Response to Written Comments—August 23, 2002

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

September 13, 2002

The Publisher has excerpted those portions of the Written Comments that specifically refer to textbooks it publishes and has provided responses to each one on the following pages.

Richard S. Collins

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the publisher has no comment.

Don Zimmerman

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Meg McKain Grier

I am not here today to pick apart the textbooks for errors although I can briefly list a few: Texas & Texans: Page 579, women Republicans seem to appear out of nowhere in 1993. In fact, Barbara Culver was elected Midland County Judge in 1962 and Republicans nominated the first statewide woman candidate since Ma Ferguson, Mary Lou Grier, who ran for Land Commissioner in 1972.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Women in politics do not just "appear out of nowhere in 1993." The page referenced by the reviewer, 579, is from a section on Texas Politics Today. In the previous chapter, the text states on page 568:

Women in Politics

During the 1960s and 1970s, women became more active at all levels of Texas political life. They increased their numbers on school boards, city councils, and in the state legislature.

In 1958 Hattie Mae White became the first African American to serve on the Houston School Board. Anita Martinez was elected to the Dallas City Council in 1969. When Barbara Jordan was in the state Senate and Frances "Sissy" Farenthold was in the state House, they were the only two women in the legislature. The Texas Women's Political Caucus, the National Organization for Women (NOW), and the Mujeres por la Raza encouraged more women to run for office. Farenthold ran for governor twice, although she did not win. By 2000, 86 women had served in the Texas legislature.

In 1972, as women's political power kept growing, Anne Armstrong became the first woman to give a keynote address at a national political party convention. (A keynote address is a speech that presents the main issue of interest to an audience and often inspires unity and enthusiasm.) A few years later, San Antonio and Austin elected women mayors."

No survey history text can possibly chronicle every event or election. Rather, historians deal with large brushstrokes of history. On page 579, the textbook is dealing with Texas politics today and the events that helped shape it.

It begins on page 578 by summarizing for students information they need to know to then explore the Texas political scene from the 1980s to today. It states:

"The Texas political scene continues to undergo many changes. The events of the 1960s and 1970s so transformed Texas politics that, by the 1980s and 1990s, groups that had been excluded from political power were now included. The political power of minorities, women, and urban dwellers (those who live in cities) grew significantly."

The text then explores in depth the political events from the 1980s to the present; in particular, the role of women in political life. The main idea of the passage is that women, Republicans and Democrats, were participating in greater numbers at both the local and state level during this time. By the late 1980s, for example, the text points out that Houston, Dallas, and El Paso all had female mayors. Students read:

"Both parties welcomed women into greater political participation. Democrats nominated Ann Richards for state treasurer in 1982. She held the office until 1991, when she became governor for a term. Democratic women such as Sheila Jackson Lee and Eddie Bernice Johnson were African Americans who represented Texas in the U.S. House of Representatives. Republican women also became more prominent in their party. Kay Bailey Hutchison was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1993 and reelected in 1994 and 2000. In 1996 Kay Granger became the first Republican woman to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Texas. She was reelected from her district in 1998 and 2000."

Texas Public Policy Foundation Social Studies Textbook Review Publisher Responses to Textbook Error Report

Textbook

Errors Reported

Changes Made

Errors Refuted

Economics: Today and Tomorrow

3

0

3

Economics Principles and Practices

4

2

2

Our World Today: People, Places and Issues

10

7

3

Texas and Texans

5

4

1

Glencoe World History

13

4

9

The American Republic Since 1877

0

0

0

The American Republic to 1877

40

26

14

United States Government: Democracy in Action

17

9

8

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher reviewed the list of textbook errors submitted by the Texas Public Policy Foundation on July 17, 2002, and corrected all factual errors. The publisher did not change items that were not errors.

Dr. Ricky Dobbs Texas Public Policy Foundation

Of the four texts that I have examined, The American Republic, published by Glencoe McGraw-Hill deserves special recognition. It was the best of the four. Organizationally, it is strong and coherent. With respect to content, The American Republic most resembles a good college-level textbook. Not only does it have the fewest factual problems, but the sophistication of its approach to the material surpasses the others. If the state's intention with high school history is to prepare students for higher education and/or informed citizenship, texts need to be of this quality or better.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

The efforts of J. Edgar Hoover's FBI to intimidate and undermine the movement and its leaders are also dropped out of the story. Appleby, et. al., 753-756 does still a better job [of treating government leaders' attitudes toward the civil rights movement], but fails to explain the mechanics of Kennedy's dealings with Ross Barnett fully, nor does it mention FBI action against the movement until 1967.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

On page 756, the textbook notes:

"In September 1962, Meredith tried to register at the university's admissions office, only to find Ross Barnett, the governor of Mississippi, blocking his path. Although Meredith had a court order directing the university to register him, Governor Barnett stated emphatically, 'Never! We will never surrender to the evil and illegal forces of tyranny.'

