Legal Reform Act
Section 1. Authority.
No legislative or judicial authority may be delegated; and no executive
authority may be delegated to any person not accountable to the people of the
United States under the Constitution and acts of Congress pursuant thereto.
(a) If any person claiming legal authority for any act should
fail, upon demand, to provide proof of such authority, before completing the
act, such failure shall be conclusive that no such authority exists, or if it
existed, that it has ceased to exist.
(b) For any official act of a government agent, proof of authority must
consist of an unbroken logical chain of authority leading back to the
applicable constitutional provisions, including copies of statutes lawfully
enacted. Legal codes and court opinions shall not be considered the law, but
only evidence of the law. Official acts, including legislative acts, shall not
be presumed to be constitutional or lawful, but must be proven to be so.
(c) Regulations issued by any department of the Executive Branch or
independent agency shall apply only to agents of that department, and not to
civilians or personnel of other departments. Only statutes or ordinances may be
applied to civilians or personnel of other departments.
(d) No authority is needed for a militia call-up other than awareness of a
threat to public safety or the need to prepare for such.
(e) No right, privilege, immunity, or service available to citizens of any
State shall be denied or restricted by any agent or employee of any State or
any political subdivision thereof contingent upon any act of an official or
agent of another state, territory, or nation, or of the national government,
other than certification of naturalization, including any form of
identification or identifying numbers or other information or documentation
Section 2. Petition.
The people have the right to instruct their representatives, petition
government for redress of grievances, and peaceably assemble, without penalty
(a) No person shall be denied the right to prosecute any
petition in any court on its merits, and in particular, on the basis of prior
petitions or his performance in pursuing such.
(b) No person shall be denied the right to prosecute a claim against any
official or office of government on the basis of any practice or doctrine, such
as "sovereign immunity". Only the people are sovereign and immune,
when met in convention, referendum, or election, and not public officials,
agents, or assets.
(c) Any person shall have standing in any court, either in a separate
action or in part of another proceeding, for declaratory or injunctive relief,
or both, from any statute, regulation, administrative order, repeal, or other
official act on the grounds that it is unconstitutional, unlawful, or
inapplicable, without having to first become a defendant under such act, and
without a presumption that such act is lawful or applicable.
(d) For any petition for possession or custody, for declaratory or
injunctive relief, for disablement for incompetency, or for compensatory,
damage, or punitive relief involving value equal or greater than 866.67 troy
ounces of standard silver, the petitioner shall have the right to have a
decision by a randomly-selected jury of twelve, upon the following votes:
(1) For possession of property or custody of a minor, at least
six members, with the president of the court casting a vote if there is a tie.
(2) For declaratory or injunctive relief, at least eight members.
(3) For compensatory or damage relief, at least ten members.
(4) For disablement for incompetency or punitive relief, all twelve
Section 3. Disablements.
A bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of
contracts may not be adopted.
(a) Any legislative or executive act which has the effect of
disabling the rights, privileges, or immunities of any person or persons, other
than by prescribing general constraints on court decisions, the sentence to be
imposed on persons convicted of a crime, or defining the disabilities of
minority, is to be considered a bill of attainder and is prohibited by this
(b) Any disablement of a right, privilege, or immunity of a person
convicted of a crime or a party to a civil action, which is not made explicit
in that person's sentence or the final order of the court, is null and void.
(c) Due process rights may not be disabled.
(d) The only disabilities of rights which may be imposed by legislation are
the disabilities of minority, which shall terminate at age 18, unless earlier
terminated or reduced, or unless extended beyond that age, or further
restricted, by a county or higher court, but for such extension the subject
shall have the right to a unanimous verdict of a randomly-selected jury of
Section 4. Militia.
The Militia of the United States shall be organized, trained, and equipped
to defend against foreign invasion, insurrection, crime, or disaster.
(a) The Militia is any and all natural persons in their
capacity as defenders of society, any members thereof, and its Constitution,
from any threat.
