resulted in an ATF/FBI-led cover-up similar in most respects to the Oklahoma City whitewash, with most of the suspects being acquitted of first degree murder charges. Echoing the factitious rants of federal officials in Oklahoma, FBI Director William Webster called the charges of federal complicity "utterly absurd." Although the killers had been recruited, organized and led on their murderous rampage by ATF and FBI operatives, none ever served a day of jail-time. ((*) Frank Donner, Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police Repression in America, (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, University of California Press: 1990), p. 360; Michael Novick, "Blue by Day, White by Night: Organized White Supremacist Groups in Law Enforcement Agencies," People Against Racist Terror, 2/3/93, p. 3.)

461. (370) Ivo Dawnay, "Informant Accuses FBI Over Oklahoma Bomb," Electronic Telegraph, 7/20/97.

462. (*) Just as federal informant Cary Gagan provided the FBI and U.S. Marshals with warnings.

463. (371) Kay Clarke, interview with author. Snider's half-sister, Kay Clarke, testified that she drew the composite sketch of the man Snider saw.

464. (372) Diana Baldwin and Ed Godfrey, "Separatist Asks for Immunity — Witness Takes the Fifth Before Grand Jury," Daily Oklahoman, 7/17/97.

465. (373) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "'Master of Disguise' Ready to Run," London Sunday Telegraph, 3/30/97.

466. (374) Diana Baldwin, "Former Klansman Identifies Aryan Leader as John Doe 2," Daily Oklahoman, 10/8/97.

467. (375) Cash, Op Cit.

468. (*) When McVeigh's defense team asked federal prosecutors for Howe's reports in pre-trial discovery, they were informed the records didn't exist. When it was shown that the records did indeed exist, an angry Judge Matsch ordered the records delivered to the defense and threatened the prosecutors with removal from the case if they lied one more time.

469. (*) Finley-Graham admitted during Howe's subsequent trial that she was listed as an "active informant" through December 18, 1996, but offered an interesting explanation for that status. Both Finley-Graham and federal prosecutors claimed that removing her from the official listing might have led to the destruction of records regarding the bombing. "That was especially intriguing and troubling," writes New American editor Bill Jasper, "because it left unanswered who would have destroyed which records, and why any records concerning the deadliest terrorist attack on American soil would have been destroyed, especially while the investigation is ongoing and a trial is pending."

470. (376) William F. Jasper, "Undercover: The Howe Revelations," The New American, 9/15/97.

471. (*) Her live-in neo-Nazi boyfriend, James Viefhaus Jr., had been arrested earlier for allegedly promoting a call-in message advocating the bombing of federal buildings in 15 different cities. The message, reportedly connected to the National Socialist Alliance of Oklahoma, also endorsed the April 19th bombing. The FBI claimed to have discovered bomb-making materials in Viefhaus' home.

472. (377) "Ex-Informant Indicted on Charges," Associated Press, 3/13/97, Indictment No. 97-CR-05-C, Northern District of Oklahoma, 3/11/97.

473. (378) Richard Leiby, "How a Wheaton Kid Became a Neo-Nazi Bank Robber, and One Confused Human," Washington Post, 2/13/97.

474. (379) James Ridgeway, Village Voice, 7/23/96; Cash, Op Cit.

475. (380) Fazlollah, et al., Op Cit.

476. (381)Ibid.

477. (382) Leiby, Op Cit.

478. (383) Morlin, Op Cit.

479. (384) Leiby, Op Cit.

480. (*) Chevie and Cheyne Kehoe, two brothers who opened fire on police in Ohio in February of 1997 during a routine traffic stop, also lived at Elohim City. Were they some of the people trained in weaponry by Strassmeir?

481. (385) Paul Queary, "Bombing Informant Ruffles Case," Associate Press, 2/23/97.

482. (386) Robert Heibel, interview with author.

483. (387) Walter Goodman, "Terror in Oklahoma City: TV Critics' Notebook; Wary Network Anchors Battle Dubious Scoops, New York Times, 4/20/95.

484. (388) Craig Roberts, interview with author.

485. (*) Lipkin also told Roberts that Stinger missiles have been smuggled into the country. A Stinger is thought to have been responsible for the attack on TWA flight 800.

486. (389) Arnold Hamiltion, "Oklahoma City Car bomb Kills at Least 31; Scores Missing in Rubble of Office Building," Dallas Morning News, 4/20/95.

