Nature and Nations.
Written in Latin by the Baron
of State to His late SWEDISH
Majesty, and to the
Translated into ENGLISH, from the best Edition.
With a short INTRODUCTION.
Printed by L. Lichfield, for
A. and J. Churchil, R. Sare, H. Bonwick, W. Freeman,
Goodwyn, M. Wotton, J. Waltho, S. Manship, J. Nicholson, R. Parker,
B. Tooke. M.DCC.III.
2003 Edition Edited by Jon
Preface and Introduction, by
BOOK the First.
Of the Origine and Variety of Moral
Sect 1. Introduction.
2. Human Life govern'd and directed by Moral Entities.
3. Moral Entities, what; together with their Causes and End.
4. The way of producing them, by Imposition: Their
Effect and Operation; and whence derived.
5. The Division of Moral Entities.
6 State, what.
7. State, Natural, and Accessory.
8. Peace and War, how defined and divided.
9. Definite, or determinate, States.
10. States bearing a respect to Time.
11. Remarks concerning States.
12. Simple Persons how divided.
13. Compound Persons, of how many kinds.
14. Remarks concerning Moral Persons.
15. Fictitious Persons.
16. Moral Things.
17. The Modes of Morality divided.
21. The other Moral Qualities.
22. Moral Quantities.
23. Moral Entities, how destroy'd.
Of the Certainty of Moral
Sect. 1. Most are wont to deprive Moral Science of
2. Demonstration what.
3. The Principles of Demonstration.
4. Whether Demonstration be peculiar to that part of Morality,
which treats of the Rectitude and Pravity of Human
5. The Objection about the Uncertainty of Moral Things,
6. Whether any Thing be good or bad, antecedently to all kinds of
7. Whether Natural Modesty be an Argument for the
8. Of the Latitude of Moral Actions, in respect of
9. Grotius's Opinion examin'd.
10. Moral Things admit of a Latitude with respect to
11. What may be styl'd Morally certain.
Of the Understanding of Man, as
it concurs to Moral Actions.
Sect 1. The two Faculties of the Understanding.
2. The Nature of the Representative Faculty.
3. The Understanding endued with a Natural Rectitude in its
Judgment of Moral Things.
4. Conscience, what; and how divided.
5. A Right, and a Probable Conscience.
6. The Rule of a Probable Conscience.
7. Rules about Things Profitable only.
8. A Doubtful Conscience.
9. A Scrupulous Conscience.
10. Ignorance, what; and of how many kinds.
11. Error, how divided.
12. Error concerning Things lawful.
13. Error in Speculation, concerning Things necessary in
14. Concerning Things indifferent.
15. Practical Error.
16. Error concerning Things evil.
Of the Will of Man, as
concurring to Moral Actions.
Sect 1. The Acts of the Will. 2. The Liberty of the Will.
3. The Indifference of the Will a necessary Doctrine.
4. The Will how inclin'd to Good.
5. The Will affected by different Constitutions of Body.
6. By Habits:
7. By the Passions:
8. By Intemperance. 9. Mixt Actions.
10. Involuntary, what.
Of Moral Actions in general; and
of their Application to the Agent, or their Aptness to be
Sect 1. A Moral Action, what:
2. Its Matter:
3. Its Form; together with the proper Notion of a Moral
4. Moral Actions, formally consider'd, are allways Positive
5. The Foundation and Reason why a Thing should be imputed, or
6. No Imputation of what is done by absolute
7. Nor of that which proceeds from the meer Vegetative Power
8. Nor of Things Impossible:
9. Nor of what is done upon Force; (with the Case of bare
10. Or thro Ignorance:
11. Nor of Dreams:
12. Nor of future Evils.
13. Sinful Actions, tho proceeding from Habit, are in the
highest manner liable to Imputation.
14. The Actions of Others how imputed to Us.
Of the Rule of Moral Actions;
or, of Law in general.
Sect 1. Law differs from Counsel;
2. And from Covenant;
3. And from Right,
4. Law, what.
5. Obligation, what.
6. What it is to be capable of Obligation.
7. The Person obliged ought to acknowledge a Superior.
8. No Man can stand obliged to himself.
9. The Power of imposing Obligations, whence derived.
10. Not from bare Strength.
11. Nor from Excellency of Nature only.
12. Force, what it adds to Obligations.
13. The Legislator, and the Law ought to be both
14. The Essential Parts of a Law.
15. The Permission of a Law, what.
16. The Matter, or Subject, of Laws.
17. Who are property obliged by any Law.
18. The Division of Law in general.
Of the Qualities of Moral
Sect. 1. Qualities of Moral Actions, how divided.
2. Actions, necessary; and lawful, or allowable.
3. The Good, or Evil of Actions; in what it
4. A Good Action, that in which all Requisites
concur; an Evil Action, that in which any one Requisite is
5. The Cause of Evil by no means to be sought for in GOD.
6. Justice divided with regard to Persons, and Actions.
7. Justice of Actions, what.
8. Universal and Particular Justice.
9. Distributive Justice
10. Commutative Justice.
11. Grotius's Opinion of Justice.
12. Aristotle's Doctrine on the same Head.
13. Hobbes's Notion of Justice and Injury.
14. An Unjust Action, what. 15. Injury, what.
16. Injury supposes deliberate Choice: how it differs from
17. Volenti non fit injuria: Nothing can be an Injury, when the
Person is willing to receive it.
Of the Quantity of Moral
Sect 1. Absolute Quantity of Moral Actions.
2. What Intention necessary, in Conscience:
3. What in Human Law.
4. A Compleat, or Perfect Action, what. 5. Relative
Quantity of Moral Actions.
Of the Imputation of Moral
Sect. 1. Actual Imputation.
2. Imputation of Favour,
3. Imputation of Debt.
4. What things are capable of being effectually
5. Merit, what. 6. The Effects of Moral Action, how
revers'd, or disannull'd,
It is not agreeable to the Nature
of Man, that he should live without Law.
Sect 1. Whether Man ought to be under the Restraint of any
2. Liberty in general, what.
3. Liberty of Almighty God.
4. Liberty of Brute Creatures:
5. Reasons why this should not be indulg'd to Man: such as,
the Dignity of Human Nature;
6. Its Depravation and Corruption:
7. Variety of Dispositions;
8. And Natural Weakness and Want.
Of the Natural State of
Sect 1. The State of Nature, differently consider'd:
2. Its Misery and Inconvenience:
3. The Rights which attend it.
4. A qualified State of Nature.
5. Whether this bear the semblance of War.
6. Hobbes's Arguments for the Affirmative, produced.
7. The Negative evinced from the Natural Relation of Men to each
8. Hobbes's Reasons answered.
9. Right Reason ought not to be banish'd from the Consideration of
a State of Nature.