Frustrated, President Kennedy dispatched 500 federal marshals to escort Meredith to the campus."

The authors and publisher believe that this overview of the situation, as well as the details of FBI actions against the civil rights movement, provide enough detail of the white reaction to ensure that students fully understand the conflict that the movement generated. In addition, the textbook sets the stage for understanding white resistance on pages 748 and 749 where students read:

"Although it [the Brown case] convinced many African Americans that the time had come to challenge other forms of segregation, it also angered many white Southerners, who became even more determined to defend segregation, regardless of what the Supreme Court ruled.

Although some school districts in border states integrated their schools in compliance with the Court's ruling, anger and opposition was a far more common reaction. In

Washington, D.C., Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia called on Southerners to adopt 'massive resistance' against the ruling. Across the South, hundreds of thousands of white Americans joined citizens' councils to pressure their local governments and school boards into defying the Supreme Court. Many states adopted pupil assignment laws. These laws created an elaborate set of requirements other than race that schools could use to prevent African Americans from attending white schools.

The Supreme Court inadvertently encouraged white resistance when it followed up its decision in Brown v. Board a year later. The Court ordered school districts to proceed 'with all deliberate speed' to end school segregation. The wording was vague enough that many districts were able to keep their schools segregated for many more years.

Massive resistance also appeared in the halls of Congress. In 1956 a group of 101 Southern members of Congress signed the Southern Manifesto, which denounced the Supreme Court's ruling as a "clear abuse of judicial power" and pledged to use "all lawful means" to reverse the decision. Although the Southern Manifesto had no legal standing, the statement encouraged white Southerners to defy the Supreme Court."

Dr. Christopher Mammons Texas Public Policy Foundation

Glencoe text [United States Government: Democracy in Action] does a better job of handling this issue, and avoids the term "living constitution," instead applying the more traditional "loose" versus "strict" construction approach.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comment.

Glencoe text [United States Government: Democracy in Action]: "An effective government allows citizens to plan for the future, get an education, raise a family, and live orderly lives (p. 10)" My concern is that these items are not found in the Constitution and are assumed by this statement to be a function of government.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The excerpt is part of a larger discussion on the general purposes of government. This discussion, which includes narrative on pages 9-11, is intended to help students understand the many roles that government plays in people's lives. It does not state that these are characteristics of the American government under the Constitution.

Glencoe text [United States Government: Democracy in Action]: The text on page 85 explains the 2nd amendment by noting that "This amendment seems to support the right for citizens to own firearms..." Why the use of the conditional word "seems," where the implication is that such an interpretation might be correct but the publisher hesitates to endorse it? Compare this to the contradictory explanation of the 2nd Amendment on p. 789 where the publisher declares that "The purpose of this amendment [2nd] is to guarantee states the right to keep a militia."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text on page 85 uses the term seems in order to present an objective account of the facts and to avoid endorsing a particular position on an issue on which the courts have not ruled. The complete discussion on pages 84 and 85 reads:

"This amendment ensures citizens and the nation the right to security. It states: 'A well-regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.'

Originally, the Second Amendment was intended to prevent the national government from repeating actions that the British had taken. Before the Revolution, the British tried to take weapons away from colonial militia, or armed forces of citizens.

This amendment seems to support the right for citizens to own firearms, but it does not prevent Congress from regulating the interstate sale of weapons, nor has the Supreme Court applied the Second Amendment to the states. States are free to regulate the use and sale of firearms."

As noted on the publisher's response to Dr. Mammons' original review, the publisher is making the following content change on page 789:

Page 789, column 2, Amendment 2 Content Change

Change:

Right to Bear Arms (1791)

The purpose of this amendment is to guarantee states the right to keep a militia.

To:

Bearing Arms (1791)

This amendment is often debated. Some people argue that it protects the right of states to have militias. Others argue that the Founders' original intent was to protect the right of individuals to have weapons. The Supreme Court has yet to issue a definitive ruling on the Second Amendment's meaning."