487. (390) Hugh Davies, "Rental Car is Key Clue on Trail of Terrorists," London Sunday Telegraph, 4/21/95. Abdul Yasin, another Iraqi, was released and returned to Iraq. Abdul Basit is Yousef's real name.

488. (*) No evidence was produced for the so-called assassination attempt. The allegations were reminiscent of the tale of Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators, which turned out to be a lie.

489. (391) Patrick Cockburn, "Defector Exposes Saddam's Lies on Chemical Weapons," The Independent, 5/7/96. "General Sammara'i says that the committee in charge of sabotage on which he served, and which uses a special 600-strong military unit called 888 to carry out operations, still exists and he suspects it was involved in giving support to the bombers.

490. (392) Paul Anderson, Metro Correspondent Chicago, IL "Threat of Terrorism Further Increases," Net News Service , 07/07/93.

491. (393) Ibid., Center for National Security Policy, No. 95-D23 11 April 1995 Decision Brief.

492. (394) William Carley, "A Trail of Terror," Wall Street Journal, 6/16/93, p. A1, quoted in James Phillips, "The Changing Face Of Middle Eastern Terrorism," Heritage Foundation Report, 10/6/94.

493. (395) Jack Anderson, Dale Van Atta, "Iraq Reported to Send Terrorists to U.S.," Washington Post, 1/28/91.

494. (*) A note on Steven Emerson: Although there is no evidence contradicting these claims, it should be noted that Emerson has, in the past, served as an official mouthpiece for the U.S. government, as a consultant to the Pentagon. He played a large role in covering up the truth of the Pan Am 103 bombing, by attacking and smearing Lester Coleman, Juval Aviv, and any others who tried to bring forth the truth. Emerson also went on the Heraldo Rivera show in June of 1997 and attempted to bash Kevin Flynn of the Rocky Mountain News who had uncovered connections between Terry Nichols and suspects in the Philippines. The author attempts in this instance merely to report a few basic facts as related by Emerson, who does have some experience in Middle East terrorism. The author, however, holds Emerson's dubious connections with elements of the government in question.

495. (396) The bombings included a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires and the Israeli embassy, the downing of a commuter plane in Panama, and a Jewish charity organization in London. It is assumed that the July, 1994 attacks by Hizbollah — which coincided with King Hussein's peace-making trip to Washington — were primarily to disrupt the Israeli/PLO peace talks.

496. (397) According to Phillips: "Islamic radicals also often have a different audience in mind than Palestinian nationalists. Instead of using terrorism to influence Western powers to change their policies, they often use terrorism to punish Western powers and inspire other Muslims to rise up against the West. This focus on the Muslim audience rather than an American audience helps explain how the bombers of the World Trade Center could rationalize their bloody actions. The bombing was meant to demonstrate the power of Islamic radicals and the vulnerability of the U.S., not to lead the U.S. to rethink its Middle East policy."

497. (398) Confidential report of William Northrop to KFOR, 5/10/96. Copy in author's possession.

498. (399) Phillips, Op Cit. "Between 1980 and 1989 over 400 terrorist actions spilled over from the Middle East to other regions, with 87 percent of these actions occurring in Western Europe." Paul Wilkinson, "Terrorism, Iran and the Gulf Region," Jane's Intelligence Review, May 1992, p. 222.

499. (400) "Jihad in America," PBS Documentary, 11/21/94.

500. (*) Shimon Havitz, an Israeli General attached to the Prime Minister's office, also told McVeigh Defense Attorney Stephen Jones that the Israelis had issued a warning to the Americans.

501. (401) Yehizkel Zadok, "The FBI is Conducting a Search for 'Three Middle Easterners,'" Yediot Arhonot, 4/20/95.

502. (402) Report of William Northrop, and interview with author.

503. (403) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 81. Jones points out, given the issue of the credibility of the information, that the head of Saudi Intelligence is the King's own son.

504. (*) Jones said that Lipkin met with his U.S. "counterpart," Phil Wilcox, the U.S. State Department's coordinator for terrorism, after the bombing to "compare notes." The reader will also recall that two Israeli bomb experts traveled to Oklahoma City after the bombing to analyze the bomb signature.