10. The Manners and Rites of Barbarous Countries do not constitute
a State of Nature.
11. Natural Peace, requires not the Intervention of
12. Natural Peace, too full of Suspicion and Uncertainty.
Of the Law of Nature in
Sect 1. Introduction.
2, 3. The Law of Nature is not common to Beasts and
4. The Object of the Law of Nature has no Necessity antecedent
to all Law.
5, 6. Whether the Law of Nature may be said to be common to God and
7, 8, 9. The Law of Nature is not grounded on the
Consent of Nations.
10, 11. Whether Use and Profit are Foundation of
Law and Equity.
12. Whether the Law of Nature be demonstrable from
the End of the Creation.
13. Of the Dictates of Right Reason.
14. The genuine Source of the Law of Nature discovered, from the
Condition of Mankind.
15. The Fundamental Law of Nature.
16, 17, 18. Hobbes's Opinion examin'd
19. The Author's Foundation of the Law of Nature,
20. The Obligation of the Law of Nature is from GOD.
21. Of the Sanction of the Law of Nature.
22. What things may be said to belong to the Law of Nature,
reductively, or by abuse.
23. Whether there be a Law of Nations Contradistinct to
the Law of Nature.
24. The Division of the Law of Nature.
Of the Duties and Performances of
Man towards himself, as well in regard to the Improvement of his
Mind, as to the Care of his Body and Life.
Sect 1. The Culture of a Mans self, a necessary Duty.
2. The chief Subjects about which it is imploy'd.
3. The Mind first to be instructed in Religion.
4. All contrary Opinions to be extirpated.
5. The necessity of knowing ourselves.
6. A Man ought especially to understand his own Mind and
7. Together with the extent of his Ability and
8. Nothing to be attempted above our Power.
9. In what degree we ought to labour after Reputation:
10. After Riches;
11. After Pleasure and Delight.
12. The Affections, to be kept under the Government of
13. Of Learning and Study.
14. Of the Care of the Body.
15. Of the Use of Life.
16. Whether we lie under any Obligation of preserving our
17. How far Life may be spent For the Advantage of Others:
18. How far exposed to rescue others from Danger.
19. Whether Self-murther be lawful
Sect 1. Violent Defence of our selves, lawful.
2. Whether commanded by the Law of Nature.
3. Defence, what in a State of Natural Liberty:
4. What, in Civil Government.
5. Whether allowable against one that assaults us by mistake.
6. The time allowed for Defence under Natural Liberty.
7, 8, 9. How adjusted under Civil Establishments.
10. The Case of Maiming;
11. Of Chastity;
12. Of Ignominious Strikeing.
13. Whether the Person attack'd is oblig'd to Fly.
14. What difference is made in the Case of Defence, by the
Precepts of Christianity.
15. Slaughter committed in Just Defence, is
16. Of the Defence of Things, or Goods.
17, 18. Of the Night-Thief.
19. Self-defence how far allow'd to him who offers the first
Of the Right and Favour
Sect 1. Necessity, of how many kinds.
2. The Right and Favour of Necessity grounded on what
3. What degree of Power and Right is hence convey'd to
us, either over ourselves, or over others directly.
4. What is indirectly indulg'd by the same Principle.
5, 6, 7. What Power we obtain from hence over the Things,
or Goods, of Others.
8. What Freedom we may be allow'd to use with the Goods of
Others, for the preservation of our own.
That no Man is to be injured; and
that if any Damage be done, Reparation is to be
Sect 1. No Man ought to hurt the Person, or
Goods, of Another.
2. Damage given is to be repair'd.
3. Damage, what.
4. The Authors of Damage, who.
5. The Order to be observ'd in the Reparation of Damage.
6. How many ways Hurt or Damage may be caus'd.
7. Reparation in the Murtherer:
8. In the Maimer:
9. In the Adulterer:
10. In the Ravisher:
11. In the Thief.
That all Men are to be accounted by
Sect 1. Every Man is to consider Another as Naturally his Equal.
2. Natural Equality, what.
3. Popular Arguments on which it may be grounded.
4. The Consideration of this Equality renders Men easy and agreeable
to each other.
5. What Force it has in the Division of Things.
6. It is transgress'd by Pride:
7. And by contumelious Treatment of Others.
8. Whether there are Slaves by Nature.
9. The Causes of Inequality amongst Men.
Of the Mutual Duties of
Sect 1. Every Man is obliged to promote the Good of Another:
2. And this, either indefinitely, and absolutely:
3. Or, definitely, and relatively.
4. Smaller Instances of Common Humanity,
5. Of Passage thro' Others Ground, either to Persons,
6. Or, Goods.
7. Whether an Import, or Duty, may be laid on Passage.
8. Of Access to a Forreign Shore.
9. Of the Admission of Strangers.
10. Of granting them a Seat and Habitation.
11. Of allowing a Mart.
12. Whether we are obliged to buy of Others.
13. Of Marriage with Strangers.
14. Whether what is granted in common to All, may be
particularly with-held from One.
15. Of Beneficence.
16. Of Gratitude.
17. Of Ingratitude.
Of the Duty of keeping Faith;
together with the Division of Obligations.
Sect. 1. Covenants are necessarily required in Human Society.
2. Covenants are to be observ'd.
3. Obligations, Connatural, or Adventitious.
4. Atheism repugnant to all Connatural Obligation.
5. Obligation, Natural and Civil.
6. The Force and Efficacy of both.
7. Obligation, Perpetual and Temporary.
8. Obligation; not mutual.
9. Obligation, perfectly, or imperfectly mutual.
Of the Nature of Promises and
Pacts, in general.
Sect 1. Adventitious or Accessory Obligations; whence they
2. Hobbes's Notion of transferring Right.
3. Hobbes's Right of All Men to All Things, absurd.
4, The true Nature and Manner of transferring Right.
5. Bare Assertions not obligatory.
6. Imperfect Promises lay an Obligation, but confer no
7. Perfect Promises.
8. Expressions in the Future transfer no Right.
9, 10, 11. Whether bare Covenants have a Power of
Of the Consent required, in
making Promises and Pacts.
Sect. 1. Consent necessary to Promises and Pacts.
