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Harcourt
School Publishers

Karen Bennett
Vice President, Sales Administration

August 6, 2002
Dr. Robert H. Leos
Attn: Formal Responses — July 2002
Texas Education Agency
Division of Textbook Administration
1701 North Congress Avenue — Room 3-110
Austin, Texas 78701

Dear Dr. Leos:

Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the Written Comments dated July 17, 2002, Oral Testimony dated July 17, 2002, and Texas Public Policy Foundation report generated as a result of the Texas social studies adoption under Proclamation 2000.

We have enclosed Harcourt School Publishers' Formal Responses to the comments and testimony concerning our social studies program, Harcourt Horizons. Our Formal Responses are provided in hard copy and in electronic format on disk. Should other formats be required, please contact us.

We look forward to working with you during your adoption process. Should you have any questions, please don't hesitate to contact me at (407) 345-2003.

Sincerely,

http://cdn-2.constitution.org/reform/us/tx/textbook/har_02806-2.jpg

Karen Bennett

KB/jb
Enclosures (2)

www.harcourtschool.com

6277 Sea Harbor Drive Orlando, Florida 32887 Tel 407-345-2003 Fax 407-345-3322

1175 N. Stemmons Freeway Lewisville, Texas 75067 Tel 800-426-6577 or 972-459-6101 Fax 800-277-4707 or 972-459-6102

A Harcourt Classroom Education Company


FORMAL RESPONSE TO
THE TEXAS PUBLIC POLICY FOUNDATION REPORT
Harcourt School Publishers

PETITIONER'S COMMENTS

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 1

p. 117. The authors imply that immigration has resulted in the growth in the number of religious groups in the United States. This is misleading. The addition of Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism as well as other religious traditions does add religious diversity but in fact the growth in the number of denominations is in small Protestant denominations, over 30,000 and counting with much of this growth coming in the past two decades. The author's grasp of religion and its impact on culture is weak.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 2

pp. 290-91. Errors exist in the time-line. Invaders threatened the Roman Empire not in the AD 100s, but in the AD 400s. The Empire was strong and expanding in the 100s under the influence of the "Good Emperors." See any good history of Ancient Rome. Also the process of nation-building in Europe substantially predates the 1500s. Spain, Portugal, England, France, Poland, etc. had national identities going back centuries before this.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 3

p. 304. The authors imply that ethnic tension caused WWII. However, the main issues had more to do with economic grievances, nationalism generally and the growth of fascist and Nazi ideology which exploited nationalist grievances. The idea that Joseph Stalin feared military invasion from the West is highly dubious.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 4

p. 269-271. The history of Western Europe is badly short-changed, starting with the Ancient Greeks who get a scant few sentences, despite the rich contribution to political science, philosophy, history, natural science, rhetoric, poetry, art, theater, architecture, mathematics, and etc. There is no mention of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc. There is no discussion of the differences between Republican and Imperial Rome. No great Roman Emperors are mentioned.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 5

p. 283. The language implies that the ECSC became the EC, which isn't quite accurate. The EC was established by the Rome Treaty of 1956. This expanded the common market from the ECSC, which continued to exist, into energy, agriculture and other manufacturing sectors.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 6

Error at p. 32. Authors say that lines of latitude are farthest apart at the equator. They mean, one supposes, lines of longitude.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 7

p. 502. Most governments and UN agencies involved in food aid avoid giving aid in ways that reduce local incentive to production. The problem cited by the authors is not imaginary, but it is overstated.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 8

p. 502. The reference to the ill effects of food aid is welcome, but most governments and UN agencies avoid dumping excess food into emergency areas. Food aid, they authors say, doesn't help much. But it most certainly has saved many lives. It also shows humanity, concern, and generosity of the US and other aid donors. Famine today is closely associated with civil wars. The authors fail to note this.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 9

p. 285-86. The discussion of monarchy in connection with Europe ignores the fact that kings for much of the Middle Ages claimed no right to absolute rule.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 10

p. 287. The diagram of the German government leaves the mistaken impression that Germany has a separation of powers system like the United States. But Germany is a parliamentary democracy. The Chancellor is not only head of government but leader of the majority part in parliament. There is a fusion, not a separation of executive and legislative powers.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 11

p. 69. The background section lumps women and slaves together as having no political rights in Athens. However, Athenian born women were considered citizens of Athens and they ran the households.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 12

p. 70. The implication that English kings before 1215 had absolute authority is not true. Custom and canon law restrained monarchial authority in England as elsewhere during the Middle Ages.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 13

p. 487. The totalitarian regime established by Haile Mengistu Miriam was a personal communist state, not an Islamic one.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 14

p. 116. The authors seem to imply by their treatment of and emphasis on discrimination, especially toward women in the United States and by their emphasis on discrimination against Roma in Europe, that Western democracies have a special problem with discrimination. But these countries in fact were among the first to extend voting rights to women and to look upon discrimination as a matter worthy of governmental regulation and policy-making. The openness and responsiveness of Western democracies is the real story, in contrast to the slowness of other forms of government to extend even minimal rights to anybody.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 15

p. 422. The authors claim that North African Muslims suffered under European colonialism, while Europe collected all the profits. But this ignores the new jobs, education, investment and modern medicine and the like that European rule brought.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 16

