Jennifer Kennelly
Bids & Contracts Manager

McDougal Littell
A HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

909 Davis St., Evanston, Illinois 60201
Telephone: (800) 323-5435, Ext. 3855
Fax: (847) 424-3940

August 6, 2002

Robert H. Leos
Texas Education Agency
Division of Textbook Administration
1701 North Congress Avenue — Room 3-110
Austin, TX 78701

Re: Formal Responses — July 2002 - REVISED

Dear Mr. Leos:

Enclosed please find McDougal Littell's revised "Formal Response to the Texas Public Policy Foundation report." Please discard the copy you received on August 6, 2002, and replace with the enclosed copy.

The "Formal Response to Oral Testimony, July 17, 2002" remains unchanged. Please feel free to call me at (800) 323-5435, ext. 3855 if you have any questions.

http://cdn-0.constitution.org/reform/us/tx/textbook/mcd_02806-1.jpg

cc: Steve Houston, Vice President, State Adoptions National Sales Manager
Molly Goodman, Vice President, Texas Regional Sales Manager


McDougal Littell

Formal Response to Oral Testimony
July 17, 2002

McDougal Littell appreciates the opportunity to respond to the comments made specific to our textbooks in oral testimony at the July 17, 2002, meeting of the State Board of Education. The responses that follow include a capsule summary of the comments made and McDougal Littell's response.

1. Testimony of Eleanor Hutcheson, affiliated with Daughters of the American Revolution:

Transcript page 107: Ms. Hutcheson offered her concern that McDougal Littell did not cover the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo thoroughly, noting that our texts do not mention the "additional 3.5 million paid to settle claims."

Response: Ms. Hutcheson did not identify which McDougal Littell product she was referring to. We assume she was referring to either Creating America: Beginnings to Reconstruction, the Grade 8 U.S. history text submitted to Texas, or to The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century, the Grade 11 U.S. history text.

In Creating America, the Treaty appears as a highlighted vocabulary term on page 394. The text lists the terms of the Treaty as 1) Mexican recognition that Texas was part of the United States, 2) recognition of the Rio Grande as the border between Mexico and the United States, 3) the Mexican Cession and the territory it included, 4) the U.S. agreement to pay Mexico $15 million, 5) the U.S. agreement to pay the $3.25 million of claims U.S. citizens had against Mexico, and 6) the U.S. promise to protect the Mexicans living in Texas and the Mexican Cession. In addition, the text includes a statement about how Mexicans living in the United States reacted to the Treaty. This coverage is both age-appropriate and thorough, given the space constraints of a Grade 8 textbook.

In The Americans, neither the basis for the United States' claim nor the basis for the Mexican claim is given. Nothing is said or implied about the validity of either claim. The text is accurate as is.

Transcript page 108: Ms. Hutcheson's comments are vague because she did not point to specific pages in the texts, but seem to suggest that McDougal Littell's coverage of African-American voting rights is inaccurate. Again, since she did not identify the book she was referring to, we have examined both the Grade 8 and Grade 11 U.S. history books in view of her comments, and the response follows.

Response: Though Ms. Hutcheson did not identify which McDougal Littell product she was referring to, our response is the same for both Creating America: Beginnings to Reconstruction and The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century.

Ms. Hutcheson refers to the book Farewell to the Party of Lincoln, by Nancy Weiss. She quotes Weiss as saying that most African Americans who were able to vote in 1932 voted for Republicans. However, Weiss is only referring to the African Americans who could vote. Only a small percentage of African Americans in the South in the years between Reconstruction and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 were allowed to vote. The text is accurate as is.

Transcript page 109: Ms. Hutcheson questioned the accuracy of a caption under a photograph of child laborers on page 409 of Celebrating Texas.

Response: Ms. Hutcheson is correct. The photo is not of Texas children. They are actually Pennsylvania children. Although the photo does not identify the children as being from Texas, we can see how one might assume that they are. As such, we will change the caption to read as follows (the text in italics is being added to the existing caption, which is shown in regular type):

"In the late 1800s, many children across the United States worked in industry and mining. These children from Pennsylvania mined coal. In 1870, Texas industries employed twice as many children as women. • Why do you think children were employed by Texas industries?"

The existing version of the caption is factually accurate, but the revised version will ensure that there are no misunderstandings. Note that the 1870 U.S. Census stated that 320 children under the age of 16 were employed in manufacturing in Texas (compared to 157 women over the age of 16).

2. Testimony of Thomas Gomez

Transcript pages 136-138: Mr. Gomez offered comments on The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century. In general, he found the text lacking of coverage of Latin American influences in Texas, California, Arizona, and the West. Specifics include concern that Spanish encomiendas and Hispanic civil rights leaders are "barely mentioned," coverage of Cuban immigration and Central

American immigration in the 1980s is weak, and more is needed on Texas leaders.

Response: The Proclamation calls for U.S. History 1877-present; 16th- and 17th-century influences are beyond the scope of the TEKS. Encomiendas are explained on pp. 16-17, but these were a European imposition. The Americans addresses the influence of indigenous Native Americans, Spanish colonists, and enslaved persons brought from the Caribbean. It addresses the influence of Mexico and Mexican-Americans on pages 133-137, 208, 246, 662, and 768-771.

The Americans discusses Latin and Hispanic leaders on pages 225 (Gregorio Cortez), 504 (Pedro Gonzalez), 573 (Company E, 141st Regiment, 36th Division), 662 (Ignacio Lopez), 770 (Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta), 882 (Antonia Hernandez), 844 (Antonia Coello, Daniel Villanueva, Toney Anaya, Robert Martinez, Lauro Cavazos), 875 (Sandra Cisneros), 879 (Ellen Ochoa).

3. Testimony of Lupita Ramirez, college student, University of Texas-Brownsville

Transcript pages 138-141: Ms. Ramirez's comments are directed at Celebrating Texas. Her concern focuses in general on the extent of coverage of Latin American history in the text. Specifically, she identified what she perceives as an inaccurate portrayal of early European contact with Mesoamerica and inadequate representation of the violent conflict between Anglos and Mexicans in the early years following statehood.

Response: Throughout the chapters on European exploration of Texas and the Americas, the text stresses that the explorers were motivated in large part by a quest for riches. The short section on Cortes and the Aztecs ends with the following paragraph:

"The gold and silver Cortes brought back from Mexico made Spanish leaders even more eager to explore New Spain. If they could lay claim to these lands and the riches they held, Spain could become the leader of Europe and the world."

The section on Cortes and the Aztecs of Mesoamerica is quite short, provided only as a foundation upon which to build the discussion of European exploration of Texas. A detailed look at Cortés's war with the Aztecs is inappropriate in a seventh grade Texas history textbook, since it took place entirely within present-day Mexico, not in what is now Texas. As such, no change is needed.

Regarding Ms. Ramirez's comment about the portrayal of early European contact with Mesoamerica and description of the conflict between Anglos and Mexicans following statehood, Chapter 12 discusses Texas's admission into the Union, the war with Mexico, and the creation of the state's present-day boundaries. There is little discussion of civil rights issues in this chapter, with the exception of the question of whether Texas would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. As such, a discussion of Hispanic civil rights would be out of place here.

However, Mexican Americans' struggles for civil rights are discussed at length throughout the text. For instance, on page 450, the section titled "Hispanic Texans" discusses discrimination against Hispanics in the 19th and early 20th centuries. On page 459, there is a discussion of racist activities directed against Hispanic Texans. The section on the Ku Klux Klan on page 469 discusses the Klan's discrimination against Hispanic Texans.

The text describes the efforts of many Hispanic Texans to fight discrimination. On page 480, a biography of Felix Tijerina discusses the founding of the Latin American Club of Harris County, formed to fight injustices against Mexican Americans. Also on page 480, there is a discussion of the founding of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), which worked to overcome both segregation and discrimination. On pages 511-512, we look at Dr. Hector P. Garcia's leadership in the fight for Hispanic equal rights. Dr. Garcia is also one of the "Lone Star Legends" pictured on the book's cover. On page 533, a full-page biography of Henry B. Gonzalez discusses the state senator's efforts to bring equal rights to all, including his bill to abolish the poll tax. State Representative Irma Rangel's biography on page 648 looks at her "Ten Percent Plan," designed to increase the number of minority students admitted to Texas colleges and universities. Page 544 looks at the challenges of bringing basic city services to Texas colonias, while page 545 examines the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund's efforts to get equal school funding to poorer districts.

Ms. Ramirez's final comment about Celebrating Texas requires no response, but is included because it illustrates an important point:

"Chapter 22, covering World War I in the 1920's, the arts, literature, culture, politics, technology, war, business and education are all presented in such diversity that it makes the chapter visually augmented and culturally fascinating; such as the picture of Poncho Villa and the Mexican refugees on Page 457. And on Page 458, the 450 female nurses that enlisted to serve in the armed forces were recognized."

This is the portrait of Texas history that we show: one of cultural diversity, of people from a wide variety of ethnic heritages coming together as Texans to help shape this great state, and we thank Ms. Ramirez for recognizing that.