505. (*) Jones originally said that the meeting took place in Kingman, AZ. According to Gagan, that was incorrect, and was to protect Gagan's information.

506. (*) Gagan had intermittent contact with the Soviets throughout the mid-'80s. In 1982, Gagan met a Soviet spy named Edward Bodenzayer while in Puerto Vallerta. Bodenzayer had been exporting classified technology to Russia through his import/export business. He was eventually arrested as a result of a joint FBI/Customs counterintelligence sting operation known as Operation Aspen Leaf.

507. (404) Cary Gagan, interview with author.

508. (405) Deposition of Cary James Gagan, 7/14/95. Copy in author's possession.

509. (*) Gagan later seemed to waver on this point: "I don't care what they say — where he was supposedly — he was there." He later said: "I'm not sure, but it sure looked like him. He just didn't fit."

510. (**) Gagan recalls that Omar threw something in the trash. Gagan later fished it out. They were technical diagrams in Spanish that appeared to be bomb plans.

511. (*) According to Gagan, his Arab friends were interested in buying the Postal Center, and asked Gagan to propose a cash deal to Colombo. They were apparently interested in its mail and truck rental facility.

512. (406) Mike Levine, interview with author.

513. (407) Report of Craig Roberts, 5/8/95, copy in author's possession. Roberts is the author's partner on the Oklahoma City bombing investigation.

514. (*) What is interesting, considering the FBI's lack of response, is that the Tulsa office of the FBI had commissioned Roberts to provide a report on the bombing.

515. (**) Gagan coyly admitted to knowing Iran-Contra drug runner and pilot Barry Seal.

516. (408) Gagan contacted Dave Floyd at the U.S. Marshals Office. He said 'We've got to get moving on this right away.' I said, 'Well, I've got to have immunity.'"

517. (*) Gagan was referring to a Middle Eastern man who flew in from Oklahoma City. Gagan had never seen him before.

518. (*) Gagan gave accurate and specific descriptions of street addresses he had been in Kingman, and provided receipts for his travels to the Arizona town. He also provided receipts for hotel rooms in which he claims bomb planning meetings were held. He said the original plot involved blowing up a Jewish convention center in Denver where President Clinton was speaking.

519. (409) FBI Agent Mark Holtslaw, interview with author.

520. (410) Hand-written letter from Gagan to Tina Rowe, copy in author's possession.

521. (*) Jayna Davis, KFOR-TV broadcast, June, 1995. U.S. Marshals Service head Tina Rowe said, regarding Cary Gagan's hand-delivered letter: "I work in a federal building and all my friends work in federal buildings, and it's not something that anyone working in that environment would ever overlook." KFOR then uncovered a copy of Gagan's envelope, on which the matching signature of a Marshals Service employee was found. The Marshals Service claimed it was suspicious, because it's office policy to sign both the first and last name, and to stamp all incoming mail.

522. (**) The Judge who sent Gagan to the mental hospital, John P. Gately, was later termed incompetent and disbarred due to brain cancer.

523. (411) Kevin Flynn, "Romer, Norton get Bomb Threats: CBI Informant's Reliability in Question; He Also Warned of Federal Building Blast," Rocky Mountain News, 8/12/95. Gagan was worried about what had happened in Mexico with the Soviets, and didn't want to accept a plea bargain.

524. (412) Federal Public Defender, confidential interview with author.

525. (*) A voice stress analysis the author ran on Gagan's interview tapes showed he was telling the truth.

526. (**) Reports indicating that Gagan had been of assistance to the DEA were illegally removed from his informant file in an attempt to discredit him.

527. (413) Letter of Immunity from U.S. Justice Dept. signed by Henry Solano, to Gary James Gagan, copy in author's possession.

528. (414) "FBI Furor," Unclassified, Summer, 1997.

529. (415) Gail Gibson, "The Strange Murder-For-Hire Trial of Chuck Hayes Got Even Stranger Yesterday," Lexington Herald-Leader, 1/16/97. Myers claimed that Hayes, a former CIA operative, had tried to hire a hit-man with a mere $5,000, using an open phone line.

530. (416) Former Army C.I.D. investigator, confidential interview with author.

531. (417) Dick Russell, "Spook Wars In Cyberspace: Is the FBI Railroading Charles Hayes?" High Times, June, 1997.