p. 505. The treatment on the Hutu/Tutsi problem in Rwanda is misleading. Germany and later Belgium didn't simply give power to the Tutsis. They found Tutsis mainly in control. The colonial powers recognized a certain existing Tutsi supremacy in political life, and then cemented it in place. They also exacerbated the divisions through colonial policy, so there is some responsibility. The main Tutsi refugee flow from Rwanda occurred at independence in 1962. These Tutsi refugees, having fled mainly to Uganda, formed the backbone of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) that invaded Rwanda in the early 1990s to topple the Hutu regime. The Hutus began the genocide against Tutsi after the death of the Hutu President Habyarimana, who was seeking reconciliation with the RPF. The RPF responded by expelling the extremist Hutu government which, using scare tactics, in turn encouraged all Hutus to flee or be killed by the RPF. Around a million Hutus fled into neighboring countries, although most returned safely to Rwanda by 1997 as stability was restored by the Tutsi-dominated RPF. For details on all of this see Gerard Prunier. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (NY: Columbia, 1995).

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 17

p. 537. On what empirical basis do the authors judge that Indians at the bottom of the caste system have tried to escape injustice by becoming Christians? How can such a motive be ascribed? Isn't it possible that Hindus become Christians for reasons other than economic self-interest? Can a Hindu escape the caste system by becoming a Christian? The authors need to be more careful in making assertions of this sort.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 18

At p. 319 All Saints Day is presented in the Heritage sidebar as a kind of ancestor worship. Nowhere in the text have the authors even defined what a saint is, namely a holy person, specifically those canonized by the Catholic Church. All Saints Day is a Holy Day not just a secular holiday in Catholic countries. Its purpose is not to "honor people from the past," but specifically to remember models of Christian charity and holiness. All Souls Day is on November 2. It remembers all those who have died, not just saints. This sidebar, then, is badly misleading and poorly written. It converts a Catholic holy day into some kind of animist or Buddhist ancestor worship, a notion alien to Christianity.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 19

p. 469 The railroad tracks in colonial Africa always ran north/south, the authors claim. This is inaccurate. What can be accurately said about colonial tendencies, was that roads and railroads were built from coastal areas to the interior, and sometimes this meant that they ran east/west. This is an example of sloppy language and presentation.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 20

Events of September 11, 2001 are not addressed. This is a must for a textbook that is going to be in use for at least 7-8 years.


PUBLISHER'S RESPONSES TO THE TEXAS PUBLIC POLICY FOUNDATION

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 1

p. 117. The petitioner correctly states that the greatest growth in the number of religious groups in the United States is attributed to the growth in the number of Protestant denominations. The publisher will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to change the sentence in question to read "As more people have moved to the United States from other places in the world, the number of people who practice some of these religions has grown."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 2

pp. 290-291. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the time line is in error. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the date on the time line on page 290 has been corrected to read "A.D. 400s" instead of "A.D. 100s." The reference information for A.D. 1500 on page 291 has been corrected to read "Nation-states formed in Western Europe."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 3

p. 304 [303]. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that students may incorrectly infer that ethnic tensions caused World War II. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the last paragraph on page 303 has been rewritten to read: "Following World War I, countries all over Europe faced serious economic problems. Europeans also began taking tremendous pride in their own nation. These factors contributed to the start of World War II."

The publisher also agrees with the petitioner's concern about the statement referring to Joseph Stalin's fear of military invasion. With the permission of the Texas Education Agency, the publisher will change the text in question to read "This happened because the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, feared invasion from noncommunist countries. Stalin cut ties to countries outside his control."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 4

pp. 269-271. The publisher agrees with the concern of the petitioner that adding more information about Western Europe has merit. However, the major focus of the Grade 6 curriculum is the study of people and places in contemporary world regions, not world history. The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 6 Social Studies do not require coverage of such topics as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire, and Roman emperors. The information is covered in detail in Grade 10.

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 5

p. 283. The petitioner correctly points out that the ECSC did not actually change into the EU. However, with the permission of the Texas Education Agency we would like to address the petitioner's concern for clarity by rewriting the first paragraph on page 283. It will read: "This first postwar, or after the war, common market in Western Europe was called the European Economic Community (EEC). Six nations belonged to the EEC — Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Later, the EEC joined together with two other economic groups to form a new group that became known as the European Community (EC). Over time, the EC expanded to include Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 6

p. 32. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the description of latitude and longitude is in error. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the sentence will now read: "Lines of longitude are farthest apart at the equator."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 7

p. 502. The publisher understands the concern of the petitioner regarding the problems of food distribution. It also agrees with the petitioner's comments regarding food distribution. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the information has been changed. It will now read: "Food sent from the United States and other countries has saved many Africans from starvation. In the past, however, there have been problems getting food to those who needed it most/Government officials in some African countries stole food intended to help their people. Others refused to give the food to their citizens because of disagreements with the countries that donated it. Also, food donations sometimes lessened the amount of food grown on farms in African countries. Some farmers saw no reason to plant crops when food was being given away. Today, most groups that distribute food take steps to avoid these problems."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 8

p. 502. The publisher agrees with the petitioner concerning the inclusion of the ill effects of food giving. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the text now includes the sentence "Food sent from the United States and other countries has saved many Africans from starvation."

The petitioner also notes that the publisher has not included information about famine today being closely associated with civil war. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that such information would be useful to students as they learn about food shortages in Africa. The publisher will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add a sentence about African civil wars causing groups of people to go hungry.