Prentice Hall offers a more balanced discussion, exploring the merits and weaknesses of both capitalism and socialism. The same is true with the Glencoe Text. However, in their efforts to present the theoretical virtues of both capitalism and socialism, neither text presents any empirical data to draw conclusions about the merits of either system."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The textbook does indeed provide empirical data to show that most socialist systems have abandoned socialism and are actively working toward capitalism. In explaining the economies of developing nations on page 726, students read:

"However, several practical problems have caused socialism to fail to live up to its promises. First, a primary need for developing economies is capital investments. The quickest route to capital is through foreign investors. Yet banks and private investors have been cautious when investing in developing nations. A major concern is whether the emerging economy will honor its obligations. Free market economies without a threat of nationalization of businesses attract capital. Economies based on a Marxist model do not.

Second, the failure of large-scale state planning to meet the needs of the consumers in Eastern European nations raises concern about socialism's ability to do so in other regions.

Developing nations have large populations with basic consumer needs. Failure to meet these needs would risk revolt."

In the section entitled Collapse of Soviet Communism, the author devotes four pages to the end of the Soviet Union and to Russia's attempts to forge a free enterprise system. The text concludes by noting on page 731:

"Russia's attempt to transform its economy illustrates the close relationship between capitalism, democracy, and the rule of law. Although every capitalist country is not governed democratically, every democratic country has some type of market economy."

The Glencoe text [United States Government: Democracy in Action] has a tendency to focus on the organizational and procedural aspects of government while ignoring "politics" per say. It is almost as if, in an attempt to be ideologically neutral, the publisher has decided to avoid discussion of anything controversial and focus exclusively on political institutions, processes, and powers.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The textbook is designed as a survey of the system of government in the United States. To include all of the information necessary for such an approach, the author has made the decision to focus on broad procedures and principles rather than on specific details. Such a presentation gives students a comprehensive overview of and appreciation for our form of government.

Margie Raborn

I decided to address another general topic today and that is the issue of using textbooks as advertising instruments. I do not mind if Time, CNN, National Geographic etc. receive recognition in the credits section for their contribution to making these books, but I think it is wrong... the repeated and blatant way these companies are advertised through out these books. Since some try to question your authority to even address content of books, there would probably be an outcry that you certainly have no authority over advertising policy. However, I would appreciate if the board would request that the publishers refrain from such blatant advertising policies. If they choose not to comply, then citizens must address this issue when books are adopted in their local districts.

This is very similar to the problems with Channel One using our students as a captive audience for their commercial promotions. Now I am a big proponent of entrepreneurship and capitalism. I have no problem with Pepsi Cola or Nike advertising at the Super Bowl, but targeting the classrooms and textbooks to capture the buying power of students is the kind of thing that gives capitalism a black eye! It is my hope that publishers will see the validity of my comments and correct this problem themselves.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Glencoe has no advertising, nor have we sought any advertising for our

textbooks.

Glencoe, like all other major publishers in the social studies adoption, has brand identification in its textbooks when material was developed by other content providers.

Glencoe, for example, is proud to have National Geographic, the world's largest scientific and educational nonprofit organization, in our book. National Geographic is an author responsible for providing geographic content, photographs, and maps. As an author, we pay them rather than their paying us.

The key here is that National Geographic actually owns the copyright to the content they provide. As noted in the copyright notice in the books, "National Geographic contributions, identified by the trademark, are designed and developed by National Geographic School Publishing. Copyright 2003 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. The name National Geographic Society and the Yellow Border Rectangle are trademarks of the Society, and their use, without prior written permission, is strictly prohibited."

The brand and the yellow rectangle are used to distinguish the National Geographic content from that of the other authors in the books.

Both the content and the maps are distinctive assets to the textbook, and we believe they provide the highest quality of information to our Texas teachers and students.

Dr. Kenneth Green

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Laura Sargent

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Sue Blanchette

Texas Council for the Social Studies 2002 Textbook Review

Glencoe World Geography, Texas Edition Strengths

Factual Knowledge

• Handbook of Texas Geography

• Global connections as "hook" to lesson Special Features

• Case studies

• Section/chapter reviews

• Key people/places

• Countries in bold print Study Aids

• Vocabulary lists

• Spanish Glossary Visual presentation

• Good pictures

• Good graphics/charts

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

Glencoe World Geography, Texas Edition Weaknesses

Some maps too small

Color for clarity could be clearer

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher took extreme care to ensure that the visuals were attractive and inviting as well as accurate. Every unit opens with a regional atlas in which four full-page maps provide physical, political, population, and economic information for that particular region. Within each chapter, the size of the visuals corresponds to the content. Many maps are one-half page or larger. Some maps, especially those with a narrower geographic or thematic focus, may be smaller. Extensive use is made of locator maps with visuals, photos as well as maps, as a visual tool for students.