2. Signified expresly, or tacitly.
3. Supposes the Use of Reason:
4. This suspended by the higher Degrees of Drunkenness.
5. The Case of Minors.
6. Of Errors in Promises.
7. Of Errors in Bargains and Covenants.
8. Of Guile and Deceit.
9. Whether the Suspicion of Deceit renders a Covenant
10, 11, 12, 13. Fear invalidates Promises, and Pacts.
14. How invalid Promises may recover their Strength.
15. Of the Consent of the Receiver.
16. Of the Signs and Tokens of Consent.
Of the Matter of Promises
Sect 1. Obligations lie only to Things possible.
2. Promises about impossible Things are null.
3. Impossibility happening in respect of Covenants.
4. Whether our utmost Endeavour be always sufficient to the
Discharge of an Obligation.
5. Whether any One is bound to sustain Evils, surpassing the
Common Force, and Patience of Mankind.
6. No Obligation to what is unlawful.
7. Bargains, on a Vicious account, not obligatory, before the
8. Nor after the Villany has been committed.
9. Whether the Reward, actually given, for wicked Service, may
10. Promises concerning the Things, or Actions of Others
11. And those concerning such Things, or Actions of our own, as stand
already engaged to Others, by a prior Obligation.
Of the Conditions of
Sect 1. Promises, of how many kinds.
2. A Condition, what.
3. Conditions, whether referr'd to the Time past, or
4. Conditions, Casual, Arbitrary, and Mixt.
5. Conditions, impossible; or vicious.
6. Limitations of Place.
7. Limitations of Time.
8. The Difference between Covenants, and Conditional
Of Ministers in general, or Agents
concern'd in contracting Obligations for other Men.
Sect 1. We may promise, or bargain by Others.
2. Commissions, of how many kinds.
3. The Case of an Agent dying re infecta.
4. The Difference between a bare Messenger, and a proper
Agent or Proxy.
5. How far one Person may accept in the Name of
6. No Acceptance to be made by Heirs in the Person of the
7. Of Promises with Burthens annexed.
8. The Division of Covenants.
Of Speech, and the Obligation
which attends it.
Sect. 1. Of the Use of Speech.
2. Of the diversity of Signs.
3. Of the Origine of Speech.
4. Words signify according to Imposition.
5. Imposition is attended with a Compact.
6. This Compact is either General or Particular.
7. Whence the Obligation of discovering our Mind to Another
takes its rise.
8. What Truth is, and what a Lye.
9. Every Untruth is not a Lye, and therefore not
10. Of the Right which is violated by Lying, and whence 'tis
11. How far Part of the Truth may be honestly
12. Simulation, in Things, how far Lawful.
13. Of Ambiguous Speech.
14. Of Mental Reservations.
15. How far we may be allow'd in speaking falsly to
16. It is lawful to speak what is false, for the Preservation
17. How far the Governours of States may be indulg'd in giving
out false Reports.
18. In what manner it is lawful to deceive an ill-designing
19. It is lawful to speak false to an professed Enemy.
20. Whether a Guilty Person arraign'd may deny the
21. What the Advocates, or Counsel, may, in this respect, do
for their Client.
Of an Oath.
Sect 1. The Sacred Tye of an Oath.
2. An Oath what.
3. We can swear only by GOD.
4. And this according to the Religion of the Swearer.
5. An Oath is an Additional Bond to Obligations.
6. Of the Intention of the Swearer.
7. Of Oaths obtained by Deceit.
8. Of Oaths extorted by Force.
9. Oaths concerning unlawful matters bind not.
10. Nor those which hinder a greater Good.
11. An Oath alters not the Nature of the Act to which
it is apply'd,
12. An Oath excludes all Cavil.
13. And yet is not always to be interpreted with the utmost
14. Or without some secret Conditions and Limitations.
15. An Oath is to be explain'd according to the Intention
of him that gives it.
16. Of swearing by Another's Life.
17. How far an Heir stands oblig'd by the Oaths of
18. The Division of Oaths.
19. An Oath for Confirmation.
20. An Oath in Testimony.
21. An Oath Decisive.
22. Oaths Supplemental, and Purgative.
23. Whether every Violation of an Oath is Perjury.
24. Of the Relaxations of Oaths.
Of the Power of Mankind
Sect 1. The main part of Law and Right is concerned
2. By the Good Pleasure of GOD, Man is allow'd the Use
of other Creatures.
3. Vegetables may be consumed without the least Injury.
4. Doubts have been proposed, as to the killing, and eating of
5. Which is, nevertheless, defended, as lawful.
6. The Abuse of our Right over Beasts, worthy of Censure.
Of the Origine of Dominion,
Sect 1. Property and Community are Moral Affections.
2. The distinct Nature of each.
3. They suppose more Persons than one,
4. And are immediately derived from the Covenants of Men.
5. Of the Primitive Communion.
6. In what manner Men departed from it.
7. This Departure was highly advantageous to Mankind.
8. The Judgment of the Ancients concerning the Origine of
9. Grotius's Opinion examined.
10, 11, 12, 13. The Arguments made use of by those who oppose the
14. In what Sense Property may be said to belong to the
Law of Nature.
15. How far Infants are capable of Property.
Of the Object of
Sect 1. The Conditions which render any thing a Matter of
2. 'Tis in vain to appropriate things inexhaustible in their
3. A thing appropriated ought, some way or other, to be under
4. Some appropriated things are yet submitted to General
5. The Divine Grant of Dominion to Man, as
recorded in Scripture, does not prejudice his Dominion over the
6. Reasons against appropriating the Sea.
7. The Use of the Sea.
8. What Parts of the Sea have been possess'd, by the Right
9. The main Ocean can have no Lord, or Proprietor.
10. How far the Ocean ought to lie free, for
Sailing and Trade.
Sect 1. The various ways of Acquisition.
2. The Original ways Of Acquisition.
3. Occupancy is made either, by the Whole, or by
4. The Occupancy of Moveable Things depends on the
Pleasure of the Sovereign.
5. The taking of Wild-Beast, or Game, sometimes allowed
promiscuously to All:
6. Sometimes reserv'd to the Prince alone.
7. Whether he that Hunts in an unlawful manner can make the Game
8. At what time Immoveable Things are suppos'd to pass
9. When Moveable Things.
10. Whether a Beast which I wound in Hunting is thereby
appropriated to myself.
11. Whether the Fish in my Lake, are to be accounted my
12. Things deserted, or abandoned, belong to the
13. Of Treasure-Trove.
14. Of Occupancy in War.
Of Accessions, or additional
Sect. 1. Accessions, of how many kinds.