532. (*) Gagan says the Letter of Immunity was not filed with the court, in violation of standard procedure. He also asserts that Allison's signature was signed by his secretary, and is no good.

533. (418) Florida police detective, confidential interview with author.

534. (*) Gagan claims that on January 15, 1997, as he was waiting for a bus at 1st and Lincoln in downtown Denver, a dark four-door Buick came careening around the corner, firing at him with a silenced automatic weapon. A check with Doug Packston at the Colorado Transit Authority revealed a bullet hole in the bus shelter and glass that had been replaced.

535. (*) It is unlikely that Gagan could have known about King's story, which was not widely reported.

536. (**) The Florida police detective I spoke with told me that the FBI and state authorities "didn't want to investigate this," referring to the connections he uncovered between Arab-Americans, the PLO, and the Cali Cartel, in the mid-80s. He believes the FBI's head of Counterintelligence came to Florida disguised as an agent, found out what they were working on, and took off. As he said, "Things weren't right.… It was as if someone were looking at this and saying 'stay away from it.'" His experience ties into that of an Army C.I.D. officer who investigated the brother of one of the Middle-Easterners allegedly involved in the bombing, who was involved in military espionage in Huntsville, Alabama in the mid-80s. He said the FBI "stonewalled" the case. (More on this later)

537. (419) OCPD Dispatch of 4/19/95.

538. (420) David Harper, "Just who is Carol Howe? Jurors Will Have To Decide Who the Real Woman Is," Tulsa World, 7/28/97. "Howe said she heard a 'powerful murmur' in the fall of 1995 that Tulsa could be the target of a major bombing in the spring of 1996. Howe said Thursday she left messages in 1995 but that her calls weren't returned."

539. (*) A specific warning regarding flight 103 was also passed on from a Mossad Agent working at the Frankfurt airport.

540. (**) What is interesting is that Oliver "Buck" Revell, former Counter-Terrorism chief of the FBI, pulled his son and daughter-in-law off Pan Am 103 minutes before the flight. Did Revell know something the rest of us did not? (Steven Emerson doesn't bother mentioning that little fact in his psyop piece entitled The Fall of Pan Am 103 , which, incidentally, leaves out the entire CIA/drug connection that many feel was linked to the bombing.

541. (**) Was Solano pressured to ignore Gagan's warning? The Denver U.S. Attorney had earlier intended to proceed with an investigation into corruption by top U.S. officials connected with Boulder Partnerships, Ltd., Twin Cities Bank of Little Rock, and MDC Holdings of Denver, until he realized who was involved — friends of Bill Clinton and George Herbert Walker Bush.

542. (421) Robert Rudolph, "Lawmen Get Warning of Plot on U.S. Targets," Newark Star Ledger, 3/22/95.

543. (422) Wendy Holden and David Millward, "Oklahoma Bomb Suspect Seized at Heathrow," London Sunday Telegraph. date unknown.

544. (423) Ibid.

545. (424) Ibid.

546. (425) Steven Emerson and Brian Duffy, The Fall of Pan Am 103, (New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's), 1990, p. 176; also see "The Maltese Double Cross," a British TV documentary on Pan Am 103.

547. (*) Ahmed's detention produced a flurry of responses from the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), who were notified by Ahmed's friend Sam Khalid. The ACLU has long been funded (some say taken over) by the Roger Baldwin Foundation, a CIA front. Perhaps they wanted their man Ahmed released, just as the CIA wanted Jordanian Marwan Kreeshat released.

548. (**) Haider Al Saiidi, one of Khalid's workers, had a wife who miscarriaged after the bombing due to harassment. When Haider made that public, Khalid fired him. If Clear's theory is true, it is curious why Khalid fired him.

549. (426) Police Report of arrest of Hussain Al-Hussaini. Sharon Twilley also stated she believed she had seen McVeigh in a bar on NW 10th Street, and had seen Hussaini and other Khalid employees in the same bar at different times.

(* What must be pointed out again is that the FBI is claiming McVeigh rented the Ryder truck the following Monday, April 17, which he did. This account indicates that two Ryder trucks were involved in the operation, not one, as the FBI claims.

550. (*

551. (*

552. (427) Craig Freeman and Dennis Jackson, interviews with author.

553. (428) Sharon Cohen, Associated Press, 4/26/95.

554. (429) Ruby Foos, interview with author; Davies, Op Cit., 4/21/95.