Glencoe World History, Texas Edition Strengths

Factual Knowledge

• Balanced social, economic, political issues

• No obvious errors in sections reviewed

• Good connection to National Geographic

• Relatedness of maps to content well chosen Special Features

• Primary sources, documents, timelines

• Good maps, charts, graphics Study Aids

• Good map activities

• Adequate chapter reviews

• Superb maps Visual Presentation

• Teachable textbook

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

Glencoe World History, Texas Edition Weaknesses

Weaker in economic issues

Written from American view but reasonably unbiased

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text addresses important economic events as well as economic activity in everyday life. Ideas that are introduced include the advent of a money economy and commercial capitalism (page 320), laissez-faire philosophy (page 521). Text references and primary source documents detail issues dealing with mercantilism, feudalism, the Industrial Revolution, the Great Depression, and the modern global economy. Included, too, are the ideas of Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and others who have contributed to economic thought.

The American Republic Since 1877 Strengths

Factual Knowledge

• Adequate coverage

• Good balance in social, economic, political issues Special Features

• Good use of primary sources

• US and World perspectives on timelines

• Good connection with TIME magazine

• Excellent TIME Notebook Study Aids

• Section assessment from low to higher levels

• Chapter organizers from low to higher levels Visual Presentation

• Visuals varied and colorful

• Good use of visuals with content

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

The American Republic Since 1877 Weaknesses

Factual Knowledge

• No women on the cover

• Could use more info to spice up content

• Could imbed more economic issues into textbook Special Features

• Internet connections only to publisher home page Study Aids

• Reading check can interrupt the flow of the narrative Visual Presentation

• Maps too crowded

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The photographs on the cover of The American Republic serve as symbols of significant events in American history since 1877. A woman is in the photograph of the immigrants on board the ship.

Discussion of economic issues form an important part of the text. Within each historical epoch, the text provides relevant economic information on matters ranging from labor to production to the role of government in the economy. The attributes of the free enterprise economic system and the operation of supply and demand are discussed, as are such concepts as feudalism, mercantilism, and laissez-faire. Special sections in the text help students understand the workings of the global economy and the influence of technology on economic growth and development. Features such as "What Should the Government's Role in the Economy Be?" help students analyze and think in economic terms.

Internet connections to other sites are provided in the Teacher Edition. The teacher has the option to provide the link.

Reading Checks are not intended to interrupt the flow of the narrative, but to promote reading comprehension. Located at the end of major subsections within a section, reading checks ensure that the student understands the important ideas in the subsection before going on.

The publisher took extreme care to ensure that the visuals were attractive and inviting as well as accurate. Some maps, especially those that cover an extended period of time or focus on detailed economic information, are more complex. These visuals often contain a locator map as well as captions and call-outs to aid student understanding.

United States Government, Texas Edition Strengths

Factual Knowledge

• Tends to be bipartisan

• Balance in social, political, and economic issues

• Used issues that would appeal to students' interests Special Features

All major documents in appendix

• Explicit charts

• Graphics/maps are placed with content

• Exceptional reference section

Study Aids

• Spanish Glossary

• Chapter/section reviews

• 1 skill activity per chapter Visual Presentation

• Smallest book in overall size

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

United States Government, Texas Edition Weaknesses

Factual Knowledge

• Error found in TE regarding number of people per rep

• Needed more depth on social issues Study Aids

• Section reviews seem too simple (lower level) Visual Presentation

• Pictures need to be more vivid

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher acknowledges the error and is making the following changes

to correct the error:

Page 125, teacher's edition, Speaking of Washington, heading Error Correction

Change: "8,500"

To: "9,400"

Page 125, teacher's edition, Speaking of Washington, line 8 Error Correction

Change: "8,500"

To: "9,400"

Page 125, teacher's edition, Speaking of Washington, line 10 Error Correction

Change: "588,000"

To: "650,000"

The textbook provides in-depth coverage of many social issues. Examples include: discussion of rights of individuals and the public good (pages 10, 21, 343) as well as extensive coverage of issues, both historical and current, in education, transportation, housing, and health.