4. Testimony of Dr. Jose Angel Guiterrez, University of Texas-Arlington

Transcript pages 182-186: Dr. Guiterrez voiced several concerns about World Cultures and Geography, summarized here:

a. Weight of the text, which he claims is close to 10 pounds;

b. The organization of the book by cultural region rather than by continents, and the resulting inclusion of Mexico with Latin America rather than with the United States and Canada;

c. lack of coverage of Spain and its influence;

d. spelling error on page 22 (confusion of "capital" and "capitol")

e. treatment of Puerto Rico as a dependency of the United States and the lack of explanation of what a dependency is (text page 206);

f. inclusion of "The War on Terrorism," the 16-page section at the back of the book covering the World Trade Center attack, which he sees as an "infomercial" for USA Today

Responses:

a. While McDougal Littell shares Dr. Guiterrez's concerns about the weight of textbooks, this book does not weigh 10 pounds. (It actually weighs less than five pounds.) Indeed, it is no heavier than other middle school textbooks submitted by the host of publishers for this Proclamation.

b. Like several of its competitors, McDougal Littell made a conscious decision to organize World Cultures and Geography by cultural region rather than by continent, a pedagogical position set forth and supported by academic research for the past several years. Teaching of basic concepts such as the continents is generally considered part of an upper elementary curriculum. Consequently, for sixth grade students, the teaching of geography is as strongly focused on cultural geography as on physical geography. This offers an enhanced opportunity to encourage an understanding of the unique characteristics of the world's cultures and to foster tolerance for people of all cultures.

This is not a sudden or shocking development, nor is it the "abandonment" of teaching continents. World Cultures and Geography reinforces the concept of continents in several ways. The Atlas in the front of the textbook includes large physical maps of the seven continents, and the map on page 35 to which Dr. Guiterrez refers labels the seven continents that together formed Pangaea. A graph on page 49 shows estimated world populations in 2000 by continent. The locator maps shown on each chapter opener show the world's continents and highlight the region covered in the chapter.

Having said that, we will make the term continent a highlighted key term on page 35 by adding the following copy to the caption in "Dateline": "A continent is a landmass above water on earth." The term will be included in the section assessment on page 40 and in the chapter assessment on page 50. In addition, we will add the term and its definition to the glossary on page R4 and revise the index entry on page R34 accordingly. (Note that this will result in changes to the Teacher's Edition on the same pages.)

A decision was made to create a unique unit on Latin America in order to group together the regions of the world that most reflected Spanish heritage and elements of Spanish culture, including language. Far from being an attempt to segregate Hispanic history from coverage of what Dr. Guiterrez calls the "white countries" (United States and Canada), we felt giving Latin America its own unit gave students an opportunity to trace the development and spread of Spanish culture throughout the region and to develop a sense of the contributions of people of Hispanic heritage across time and space.

c. Rather than focusing on a string of countries and their characteristics, this textbook emphasizes the influences of one country or region on another. This means, then, that there is no country-by-country encyclopedic listing of imports, exports, chief crops, and so forth, for any country, including Spain. However, Spain does appear in the Data File on page 268 and is represented on the maps in the Unit Atlas.

On the other hand, the book does present in some detail the impact of the Spanish arrival in the Americas (pages 173-176). The text describes the arrival of Cortes in 1519, his interaction with Montezuma and the Aztecs, the founding of New Spain, and the changes brought about in daily life because of the Spanish influence. This is an appropriate level of detail for sixth grade students.

d. We apologize for the incorrect spelling of "capitol" on page 22 and will correct the text to say, "State Capitol Building."

e. The U.S. Department of State lists Puerto Rico under its "Dependencies and

Areas of Special Sovereignty." We will edit the text on page 206 to read:

"Puerto Rico became a U.S. dependency, a territory under the control of another nation."

f. "The War on Terrorism" fills 16 pages at the back of the book, not the 50 pages that Dr. Guiterrez attributes to it. We are actually quite proud of our treatment of the tragic events of September 11, believing that it reflects a thorough yet sensitive presentation of facts and interpretations that were available at the time of publication. The material is not "lifted" from USA Today, but is in fact composed of our own written text accompanied by three brief first-hand reporters' accounts. In addition, we were able to include several informative graphics from USA Today that will help students understand what happened that day, and why.

Though, indeed, the USA Today logo appears on several pages of this material, it hardly seems like the "infomercial" Dr. Guiterrez suggests it is. First of all, it is located at the back of the book and is easily skippable by teachers if they so desire. In addition, we deliberately chose not to show the logo on the cover of the textbook, unlike our competitors who advertise partnerships like National Geographic on their covers and throughout their books. In fact, the logo appears in "The War on Terrorism" only at the beginning of the section and on pages where material from USA Today (such as graphics) was used.

For what it's worth, teachers in focus groups in Texas invariably chose McDougal Littell's treatment of these events over those of our competitors.

5. Testimony of Jeffrey Bahlmann

Transcript pages 236-238: Mr. Bahlmann, speaking about World Cultures and Geography, raised the issue as to whether the United States is a democracy or a republic. He believes it is a republic.

Response: To clarify this issue in the text, we plan to make the following changes:

Page 87: We will add the word "republic" under Terms & Names, after "patriotism."

Page 91: We will revise the passage now entitled "Democracy and the Political Process" so that the United States is identified as a republic. The text will read:

"The Political Process in a Democracy and a Republic In a democracy, government receives its power from the people. Democracy is a Greek word that means "rule of the people." In a republic, the people also hold power, but they rule through elected representatives. The United States is a republic. The citizens of a democracy or a republic have the responsibility to take part in the political process. The political process refers to those legal activities through which citizens can change government policy. By becoming involved, citizens demonstrate their patriotism, or love for their country."

Page 95: We will change the first sentence under "Limited and Unlimited Government" to begin, " The constitutional republic of the United States ..."

6. Testimony of John Roland of The Constitution Foundation

Transcript pages 258-261: Mr. Roland addressed the question of whether the Constitution is a "living document" and objected to the term "informal amendment."

Response: We have examined our AP American Government book (Wilson's American Government, 8th Edition) in light of Mr. Roland's comments. We cannot find any of the references he mentions, specifically to "informal amendments." We believe he misspoke when he said "McDougal's American Government," and meant instead to say "Magruder's American Government." (For example, he refers to the Prentice Hall web site as supporting the printed text.) He also says the text of the Constitution in the appendix of the book he is referring to has lines struck out "which seem to indicate" passages that were later amended. This is not true of McDougal Littell's book, which uses italics and footnotes to indicate these changes.

McDougal Littell

Formal Response to Texas Public Policy Foundation Report World Cultures and Geography

McDougal Littell appreciates the opportunity to respond to the comments raised by the Texas Public Policy Foundation regarding World Cultures and Geography. After reviewing the list of comments, we have determined that a number are matters of interpretation; or, in some cases, the comments raise questions about the amount or depth of coverage we have provided regarding specific topics. We believe we have provided full and sufficient coverage of historical information as required by the TEKS, and that our content covers the historical topics, time lines, and themes appropriate to a 6th grade world cultures and geography text. In those cases in which the TPPF has called our attention to a verified factual error, we appreciate their careful review and will revise our text to reflect their recommendations. Comments specific to each point raised by the TPPF follow.

1. Page 89: The statement, "Europeans often took land from Native Americans without paying for it" is accurate. However, to address the concern that Native Americans did not expect formal payment, we propose to modify the sentence to read: "Europeans often unfairly took land away from Native Americans."

To clarify the status of the slave trade in Europe, we propose to change the first sentence in the third paragraph to read: "They had been buying people from slave traders in Africa since the 1500s. "To fit the additional copy, the words "The Africans" in line 5 of that paragraph will be changed to "Those."

2. Page 338: Though it is true that the Marshall Plan was also offered to the USSR and Eastern Europe, only Western Europe accepted and received aid. Space constraints — as well as the level of detail necessary to explain Stalin's position — made it seem more important to inform students as to the end result. However, to clarify, we propose to change the sentence to read, "This plan provided U.S. aid ...."

3. Page 511: To clarify the European role in ethnic conflict in Africa, we propose to change the first sentence in the second paragraph to read: "Europeans also worsened conflicts among ethnic groups."

4. Page 515: We propose to change the first sentence following "Riots and War" to read: "The slave trade and colonial rule had worsened hostility between the ethnic groups in Nigeria."

5. Page 95 (note TRRF list shows page 96, an incorrect page number): The text states that the Iroquois Confederacy "may also have influenced political ideas at the time that the Constitution was drafted." There is enough support among historians for the influence of the Iroquois to justify this statement. Some historians point to Franklin's admiration of the Iroquois and the fact that his Albany Plan had been inspired by Iroquois forms of government. The text is accurate as is.

6. Page 370: The last line of the first paragraph will be corrected to read: "In addition, the Council of Europe's Court of Human Rights protects the rights of all its citizens in whichever member country they live."

This will also cause change on pages 367, 371, R4, R18, and R34. On page 367, the key term in the upper right corner will be changed to "Court of Human Rights." On page 371 in question 1 of the assessment, (f) will be changed to "Court of Human Rights." On glossary page R4, the term will be changed to "Court of Human Rights," and the definition will be changed to read: "the Council of Europe's court that protects ...." The Spanish version of that glossary entry (on page R18) will be corrected to reflect changes in the English version. The index entry on page R34 will be changed to "Court of Human Rights."

7. Page 280: To acknowledge the fact that under certain circumstances women could be considered citizens, the last sentence of the second paragraph will be changed to read: "Women, slaves, and foreign residents could not take part in government."

8. Page 507: To clarify the question regarding democratic rule in African states, the paragraph on this page will be edited to read (brackets show changes):

"Before Europeans came, Africans had varied ways of life under different kinds of governments. Kings ruled great empires like Mali and Songhai. Some states had [aspects of] democratic rule. Some groups had no central government. Some Africans lived in great cities like Timbuktu, while others lived in [small forest villages]. Some were nomadic hunters and some were skilled artists who sculpted masks and statues of wood, gold, or bronze."