2. They, regularly, belong to the Owner of the
3. The different sorts of Fruits, or Products.
4. The Breed of Animals belongs to the Proprietor of the
5. Things sown, or planted, go with the Soil.
6. How far Buildings go upon the Ground.
7. Paper goes with the Writing:
8. The Table with the Picture:
9. Purple with the Garment.
10. Of Specification.
11. Of Increments by Floods and Washes, either to whole
12. To Private Estates.
Of the Right over other
Sect. 1. A Man may several ways, have a Right over the Things of
2. The chief Rights of this kind.
3. The Right of holding in Fee.
4. The Right of a Ground-Plot.
5. The Right of possessing upon an Honest Presumption.
6. Services, what; and of how many kinds.
7. Use and Profit.
10. Servants Works.
11. The Services of City-Estates, and
Of the transferring of Property,
Sect 1. The Power of Alienation immediately flows from
2. In Alienation the Consent of both Parties is
3. Which Consent is to be expressed by Signs.
4. Alienation is either Absolute, or Conditional.
5. Whether Delivery be necessary to Alienation.
6. Property either abstracts from Possession, or
7. Possession, what; and of how many kinds.
8. How far Property may be acquired by bare Covenant.
9. Delivery, either real, or fictitious.
Of Wills and
Sect 1. The Derivative Ways of Acquisition, how many,
2. Grotius's Definition of a Testament examined.
3. The Author's Notion of a Testament.
4. A Doubt whether Testaments belong properly to the Law
5. In the most Primitive Ages, Men, in in their Life-time divided
their Substance amongst their Heirs.
6. Testatments how far belonging to the Law of Nature; how far
to Positive Law.
7. Tho' a Will should be defective in Form of Law, yet the Executor
may enter on the Estate, in case of no Opposition.
8. But then the Heir at Law may overthrow such a Will.
9. Donations in Case of Death.
Of Succession to Persons who
Sect 1. Successions to Intestates are grounded on the presumed
Will of the Deceased:
2. Yet so far only as such a Will or Inclination is agreeable so
3. Children have the preference of all Others.
4. Parents under an Obligation of affording Maintenance to
5. What things are comprized under the Name of Maintenance,
6. The Name of Children, how far extended.
7. What things are due to Children, besides Maintenance;
and for what Reason.
8. An equal Division of Goods amongst Children, not
9. Legitimate Children preferable to Illegitimate:
10. Provided the former are own'd by their Parents;
11. Or, not dis-inherited.
12. Of the Right of Representation.
13. In default of Children, Parents are call'd to inherit:
14. If these likewise fail, the Collateral Kindred succeed,
according to their Nearness of Blood.
15. Whether Friends ought to be preferr'd to Kinsmen:
16. Whether Benefactors.
17. The Order of Succession amongst Kindred.
18. Civil Ordinances may indulge a much wider Liberty of
19. How far Executors are bound to discharge the Debts of
Sect. 1. Usucapio and Prescriptio, how distinguish'd.
2. Prescription, how defined according to the Roman Laws; and
where it takes place.
3. Honest Intention, how far necessary to Prescription.
4. Prescription requires an uninterrupted Possession.
5. The Reasons why Prescription was introduced.
6. Whether the Law concerning Prescription be Penal.
7. Prescription referr'd by many to the Civil Law.
8. Whether it arise from the tacit Dereliction of the former
9. It seems to be founded on the tacit Agreement of Nations:
10. And may take place amongst the Subjects of different
Of the Obligations which flow
immediately from Property.
Sect. 1. Every Man is obliged to abstain from his Neighbour's
2. The Goods of Others, if in our Possession, are to be
3. This Duty proved,
4. And illustrated.
5. This Obligation may be taken off by subsequent Covenant.
6. Restitution is to be made of that which we have gain'd, by other
7. A Possessor with honest Intention, not bound to make
Reparation, if the thing be consumed.
8. Yet obliged to restore any Fruits of which remain:
9. And likewise to satisfy for those, which he has spent, in
case he must have spent as much some other way.
10. But not for those which he neglected to take.
11. He that has receiv'd, in the way of Gift, a Thing which
proves to belong to a third Person, and has given it away again; not
bound to make Reparation: yet with a Distinction in the Case.
12. Nor if he bought the Thing, and has sold it again:
yet with the like Distinction.
13. How far he, who, with honest Design, has bought
that which proves to be a third Person's, may recover the Price from the
14. Whether such a Thing may be return'd upon the Seller's
15. A thing belonging to Another, while the Owner of it is unknown,
may lawfully be detain'd.
16. Whether a Fee, taken on a dishonest account, ought
to be restored.
Sect 1. Property being settled, a Measure of things became
2. The Moral Quantity of things, what?
3. Price, either Vulgar, or Eminent.
4. In what the Vulgar Price is founded.
5. Many useful things bear no Price.
6. What it is that raises the Prices of Things.
7. Of the Price of Fancy.
8. Of the Legal Price.
9. Of the Natural Price.
10. What it is that raises and sinks the Natural Price.
11. Vulgar Price not sufficient for Human Life,
12. And therefore an Eminent Price was placed in Money.
13. Which consists generally of Metals.
14. How far the Supreme Magistrate has Power to determin the Value of
15. In such a Determination, regard is to be had to the Value of the
16. The Value of Money liable to Alteration
Of Contracts in general that
presuppose the Price of Things.
Sect.1. The Difference between Pacts and Contracts
according to Hobbes:
2. According to the Roman Lawyers.
3. A Note upon what has been said.
4. The Author's Opinion concerning the Difference.
5. Contracts divided into such as bind one Party only, and such as
bind both Parties.
6. Into Real, Consensual, Literal, and Verbal:
7. Into Named, and Nameless:
8. Into Gainful, and Chargeable.
9. The several Sorts of Chargeable Contracts.
10. Mixt Contracts.
Concerning the Equality that ought to
be observed in Chargeable Contracts.
Sect. 1. In Chargeable Contracts an Equality to be
2. And therefore the Faults of the Commodity to be exposed:
3. Which is necessary from the Nature of the Thing.
4. Whether such Circumstances, as do not directly concern the
Commodity, ought to be discovered.
5. Faults, already known, need not be mentioned.
6. No Man ought to be forced into a Contract by Fear.
7. In Gainful Contracts, Equality does not take place.
8. In a Chargeable Contract, nothing is presumed to be
9. An Emergent Inequality how to be remedied.
10. Whether in, Buying and Selling, the Parties may,
naturally, over-reach one another.