Section Assessments are designed to build from lower-level thinking skills to higher level. The intent of the assessments is to help the student apply critical thinking skills or use information acquired from a variety of sources.

Economics: Principles and Practices, Texas Edition Strengths

Factual Knowledge

• No apparent factual errors

• Free market point of view

• Good balance in social, political issues Special Features

• Recurring features on Economics in Action

• Cyber Careers, issues of free enterprise Study Aids

• Good use of visuals through charts/graphs

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

Economics: Principles and Practices, Texas Edition Weaknesses

Study Aids

• Chapter/section review needed extension

• Vocabulary list needs to expand Visual presentation

• Inadequate use of color for clarity

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Both the Section Assessments and the Chapter Assessments are designed to build from lower-level thinking skills to higher level. The intent of the reviews is to help the student apply critical thinking skills or use information acquired from a variety of sources.

The author and publisher believe that the vocabulary list is extensive. Key vocabulary terms are listed in the section opener, identified and defined in the text, and tested on both the Section and Chapter Assessments.

Economics: Today and Tomorrow, Texas Edition Strengths

Factual Knowledge

• No apparent errors

• Content stated in basic terms

• Fairly balanced to social issues

Special Features

• Recurring features on Economics in Action, Cyber Careers, issues of free enterprise Study Aids

• Appropriate use of primary sources

• Activities appropriate for low level students Visual Presentation

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

Economics: Today and Tomorrow, Texas Edition Weaknesses

• Lacking cultural issues

• More graphs needed

• Lacking graphs and curves showing economic principles

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The textbook includes a feature called "Spotlight on the Economy" in each chapter. This feature highlights cultural issues in the United States and the world as they relate to the economy.

The textbook includes 39 graphs, many of which like those on supply and demand, include curves. The author and publisher believe that this enough to ensure student understanding of complex principles.

Texas & Texans Strengths

Visual

• Excellent visuals

• Good use of color for emphasis

• Maps clear and readable Content

• Point of view accurate

• No obvious factual errors reported

• Like National Geographic connection Age appropriateness

• On level

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

Texas & Texans Weaknesses

Content

• Primary sources not incorporated into text content

• Needs more depth on social, political, economic issues

• Timelines need to be stronger

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text includes more than 120 primary source quotations within the

narrative. For a list, see Table of Contents pages XI—XII.

Every section begins with a primary source in "A Texas Story" that sets the scene for the events of the period. Documents such as Travis's "Victory or Death" letter are quoted in full in the text. Every chapter includes primary sources in text. Chapter 13 on the life of pioneers, for example, includes within the text excerpts from Mathilda Wagner, William Bollaert, Frederick Olmstead, and Amelia Barr on everyday life.

The authors and publisher believe that many social, economic, and political issues are covered in sufficient detail and in an appropriate manner for seventh grade students. Chapters 15 and 16 of the text, for example, provide a thorough analysis of the political, economic, and social effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas.

The authors and publisher believe that timelines can provide an important visual tool for students. A timeline that features events in Texas, the United States, and the World appears at the beginning of every chapter. Every section begins with a timeline of events. Timelines and chronological lists are also included as a part of the chapter reviews.

Robert Bohmfalk

The American Republic Since 1877 The American History: A Survey

As good as all these textbooks are, they can become even better next time. Many important events of the last 25 years were absent.

Every textbook left out Jim Jones and the Jonestown mass suicide of the People's Temple in September 1978. Students need to know how easily people can be brainwashed by a religious cult and follow a spiritual leader to mass suicide. It's happened twice since then—with David Koresh and Branch Davidians near Waco in 1993, and the "Heaven's Gate" cult near San Diego in 1997. Also, the Columbine School Shooting was in only one textbook.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The authors and publisher agree that students need to understand the dangers of brainwashing. Rather than including information that would have to include the grisly details of isolated incidents that had no lasting effect on the future of the nation, however, the Glencoe textbooks help students realize these dangers through the inclusion of information and activities on analyzing bias, interpreting points of view, and analyzing the news media.