9. Page 441: To make it clear that Muslim translations were only one source Europeans used to study ancient texts, we propose to change the sentence, "European scholars could now study the knowledge of the ancient world" to "These translations helped European scholars study the knowledge of the ancient world." In order to fit the few additional words, the word "ancient" has been deleted from the previous sentence so that it now reads, "During the 1100s and 1200s, these texts were translated from Arabic into Hebrew and Latin."

McDougal Littell

Formal Response to Texas Public Policy Foundation Report

Celebrating Texas

We are pleased to have the opportunity to respond to public testimony given on July 17, 2002, about Celebrating Texas, the 7th Grade Texas History program published by McDougal Littell. We are very proud of Celebrating Texas, and are happy that comments about the book were generally favorable. We are also eager to take action to correct any perceived errors that the public might identify in our book.

We were happy that so many Hispanic Texans — particularly young Hispanic Texans — went to such great lengths to participate in the hearing. Hispanics are integral to the history, culture, government, and daily life of Texas, a fact we kept foremost in our minds during the development process of Celebrating Texas. One of the primary authors of the text is Dr. Rodolfo Rocha, Dean of the College of Arts and Humanities for the University of Texas-Pan America. Dr. Rocha, a respected historian and educator, has served on the editorial board for the Mexican-Americans in Texas History Conference and is a member of several historical associations. He has been a consultant to the Institute of Texan Cultures and has trained Texas police officers about cultural diversity. His influence touches every aspect of Celebrating Texas.

The role of Hispanics in Texas history is as essential to Celebrating Texas as it is to Texas history. We agree with the many people who testified that Hispanic contributions to history should not be marginalized by limiting them to various features pulled out here or there. Celebrating Texas fully integrates the role of Hispanics throughout the text. We agree with those who testified that the contributions of Hispanics fighting against Mexico in the Texas Revolution are an important ingredient in understanding and appreciating our great state. Celebrating Texas discusses that role in depth, naming all the Hispanics who bravely gave their lives at the Alamo and also discussing the role of Hispanics in the formation of the new government.

The struggle for Hispanic civil rights is an ongoing theme of Celebrating Texas. Texas leaders in the fight for Hispanic equal rights — including such distinguished Texans as Hector P. Garcia (featured on the book's cover), Felix Tijerina, Henry B. Gonzalez, and Irma Rangel — all receive extended coverage.

Nearly one third of the "Lone Star Legends" — biographies of the people who helped shape Texas — are devoted to Hispanics. Our feature "Celebrating the

Cultures of Texas," which begins our text, features a photo-filled discussion of Hispanic American Cultures.

Beyond that, Celebrating Texas celebrates all the cultures that make up the Lone Star State, with special emphasis on the most influential: Native American, Hispanic American, African American, European American, Middle Eastern, and Asian American. We firmly believe that the full tapestry of Texas cultures should be presented in any Texas history text.

Our responses to the TPPF report on Celebrating Texas follows.

Texas Public Policy Foundation

The Texas Public Policy Foundation had two individuals review Celebrating Texas, Laura McLemore, an archivist for the Austin College Library in Sherman, and Bill Huffman, a teacher of U.S. and Texas history in Katy ISD. TPPF consolidated and combined their written evaluations, and we'd like to respond individually to each of the issues they raised:

Celebrating Texas ©2003

McDougal Littell Responses to Texas Public Policy Foundation's list of issues by book:

TPPF Review Comment McDougal Littell Response
1. 98S, State Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand paid for Columbus' expedition. It would be more accurate to say they sponsored him. Columbus invested a sizeable amount of his own money in the expedition as well.

The current text reads as follows:

"Columbus ... persuaded Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to pay for his expedition."

In the next printing of the book we will insert the word "help," changing the sentence to say that

"Columbus ... persuaded Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to help pay for his expedition."

Celebrating Texas ©2003

McDougal Littell Responses to Texas Public Policy Foundation's list of issues by book:

2. 274S, 275S, Mexico surrendered under the Treaty of Hidalgo all land between Texas and the Pacific Ocean. The next sentence qualifies this by saying it includes all or part of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada... Nevertheless, the first statement is an over generalization. It wouldn't hurt to excerpt the Gadsden Purchase or change "surrendered all" to "surrendered most," and it would be more accurate.

In the next printing, we will delete the word "all" to change the quote to:

"surrendered land between Texas and the Pacific Ocean."

3. 324S state that after the war Texans had "to make huge changes to their way of life to be allowed to rejoin the union." While it's true that changes were required, most were intended for the betterment of society (such as abolishing slavery and extending civil rights and education to freedom), and I question whether the "way of life" in Texas really changed that drastically otherwise. Recent research into Reconstruction in Texas counties has shown that, while there were differences in the severity of the solution from county to county, in general, life didn't change all that much (See Campbell, "Conclusion," Grassroots Reconstruction in Texas, 1997). "Huge" seems to me a prejudicial exaggeration.

The way of life certainly changed in Texas to varying degrees in different areas, but it may be misleading to characterize this change as "huge." In the next printing we will delete the word "huge" so the line will read:

"to make changes to their way of life to be allowed to rejoin the union."

Celebrating Texas ©2003

McDougal Littell Responses to Texas Public Policy Foundation's list of issues by book:

4. 333S, 334S, Nowhere is the negative presentation of Davis' administration balanced with information about some of the beneficial programs begun during that time. The text refers to the "Obnoxious Acts" without saying specifically what they were. It says Texans feared Davis would use force but didn't say if he actually did. In all mentions of E.J. Davis this text gives the impression that Davis was not a Texan, if only by never noting that he had been a Texas Unionist before the Civil War. The text does give balanced information about Davis. It notes that both the 14th and 15th Amendments were ratified by Texas during his administration and that the state reformed sufficiently to gain readmittance to the Union. The explanation of the "Obnoxious Acts" precedes the statement quoted by the reviewer. No impression is given that Davis was an outsider. He was a Radical Republican, which was a political movement. Davis is never represented as "good" or "bad." Any negative or positive opinions given about Davis are given in the perspective of Radical Republicans and Redeemers. As such, no change is needed.
5. This text presents Reconstruction in Texas in the popularly accepted tradition that it was a time of cruel, miserable oppression by outsiders. Recent scholarship (see Randolph B. Campbell, Grassroots Reconstruction in Texas) has established that the quality of life in Texas was really not that miserable, that the state grew in a number of positive directions during this period, that office holders like E.J. Davis were Texans, not outsiders, and that the thing that caused Texans the most suffering during that time was injured pride.

The text does not represent Reconstruction in Texas as a time of cruelty. In fact, most of text in sections 1 and 2 is devoted to emancipation and the accomplishments of African Americans in Texas politics. The text does discuss the different types of Reconstruction and its social, economical, and political consequences. We do not mention anything about carpetbaggers or others that abused the system of Reconstruction in other areas.

The text does present the prevailing public sentiment at the time in Texas that resisted Reconstruction. However, it also presents the opposing position that Texas should do whatever was necessary to rejoin the Union.

We feel the text presents the issues arising from Reconstruction in an unbiased way, and do not believe that any change is needed.

Celebrating Texas ©2003

McDougal Littell Responses to Texas Public Policy Foundation's list of issues by book:

6. 50S, The text lists Texas rivers that flow into the Gulf of Mexico to include the Neches, Trinity, San Jacinto, Brazos, Colorado, Guadalupe, San Antonio, Nueces, and "now the Red." The meaning of the last item is unclear since the Red River now flows into the Mississippi in south Louisiana. The term "now" is not explained. Since "now" would presumably explain how the Red River flows into the Gulf of Mexico, the text is either incomplete or incorrect without such clarification. Certain flood-control measures implemented in recent years do cause the Red River to flow into the Gulf in times of flood. However, the reviewer is correct in feeling that the text may be somewhat misleading. We will delete the phrase "and now the Red."
7. 56S, Text states that Guadalupe Peak stands 8,751 feet tall. According to The Texas Almanac, The New Handbook of Texas, and all the other sources I could find, Guadalupe Peak is 5,749 feet above sea level. (Not a fatal error by any means.) A typographical error in the reviewer's testimony adds some confusion here. The review states that Guadalupe Peak is 5,749 feet when it is actually 8,749. The text lists the height as 8,751 feet (two feet off). The geography chapters were among the earliest written, and it appears that we might have had a slightly older source for the height. We will change the figure to 8,749.
8. 584S states that county attorneys represent the county in misdemeanor cases. "More serious felony cases are sent to district attorneys." This may be true in metropolitan areas. However, the unqualified statement is misleading in that in some counties the county attorney represents the county in all cases, including criminal cases in district court. This sentence will be deleted in the next reprint of the text.

Celebrating Texas ©2003

McDougal Littell Responses to Texas Public Policy Foundation's list of issues by book:

9. 439S gives the impression that the poll tax was created by the Constitution of 1876 and prior to 1883. The poll tax was added to the Constitution by amendment in 1902.

The poll tax was made mandatory by the 1902 amendment the reviewer refers to, but it was created — as the text states — as part of the Constitution of 1876. As such, the text is correct and does not require any change.