(b) The mandatory militia is that part of the Militia subject to penalties,
defined by law, for failure to respond to a call-up by any credible person
aware of an imminent threat to public safety, and may exclude persons whose
official duties take precedence over their militia duties, who are unfit for
duty, foreign visitors, or those whose rights needed to perform their militia
duties have been disabled by a court of competent jurisdiction.
Section 5. Warrants.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,
private communications, and effects against unreasonable seizures and searches
may not be violated; and a warrant may not issue except on probable cause,
supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be
searched and the persons and things to be seized.
(a) A warrant being served shall cite the criminal or
competency statute which authorizes it, and bear an original signature of a
judge or magistrate of competent jurisdiction, and such warrant shall be
presented to any persons present for their examination before the search may
proceed or seizure may remove the persons or things from the premises,
excepting only cases in which there is a clear and imminent danger to the life
of an innocent person.
(b) All persons participating in the execution of a warrant must be
identified and listed in writing in the warrant, or in an appendix thereto
signed by the principal person authorized to execute the warrant, and they must
carry appropriate identification, including badges, photo identification cards,
or other visible insignia that can enable any witness with normal eyesight to
identify any of them at a distance of twenty meters. However, this does not
exclude the participation of witnesses not themselves executing the warrant.
(c) There shall be a publicly published toll-free telephone number which
any person may call at any time, day or night, and present an access code
provided by the person executing the warrant, to verify the warrant and the
identities of the persons authorized to execute it. Any person present must be
permitted to call such telephone number to conduct such verification before the
premises can be searched or the persons or things removed, unless no telephone
service is available nearby, and such telephone service shall not be
interrupted or disabled by any public official or agent.
(d) Any person involved in executing a warrant must take all reasonable
precautions to avoid injury to any person, destruction of evidence, and damage
to property, and shall be held personally liable for any unnecessary injury,
destruction, or damage that may occur, both civilly and criminally, for failure
to exercise such precautions.
(e) Any person acting as an agent for a bail bondsman who attempts to
detain a fugitive must carry a warrant for the arrest of that person and comply
with all of the above provisions.
(f) No person shall be civilly or criminally prosecuted for resisting
arrest, including the use of deadly force, or for any injury or property damage
caused by such resistance, against any person executing a warrant who does not
comply with the above provisions.
Section 6. Asset Forfeiture.
Cruel or unusual punishment may not be inflicted or excessive fines imposed.
(a) Assets may not be forfeited but for payment of a specific
fine, nor may assets be forfeited which have not been proven to belong
exclusively to the person convicted of the crime, nor in excess of what may be
reasonably expected to bring the amount of the fine in a public sale, at which
any claimant or his representative shall have the right to bid, and all
proceeds in excess of the fine from such sale shall be refunded to the owner.
(b) Proceedings in rem may be conducted only against items with no
apparent owner, after a good faith effort to identify an owner has been made,
by public notice, for a period of one year, and any such proceeding not
satisfying this requirement shall be reversed and the assets or compensation in
the value of the assets refunded to the apparent owner.
(c) Any assets seized and not forfeited shall be returned undamaged to the
owner if the owner is not tried or convicted of a crime for which a fine is
part of the sentence, and the owner shall be compensated for any loss or damage
that may occur. Such compensation shall be paid out of the budget of the law
enforcement agency which conducted the seizure, and the burden of proof shall
rest on the government that any claim for compensation is without merit.
(d) All fines in excess of reasonable court costs shall go to the general
fund and not to any agency involved in the seizure or arrest, nor may any such
agency or agents thereof accept any share of the proceeds of a forfeiture or
reward from any other agency of any jurisdiction.
Section 7. Grand Juries.