Of Gainful Contracts in
Sect 1. A Commission, what?
2. How religiously observed by the old Romans.
3. The Agent ought to apply his utmost diligence.
4. How far He is to be indemnified in the Discharge of it.
5. Whether a Commission can be satisfied by an
6. Of a Loan, and what it differs from a Grant at
7. Of a Charge.
Of Chargeable Contracts in
particular, and of' Bartering, Buying and Selling.
Sect. 1. Of Bartering.
2. When the Contracts of Buying and Selling is
3. To whom the Profit, or Damage of the thing belongs between
the Contract and the Delivery
4. Of Pacts usually added to this sort of Contract.
5. What Obligations the Buyer and Seller owe one to
6. Of the Purchase of Hope.
7. Of Monopolies.
Of Renting and
Sect. 1. What Renting and Hiring has in common with
Buying and Selling.
2. Where the Use of the thing is determined, the Loss is to the
3. Where undetermined and uncertain to the Tenant.
4. Whether the Hire for Labour can justly be exacted of
several, at the same time.
Of the Loan of a Consumable
Sect. 1. The Loan of a Consumable Commodity, what?
A Consumable Commodity, what?
2. The Use of such a Commodity twofold.
3. What things are generally the Subject of such a Loan.
4. Of a Tacit Loan.
5. Whether the Loan of a Consumable Commodity be an
6. What if a Change happens in the intrinsick Goodness of
7. Or in the extrinsick Value?
8. The Traditions of the Jews concerning Usury.
9. Usury she'w'd not to be repugnant to the Laws of Nature.
10. The Arguments on the other side answer'd.
11. Contracts, equivalent to Usury, allowed of by our
12. Evasions found out, in several places, to avoid the Scandal
Sect 1. How many sorts of Partnership.
2. Money and Labour may be joined together several ways.
3. An Irregular Partnership.
4. Where the Parties communicate all they are worth.
Of Contracts that depend
Sect. 1. Contracts which depend upon Chance.
2. Take place as well in Peace,
3. As In War.
4. Of Wagers.
5. Of Gaming.
6. Of Raffling.
7. Of Lotteries.
8. Of Insuring.
Of Accessory Pacts.
Sect. 1. Accessory Pacts, two Sorts.
2. The several Sorts of Additional Pacts.
3. An Additional Pact against Good Manners is Null.
4. Sometimes an Additional Pact changes the Form of the
5. Pacts added immediately upon the Completion of the Contract
are, cæteris paribus, valid.
6. A Pact added to a Contract some time after its completion,
if it be Negative is made in favour of the Defendant.
7. If it be Affirmative, how far it may be valid.
8. Of a Trust.
9. The Surety cannot be obliged to more than the
10. But yet may lie under a stricter Obligation.
11. What favour the Law allows a Surety. 12. Of Bail.
13. The Use of Pawns.
14. Some Pawns yield increase, some not.
15. Whether Pawns may become properly by Prescription.
16. The difference between a Mortgage and a Pawn.
By what means Obligations
founded upon Compact may be dissolved.
Sect 1. The most natural way to dissolve an Obligation is to
perform the Covenants.
2. What if a Man pays a Debt for another without his
3. To whom payment must be made.
4. What must be paid.
5. Compensation, between whom to be put in practice:
6. Where to take place.
7. An Obligation may be discharged by Release.
8. How far an Obligation may be discharg'd by Mutual Dissent.
9. An Obligation ceases, upon the perfidiousness of either
10. As also upon the Change of the State on which the Obligation was
11. How far Time may put a Period to Obligations.
12. What Obligations cease by Death.
13. Of Delegation.
14. Of Confusion.
15. Of Novation.
Sect 1. The Reason of this Method.
2. The necessity of a right Interpretation.
3. Words are to be understood generally in the most popular
4. Terms of Art, according to the Definitions of the learned in each
5. Conjectures are necessary, when the words are either
6. Or Inconsistent, or seemingly so.
7. These Conjectures may be taken either from the Subject
8. Or the Effects:
9. Or the Circumstances.
10. How the Reason If the Law may lead us into the sence of
11. Some words have sometimes a more strict, sometimes a
more loose Interpretation.
12. Some things are Favourable, some Odious.
13. Rules built upon the foregoing Distinctions.
14. An Example, in two arriving together at the Goal
15. How those Words, that One Nation should not wage War
without leave of another, ought to be understood.
16. Of the Words, that Carthage should be free.
17. Conjectures by which the meaning of the Law ought to he
18. Instances where the design of the Law has been evaded.
19. Conjectures, by which the meaning of the Law ought to be
restrain'd; as First, when there is some Original Defect in the Will of the
20. (An Observation upon this Case.)
21. Or Secondly, when some Accident happens inconsistent with his
Design; as rendring it, either Unlawful,
22. Or too Burthensome considering all circumstances.
23. What if two Laws by some chance seem to Clash.
Of the Way of deciding
Controversies in the Liberty of Nature.
Sect 1. What is due to others ought to be discharged
2. No Judge in the State of Nature.
3 Disputes which the Parties cannot compose by Debate are to be
referr'd to Arbitrators.
4. No Pact to be between the Arbitrator, and either
5. Where the Arbitrator has not Authority to decree according
to Equity, he must presume himself tyed up to the Rigour of the
6. 'Tis not enough for the Arbitrator to decree concerning
7. Of Mediators.
8. What if Deeds and Instruments are lost.
9. Of Witnesses.
10. Of putting the Sentence in Execution.
Sect 1. Introduction.
2. Matrimony, the Seminary of Mankind.
3. Whether Men are under one Obligation of contracting
4. Loose and random Amours are repugnant to the Law of
5. Mankind ought to be propagated by the Marriage Covenant
6. What Obligation to Marriage may be introduced by
7. How this Obligation stands with regard to the Law of
8. How far Civil Ordinances may interpose in settling the
whole Matrimonial Affairs.
9. Irregular, or Amazonian Marriages. 10. The Laws and
Rights of Regular Matrimony.
11. The Husband's Authority over the Wife, whence
12. Whether immediately conferred by God.
13. Whether it necessarily include the Power of Life and
14. Whether Consent, and not Bedding, makes a proper
15. For one Woman to admit of several Men, in Marriage, or otherwise,
16. Polygamy (or the having many Wives) the Custom of several
17, 18. Whether contrary to the Law of Nature.