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 9

pp. 285-286. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the reference to absolute rule may be misleading. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the third sentence in the first paragraph on page 286, "They no longer rule with absolute authority," has been changed to "Most of these nations do not allow their monarchs much authority."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 10

p. 287. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the chart of German government as presented on page 287 might be unclear to some readers. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the Analyze Diagrams caption that appears below the chart has been expanded to include the following information: "Germany's government is similar to Canada's parliamentary democracy. The chancellor is elected by a majority of the Bundestag."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 11

p. 69TE The petitioner is correct in saying that the Background feature that appears on page 69 of the Teacher's Edition states that women and slaves had no political rights in Athens and does not mention that women were considered citizens and ran the households. The publisher will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add information explaining that women were considered citizens of ancient Athens, that men's and women's roles differed, and that slaves had no political rights.

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 12

p. 70. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the reference to absolute authority may be misleading. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the second sentence in the first paragraph has been changed. It had read: "At one time, the monarch of England had absolute authority to rule however he or she chose." It will now read: "At one time, the monarch of England had authority to rule however he or she chose." The first sentence of the second paragraph has been changed as well. The sentence originally read: "The Magna Carta was a list of rights that for the first time in history cut back the complete control of a monarchy." It will now read: "The Magna Carta not only listed rights of England's upper class but also limited the power of the monarchy."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 13

p. 487. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the totalitarian regime established by Haile Mengistu Miriam was a personal communist state, not an Islamic one. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the last sentence of the text on page 487 has been rewritten to read: "Then a totalitarian government established a command economy and made Ethiopia a communist state."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 14

p. 116. The publisher wishes to assure the petitioner that neither the publisher nor its authors intended to imply that only Western democracies have a special problem with discrimination, especially in regard to women. A discussion regarding the lack of women's rights in non-Western cultures appears on page 383 in the chapter on Southwest Asia and on pages 539-540 in the chapter on South Asia. The publisher also wishes to point out that Harcourt Horizons: World Regions does address the openness and responsiveness of Western democracies to extend voting rights to people who previously did not have them. The Democratic Values feature on Individual Rights on page 69 addresses this topic.

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 15

p. 422. The concern of the petitioner regarding the good that European colonialism had for North Africa has merit. The petitioner correctly points out that colonialism had some benefits for North Africans, which the publisher states on page 425: "Before Europeans arrived in North Africa, the region had no national economies." Pages 425-426 go on to describe the growth of national economies in North Africa and their resulting benefits.

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 16

p. 505. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the treatment of the Hutu/Tutsi problem in Rwanda is misleading. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the information about the Hutu and Tutsi has been rewritten to read: "For centuries the Hutu and the Tutsi lived side by side in what is now Rwanda. Yet they did not govern the area equally. The Tutsi ruled the Hutu, even though the Hutu outnumbered them. At the end of the 1800s, Rwanda came under European control. First Germany and then Belgium ruled Rwanda. During this time the Tutsi were allowed to maintain power over the Hutu. However, the Hutu began to seek a voice in government. Fighting broke out. In 1962 Rwanda became independent, with the Hutu as the rulers. Conflict between the two groups continued on and off during the rest of the 1990s. Both groups wanted to lead Rwanda. Finally, the year 2000 brought peace. Today both the Hutu and the Tutsi take part in Rwanda's government." The section review has been rewritten to read: "What is one reason why the Hutu and the Tutsi fought in Rwanda?"

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 17

p. 537. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the probable reason for some Hindus becoming Christian is inaccurately stated. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the third paragraph on page 537 has been rewritten to read: "Many people at the bottom of the Hindu caste system have chosen to become Christians. However, Christians in India and some other parts of south Asia suffer discrimination and sometimes violence."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 18

p. 319. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the information about All Saints' Day is inaccurately stated. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the title of the Heritage feature on page 319 has been changed to "All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day." The paragraph has been rewritten to read: "On November 1, Catholic people in Eastern Europe and countries around the world pay tribute to saints. All Saints' Day is a day to remember models of Christian charity and holiness. November 2, All Souls' Day, is a day to remember all those who have died, not just saints. Today many people mark these days by going to mass, the main religious ceremony of Catholic people, and by visiting the graves of loved ones."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 19

p. 469. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the information stating that railroad tracks in colonial Africa almost always ran north/south is inaccurate. The publisher will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to change the text to convey the fact that the tracks almost always ran between the African coast and the interior of the continent.

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 20

p. 119. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the events of September 11, 2001 should be addressed. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the following changes on page 119 have been made.

1. Change section heading "Americans Celebrate as One" to "Americans Join Together."

2. Replace paragraph 1 with "Americans unite to celebrate holidays. Like its people, the national holidays of the United States have many origins. Some, such as Thanksgiving Day, Memorial Day, and Independence Day, cause Americans to remember important events in their nation's history. Others, such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Day and Presidents' Day, honor national leaders past and present."

3. Replace paragraph 2 with "Sad times also bring Americans together. On September 11, 2001, the United States suffered a horrible act of terrorism, or the deliberate use of violence to promote a cause. Terrorists hijacked, or illegally took control of, four airplanes. They crashed two planes into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Another plane hit the Pentagon near Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Thousands of Americans died on that tragic day."

4. Replace paragraph 3 with "Ordinary citizens became heroes as they rushed to help in whatever way they could. At the same time the United States government declared war on terrorism and vowed to prevent future attacks. These actions helped ensure that the country, and the world, would remain safe and free."