From the Handbook of Texas Online (information can call also be found in the actual text of the Constitution):

"In the first section the framers ordered the legislature to establish and make provision for the support and maintenance of an efficient system of public free schools but then added provisions that made that directive impossible. To support the system the article authorized the legislature to levy a poll tax of one dollar on all male inhabitants between the ages of twenty-one and sixty and to appropriate not more than one-fourth of the general revenue. In addition, it set aside as a perpetual fund all proceeds from lands previously granted to the schools, including all the alternate sections of land already reserved for the state or afterwards reserved out of grants to railroads or other corporations (as specified in the Constitution of 1866), and the proceeds from the sale of one-half of all other public lands (as prescribed by an act of the legislature in 1873). "The constitution also provided for precinct voting and mandated a poll tax, but not as a prerequisite for voting." [emphasis added]

"In 1902 an amendment was passed that required the payment of the poll tax in order to vote."

Handbook of Texas Online, http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/ view/CC/mhc7.html

Celebrating Texas ©2003

McDougal Littell Responses to Texas Public Policy Foundation's list of issues by book:

10. Page 267T "Houston served in the Senate until 1859" is incorrect. He was recalled by the legislature after he voted against the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. He ran for Governor in 1857 and again in 1859.

The Texas Legislature voted to condemn Houston's support for the Kansas Nebraska Act, but he was never removed from office. He ran for •governor in 1857 while still a senator (he was defeated) and won the governor's office in 1859.

The text is correct without change. Quoting from two sources:

"Houston served in the Senate from February 21, 1846, until March 4, 1859." - Handbook of Texas Online, http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/ online/articles/view/HH/fho73.htm 1

"From 1846 to 1859, Houston served in Washington as Texas senator"Sam Houston." U*X*L Biographies. U*X*L, 1999. Reproduced in Student Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. December, 2000. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC/

11. Page 251T Caption. Perote Prison is not in Mexico City according to the map on Page 246T.

The reviewer is correct; the word "City" will be deleted so the sentence reads as follows:

"The Mier expedition captives were held at Perote Prison in Mexico."

McDougal Littell

Formal Response to the Texas Public Policy Foundation Report Creating America: Beginnings Through Reconstruction

McDougal Littell appreciates the opportunity to respond to the comments raised by the Texas Public Policy Foundation regarding Creating America: Beginnings Through Reconstruction. (Please note that the TPPF report incorrectly showed the title of this book as Celebrating America.) After reviewing the list of comments, we have determined that a number are matters of interpretation; or, in some cases, the comments raise questions about the amount or depth of coverage we have provided regarding specific topics. We believe we have provided full and sufficient coverage of historical information as required by the TEKS, and that our content covers the historical topics, time lines, and themes appropriate to an 8th grade U.S. history text. In those cases in which the TPPF has called our attention to a verified factual error, we appreciate their careful review and will revise our text to reflect their recommendations. Comments specific to each point raised by the TPPF follow.

1. Page 36: The sentence in question will be changed from, "They ultimately failed to take the Holy Land,..." to "They ultimately failed to keep the Holy Land,... ". (This change was included on the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the TEA.)

2. Page 386 (note TPPF report incorrectly identified page 326): The level of detail about Santa Anna suggested by the reviewer is not possible given the available space on the page. In addition, the historical focus of this page is on the events that led to the Texas Revolution rather than Santa Anna's role as a dictator. The text is accurate as is.

3. TE Page 387: The "line in the sand" story is not universally "rejected" by historians. Furthermore, the text clearly acknowledges that the story is disputed by some historians. The text is accurate as is.

4. Page 391: The level of detail asked for is not possible given the available space on the page. In addition, the textbook has a map on page 392 that shows both the Nueces River and the Rio Grande. The text is accurate as is.

5. Page 395: To make the text more accurate, the last sentence in the second paragraph will be edited to read: "Finally, it also promised to protect the approximately 80,000 Mexicans living in Texas and the Mexican Cession."

6. PE Page 393: A PE change for this page was submitted to the TEA as part of the Publisher's List. The PE correction was to paragraph 2 under "Capturing New Mexico and California," lines 6 and 7, and reads:

"Then Kearny and a small force of soldiers marched toward California, which had only 8,000 to 12,000 Mexican residents. The remaining force moved south toward Mexico."

To fit the additional copy, the first sentence in the same paragraph has been edited to read: "Six weeks and 650 rugged miles later,..."

TE Page 393: The PE statistics now match those in the TE sidebar. The TE text is accurate as is.

PE Page 396: To make the statistic on Californios match those on PE and TE page 393, the following change will be made to the first sentence under "California Before the Rush":

"Before the forty-niners came, California was populated by as many as 150,000 Native Americans and 8,000 to 12,000 Californios — settlers of Spanish or Mexican descent...."

7. Page 30: To correct the map, the label "Comanche" will be deleted from the region of Texas. (This change was included on the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the TEA.)

8. Page 385: To correct the map, the label "Texas Territory" will be replaced with "Coahuila and Texas." (This change was included on the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the TEA.)

9. TE Page 400: Under "Miners and Discrimination" in the sidebar, replace the last sentence with the following copy: "The 1852 law, which replaced an 1850 law that had imposed a $20-a-month tax, remained in effect until 1870." (This change was included on the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the TEA.)

10. Page 31: This is a matter of interpretation. The text does not suggest that Iroquois women had inordinately more power than they actually had. However, to clarify this issue, the seventh sentence in the third paragraph will be edited to read (new copy bracketed):

"... [Though tribal leadership was male,] women played important roles in Iroquois society...."

11. Page 145: To acknowledge the variance of opinion on what Patrick Henry actually said, the last sentence of the second full paragraph will be edited to read: "When another member shouted that resistance was treason, Henry reportedly replied, 'If this be treason, make the most of it!'"

12. Pages 299 and 303: The text of these pages is accurate as is. By the War of 1812, Thomas Jefferson was no longer president. A discussion of his change in opinion toward farming vs. commerce after the war is not possible given the space constraints of the text. However, to be sure that students are not misled, we propose to edit the first line of the first full paragraph on page 326 to read: "Many Americans did not want the United States to industrialize."

13. Page 442: The feature on trade as written is appropriate for the age of the students. In addition, the example given (trade between the North and the South) illustrates trade in which both parties are better off than before. A more complicated definition of trade with examples in which only one party is better off than before would be appropriate for a more advanced audience. The text is accurate as is.

14. Page 571: In the Pupil's Edition, the following change will be made to the last paragraph to more accurately reflect Hoover's attitude toward government intervention:

"... He warned that federal government action would make things worse. Relief, or government aid ..."

In addition, the Reading History question in the inner column will be replaced with: "What was Hoover's attitude toward federal aid to the poor?"

TE Page 571: The answer to the inner column note will be changed to: "Hoover felt federal aid might make Americans dependent on handouts."

15. Page 232: This is a matter of interpretation. The effect of an interstate road system has in fact been to pull the nation together. The text is accurate as is.

16. Page 232: The text does not state that the "Framers" intended the phrase "general welfare" to include "safety in the workplace" and "aid to the poor." Rather, workplace safety and relief for the poor are two contemporary examples of government protecting the welfare of U.S. citizens. The text is accurate as is.

17. Page 232: We propose to delete "Federal Election Commission" from the chart and substitute "National Council on Disability."

McDougal Littell

Formal Response to Texas Public Policy Foundation Report World History: Patterns of Interaction

McDougal Littell appreciates the opportunity to respond to the comments raised by the Texas Public Policy Foundation regarding World History: Patterns of Interaction. After reviewing the list of comments, we have determined that a number are matters of interpretation; or, in some cases, the comments raise questions about the amount or depth of coverage we have provided regarding specific topics. We believe we have provided full and sufficient coverage of historical information as required by the TEKS, and that our content covers the historical topics, time lines, and themes appropriate to a high school world history text. In those cases in which the TPPF has called our attention to a verified factual error, we appreciate their careful review and will revise our text to reflect their recommendations. Comments specific to each point raised by the TPPF follow.

1. Page 486: Though we do not agree that the text implies that European diseases were intentionally brought to the Americas, we propose to make the following clarification:

"... Measles, mumps, smallpox, and typhus were just some of the diseases Europeans inadvertently brought with them to the Americas. Native Americans had never been exposed to these diseases, so had developed no natural immunity to them. As a result, they died by the hundreds of thousands.... In time, European disease would devastate the natives of central Mexico."

1. Page 486: This is a matter of interpretation. The text does not suggest that Europeans deliberately used disease to attack native populations. Most students would recognize that diseases were inadvertently carried to the Americas. The text is accurate as is.

2. Page 489: Ms. Harjo is referred to as Native American because such terminology is common and accepted both for textbook use and in the vernacular.

Regarding the use of "so-called" in the introduction to Ms. Harjo's quotation, it was intended to make clear that the "benefits" of Columbus's voyages were defined by other historians, not the publisher. Two other passages on the page are, in fact, in praise of Columbus's accomplishments. The feature is balanced between two representative viewpoints. The text is accurate as is.

3. Page 489: Again, this Different Perspectives feature presents two passages in support of Columbus's achievements and two that take the opposite viewpoint. In terms of number of lines afforded to each position, more space is given to the pro-Columbus position than to the opposing position. Ms. Harjo's quotation, while perhaps strongly stated, is quite brief, and represents her viewpoint, not a viewpoint of the publisher. Students are encouraged in the questions to explore the differing viewpoints presented. The feature exposes students to widely differing viewpoints, which are matters of interpretation, not factual error. The text is accurate as is.

4. Page 495: The issue of the near-universality of slavery is addressed in the opening line of this feature: "The enslavement of human beings by others is believed to be as old as civilization itself." The text goes on to say that "People were enslaved in civilizations from Egypt to China to India, as well as among Indians in America, and in Greece and Rome." Both sentences make it very clear that slavery was widespread and long-standing.