19. The most perfect Order of Marriage, is for One to live
contented with One.
20. The Dissolution of Marriage on slight Occasions, highly
21. Marriage dissolved by Adultery, and by Wicked
22. Whether Intolerable Manners and Humour are a just Reason
23. The Opinions of some Men as to the sence of the Divine Law
24. That of Milton in particular.
25. Natural Ability requisite to the contracting of Marriage.
26. Of Errors in the Matrimonial Covenant.
27. A Woman already join'd in Marriage to One cannot be given to
Another without Sin.
28. Marriage between near Kindred, why forbidden.
29. Of Natural Shame.
30. Of Nakedness.
31. The Author's Judgment concerning the Origine of
32. Marriage between Parents and Children, abominable.
33. The Opinion of the Jews on this Point.
34. Of Marriage between Brothers and Sisters.
35. Of the prohibited Degrees.
36. Of Marriages less regular and solemn.
Of Paternal Power.
Sect 1. The Common Opinion, as to the Origine of Paternal
2. According to Hobbes, the Original Power over the Child is
lodg'd in the Mother:
3. And from Her derived to Others.
4. On what Reasons the Paternal Authority is grounded.
5. How far the Right of the Father is better than that
6. What Degree of Power over the Child, belongs to the
Father, as such:
7. And first, during the time of Infancy and
8. How far, during this Period, Children are capable of
9. Whether a Father may fell his Child.
10. Of the Obligation which Children retain, after they have been
releas'd from their Father's immediate Guidance and Inspection.
11. The Power of Fathers over Children at the Age of Maturity,
in a State of Nature:
12. Under Civil Government.
13. How this Power may be disannull'd.
14. Whether the Consent of Parents is necessary to Children in
Of Despotical Power, or the
Authority of the Master over the Servant.
Sect 1. The Society between Masters and Servants,
2. Servitude not actually established by Nature.
3. Nor immediately ordain'd by GOD.
4. The first Origine of Servitude seems to have been
5. The number of Slaves afterwards increas'd by War.
6. The Obligations of Captives to their Lords
7. Captive Persons in some respect, compar'd to
8. Yet are capable of receiving Injury.
9. Of the Children of Slaves.
10. The Inconveniences necessarily attending Servitude.
11. By what means a State of Servitude may be
Of the Causes and Motives
inducing Men to establish Civil Societies.
Sect. 1. Introduction.
2. Man naturally loves himself more than Company.
3. Yet the Love of Company does not immediately infer the
Love of Civil Society.
4. Many Vices in Man prejudicial to Civil Union.
5. Whether Civil States arose in the World, by Natural
6. Whether Indigence was the Cause of Civil
7. The true Origine of Civil Government.
8. The bare Reverence of the Law of Nature, not sufficient to secure
the Peace of Mankind:
9. Nor the sole Force of Arbitrators; or of Covenants.
10. Difference in Opinion greatly prejudicial to the Peace of the
11. Men need a much more severe Restraint, than the Law of
Of the inward Structure
and Constitution of Civil States.
Sect. 1. Men only are a sufficient Defence against the
Wickedness of Men.
2. To this End it is necessary that many should join
3 Those who join'd in this manner ought to agree in their
4. The Difference between the Polities of Bees and
5. An Union of Wills and of Strength necessary to a
6. This Union produced by intervening Covenants.
7. The First Covenant, with the Decree following upon
8. The Second Covenant, giving the final Perfection to a
9. The Reason for which Hobbes will acknowledge but One
10. This Reason insufficient.
11. 12. Hobbes's Arguments answer'd.
13. A Civil State how defined.
14. In a Monarchy, the Will of the Prince is the
Will of the State.
15. Under other Forms of Government, according to the regular Course,
the Community is concluded by the Votes of the Major Part.
16. This Rule admits of a Limitation.
17. Of Equality of Votes.
18. Of joyning, or dividing Suffrages.
19. How many Persons at least, are requisite to a Ruling
20. Civis, or a Member of a Civil state, who may properly be so
21. Subordinate Bodies, of how many kinds. 22. Invested with
what Rights and Priviledges.
23. Of Unlawful Bodies, and Factions.
24. The peculiar Duties incumbent on the Members of Civil
Of the Production of Civil
Sovereignty, or Majesty.
Sect 1. Sovereignty, the Result of those Covenants by which the
Publick Body was first united.
2. This done by the Divine Will and Approbation.
3. Whether the Majesty of Princes is immediately derived from
4. The Arguments which some make use of to prove the
5. Civil Authority not the Effect of War.
6. Whether a Father of a Family may, without any new Act,
commence a Prince.
7. How a Vassal, or Feudatary, may become a
8. Whether a Free State, or a Monarch, resigning their
Power into other Hands, are the Efficient Cause of the Sovereignty
9. Who has properly the Power of conferring the Regal Title.
Of the Parts of Sovereignty,
and their Natural Connection.
Sect 1. In what Sense the Supreme Power may be said to consist
2. The Legislative Power.
3. The Vindicative Power.
4. The Judiciary Power.
5. The Power of War and Peace, and of making Leagues.
6. The Right of appointing Magistrates.
7. The Right of levying Taxes.
8. The Right of examining Doctrines.
9. Government, a more strict Obligation than bare Compact.
10. Who may properly be said to hold a part in the
11. The Connexion of Parts in the Supreme Authority
12. And illustrated.
13. Many are for dividing those Parts:
14. Grotius amongst the rest; whose Opinion is particularly
Of the Forms of
Sect. 1. The Accidents of Civil States cannot
constitute a new Species.
2. Irregular Forms and Systems of Government.
3. The three Forms of Regular Government.
4. Democracy seems to be the most Ancient Form.
5. Democracy no less invested with Supreme Power, than
6. Democracy, how constituted.
7. The ordinary Requisites of Democracy.
8. How Aristocracy is establish'd:
9. And how Monarchy.
10. In Bodies Politick, there may be Vices of Men, and
Vices of State.
11. Yet these compose not a peculiar Species of Government:
12. As neither do the various Accidents of Democracies and
13. Of the mixt Governments, proposed by modern
14. the Nature of Irregular States.
15. This Irregularity best illustrated by
16. States which admit of Provinces do not hence become
17. Of Systems, occasion'd by a Common Prince.
18. Of Systems, composed by League and Confederacy.
19. Of the Communication of Councils and Business in these
20. Whether the greater part ought here to conclude the
21. How these Systems are dissolv'd.
22. The several Forms of Government compared.
Off the Affections, or
Properties belonging to Sovereignty.