5. Change section review question from "What are two holidays that celebrate the achievement of American leaders in the past and present?" to "Why did the United States declare war on terrorism?"

6. Replace photograph.

7. Replace photo caption with "Twin beams of light shine in memory of the twin towers of the World Trade Center."


FORMAL RESPONSE TO WRITTEN COMMENTS,
JULY 17, 2002
Harcourt School Publishers

PETITIONERS' COMMENTS

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 1

4. Lines of latitude are farthest apart at the equator. Wrong object — Lines of longitude are farthest apart at the equator. Grade 6 World Cultures, Harcourt, page 32

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 2

12. Haile Mengistu established an Islamic state. Inaccurate statement — The totalitarian regime established by H. Mengistu was communist not Islamic. Grade 6 World Cultures, Harcourt, page 487.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 3

21. The timeline indicates invaders threatened the Roman Empire in AD100. Inaccurate dateInvaders threatened the Roman Empire in AD 400. Grade 6 World Cultures, Harcourt, page 290.

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 4

6. "The writer [reviewer] would like to see elaboration of the Holiday Activities section regarding individual and community celebrations to include President's [sic] Day, Memorial Day, Veteran's [sic] Day, MLK Day, Flag Day and/or Independence Day. There is no reason to minimize patriotic holidays in favor of cultural celebrations. The writer is not arguing against cultural celebrations but FOR emphasis on patriotic ones." Harcourt, Grade 6 World Cultures, page 119, Lucille Kirkham

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 5

14. "The authors seem to imply by their treatment of and emphasis on discrimination, especially toward women in the United States and by their emphasis on discrimination against Roma in Europe, that Western democracies have a special problem with discrimination. But these countries in fact were among the first to extend voting rights to women and to look upon discrimination as a matter worthy of governmental regulation and policy-making. The openness and responsiveness of Western democracies is the real story, in contrast to the slowness of other forms of government to extend even minimal rights to anybody. Religious discrimination in U.S. history, especially against Catholics, by contrast gets no mention. How do the U.S. and European democracies compare to overtly abusive non-democratic systems along these lines? A comparative analysis is required by TEK 13C? On this the authors are silent." Harcourt Grade 6 World Cultures, page 116, Dr. Robert Gorman

Esther Read
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: Texas, Grade 4

My concern today is based not so much on "the commission of sin" as much as "the omission of sin" as they say. I am more concerned with what was left out rather than what information is included. And I saw this oversight in more than one textbook.

I am referring to the chapter on the Alamo in the 4th grade Harcourt textbook which teaches Texas history to our citizens, although the same omission is obvious [in] other 4th grade social studies textbooks. I am speaking of the omission of the names of the Defenders of the Alamo.

Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 1

p. 4, top [in Time for Kids: Texas Extra!]. The earliest Texas N[a]tive Americans were 13,500 years Before Present, not 11,000 B.P.

Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 2

"many" experts. Be more specific, and give the other side. "Many" implies "not all." What do others say?

Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 3

The book should mention the two theories now current, that the proto-Indians came over the Bering Strait when the water level was lower, and/or that some came to the East Coast from Europe, thousands of years ago.

Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 4

Although the book did mention the Spaniards in Texas, not one word was said about Mexican-Americans, who've been here for centuries. Some of them fought by the side of Anglo Texans to defeat Santa Anna. So don't ignore them.

Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 5

p. 3 and others. Too many photos of white men doing things. Change some of these photos to depict minorities and women doing things. White men are only 25% of the population!

Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 6

p. 67 On when Egyptians developed writing. The book says 3,000 B.C., but it actually was 4,500 B.C.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 1

Pg. 310 has a total of four (4) paragraphs dedicated to over 5000 African-American participants in the Civil War.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 2

Pg. 311 has a total of four (4) paragraphs devoted to women.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 3

Pg. 402 talks about the massacre at the Alamo and makes the Mexican soldiers sound evil, but there is no mention that the Alamo was initially a Mexican fort.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 4

Pg. 407 has one page dedicated to the War with Mexico (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo).

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 5

Pg[s]. 585-589 are the pages that are dedicated to the Civil Rights Movement.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 6

This is a textbook that might be in our high schools starting in the fall.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 7

This same textbook has a total of twenty-six (26) pages dedicated to minorities and women.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 8

The two men that are talked about in the textbook as Civil Rights leaders are: Dr. Martin Luther King and Cesar Chavez. A small credit for Rosa Parks but there is no mention of the political party La Raza Unida or the Synica [sic] Falls Convention.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 9

There is also no mention [of] literacy testing, white primaries, or poll taxes. Many of these obstacles kept many potential voters from voting.


PUBLISHER'S RESPONSES TO WRITTEN COMMENTS

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 1

p. 32. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the description of latitude and longitude is in error. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the sentence will now read: "Lines of longitude are farthest apart at the equator."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 2

p. 487. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the totalitarian regime established by Haile Mengistu Miriam was a personal communist state, not an Islamic one. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the last sentence of the text on page 487 has been rewritten to read: "Then a totalitarian government established a command economy and made Ethiopia a communist state."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 3

pp. 290-291. The publisher agrees with the petitioner that the time line is in error. As noted on the publisher's errata list submitted to the Texas Education Agency, the date on the time line on page 290 has been corrected to read "A.D. 400s" instead of "A.D. 100s." The reference information for A.D.1500 on page 291 has been corrected to read "Nation-states formed in Western Europe."