555. (430) Jim Polk, CNN, 4/20/95; Sharon Cohen, Associated Press, 4/21/95.

556. (431) William Jasper, "The Trial of John Doe No. 2," The New American, 5/13/96.

557. (432) J.D. Cash, "Lose Your Illusion," Media Bypass, February, 1996.

558. (433) Margaret Hohmann and Ann Domin, interviews with author.

559. (434) Debra Burdick, interview with author.

560. (435) Jayna Davis, KFOR, shadow interview with Kay H., 6/17/95.

561. (436) David Snider, interview with author.

562. (437) OKPD Dispatch of 4/19/95.

563. (438) David Hall, interview with author.

564. (*) A source in the Sheriff's Office interviewed by Jayna Davis said the FBI refused to explain why it had cancelled the APB. David Hall said the APB was canceled by an FBI agent named Webster. Yet according to OCPD officer Don Browning, the FBI later "admitted" to "fabricating" the APB.

565. (**) Both Ernie Cranfield and neighbors saw the brown pick-up at Sahara Properties.

566. (439) Ernie Cranfield, interview with author.

567. (*) Heather Khalid also told Cranfield in a secretly-taped interview that she had not been able to find any time record on Hussaini for April 19, so she made one up and gave it to Dave Balut, a reporter for KWTV. Khalid employee Terry Holliday, told a reporter at KOCO-TV that Hussaini had been painting the house at NW 31st Street on April 19, then later told Cranfield that Hussaini had not actually been there on the 19th. Heather claimed that she had taken some supplies to Hussaini that morning, but Holliday claimed she had never been there. Khalid worker Barnaby Machuca also repeatedly changed his story regarding Hussaini's whereabouts.

568. (*) Numerous FBI and law enforcement sources Davis contacted agreed that Hussaini resembled the sketch of John Doe 2, and believed there was a Middle Eastern connection to the bombing, possibly connected to the World Trade Center bombing. (KFOR's Response to Plaintiff's Interrogatories, Hussaini vs. KFOR).

569. (440) OCPD D.U.I. report, copy in author's possession.

570. (* FBI spokesman Steve Mullins wouldn't confirm or deny whether Hussaini was a suspect; FBI agent James Strickland, who would later investigate Khalid's alleged shooting of his secretary, Sharon Twilley, also declined to comment on whether Hussaini was a suspect.

571. (441) George Lang, "Out on a Limb," date unknown.

572. (442) Dave Balut reporting, KWTV, 10:00 p.m. newscast, 6/16/95.

573. (443) Sam Khalid, interview with author.

574. (*) William Northrop is an ex-Isreali intelligence officer who was indicted by former U.S. Attorney Rudolph Gulianni, and testified against Israel's role in Iran-Contra. A friend of the late CIA Director William Casey, Northrop's name was reportedly found in Casey's diary upon his death.

575. (*( Khalid, speaking on behalf of Hussaini, claimed his INS records were "stolen."

576. (*) Yousef arrived in New York on September 1, 1992. Many New York law enforcement officials reportedly believe that Iraq was involved [in the Trade Center bombing], although they can not prove it. (Laurie Mylroie, "World Trade Center Bombing — The Case of Secret Cyanide," The Wall Street Journal, July 26, 1994, p. A16.), quoted in James Phillips, The Changing Face of Middle Eastern Terrorism," The Heritage Foundation, Backgrounder, #1005, 10/6/94.

577. (444) Mylroie, Op Cit. Yousef, who grew up in Kuwait, was also identified by Kuwaiti Interior Minister Sheik Ali al Sabah al Salim as an Iraqi collaborator during Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait. (Charles Wallace, "Weaving a Wide Web of Terror," Los Angeles Times, 5/28/95.)

578. (*) Hussain al-Hussaini moved to Houston after going public and suing KFOR.

579. (445) Louis Champon, interview with author. According to Champon, who is suing the federal government, Peter Kawaja, who was head of security for Champon's plant, hired Wackenhut. Kawaja was later given immunity to act as an informant. Said Robert Bickel, a Customs informant and investigator familiar with the case: "Hell, Barbouti was treated more like a damn state bird than a terrorist."

580. (*) Louis Champon said he saw Barbouti meet with Secord at the Fountain Blue Hotel in Miami in 1988.