Sect 1. How the Ruling Power in a State comes to be styl'd
2. He that is invested with this Power is unaccountable;
3. And above Human Laws.
4. Of the Distinction between Real and Personal
5. That a King may be Superior to a whole People,
6. The Arguments to the contrary refuted.
7. Absolute Government, what.
8. Not occurring alike in all Forms of Civil Establishments.
9. Limited Governments, how occasion'd.
10. Founded on what Covenants.
11. In what respect the different parts of the Government may be
12. Of the Power Of Estates, Senates and Councils.
13. Hobbes answer'd.
14. The various ways of holding the Sovereign Power.
15. A Temporary Sovereignty, whether possible.
16. Of Patrimonial Kingdoms.
17. Of Kings, assumed by the free Act and Grant
of the People.
Of the Ways of acquiring
Sovereignty, especially Monarchical.
Sect 1. The way of acquiring Sovereignty in
Democratical States is uniform.
2. In Aristocracies and Monarchies, various.
3. How far Government may be seiz'd on by just Force.
4. How far by unjust Force.
5. How a Person may he releas'd from the Government of
6. Election, of how many kinds.
7. Inter-regnum, what.
8. And Inter-reges.
9. Hobbes examin'd.
10. The Case of Posthumous Issue, in the Hereditary
11. Of Succession in a Patrimonial Kingdom:
12. Of the same in Kingdoms establish'd by the free Act of the
People: and this either Simply Hereditary.
13. Or Lineal.
14. Or Transverse.
15. Of the Judge of Controversies arising in the Case of
That the Supreme Power is to
be held Sacred in Civil States.
Sect 1. The Supreme Power not to be resisted in lawful
2. Whether a Private Member can suffer Injury from
3. Subjects very prone to unjust Complaints against their
4. How many ways a Sovereign may injure his
5. Whether in the Case of Grievous Injury and Oppression a
Lawful Prince may be resisted.
6. The Name of a Tyrant does not justify the use of
Violence in the Subject.
7. Grotius's Opinion.
8. No Princes are to be held Sacred, but such as are
truly invested with Royal Authority.
9. In what Case an Usurper may be acknowledg'd for a
10. How far the Commands of an Usurper oblige the
Subjects, while their Lawful Sovereign is alive, tho' in
an Exil'd condition.
Of the Duty of
Sect. 1. The Office and Duty of Sovereigns,
whence to be discover'd.
2. The Obligation that Princes have to be, well
instructed in it.
3. The People's Safety is the Supreme Law.
4. The Subjects are to be train'd up in Good Manners.
5. Fit Laws are to be enacted,
6. And put in Execution.
7. Penalties are to be inflicted with Justice and
8. The Subjects are to he restrain'd from Mutual
9. An Able and Honest Ministry is to be imploy'd in
10. Taxes are to be equally laid, and rightly
11. The Wealth of the State is to be
12. Factions to be prohibited.
13. A Sufficient Force to be kept up for the opposing of
Of the Power to direct the
Actions of the Subject.
Sect. 1. Of the Nature of Civil Laws in general
2. Whether a Civil Law may contradict the Natural.
3. Whether the Definition of Crimes is left arbitrarily
to the Determination of the Civil Law.
4. The Precepts of the Decalogue whether Civil
5. Whether any thing Just antecedently to the Civil
6. Whether a Sinful Command of a Superior may at any time be
obey'd without Sin.
7. No Sin lawfully committed upon the Command of a
8. Whether a Subject may lawfully bear Arms in an
Unjust War at the Command of his Prince?
Of the Power of the
Sovereign over the Lives of the Subject for the Defence
of the Commonwealth.
Sect. 1. The Sovereign may hazard the Lives of his
Subjects in War.
2. Whether lawful to refuse bearing Arms upon a Compact
with an Enemy?
3. No Man to make himself unfit to bear Arms.
4. The Obligation of a Souldier what.
5. Whether the Common-wealth may give up an innocent
6. The Common-wealth may deliver up a Subject for
Of the Power of the
Sovereign over the Lives and Fortunes of the Subject in Criminal
Sect. 1. The Power of Life and Death whether and
how transfer'd from particular Men to the Common-wealth.
2. In a Liberty of Nature no humane Punishment.
3. But only in Common-wealth.
4. Punishment what?
5. Punishing to what Species of Justice reducible.
6. That one Man should punish another, not unjust.
7. The Power of Punishing where lodg'd.
8. Human Punishment ought to have some End.
9. The first End of Punishment the Amendment of the
10. Whether Lawful for any Man to correct any?
11. The second End of Punishment, Caution for the
12. The third, the general Security.
13. How far Private Men are allow'd to inflict
14. What Offences it is needless for human Justice
15. Whether lawful at any time to pardon?
16. How far this is lawful antecedently to the Penal Law.
17. How far after it.
18. The Quality of a Crime to be estimated from the
Object of it.
19. And from the Passion that gave the Impulse;
20. And from the Force of the Inclination and
21. And from the Obstinacy and Resolution of the
22. And lastly from Custom and Habit.
23. What to be regarded in determining the Quantity of the
24. The measure of Punishments what?
25. In Punishment the Person of the Sufferer to be
26. The Jewish Law whether an universal adequate measure
27 Of Retaliation.
28. A Corporation or Community, how punish'd.
29. The Crimes of Corporations wear out in Course of
30. Every fatal Evil not an human Punishment.
31. Difference between Dammage suffered directly and by
32. Difference between the Occasion and the Cause
33. No Man to be punish'd for another's Crime.
Of the Power of the
Sovereign in determining the Value of the Subjects.
Sect 1. Esteem defin'd and divided.
2. Simple Esteem Natural.
3. Which may be either Entire,
4. Or Impair'd.
5. Or utterly lost.
6. Simple Esteem Civil lessen'd, or lost, either from a certain
7. Or upon a Criminal Account.
8. No dishonour to refuse to engage in a Duel when the
Laws forbid it.
9. Simple Esteem not dependent upon the Pleasure of the
10. Nor to be sacrific'd for it.
11. Intensive Esteem.
12. The Foundations of it.
13. Whether Power the sole Foundation of
14. An Aptitude only for Honour the Result of
15. What Persons have a Right Of Precedence to Others.
16. Arguments upon which Precedence is pretended to.
17. That of Antiquity examin'd.
18, 19. That of Power, of its Quality, and of
20. One Sovereign Prince not obliged to yield the
Precedence to another.