The sentence "Race was not always a factor in slavery" is accurate. The text goes on to give examples where it was not a factor. D'Souza's contention is much debated and beyond the scope of a high school textbook. The text is accurate as is.

5. Page 501: The head "Global Impact: Food Exchange" will be shortened to "Global Impact" in acknowledgment that diseases are included in addition to food. The graphic is factually correct, even though it does not show specific diseases traveling back to Europe. The reviewer's suggestion to add syphillis (a sexually-transmitted disease) and yaws (a disease very few people have ever heard of) is not appropriate for the available space in the graphic and the age level of the students. The text, with the title change, is accurate as is.

6. Page 647: To make sure students recognize that Malthus's predictions weren't accurate, we propose to make the following changes to the text that begins, "The Ideas of Malthus and Ricardo" (new copy is bracketed):

"The Ideas of Malthus and Ricardo Economists Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo supported Smith's basic ideas. They too believed that natural laws governed economic life. Their ideas were the foundation of laissez-faire capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making a profit. These ideas helped bring about the Industrial Revolution.

In An Essay on the Principle of Population, written in 1798, Malthus argued that population tended to increase more rapidly than the food supply. Without wars and epidemics to kill off the extra people, most were destined to be poor and miserable. Malthus's predictions seemed to be coming true in the 1840s, [but have not proven to be accurate over time.]"

7. Page 648: For the last sentence on the page, we plan to delete the words "an optimistic view of human nature," so that the sentence would read: "Socialism grew out of a belief in progress and a concern for social justice."

Page 647: For the last sentence in the third paragraph, we propose the following change in wording (new copy bracketed):

"These philosophers believed that if the government allowed free trade — the flow of commerce in the world market without government regulation — the economy [and the people] would prosper."

8. Page 636: While the perspective provided by the reviewer on Vanderbilt is interesting, it does not negate the validity of focusing on Robert Fulton as someone who brought about improvements in water transportation. The text is accurate as is.

9. Pages 638-640: The text's coverage of the Industrial Revolution is not factually inaccurate. It's difficult to identify which 13 paragraphs the reviewer felt were negative and which four were positive, because much of the content of these paragraphs is structured to describe, first, a change caused by the Industrial Revolution, and then the positive and negative effects of it.

The first sentence in the section says, "The Industrial Revolution eventually led to a better quality of life for most people." The text goes on to document the increased ability to heat homes, the availability of better clothing, and the improved diet afforded by technological changes. Several paragraphs describe the growth of a middle class and the improved standard of living that accompanied it.

At no point does the text state or imply that society would have been "better off farming." The text is accurate as is.

10. Page 642: We stand behind the information provided in the Connect to Today box. First, the information is factually accurate. Much evidence exists to support the contentions that "children work long hours under wretched conditions" and that they "are not protected by child labor laws."

To engage in a discussion of how child labor varies from country to country, whether corporations have undertaken to improve working conditions, or the effect of unions on U.S. wages is beyond the scope of this text. Adding such material would give more weight to treatment of this topic than is appropriate at this grade level. In addition, the text does not imply that child laborers are worse off in factories than they would have been in fields or that they would be in school if they were not in factories. The text is accurate as is.

11. Page 645: We propose the following text change to ensure balanced coverage of big business. The second paragraph on the page will read:

"Big business — the giants that controlled entire industries — also made big profits by cutting the cost of producing goods. However, though workers earned small wages for long hours, entrepreneurs such as Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller sometimes rewarded top workers with bonuses or generous vacations."

In order to fit this additional copy, one line has been cut from the second to last paragraph on the page. The sentence, "Spain's Catalonia processed more cotton than Belgium" has been deleted.

12. Page 658: This Interact with History page attempts to get students thinking about the kinds of changes that occurred during the 19th century — from both sides. The three questions in the Examining the Issues box basically ask students to think about the pros and cons of life before the technological changes of the mid-to-late 1800s. They are asked to identify the costs and the benefits of various inventions. It's doubtful that students will infer that technological change is mostly negative, and it's extremely unlikely that a 14-year-old will emerge from this activity convinced that "free market progress is questionable, but government progress is guaranteed."

We do plan to remove the quotation marks around "progress" in the second question. Other than that, the text is accurate as is.

McDougal Littell

Formal Response to the Texas Public Policy Foundation Report The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century

McDougal Littell appreciates the opportunity to respond to the comments raised by the Texas Public Policy Foundation regarding The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century. After reviewing the list of comments, we have determined that a number are matters of interpretation; or, in some cases, the comments raise questions about the amount or depth of coverage we have provided regarding specific topics. We believe we have provided full and sufficient coverage of historical information as required by the TEKS, and that our content covers the historical topics, time lines, and themes appropriate to a grade 11 U.S. history text. In those cases in which the TPPF has called our attention to a verified factual error, we appreciate their careful review and will revise our text to reflect their recommendation. Comments specific to each point raised by the TPPF follow.

1. p. 203 T, S

The text does not state that the plains Indians gave up agriculture entirely; it states that "almost all of the tribes on the Great Plains" had left their farms to hunt buffalo. In the context of the period being discussed, the text is accurate.

2. p. 203 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text as follows: "A Plains warrior gained honor by killing his enemies, as well as by "counting coup."

3. p. 206 T, S

Helen Hunt Jackson was a passionate, angry critic of what she saw as the cruel treatment of Native Americans, and some of her views are distinct from those of assimilationists. In the context of the period being discussed, the text is accurate as is.

4. p. 207 T, S

While the passage does not provide the additional details the reviewer wishes to see in the text, it does accurately explain how tourists and fur traders contributed to the destruction of tribal life on the plains. The text is accurate as is.

5. p. 218 T, S

As the reviewer notes, the passage accurately explains that small farmers did better in the marketplace than bonanza farms. With regard to whether the passage gives the impression that small farmers remained small, the text provides the information necessary to understand what bonanza farms were and how they operated. It does not attempt to pursue an ongoing discussion of the eventual course of small farming during that period. The text is accurate as is.

6. p. 220 T, S

The TE does provide an additional note on U.S. currency and the subject is discussed during different periods throughout the text. While the text does not provide the additional details the reviewer wishes to see, it does accurately present the situation in which farmers found themselves in the period under discussion. The text is accurate as is.

7. p. 221 T, S

According to Encyclopedia Britannica, there were multiple causes of the shrinking of government gold reserves. According to Encyclopedia of American History, there were two causes, one being the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. We will revise the text to reflect the reviewer's recommendation by changing mainly to partly, as follows: "The government's gold supply had worn thin, partly due to its obligation to purchase silver."

The reviewer's claim that the text implies that investors were present in the U.S. is interpretive opinion. We disagree, and consider the text accurate as is.

8. p. 222 T, S

The reviewer states, "the text makes short work of the complexities of both the Populist and the forces which brought William McKinley to the presidency in 1896." The text does, however, provide the information necessary to broadly understand the Populist reforms, the causes and consequences of the Panic of 1893, and why the Populist movement collapsed. The text is accurate as is.

With regard to coverage of The Gilded Age — the text provides greater coverage of the period under discussion in Chapter 7, Section 3: Politics in the Gilded Age [pp. 267-271] — including Grover Cleveland and his party and politics.

9. p. 238, T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text as follows: "Farmers were especially disturbed by what they viewed as railroad corruption."

10. p. 239 T, S

While the text does not provide the specific details regarding discriminatory freight rates the reviewer would like to see, there are no factual errors in the passage, and farmers did seek legislation to change these discriminatory rates.

11. p. 239, T, S

The TE, p. 239, "More About Interstate Commerce Commission" [ICC] clarifies and strengthens the position in the text on pp. 238 and 239 — that the railroads were in need of federal supervision and reform. In the context of the period being discussed, the text is accurate.

12. p. 243 T, S

The term holding company is accurately defined in the text. J.P. Morgan's holding company is described as "one of the most successful," and not the first holding company. Regarding the chronology, the text treats holding companies and utilization of the trust together, which is appropriate for the section in which the topics are discussed. There are no factual errors in the passage.

13. p. 246 T, S

The reviewer is correct regarding the origins and role of the ARU. We will change "This concept captured the imagination of Eugene V. Debs, who made the first major attempt to form such an industrial union — the American Railway Union (ARU)." to "This concept captured the imagination of Eugene V. Debs, who attempted to form such an industrial union — the American Railway Union (ARU)." With regard to the ARU and the Pullman situation, the text covers that connection in detail in the passage titled "The Pullman Company Strike" on page 248.

14. p. 248 T, S

The reviewer is correct. The statement "the economy improved" is incorrect. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: "A strike was called in the spring of 1894, when the Pullman company failed to restore wages or decrease rents."

15. p. 271 T, S

The text does recognize the fact that business had a financial impact on politics prior to 1883 and the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Act by stating that "the alliance between government and big business became stronger than ever." Further, the text does not state that employee contributions were the only source of campaign financing. With regard to the Wilson-Gorman Tariff and how it became law, the text is accurate as is. While the passage does not provide the additional details about opposition to tariffs that the reviewer wishes to see, it accurately describes the events surrounding attempts at tariff reform in the 1880s and 1890s.

16. p. 283 T, S

The passage accurately describes conditions in schools at the close of the century. The text does not invite comparison to what the reviewer calls "our more lax schools." The text is accurate as is.