One or more grand juries shall be drawn and summoned at least once a year,
for each judicial district, or as required, in subdivisions thereof, selected
at random, respectively, from among the residents of the state, district, or
subdivision of thereof, who are citizens of the United States of America or its
(a) Each grand jury shall initially consist of twenty-three
(23) persons, who shall make all decisions by a vote of twelve of the grand
jurors present, with a quorum of 19.
(b) The grand jury shall have sole authority to adopt their own rules of
procedure, to select petitions to be considered, to include or exclude any
person other than its members from any proceeding, to subpoena witnesses, to
decide whether or not to disclose any part of its proceedings at any time, to
decide where and when to meet, and to decide when to adjourn.
(c) The grand jury shall receive all petitions from any person directly,
although court staff may sort and categorize petitions, and upon approval of
the court, petitions may be appended with comments.
(d) The filing fee for petitions to the grand jury shall not exceed the
value equivalent to 17.33 troy ounces of standard silver, and the fee may be
waived in forma pauperis.
(e) Criminal prosecution by private parties other than public prosecutors
shall not be impeded, other than by consolidating several such actions against
the same accused for the same offense into a single action, and by the
requirement of indictment by a grand jury.
(1) In the event that two or more parties seek to try the same
accused on the same offenses, or petition for overlapping disabilities of the
same defendant, or petition in different jurisdictions, either of the United
States or a State, the choice of which, if any, is to prosecute, and in what
jurisdiction, shall be made by the grand jury having the most local
jurisdiction that encompasses all contending jurisdictions, by returning an
indictment for the petition selected, if any, and returning no bill for the
other petitions, but if such prosecutor shall be private, he shall be
compensated from public funds on the same basis as a public prosecutor for
services and expenses.
(2) In the event that the accused shall be a public official or agent, the
prosecutor may, upon demand, have the judge in the case selected at random, by
the indicting grand jury, from among persons who have represented parties at
trial in at least four cases in the same jurisdiction during the previous two
years, which person shall be compensated at the same rate on the same terms as
a regular judge, for the duration of the days of trial.
(f) All of the branches, departments, and offices of government, except the
military, shall be reviewed by a grand jury or members thereof not less than
twice a year, at random times, on-site and in real time, and as often as
complaints may require.
(1) Grand juries may divide into teams or individual members
for such reviews and investigations, who shall report back to the grand jury as
(2) The members of such grand juries shall have unlimited access to all
operations of government, other than jury deliberations, to which they are
assigned by the grand jury as a whole, and may carry and use such recording or
other investigative tools as the grand jury may direct, or bring such experts
as they may deem useful for interpreting what they are reviewing.
(3) The review of judicial processes, including sessions between judges and
lawyers, court administration other than jury selection, and criminal and penal
procedures, shall occur not less than once every two months.
(4) The grand jury or such designated members thereof shall review all jury
selection processes on site and in real time, excepting only the selection of
the first grand jury after an interruption of such review, to insure that no
jury stacking occurs.
(5) Grand jurors shall have the power to interview any person in private
during such reviews who they may suspect may have a complaint or evidence of
misconduct in any department of government, and no such person may be
questioned thereafter about the content of such an interview.
(g) A petition of 1000, or ten percent, whichever is less, of the residents
of the district, or subdivision thereof, shall be sufficient to call a special
grand jury to consider any subject prescribed by the petition, and to have any
indictments brought by such grand jury prosecuted by a person or persons named
by the petition.
(h) Additional grand juries shall be convened as required so that they may
have at least four hours to consider each case presented to them on its merits.
Section 8. Trial Procedure and Juries.
No judgment shall be set aside, or new trial granted, in any cause, on the
ground of misdirection of the jury, or of the improper admission or rejection
of evidence, or for any error as to any matter of pleading, or for any error as
to any matter of procedure, unless, after an examination of the entire cause,
including the evidence, the court shall find that:
(a) The error complained of has resulted in a miscarriage of
(b) In a jury trial, one or more of the following situations has occurred:
(1) The prospective jurors in voir dire have been
required to answer more than 25 questions about anything other than name,
citizenship, residence within the political subdivision or judicial district,
knowledge of the English language, whether their disabilities of minority are
removed, disablements of rights by a court of the United States or any State,
personal knowledge of or affiliation with the persons, organizations, or events
in the case, or factors that might impose an undue hardship on themselves or
their dependents or that may affect their ability to render an impartial
(2) The jury has been required to take an oath or affirmation to do
anything but "uphold the Constitution and laws of the United States".