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 4

Since the focus of the Grade 6 curriculum is contemporary world regions, the publisher chose to select holidays for its Holiday Activities section of the World Regions Teacher's Edition that reflect world cultures and support the Grade 6 content. The following patriotic and United States federal holidays are included in the Grade 5 United States History Teacher's Edition: Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas Day, New Year's Day, Inauguration Day, Martin Luther King, Jr., Day, Presidents' Day, Memorial Day, Flag Day, and Independence Day. Patriotic holidays, United States federal holidays, and Texas state holidays in the Grade 4 Texas Teacher's Edition include Labor Day, Stephen F. Austin Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving, Confederate Heroes Day, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Day, Presidents' Day, Texas Independence Day, San Jacinto Day, Emancipation Day, Independence Day, and Lyndon Baines Johnson Day. Holiday activities in the Grade 3 People and Communities Teacher's Edition include Veterans Day, Presidents' Day, Memorial Day, Flag Day, and Independence Day. Patriotic and United States federal holiday activities are also provided in the Teacher's Editions for Grades 1 and 2.

Harcourt School Publishers to Texas Public Policy Foundation
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 5

The publisher wishes to assure the petitioner that neither the publisher nor its authors intended to imply that only Western democracies have a special problem with discrimination, especially in regard to women. A discussion regarding the lack of women's rights in non-Western cultures appears on page 383 in the chapter on Southwest Asia and on pages 539-540 in the chapter on South Asia. The publisher also wishes to point out that Harcourt Horizons: World Regions does address the openness and responsiveness of Western democracies to extend voting rights to people who previously did not have them. The Democratic Values feature on Individual Rights on page 69 addresses this topic.

Harcourt School Publishers to Esther Read
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: Texas, Grade 4

With the permission of the Texas Education Agency, the publisher will add a complete list of the defenders of the Alamo to its textbook. The publisher will also add information on page 200 of the textbook explaining that Juan Seguin raised a company of Tejano soldiers who fought at the Alamo alongside the well-known fighters already mentioned in the text — James Bowie and David Crockett. The publisher will also request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add a Background feature to page 201 of the Teacher's Edition that provides additional information about some of the Tejano soldiers who helped defend the Alamo.

Harcourt School Publishers to Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 1

p. 4. Time for Kids: Texas Extra! The text on this page states that "Scientists have uncovered evidence that there were people in the area of Texas at least 11,000 years ago." In making this statement, the publisher is not saying that Texas Native Americans could not have arrived earlier than 11,000 years ago but that there is significant evidence that Native Americans lived in Texas at least by that time. The following sources help to support this statement: Texas Historical Commission: "About 10,000 B.C., the first Indians arrived in Texas."; The Handbook of Texas: "An unmistakable presence of bone and stone evidence points to human exploratory and colonizing activity in Texas after 11,500 B.P."; The Texas Almanac: "The earliest confirmed evidence indicates that humans were in Texas between 10,000 and 13,000 years ago."; Texas: The Lone Star State by Rupert N. Richardson, Adrian Anderson, and Ernest Wallace states "The evidence of human life in Texas at least 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, however, seems convincing."; People of the Earth by Brian Fagan: "About 9200 B.C. the highly distinctive Clovis culture appeared all over eastern North America, on the Great Plains, and much farther afield."

Harcourt School Publishers to Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 2

p. 4. Time for Kids: Texas Extra! The publisher understands the petitioner's concern that the sentence "Many experts believe that the first people to come to America probably arrived 30,000 to 40,000 years ago" does not identify who these experts were and what other experts think. Because the focus of this page is on the first Texans, the publisher does not feel it is appropriate to devote more space to the first people in North America at the expense of specifically discussing Native Americans in Texas. This information is discussed in detail in Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5, pages 55-90.

Harcourt School Publishers to Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 3

The concern of the petitioner to mention the theories about how people arrived in the Americas has merit. However, the major focus of the Grade 6 curriculum is the study of people and places in contemporary world regions, not United States or world history. Information about the theories of how people arrived in the Americas appears in Harcourt Horizons: Texas, Grade 4, pages 84-85, and Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5, pages 56-59.

Harcourt School Publishers to Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 4

The concern of the petitioner to mention Mexican Americans living in Texas for centuries and contributing to the state's history has merit. However, the major focus of the Grade 6 curriculum is the study of people and places in contemporary world regions, not Texas history. Information about Mexican Americans and their contributions to Texas history appears at Grade 4 of the Harcourt Horizons series as directed by the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 4. Harcourt Horizons: Texas affords students many opportunities to read about Mexican Americans and their contributions to Texas history, including pages 166-169, which discuss of the fall of New Spain and the growth of Mexican Texas; pages 178-179, which describe the deeds of Martín de León; pages 195 and 197-198, which recount the role of Lorenzo de Zavala in early Texas; page 201, which relates the deeds of Juan Sequin [sic] at the Alamo; page 349, which highlights Mexican American leaders from Texas; and pages 412-413, which describe the close relationship between Texas and Mexico.

Harcourt School Publishers to Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 5

The publisher understands the petitioner's request for showing the diversity of the world's population in the photographs that appear in the text. Throughout the book, the publisher has accomplished this, since each unit focuses on a different region of the world and features the people who live there. Among the many examples of diversity in photographs in Harcourt Horizons: World Regions are the photographs on pages 5, 8, 55, 60, 64, 71, 118, 128, 161, 182, 186, 197, 208, 228, 342-343, 354, 374, 381, 384-385, 463, 495, 504, 538-539, 571, 588, 610, 630, 632, 639, and 674.