21. How such Princes might meet, without any Dispute
22. Of Order between Equals.
23. The Power of appointing the Order of the Subjects lodg'd
in the Sovereign.
24. Subjects of different Common-wealths, how compared.
25. Nobility of Birth not from Nature.
26. But from the Institution of Common-wealths.
27. Usually is, and ought to be founded upon Merit.
28. The Nature of the Roman Nobility in the earliest
29. Offices born in the State, the Measure of it
30. What the Nature of the Modern Nobility in the
greatest Part of Europe.
31. Nobility of Blood little regarded in some Places.
32. How far Civil Honours depend upon the
Of the Power of the Sovereign,
both over the Publick Patrimony, and the Estates of Private
Sect. 1. What Power the Prince hath over the Goods of the
Common-wealth, where the Kingdom is his Patrimony.
2. The Subjects do not every where owe the propriety of
their Estates to the Common-wealth.
3. The Sovereign may make Laws to direct the Subjects
in the Use of their Goods and Estates.
4. And also impose Taxes upon them.
5. What to be observ'd in the Imposition of Customs:
6. And other Taxes.
7. Of the Sovereign or Transcendental Propriety.
8. What Power the Prince hath over the Goods that
belong to the Common-wealth as such.
9. Of the Alienation of the Kingdom, or any part of it.
10. A Prince cannot make his Kingdom a Fief, or Mortgage it,
without the Consent of his People.
11. Nor Alienate any thing incorporated in the Crown.
Of the Right of
Sect 1. The Division of what follows in the Chapter.
2. Peace the ordinary proper State of Man; War extraordinarily
indulged by Nature.
3. War either Offensive or Defensive.
4. The Causes of War ought to be manifest.
5. The Unjust Causes of War recounted.
6. Fraud lawful against an Enemy.
7. How far violence may be lawfully used against an
8. In a Common-wealth particular private Men lose their
Right of War.
9. War either solemn or less solemn.
10. A Magistrate as such hath no Right to make War.
11. Whether he may make War upon a Presumption of his Prince's
12. How far an Injury, done by a Subject, may give Reason for
a War against the Common-wealth.
13. Of the equity of Reprizals.
14. For whom we may justly make War.
15. Of the Declaration of War.
16. Of the Liberties commonly used in War.
17. Of the Liberties used upon the Person of an Enemy.
18. Whether lawful to kill an Enemy by Assassines?
19. Things Sacred not exempt from the Liberties of
20. Things, how acquired in War.
21. To whom the Acquisitions of War belong.
22. Things incorporeal, how far acquired in War.
23. A Loan, whether acquirable in War.
24. Dominion over the Conquer'd, how many ways acquired.
25. Things lost in War, how recovered.
26. Whole Nations, how restored to Liberty,
Of Compacts that relate to
Sect. 1. The Division of Compacts that presuppose War.
2. Compacts that have no Tendency to remove the War, whether
3. A Truce, what.
4. Of the Duration of Truces.
5. A Truce leaves the Dispute, the War began upon,
6. No need of a new Declaration of War when the Truce
7. Truces contracted and made by express Compact.
8. Of the Beginning and End of Truces.
9. The Subject when obliged by Truces.
10. What Liberties a Truce allows, and what forbids.
11. Whether a Man, taken in an Enemy's Country, and forcibly
detain'd, may be kept Prisoner after the Truce is expired.
12. What ensues upon Violation of the Truce.
13. Of Compacts that relate to safe Conduct.
14. Of the Redemption of Captives. 15. Of the
Compacts of Generals.
16. Of the Compacts of Private Persons, in War.
Of Compacts that restore
Sect. 1. Whether Compacts of Peace are invalidated by
an Exception of Fear.
2. Whether a Peace made with Rebels is valid.
3. How far, upon a Pacification, the Goods of Private Subjects may be
4. The Term limited for the Performance of the Conditions
of Peace, to be strictly interpreted.
5. How if a Peace be refer'd to the Decision of the
6. An Hostage succeeding his Prince can be no longer
7. Of the Mediators of Peace.
Sect 1. The Division of Leagues.
2. Leagues that establish nothing but what was due by the Laws of
3. Equal Leagues which, and what Sorts of them.
4. Of Unequal Leagues.
5. Of Two Confederates, which a Third ought to
6. Leagues Real, or Personal.
7. Which may he distinguish'd either by particular,
8. Or general Marks.
9. Whether Exil'd and Deposed Princes can have the Benefit of
10. Future Allies, whether comprehended under the Name of Allies
11. Leagues not to be supposed to be tacitly renewed.
12. What Obligations lie upon the Engagers, when their
Engagements are not own'd and confirm'd.
13. An Engagement whether ratified by the Silence of the
Promiscuous Compacts of Sovereign
Sect. 1. The Division of the Chapter.
2. How far a Prince may restore himself to his Right, when injured
in Compact by a Foreigner.
3. How far, when by his own Subjects.
4. The Contracts of Princes, how far exempted from the
5. A Prince cannot dispence with any valid Oath he hath taken.
6. How far a Subject may have an Action against his Prince
upon Matter of Contract.
7. The Contracts of the Subject liable to be over-ruled
by the Transcendental Propriety.
8. How far Successors are obliged by the Contracts of
9. The Grants and Donations of Princes whether
By what Ways a Man may
cease to be a Subject.
Sect 1. A Man ceases to be a Subject when his Prince
dies without a Successor.
2. Or, if he Removes out of the Common-wealth.
3. What to be observ'd in such a Remove.
4. Whether lawful to remove in great Companies.
5. Whether lawful to counterfeit a Refuge.
6. Whether the Common-wealth may eject a Subject when
it pleases, without Reason.
7. Of Banishment.
8. A Man is depriv'd of the Privileges of a Subject
when over-power'd by an Enemy.
9. Whether a Subject surrendr'd to an Enemy, and not
accepted, continues a Member of the Common-wealth.
Of the Changes and
Desolution of the Common-wealth.
Sect 1. The People continue the same, tho' the Form of
the Common-wealth be changed.
2. The Debts of the Common-wealth not discharg'd by
a Change in the Form of it.
3. The Acts of an Usurper how far valid after
his Government is expir'd.
4. What Place a Common-wealth may Challenge after a
Change in it.
5. One Common-wealth may divide into more.
6. More may unite into One.
7. The People, how eternal?
8. How the Materiale of the People may be
9. How the Formale.