(3) The jury has not been informed of its power and duty to judge both the
law and the facts in the case.
(4) The defense has been prevented from informing the jury of its power and
duty to judge both the law and the facts in the case, or threatened or
penalized in any way for doing so.
(5) The issues of evidence and law, including jurisdiction, applicability,
and constitutional compliance, other than minor procedural issues, have not
been argued in the presence of the jury, and the jury has not been provided
with at least one copy of all pleadings in the case, including amicus
curiae briefs and proposed jury instructions from all parties, and a copy
of the constitutions of the United States and all applicable laws and
(6) The jury has not been afforded the opportunity to ask any questions
they may have of any person, including any additional witnesses and evidence
they may require, excepting only evidence illegally obtained.
(7) The jury has not been afforded the use of any documentation they may
request, including the resources of an adequate law library, and competent
assistance in their legal research.
(8) Any person has been excluded from the jury on the basis of his or her
knowledge of the law, familiarity with legal reform advocacy literature, or
involvement in legal reform advocacy activities.
(9) Any juror has been removed from an empaneled jury based on votes made
or vote intentions announced, or if any juror has been asked to report votes
made or vote intentions announced, by any other juror.
(c) In a criminal or competency case, or any case in which the State or any
governmental body petitions to disable the rights, privileges, or immunities of
the defendant, one or more of the following situations has occurred:
(1) The prosecution has failed to prove that the court has
jurisdiction, that the charges are authorized by statute and applicable to the
case, that the offender was physically within the territorial jurisdiction of
the state, political subdivision, and district at the moment the offense
occurred, and that the statutes are authorized by the Constitution.
(2) The accused has not had adequate counsel or representation of his own
choice, not limited to legal professionals.
(3) The accused or any witness against him has been induced to make any
plea or testimony based on any reward or penalty, or threats of prosecution of,
or offers of lenity to, himself or others.
(4) A complete and accurate permanent public record has not been made of
all proceedings in the case, beginning with arraignment, including
interrogations, negotiations, and discussions among the accused, his accusers,
attorneys, and judges in the case, excepting only private communications
between attorney and client.
(5) The accused has been previously tried on the same offense in a jury
trial in which a mistrial was declared because the jury could not agree.
(6) The accused has been charged with an offense of violating a disablement
of a right not explicitly disabled in a sentencing order of a court of
competent jurisdiction, or had a penalty imposed which exceeds such explicit
(7) The rights of the accused have been violated.
(8) A general verdict, that is, a verdict of "guilt proven" or
"guilt not proven", was not rendered by a unanimous vote of a jury of
twelve, selected at random from among residents of the jurisdiction who are
citizens of the United States of America or its territories, with no more than
fifty percent excluded in voir dire.
(9) The accused, upon conviction, has not had the opportunity to argue for
a less restrictive disablement of his rights, privileges, or immunities in a
sentencing hearing, in which the prosecution shall have the burden of proving
the lawfulness and justice of a more restrictive disablement.
(d) In any case, if the defendant has been denied the right to possession
and use of a complete record at no cost to him, or to make or have made
audiovisual recordings, of any proceedings, including proceedings outside of
court, involving the case, or to make such recordings part of the public record
and release it to the public, subject only to the security of witnesses and
(e) In the appeal of any case, appellant has been denied the right to
petition without penalty or disablement, to counsel of his choice, not limited
to legal professionals, to appear in propria persona, or to be denied
any due process rights recognized for appellants in the courts of the United