Harcourt School Publishers to Pat Jackson
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: World Regions, Grade 6
Point 6

Leonard H. Lesko, Ph.D., states that the Egyptians began to use the system of hieroglyphic writing about 3000 B.C. Lesko is the Professor of Egyptology and Chairman, Department of Egyptology at Brown University. He is an expert in Egyptian language and has taught all stages of the language. These include Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian, Demotic, and Coptic. Lesko has authored a number of books, including A Dictionary of Late Egyptian, written from 1982 to 1990.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 1

The publisher's intent was to provide information that supports the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 5: "The student is expected to identify the contributions of significant individuals during the revolutionary period, including Thomas Jefferson and George Washington." and "The student is expected to summarize the contributions of people of selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity." The four paragraphs cited by the petitioner explain the essential roles of both free and enslaved African Americans in the American Revolution and highlight the deeds of Peter Salem, one of at least five African Americans who fought at Concord and who later fought alongside other African Americans at the Battle of Bunker Hill. In previous lessons, on pages 285 and 296, students read about Crispus Attucks and Phillis Wheatley. On pages 463-464, students read about the contributions of African Americans and women in the Civil War, including Robert Smalls, an African American sailor who helped capture a Confederate steamer in Charleston Harbor, and Clara Barton and Sally Tompkins, who worked as nurses. Students learn that African American soldiers fought in almost every major Civil War battle.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 2

The four paragraphs cited by the petitioner explain the general roles of women during the American Revolution and highlight the contributions of specific women, such as Mercy Otis Warren. On page 319, students have the opportunity to read about the contributions of other women during the American Revolution, including the deeds of Mary Slocomb, who joined her husband at the Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, and Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley, who earned the name Molly Pitcher by carrying water to the troops during the Battle of Monmouth. Coverage of involvement by women in the Civil War appears on page 463, where students read about Clara Barton and Sally Tompkins and learn that some women served as spies and fought in battles.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 3

It was not the intent of the publisher or its authors to imply that the Mexican soldiers were evil, and the lesson cited by the petitioner does not refer to the fighting at the Alamo as a massacre. The lesson states that when the Alamo finally fell on March 6, all 189 Texans and their supporters had been killed. On page 403, the textbook states that both Anglos and Tejanos revolted against the Mexican government.

The petitioner's concern that there is no mention that the Alamo initially served as a Mexican fort has merit. The publisher will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add information to page 403 of the Teacher's Edition explaining that the Mexican army occupied the Alamo before Texas soldiers drove the army from San Antonio in December 1835 and that the Texans then occupied the former mission and strengthened its defenses prior to their battle with Santa Anna.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 4

On page 407, students read about the war with Mexico and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which formally ended that war. Students also read about the Mexican Cession, the vast region acquired by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and the Gadsden Purchase, the lands purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. The publisher's goal in including this information is to provide an accurate context for the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 5: "The student understands political, economic, and social changes during the 19th century." The presented information also allows students to identify examples of U.S. territorial expansion, as required by the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 5.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 5

Pages 585-589 highlight the major events and key leaders in the struggle for equal rights in the second half of the 20th century, including the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka; the actions of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott; the work of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; the efforts by American Indians to achieve equal rights; the work of Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and the United Farm Workers; and the expanding roles of women in the workplace. Students can also read about the early Civil Rights Movement on page 535.

With the permission of the Texas Education Agency, the publisher will add a Background feature to page 587 of the Teacher's Edition to provide additional information about the efforts of Hispanic Americans to gain equal rights in the areas of politics, economics, and education. The Background feature will describe the work of the League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC, and will identify Ben Garza, a Mexican American who served as an early president of that organization.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 6

Harcourt Horizons: United States History has been submitted for consideration as a textbook at elementary Grade 5, not high school.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 7

The publisher feels that Harcourt Horizons: United States History provides numerous opportunities for students to read about the contributions of minorities and women in molding American history — from an entire chapter on the lifeways of Native Americans prior to European contact to a description of the diversity found in the United States today. Among the pages detailing the contributions of minorities and women are pages 64-65, which describe some of the major accomplishments of ancient Indian groups; page 145, which relates the work of Bartolomé de Las Casas; page 244, which tells about the work of Olaudah Equiano; page 285, which describes Crispus Attucks's role in the Boston Massacre; pages 311-312, which describe the roles of women in the American Revolution and the work of Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant); page 318, which describes Jorge Farragut's efforts during the Revolutionary War; pages 386-387, which describe Sacagawea's role in helping Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific coast; page 405, which describes Narcissa Prentiss Whitman's role in inspiring other young women to travel west on the Oregon Trail; page 463, which describes the role of Clara Barton and other women during the Civil War; page 479, which lists some of the African American leaders elected during Reconstruction; page 495, which relates the work of Chinese and Irish immigrants in building the transcontinental railroad; page 505, which details the life of Hiram L. Fong, the nation's first Chinese American senator; pages 534-536, which describe the deeds of Jane Addams, Janie Porter Barrett, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Carrie Lane Chapman Catt; page 562, which describes the work of Dr. Charles Drew; and pages 585-589, which identify leaders such as Rosa Parks, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and Sandra Day O'Connor.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 8

In addition to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, and Rosa Parks, Harcourt Horizons: United States History includes references to other Civil Rights leaders, such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, and Dolores Huerta. It also describes the efforts of such Civil Rights organizations as the NAACP, the National Urban League, and the United Farm Workers. The Seneca Falls Convention is described on pages 447-448.