17. p. 207 T, S

As the reviewer points out, the Battle of Wounded Knee was a massacre. The event is, however, commonly known by the term used in the text, "Battle of Wounded Knee." The text is accurate as is.

18. p. 348 T, S

The reviewer is correct. In the pupil edition we will change "To this day, no one really knows why the ship exploded." to "At the time, no one really knew why the ship exploded."

19. p. 360-361

The emphasis in this passage is on the events that led up to the acquisition of the canal zone by the United States. The text does not focus on how Panama gained its independence, although it does present the necessary information in abbreviated form. Given the section's focus, the text is accurate.

20. p. 363

In the section labeled "The Mexican Revolution," the text states that Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government because Huerta had established that government by executing Madero. This is a clear example of Wilson's refusal to recognize Latin American governments that were "oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests." The text is accurate.

21. p. 363

Although the text does not provide specific details the reviewer would like to see regarding American embassy involvement in Madero's overthrow, it does provide a concise overview of events in Mexico during 1913, which is the focus of the passage in question. The text is accurate as is.

22. p. 365

We agree that during Obregón's presidency, there was still considerable political turmoil. However, Obregón showed himself to be a pragmatic reformer. He supported foreign investment and domestic private enterprise. He argued that land distribution should be accompanied by instruction in the techniques of farming. His education minister sponsored idealistic young teachers. In light of these reforms, the text is accurate.

23. p. 378 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: "Any British or Allied ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk — and it would not always be possible to warn crews and passengers of an attack."

24. p. 383 T, S

The reviewer is correct. Shipyards actually used "fabrication" techniques — a manufacturing system that used standardized parts and a separate assembly process. We will change "Third, shipyards used prefabrication techniques. Instead of building an entire ship in the yard, standardized parts were built elsewhere and then assembled at the yard." to "Third, shipyards used fabrication techniques. Instead of building an entire ship in the yard, standardized parts were built elsewhere and then assembled at the yard."

25. p. 390

The text does not state that most Americans paid income tax, nor is the text misleading. It simply states that the government raised about a third of the $35.5 billion it spent on the war effort through various taxes, including income tax, a war-profits tax, and excise taxes on tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods. The World War II expansion of income tax to include "millions of people who had never paid it before" is noted in the chapter on WWII (p. 567). The text is accurate as is.

26. p. 403

The text does not state that World War I initiated modern American military power. As the reviewer noted, the book simply states that World War I strengthened American power. The text is accurate as is.

27. p. 356 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will change "hurricane" to "typhoon."

28. p. 404 T, S

The reviewer has interpreted "territories" as political subdivisions of a country, rather than in its more general sense of an area of land or region as the text connotes. The United States did extend its influence in places such as Puerto Rico, Panama, and Mexico. The text is accurate as is.

29. p. 407

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the map to reflect the recommendation. For question # 2 we will change the item to read:

2. The countries with the greatest percentage of military casualties were —

F members of the Allied Powers.

G members of the Central Powers.

H located far from the battlefront.

J neighboring states.

30. p. 307 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the sentence in question as follows: "Together, these reform efforts formed the progressive movement, which aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life."

31. p. 310 T, S

The Handbook of Texas On-Line (published by the Texas State Historical Association & The Center of Studies in Texas at the University of Texas in Austin) indicates that the Historical Spotlight on James S. Hogg accurately represents his career and impact. Further, the Texas State Library & Archives Commission notes that Hogg was the "first progressive to serve as Texas governor." The text is accurate as is.

32. p. 312 T, S

As the reviewer notes, the adoption of the secret ballot was a Progressive reform. Although the passage does not include details about the secret ballot, the mention of the secret ballot is used simply as one example of election reform. Additionally, the text statement that "About two-thirds of the states had adopted some form of direct primary by 1915." is factually accurate and fulfills the intent of showing the growth of election reforms. The reviewers qualifications, while true, are additional details and explanations beyond the text's intent.

33. p. 319 T, S

The text states that the vague language of the Sherman Antitrust Act made for difficult enforcement. Although the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Act may have been deliberately narrow, such interpretation was a result of the Act's lack of definition. The text is accurate as is.

34. p. 324 T, S

The section entitled "Roosevelt and Civil Rights" does not contain additional details the reviewer would like to see in the text. It does, however, provide examples of some of Roosevelt's actions — both positive and negative — towards African-Americans and is accurate.

35. p. 329 T, S

In the context of this section, the dispute over land is in relation to Taft's presidency and his stance on conservation. Because the book does not name the Ballinger-Pinchot affair as such, and uses Ballinger's actions as an example of how Taft reacted to conservation issues, the details provided in this passage are sufficient in that they outline a land issue and Taft's reaction to it. The text is accurate as is.

36. p. 330 T, S

The book is accurate in stating that primary elections showed that Republicans wanted Roosevelt, although the text does not qualify the number or primaries. Also, historically, incumbents do have an advantage over first-time runners. As to whether the text "makes it appear that incumbents win by default," that is a matter of interpretation. The text simply states that "Taft had the advantage of being the incumbent — that is, the holder of the office." The text is accurate as is.

37. p. 333 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: we will change the sentence "Before entering the political arena, Wilson spent time as a lawyer and president of Princeton University." to "Before entering politics, Wilson worked as a lawyer, a history professor, and later as president of Princeton University."

38. p. 334 T

The portion of the text objected to by the reviewer — "Tell students that the war was largely financed by bonds, rather than tax revenues." — has been removed from the teacher's edition. (This change was included on the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the TEA.) Further, the interpretation of the graph provided in the teacher's edition does not attempt to explain why there were low tax revenues from 1915-1955, or from 1955-1995.

39. p. 335 T, S

In the section titled "The Limits of Progressivism," the text describes Wilson's stance on race and his actions regarding race relations. The text does not quantify the number of Wilson's black supporters; it merely states that Wilson disappointed his black supporters, which is true. While it is true that Wilson confronted a new generation of militant African American leaders, it is also true that there were those African Americans who, albeit with skepticism, welcomed his election in 1912. In the early 1900s, the Democratic party had a constituency of northern urban, labor, and black supporters. The text provides accurate information regarding this topic.

40. p. 335 T, S

The purpose of the passage titled "Wilson and Civil Rights" is to illustrate Wilson's poor record on race relations and to lead students to an understanding of how African Americans felt betrayed once Wilson took office. The text, including the statement that Wilson "retreated on civil rights" once in office, is accurate as is.

41. p. 415 T,S

The text is not incorrect, but is confusing due to the omission of the year to which immigration was reduced to 150,000. We will change "However, the law also reduced the total number of persons to be admitted in any one year to 150,000." to "In 1927, the law reduced the total number of persons to be admitted in any one year to 150,000."

42. p. 423 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: we will delete the sentence "Reducing income taxes meant that people had more money in their pockets."

43. p. 438 T, S

Tennessee was the first state to pass a law that made it a crime to teach evolution. Oklahoma passed a minor measure in 1923 by adding a rider to its public school textbook law barring adoption of any text advocating Darwin's theory over that of the Bible, and

Florida's 1923 legislation declared "that it is improper and subversive to the best interest of the people" to teach Darwinism. However, neither state made it a crime. Tennessee was the first state to make it a crime. The text is accurate as is.

Regarding the second and third issues — the text does not provide the additional details the reviewer wishes to see in the text, but it does describe Scopes' connection to the ACLU and it does describe the debate on the interpretation of the Bible. The text is accurate as is.

44. p. 446-447 T, S

In the context of this section, the goal of this passage and the accompanying graph is to show the growth in high school enrollments over a period of time. The reviewer does agree with the statements made within the section, and for the purposes of illustrating growth — not the history of public education — the text is accurate as is.

45. p. 449 T, S

In 1941, Lindbergh spoke in Des Moines, Iowa, on behalf of the isolationist America First Committee, a group that opposed voluntary American entry into World War II. Lindbergh criticized Roosevelt's policies; he also charged Jewish, British, and pro-Roosevelt groups with leading America into war. It was in this way that Lindbergh was met with outrage and accused of being an anti-Semite. The text is correct in that "many considered [the speech] anti-Semitic." As to the second point regarding Lindbergh's participation in the war, the reviewer is correct in stating that Lindbergh was refused his request to reenlist. However, Lindbergh made it to the Pacific as an observer and adviser. Although a civilian, he did in fact fly in combat missions. There are no factual inaccuracies in the passage.

46. p. 424 T

The reviewer makes a good point. We will revise the text to read: "Ask students to consider why the first flight attendants were all female. (At the time, it was not considered appropriate for a man to pursue what many people viewed as a role more suitable for women.)

47. p. 442 T, S

The text related to Margaret Sanger is accurate. The section in question focuses on the ways in which "social and economic changes reshaped the family." It is not necessary to detail Sanger's cause — or the specific methods by which she promoted it — to fulfill the intent of this passage. There are no errors in the text.

48. p. 531 T

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation: we will change the graphic organizer in the bottom channel to read "Franklin" not "Theodore" Roosevelt.

49. p. 532 T, S

According to our sources, Korea became a protectorate of Japan in 1905, but was not annexed until 1910. We will revise the map to read: "In 1910 Korea was annexed by Japan."

50. p. 546 T, S

The reviewer is correct, but the problem is with the photograph, not the caption. We will replace the photograph of the newspaper boy with the correct image of wedding rings removed from victims of the Holocaust.

51. p. 551 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: We will change the sentence "The three nations became known as the Axis powers." to "Thus Japan joined Germany and Italy, countries that were already known as the Axis powers."