With the permission of the Texas Education Agency, the publisher will add a Background feature to page 587 of the Teacher's Edition to provide additional information about the efforts of Hispanic Americans to gain equal rights in the areas of politics, economics, and education. The Background feature will describe the work of the League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC, and will identify Ben Garza, a Mexican American who served as an early president of that organization.

The publisher understands the petitioner's interest in including the political party La Raza Unida. While space prohibits the publisher from including information about all political parties in the United States, on page 639 Harcourt Horizons: United States History does identify the nation's two main political parties.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 9

The publisher agrees with the petitioner's concern and will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add a Background feature on page 588 of the Teacher's Edition, detailing how literacy testing, white-only primaries, and poll taxes kept many potential voters from voting.


FORMAL RESPONSE TO ORAL TESTIMONY,
JULY 17, 2002
Harcourt School Publishers

PETITIONER'S COMMENTS

Esther Read
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: Texas, Grade 4

My concern today is based not so much on the commission of sin as much as the omission of sin, as they say. I am more concerned with what was left out rather than the information included. And I saw this oversight in more than one book.

I am going to refer right now to the chapter on the Alamo in the Fourth Grade Harcourt textbook, Pages 199, Lesson 3, which teaches Texas history to our citizens, although the same omission is obvious in other Fourth Grade social studies textbooks. And I am speaking of the omission of the names of the defenders of the Alamo. The names of the defenders of the Alamo are not in those textbooks.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 1

This book is a lot more informative than on topics concerning minorities and women than what I was taught while I attended school but it still isn't enough. Overall the book has minimal literature on minorities and women, although the later chapters in the book do contain some literature on minorities and women, such as on Page 310, it has a total of four paragraphs dedicated to African-Americans that participated in the Civil War. Not to mention — there was no mention of the almost 2000 Mexican-Americans that also participated in the Civil War.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 2

On page 311 has a total of four paragraphs that are dedicated to women. And the women's movement.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 3

Page 402 talks about the massacre at the Alamo and makes the Mexican soldiers and Santa Anna sound evil and makes them sound like murderers. But there was no mention that the Alamo was initially a Spanish fort.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 4

Page 407 has one page dedicated on the war — on the U.S. war with Mexico.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 5

And last but not least, page 585 through 589, a total of four pages that are dedicated to the civil rights movement.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 6

The two — the two men that are talked about in the textbook that are civil rights leaders are Dr. Martin Luther King and Cesar Chavez. There is a smidgen of credit for Rosa Parks and no mention of the political party such as La Raza Unida or the Seneca Falls Convention.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 7

There is also no mention of literacy testing, all white primaries, or poll tax. Many of these obstacles which kept many many minorities and women from voting.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 8

This textbook might be in our high school starting this fall.

J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 9

This same textbook that has 640 pages attached to it but less than 40 pages are dedicated to minorities and women.

Mr. Don McLeroy
Concerning the role of the National History Standards in the writing of the
textbooks submitted by all publishers for this adoption.

I would like to know if they had any role or impact [on] the people writing your books, these national standards which the U.S. Senate bipartisan 100 were against it.


PUBLISHER'S RESPONSES TO ORAL TESTIMONY

Harcourt School Publishers to Esther Read
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: Texas, Grade 4

With the permission of the Texas Education Agency, the publisher will add a complete list of the defenders of the Alamo to its textbook. The publisher will also add information on page 200 of the textbook explaining that Juan Seguin raised a company of Tejano soldiers who fought at the Alamo alongside the well-known fighters already mentioned in the text — James Bowie and David Crockett. The publisher will also request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add a Background feature to page 201 of the Teacher's Edition that provides additional information about some of the Tejano soldiers who helped defend the Alamo.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 1

The publisher's intent was to provide information that supports the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 5: "The student is expected to identify the contributions of significant individuals during the revolutionary period, including Thomas Jefferson and George Washington." and "The student is expected to summarize the contributions of people of selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity." The four paragraphs cited by the petitioner explain the essential roles of both free and enslaved African Americans in the American Revolution and highlight the deeds of Peter Salem, one of at least five African Americans who fought at Concord and who later fought alongside other African Americans at the Battle of Bunker Hill. In previous lessons, on pages 285 and 296, students read about Crispus Attucks and Phillis Wheatley. On pages 463-464, students read about the contributions of African Americans and women in the Civil War, including Robert Smalls, an African American sailor who helped capture a Confederate steamer in Charleston Harbor, and Clara Barton and Sally Tompkins, who worked as nurses. Students learn that African American soldiers fought in almost every major Civil War battle.

The publisher understands the petitioner's interest in including information about Mexican American soldiers during the Civil War and will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to change the photograph caption on page 464 to read "African American troops (left) played a key role in support of the Union. Thousands of Hispanic Americans also took part in the war, with some fighting for the Union and others fighting for the Confederacy. Unlike African American soldiers, most Hispanic Americans served in regular army units."

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 2

The four paragraphs cited by the petitioner explain the general roles of women during the American Revolution and highlight the contributions of specific women, such as Mercy Otis Warren. On page 319, students have the opportunity to read about the contributions of other women during the American Revolution, including the deeds of Mary Slocomb, who joined her husband at the Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, and Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley, who earned the name Molly Pitcher by carrying water to the troops during the Battle of Monmouth. Coverage of involvement by women in the Civil War appears on page 463, where students read about Clara Barton and Sally Tompkins and learn that some women served as spies and fought in battles.

The publisher feels that Harcourt Horizons: United States History affords students many opportunities to read about the roles of women in United States history, including information about African American women, women in the Civil War, the employment of women, women in the workforce, and women leaders. Page 535 describes the Women's Suffrage Movement, and page 589 details efforts by women to achieve equal job opportunities and pay.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 3

It was not the intent of the publisher or its authors to imply that the Mexican soldiers were evil or to make them sound like murderers, and the lesson cited by the petitioner does not refer to the Alamo as a massacre. The lesson states that when the Alamo finally fell on March 6, all 189 Texans and their supporters had been killed. On page 403, the textbook states that both Anglos and Tejanos revolted against the Mexican government.

The petitioner's concern that there is no mention that the Alamo initially served as a Spanish [Mexican] fort has merit. The publisher will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add information to page 403 of the Teacher's Edition explaining that the Mexican army occupied the Alamo before Texas soldiers drove the army from San Antonio in December 1835 and that the Texans then occupied the former mission and strengthened its defenses prior to their battle with Santa Anna.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 4

On page 407, students read about the war with Mexico and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which formally ended that war. Students also read about the Mexican Cession, the vast region acquired by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and the Gadsden Purchase, the lands purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. The publisher's goal in including this information is to provide an accurate context for the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 5: "The student understands political, economic, and social changes during the 19th century." The presented information also allows students to identify examples of U.S. territorial expansion, as required by the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 5.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 5

Pages 585-589 highlight the major events and key leaders in the struggle for equal rights in the second half of the 20th century, including the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka; the actions of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott; the work of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; the efforts by American Indians to achieve equal rights; the work of Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and the United Farm Workers; and the expanding roles of women in the workplace. Students can also read about the early Civil Rights Movement on page 535.

With the permission of the Texas Education Agency, the publisher will add a Background feature to page 587 of the Teacher's Edition to provide additional information about the efforts of Hispanic Americans to gain equal rights in the areas of politics, economics, and education. The Background feature will describe the work of the League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC, and will identify Ben Garza, a Mexican American who served as an early president of that organization.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 6

In addition to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, and Rosa Parks, Harcourt Horizons: United States History includes references to other Civil Rights leaders, such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, and Dolores Huerta. It also describes the efforts of such Civil Rights organizations as the NAACP, the National Urban League, and the United Farm Workers. The Seneca Falls Convention is described on pages 447-448.

With the permission of the Texas Education Agency, the publisher will add a Background feature to page 587 of the Teacher's Edition to provide additional information about the efforts of Hispanic Americans to gain equal rights in the areas of politics, economics, and education. The Background feature will describe the work of the League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC, and will identify Ben Garza, a Mexican American who served as an early president of that organization.

The publisher understands the petitioner's interest in including the political party La Raza Unida. While space prohibits the publisher from including information about all political parties in the United States, on page 639 Harcourt Horizons: United States History does identify the nation's two main political parties.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 7

The publisher agrees with the petitioner's concern and will request permission from the Texas Education Agency to add a Background feature on page 588 of the Teacher's Edition detailing how literacy testing, white-only primaries, and poll taxes kept many potential voters from voting.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 8

Harcourt Horizons: United States History has been submitted for consideration as a textbook at elementary Grade 5, not high school.

Harcourt School Publishers to J. Jaime Urbina
Concerning Harcourt Horizons: United States History, Grade 5
Point 9

The publisher feels that Harcourt Horizons: United States History provides ample opportunities for students to read about the contributions of minorities and women in molding American history — from an entire chapter on the lifeways of Native Americans prior to European contact to a description of the diversity found in the United States today. Among the pages detailing the contributions of minorities and women are pages 64-65, which describe some of the major accomplishments of ancient Indian groups; page 145, which relates the work of Bartolomé de Las Casas; page 244, which tells about the work of Olaudah Equiano; page 285, which describes Crispus Attucks's role in the Boston Massacre; pages 311-312, which describe the roles of women in the American Revolution and the work of Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant); page 318, which describes Jorge Farragut's efforts during the Revolutionary War; pages 386-387, which describe Sacagawea's role in helping Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific coast; page 405, which describes Narcissa Prentiss Whitman's role in inspiring other young women to travel west on the Oregon Trail; page 463, which describes the role of Clara Barton and other women during the Civil War; page 479, which lists some of the African American leaders elected during Reconstruction; page 495, which relates the work of Chinese and Irish immigrants in building the transcontinental railroad; page 505, which details the life of Hiram L. Fong, the nation's first Chinese American senator; pages 534-536, which describe the deeds of Jane Addams, Janie Porter Barrett, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Carrie Lane Chapman Catt; page 562, which describes the work of Dr. Charles Drew; and pages 585-589, which identify leaders such as Rosa Parks, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and Sandra Day O'Connor.

Harcourt School Publishers to Mr. Don McLeroy
Concerning the role of the National History Standards in the writing of the
textbooks submitted by all publishers for this adoption

In the development of Harcourt Horizons, the publisher and its authors reviewed many sets of standards, but the ones that influenced the content of its books are the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills and certain other key state and district standards and objectives.