52. p. 553 T, S

The reviewer is correct. In the pupil edition, will change the sentence: "In June 1941, President Roosevelt granted the navy permission for U.S. warships to attack German U-boats in self-defense." to "In September 1941, President Roosevelt granted the navy permission for U.S. warships to attack German U-boats in self-defense."

In the "More About..." feature in the teacher's edition, we will change "The United States was in a de facto war with Germany by the summer of 1941 when Roosevelt gave U.S. ships the order to shoot any U-Boat on sight." to "The United States was in a de facto war with Germany by the summer of 1941, and in September of that year Roosevelt gave U.S. ships the order to shoot any U-boat on sight."

53. p. 564 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: We will revise the text from "... African Americans did finally see combat in the last year of the war." to "... African Americans did finally see combat beginning in April 1943."

54. p. 572 T, S

What the text may or may not imply is a matter of interpretation. American forces did encounter Vichy forces when they first landed in North Africa. The text, however, is correct in saying that from Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers in North Africa, American forces "sped eastward, chasing the Afrika Korps led by General Erwin Rommel, the legendary Desert Fox." The text is accurate.

55. p. 573 T

The reviewer refers to events (Mussolini freed from prison in 1944 and later that year installed as ruler by Hitler) that occurred prior to the events described in the "More About..." teacher's edition text (Mussolini's attempt to escape Italy in 1945, after an Allied victory became apparent). The text is accurate as is.

56. p. 573 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will change the text to read: "An all-Mexican-American unit — Company E of the 141st Regiment, 36th Division became one of the most decorated of the war."

57. p. 584 T, S

In speeches to the nation and in his personal diary, Truman emphasized that the first bomb would be dropped on Hiroshima, "a purely military target." In a memorandum for Major General L. R. Groves written on May 12, 1945, Dr Oppenheimer and other personnel informed Groves that Hiroshima was an "important army depot and port of embarkation in the middle of an urban industrial zone." Nagasaki is described as a major shipping and industrial center in a memo for General Arnold written on July 24, 1945. The text is accurate.

58. p. 603 T, S

The text in question is on page 603, and the reviewer is correct. We will revise the text as follows: "The United States was well aware that Joseph Stalin — the leader of the Soviet Union — had been an ally of Hitler for a time."

We also acknowledge that the Soviet Union was aware of the bomb, although the United States tried to keep it a secret. We will revise the text as follows: "Relations worsened after Stalin learned that the United States had tried to keep its development of the atomic bomb secret."

59. p. 607 T, S

Germany's post-war fate was decided in part at Yalta. There Stalin argued that Germany should be permanently divided. Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to divide Germany into four occupation zones, expecting that the zones would be temporary. As to whether or not the British, American, and French occupiers had a "legal right" to unify their zones and divide Germany, the reviewer is correct. We will revise the text as follows: "Although the three nations had intended to unify their zones, they had no written agreement with the Soviets guaranteeing free access to Berlin by road or rail."

60. p. 611 T, S

According to our sources, Korea became a protectorate of Japan in 1905, but was not annexed until 1910. We will change "Japan had taken over Korea in 1910 and ruled it until August 1945." to "Japan had annexed Korea in 1910 and ruled it until August 1945."

61. p. 611 T, S

The passage states that a number of nations, including the United States decided to ... "established] ties with Communist China." The text does not imply that this was a trend. The text is accurate.

62. p. 615 T, S

The term stalemate refers to the return to pre-war borders. The invasion of South Korea by Communist forces triggered the war, but a "win" would have consisted of the expulsion of communist forces from North Korea and the establishment of a unified country. The text is accurate.

63. p. 729 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: We will replace the sentence "Facing a shortage of volunteers, the president implements a draft." with "The president expands the draft."

64. p. 743 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: "In 1969, the draft lottery eliminated most student deferments."

65. p. 748-749 T, S

The reviewer is correct in pointing out that the North Vietnamese army also participated in the Tet Offensive. We will revise the text on p. 748 from "a daring surprise attack by the Vietcong on numerous cities" to "a daring surprise attack by the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese army on numerous cities".

However, estimates of the number of US casualties vary: The Dictionary of American History gives 3,400 deaths; Encyclopedia Americana gives 3,000. The text is accurate as is. Finally, as the reviewer notes concerning support for the war, polling data vary. We are following the poll results quoted in Bruce Schulman's Lyndon B. Johnson and American Liberalism.

66. p. 755 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: The word "emigrant" will be changed to "immigrant".

67. p. 616 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the figures for membership in the Communist Party as follows: "In addition, at the height of World War II, about 100,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist Party."

68. p. 620, T, S

McCarthy spoke of "known communists" outside of the Senate, but not by name. The text refers to McCarthy's "name-calling" as carefully confined to the Senate. The text is accurate as is.

69. p. 621 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will change the text to read: "By 1953, 39 states had passed laws making it illegal to advocate the violent overthrow of the government. (Later it was ruled that such laws violated the constitutional right of free speech.)"

70. p. 627 T, S

The author's sources for the text's statements about Eisenhower's desire to end the U-2 flights include: The Fifties by David Halberstam, May Day: Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and the U-2 Affair by Michael Beschloss, and the U.S Department of States — Office of the Historian. The text is accurate as is.

71. p. 638 T, S

While the segment on the 1948 election does not explore political motivations in depth, there are no errors in the coverage. The text is accurate as is.

72. p. 637 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will change the sentence following the quote to: "In 1946, Truman created a President's Committee on Civil Rights. Following the group's recommendations, Truman asked Congress for several measures including a federal antilynching law, a ban on the poll tax as a voting requirement, and a permanent civil rights commission."

73. p. 640 T

While the text does not provide the level of detail the reviewer would like to see, there are no errors in its coverage of Eisenhower and Little Rock. The text is accurate as is.

74. p. 662 T

The reviewer is correct in pointing out that Chicano is an activist term of the 1960s. The text is indeed about the political activism of the 1960s, and includes the modern term Mexican-American in parentheses. The text is accurate as is.

75. p. 671 T, S

The key word in the text is "help." In the South, although (as the reviewer points out) the vast majority of African Americans could not vote in 1960, those who could did help Kennedy carry key states. The point is that Kennedy's support for King did indeed capture the attention of the African-American community, whether members of this community could vote or not. The text is accurate as is.

76. p. 687 T, S

The reviewer is correct. Kennedy won the presidential election in Texas by 47,000 votes. We will revise the text as follows:

"Johnson's presence on the ticket helped Kennedy win key states in the South, especially Texas, which went Democratic by 47,000 votes."

77. p. 529 T, S

The reviewer is correct in observing that no government has ever had complete control over its citizens. We will change the definition of totalitarian from "government that maintained complete control" to "government that tried to exert complete control."

However, the text will retain the use of the term totalitarian. Although totalitarian is not as fashionable a term as it was during the Cold War, it has by no means been abandoned by academics or dropped from intellectual discourse. In fact, in recent scholarly works such as Michael Burleigh's The Third Reich, Richard Vinen's A History in Fragments, Paul Hollander's Political Will and Personal Belief, and Tzvetan Todorov's Memoire du Mal, Tentation du Bien, the concept of totalitarianism continues to be used as a way of interpreting Communist and Fascist states. Many contemporary historians describe diverse political systems as totalitarian, not in the sense of a state with monolithic control, but in the sense of a coercive ideocratic power that seeks to direct all human activity — economic, social, and cultural, to one overriding ideological end.

78. p. 552 T, S

The reviewer raises an important issue regarding the Point/Counterpoint on page 552. We will revise the pupil edition text to read: "The aviator Charles Lindbergh stated his hope that "the future of America...not be tied to these eternal wars in Europe." In the teacher's edition text, we will change " How did Charles Lindbergh risk his reputation?" to "In what way did Lindbergh believe democracy would be saved?"

79. p. 603 T, S

The text will retain the use of the term totalitarian for the reasons stated in #77.

80. p. 734, T, S

The text does not distort Kennedy into a "figure above reproach." Rather, the passage appropriately questions whether or not Kennedy would have withdrawn from Vietnam, as stated in the following sentence: "Whether Kennedy would have withdrawn from Vietnam remains a matter of debate." The text is accurate as is.

81. p. 751 T, S

The text acknowledges Nixon's re-emergence as a political leader by 1968 on page 753, where it cites his role in the 1966 election. The text is accurate as is.

82. p. 753 T, S

The reviewer raises an important point. We will change "In addition, he attracted a surprisingly high number of Northern white working-class voters disgusted with inner-city riots and antiwar protests." to "In addition, he attracted a high number of Northern white working-class voters disgusted with inner-city riots and antiwar protests."

83. p. 639 T, S

The text does not state that Nixon had a slush fund, only that newspapers accused him of having one. The text goes on to describe Nixon's response to those accusations in his famous "Checkers" speech. The text is accurate as is.

84. p. 682 T, S

The text does not paint as unequivocally positive a portrait of the Kennedy administration as the reviewer suggests. On page 680, the text notes that, because he had been elected by the slimmest of margins, Kennedy "often tried to play it safe politically." On page 720, the text notes attempts of freedom riders to "convince the Kennedy administration to enforce the law" with regard to civil rights. On page 682, the page specifically cited by the reviewer, having noted that "Kennedy had not pushed aggressively for legislation on the issues of poverty and civil rights," the text simply notes Kennedy's call for a "national assault on the causes of poverty," his instruction to the Justice Department to investigate racial injustice in the South, and his introduction of civil rights legislation. We believe our coverage of Kennedy is accurate.

85. p. 683 T, S

While the text acknowledges that conspiracy theories surrounding the assassination of President Kennedy exist, it does not espouse them. It states explicitly on page 683 that "no information has yet surfaced that conclusively disputes its [the Warren Commission's] findings." The text is accurate as is.

86. p. 702

The Dictionary of American History, vol II, p. 56, states:

"The original March on Washington movement, organized by A. Philip Randolph (1941); the subsequent issuance of an executive order by President Franklin D. Roosevelt prohibiting discriminatory employment practices in defense plants (1941); Roosevelt's establishment of the Fair Employment Practices Committee (1941); the positive impact on racial attitudes of Gunnar Myrdal's classic study An American Dilemma (1944); and a Supreme Court decision (Smith v. Allwright) abolishing the all-white primary (1944) were all important wartime developments."

Also, from the FDR Library and Digital Archives:

"1941 FDR appoints a Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to enforce his executive order banning discrimination in government and defense industries, May 27."

The text is accurate as is.

87. p. 703 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will remove the text that states that the governor promised to comply. The revised text will read: "In Texas, the governor warned that plans might 'take years' to work out. He actively prevented desegregation by calling in the Texas Rangers."

88. p. 704 T, S

The reviewer is quite right in noting that chronology is important for helping the student to establish context, particularly with regard to how context is created when certain events influence other events. The text notes that influence and establishes causal chronology by linking the material relating to Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 with coverage of the resistance to that decision, particularly in the section entitled "Crisis in Little Rock."

Regarding E.D. Nixon's role, the reviewer is correct. We will change "Jo Ann Robinson and NAACP leader E.D. Nixon suggested a bus boycott." to "Jo Ann Robinson and NAACP leader E.D. Nixon, who had helped to plan Parks's action, suggested a bus boycott."

89. p. 708 T, S

The reviewer is correct on all three points. We will change the first sentence to read: "In the early 1950s, the school system of Topeka, Kansas, like many other school systems, operated separate schools for 'the two races' — blacks and whites."

In addition, we will change "While the correctness of the Brown ruling seems obvious today, some justices had difficulty agreeing to it." to "While the correctness of the Brown ruling — which actually involved five segregation cases from across the nation — seems obvious today, some justices had difficulty agreeing to it."

90. p. 710 T, S

While the text might not provide the additional details that the reviewer wishes to see regarding the Kennedy administration, it does acknowledge both the administration's delay to enforce the law as well as action it did take. The text is accurate as is.

91. p. 711 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation as follows: the date in the caption will be corrected to read "1961" rather than "1967".

92. p. 712 T, S

The text does not state that King was the only planner of the protests; nor does it state that King was the primary planner. It simply states that King "began planning..." The text is accurate as is.

93. p. 714 T, S

While the text does not provide details of the background negotiating that led up to Kennedy sending federal troops to Alabama, there are no factual errors in the passage regarding George Wallace and the desegregation of the University of Alabama. The text is accurate as is.

94. p. 716 T

The reviewer's claim that Article 1, Section 4, gives states the power necessary to determine voting qualifications is an interpretive opinion. We consider the passage from the Historical Spotlight to be accurate.

95. p. 716 T

Although the text does not provide the specific background information the reviewer would like to see regarding "Bloody Sunday," there are no factual errors in the passage. The text is accurate as is.

96. p. 721 T, S

There are conflicting sources on this issue. The Encyclopedia Britannica and the Museum of Broadcast Communications describe Sirhan Sirhan as a Palestinian. The World Book and the Encyclopedia of the Irish in America describe him as a Jordanian. We will leave the text as is at this time.

97. p. 722 T, S

The text states that the Johnson administration ignored "many" of the Kerner Report's recommendations, a statement that is not contradicted by the paragraph that follows, which discusses the Civil Rights Act of 1968. The text is accurate as is.

98. p. 712 T, S

The months following the Birmingham demonstrations of May 1963 were the last months of Kennedy's life — he was assassinated in November of that same year. Further, as the text states, on June 11 Kennedy spoke to the nation about the need for civil rights, and shortly thereafter called for the Congress to pass a civil rights bill. The text is accurate as is.

99. p. 720 T, S

Carmichael wanted blacks to control SNCC but he did not want to lose its white volunteers. According to Civil Rights: 1960-1966, ed. Lester A. Sobel (Facts on File, 1967), following the weekend meeting at which Carmichael was elected chairman, Carmichael said, "SNCC would not 'fire any of our white organizers, but if they want to organize, they can organize white people.'" The text is accurate as is.

100. p. 466 T

The text never states that the Klan led opposition to Smith's presidential bid. It states, "In the 1928 campaign, the Ku Klux Klan and other nativist groups attacked Smith as a tool of the Pope." The text is accurate as is.

101. p. 469 T, S

The reviewer's facts are correct but they are also reflected in the text. The text does not assert that the crash caused the depression but that it signaled its start. The following sentence in the text further clarifies the issue: "The crash alone did not cause the Great Depression, but it hastened the collapse of the economy and made the depression more severe." The text is accurate as is.

102. p. 469 T

The reviewer is correct. We will change "The British National Government Party" to "The British national government."

103. p. 492 T, S

The reviewer is correct that the National Recovery Administration was not intended to ensure fair competition. We will revise the text as follows: "It created the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which set prices of many products and established standards." Apart from this point, the text is accurate as written.

104. p. 518 TBS

The text provided on social security in the passage is appropriate and accurate. Additional coverage of social security appears on pages 884 and 885 of the pupil edition.

105. p. 466 T, S

The text acknowledges Herbert Hoover's accomplishments during World War I on p. 420. Although the reviewer would prefer to see Hoover's popularity emphasized in the context of the 1928 election, the text is accurate as written.

106. p. 475 T, S

The issue of the Depression and the difficulties of family life is addressed in the same paragraph cited by the reviewer: "Nevertheless, the economic difficulties of the Great Depression put severe pressure on family life. Making ends meet was a daily struggle, and, in some cases, families broke apart under the strain." (p. 475) The text is accurate as written.

107. p. 481 T

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to reflect the recommendation by deleting the first sentence of the Tracing Themes feature. The first sentence of the feature will now read as follows: "When Hoover finally turned to the idea of some economic stimulus, it was limited to aiding business."

108. p. 591 T, S

There is no factual error in the passage. The 35% increase in wages included in the text is accurate.

109. p. 635 T, S

The text does not deny that a majority of women returned home. However, the reviewer raises a good point, and we will revise the text as follows: "Many were reluctant to give up their newfound independence when their husbands returned. Although most women did leave their jobs, by 1950 more than a million war marriages had ended in divorce."

110. p. 660 T, S

The statement "in 1962, nearly one out of every four Americans" lived below the poverty level is accurate. Per the U.S. Bureau of Census, in 1962 the poverty rate was 21.0% — nearly one of every four Americans. The text is accurate as is.

111. p. 689 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text to read: "This was one of the earliest federal aid packages for education in the nation's history."

112. p. 693 T, S

1. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the figure of 21% is correct. 2. Regarding the Great Society: the text does not state that it was the "chief contributor." It states, "But funding the Great Society contributed to a growing budget deficit...." 3. According to the year 2000 Statistical Abstract of the United States, the budget deficit for 1965 was approximately $1.4 billion, which brought the total federal debt to $322.3 billion. On all three issues, the text is accurate as is.

113. p. 864 T, S

As the reviewer states, "the book correctly identifies President Clinton as a critical figure [in NAFTA's passage]..." The text does not claim that Clinton was the treaty's originator. Although the text does not provide the level of detail that the reviewer would like to see, the discussion of NAFTA's provisions, supporters, detractors, and criticisms is accurate as written. The discussion of the WTO, although brief, is also accurate as written.

114. p. 813 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the title of both the pupil edition feature and the corresponding teacher edition feature to read: "The Early 1980s Texas Oil Boom." We will also revise the second sentence of the second paragraph in the student feature as follows: "However, in areas that produced oil, such as Texas, the rise in prices led to a booming economy in the early 1980s."

115. p. 691 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will revise the text as follows: "The Warren Court banned state-sanctioned prayer in public schools and declared state-required loyalty oaths unconstitutional."

116. p. 325 T, S

Although the passage does not go into detail to explain why Du Bois's work was ignored during the latter part of his life, the text is accurate as written.

117. p. 603 T, S

The reviewer is correct. We will change "After WWII... " to "After WWI...".

118. pp. 241-243 T, S

While the text's description of Andrew Carnegie does not provide the level of detail the reviewer would like to see, it does describe his roots, business acumen, and links to Social Darwinism. The text is accurate as is.

119. pp. 243 T, S

In addition to the Key Player segment cited by the reviewer, the passage titled "Rockefeller and the "Robber Barrons" on the same page points out Rockefeller's ruthlessness in dealing with competitors and labor: "Rockefeller reaped huge profits by paying his employees extremely low wages and driving his competitors out of business by selling his oil at a lower price than it cost to produce it. Then, when he controlled the market, he hiked prices far above original levels." The text is balanced, and accurate, as is.

120. p. 583 T, S

It is true that MacArthur's ability as a military strategist is debatable; for this reason, the text qualifies the statement with the word arguably. Furthermore, the text does present MacArthur's flaws as well as his strengths; therefore it is not a one-sided portrayal of the general.

121. p. 750 T

While the passage does not provide the level of detail the reviewer would like to see regarding Robert Kennedy's positions on civil rights and Vietnam, it does provide an accurate overview of Robert Kennedy's career, which is the purpose of the feature in question. The text is accurate as is.


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