Lupita Ramirez

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Norman Binder

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Nora Sanchez

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

J. Jaime Urbina

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Dina Marie Guerra

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Emily R. Vasquez

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Dr. Manual Medrano

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Lucy B. Camarillo

I recently had the opportunity to review three of the American History textbooks being considered for adoption in 2002. They are America Past and Present published by Longman; American History: A Survey published by McGraw-Hill and The Americans Reconstruction to the 21st Century published by McDougal-Littell. I found that McDougal's edition contained the most information on Hispanic historical contributions. But even there only one-liners.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Both the publisher and the author of American History: A Survey firmly believe that the history of Hispanic Americans should be fully integrated into the text and presented in proper historical context. When the textbook discusses the exploration and settlement of America on pages 17-23, it presents examples of the Hispanic contribution to that effort. The text notes on pages 18 and 19 that, while the first Spaniards came to conquer, that

"most Spanish settlers in America traveled to the New World for other reasons. Many went in hopes of creating a profitable agricultural economy. Unlike the conquistadores, who left little but destruction behind them, these settlers helped establish elements of European civilization in America that permanently altered both the landscape and the social structure. Other Spaniards went to America to spread the Christian religion."

Students go on to read about St. Augustine in Florida and the encomienda system of the Southwest and learn that "by the end of the sixteenth century, the Spanish empire had become one of the largest in the history of the world."

When the text discusses life in the West in the 1800s, it provides extensive detail on Hispanic culture in New Mexico, California, and Texas on pages 558-560. During the discussion of the Great Depression, the author details the plight of Mexican Americans, noting that they often faced discrimination. On page 852, students read:

"Chicanes (as Mexican Americans are often known) filled many of the same menial jobs in the West and elsewhere that blacks filled in other regions. Some farmed small, marginal tracts. Some became agricultural migrants, traveling from region to region harvesting fruit, lettuce, and

other crops-----Even during the prosperous 1920s, theirs

had been a precarious existence. The Depression made things significantly worse. As in the South, unemployed white Anglos in the Southwest demanded jobs held by Hispanics, jobs that the Anglos had previously considered beneath them. Thus Mexican unemployment rose quickly to levels far higher than those for Anglos. Some Mexicans were, in effect, forced to leave the country by officials who arbitrarily removed them from relief rolls or simply rounded them up and transported them across the border. Perhaps

half a million Chicanos left the United States for Mexico in the first years of the Depression.

Those who remained faced persistent discrimination. Most relief programs excluded Mexicans from their rolls or offered them benefits far below those available to whites. Hispanics generally had no access to American schools. Many hospitals refused them admission."

The immense impact of the bracero program of World War II, the fact that over 300,000 Mexican Americans fought for the United States, and the discrimination that Mexican Americans faced is detailed on pages 940 and 941.

Students learn about the move toward activism in the 1960s and 1970s on pages 1079 and 1080 where the text details the growing influence of various groups of Hispanic Americans as well as the rise of La Raza Unida.

By focusing the narrative on important historical developments in the United States and by presenting the Hispanic role in those developments, the text avoids giving token representation to Hispanic Americans. Instead Hispanics are presented as active participants whose contributions and struggles in the historical process have played an important role in the development of Texas and the United States. The author and publisher have integrated the story of Hispanic Americans and their contributions throughout the textbook.

Dale Baum, Armando Alonzo, and Joseph G. Dawson

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Andrew Riggsby

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the publisher has no comment.

Jon Roland Constitution Society

The American Republic To 1877

For the sake of full disclosure, the lead author of this textbook, Dr. Joyce Appleby, is a friend and contributor to the Constitution Society, so I made a special effort to find errors, but could find only one. In the Appendix, page 241, some passages of the Constitution are printed in blue (rather than black), it is explained in the caption, to indicate that they have been set aside or modified by amendments. The caption should have included that also blued are passages that have become outdated by the passage of time, specifically Art. I Sec. 9 Cl. 1. But the error here consists of the bluing of the words from Art. Ill Sec. 2 Cl. 1, "between Citizens of different States." It is correct to have blued the previous item in the list, "between a State and Citizens of another State"—that was nullified by the Eleventh Amendment, but the federal courts still have jurisdiction over cases between citizens of different states.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue, the publisher will make the following content changes:

Page 232, caption in gold, 2nd sentence: Content Change

Change:

"For easier study, those passages that have been set aside or changed by the adoption of amendments are printed in blue."

To:

"Those passages that have been set aside, outdated by the passage of time, or changed by the adoption of amendments are printed in blue."

Page 241, column 1, lines 9-10 Editorial Change

Change:

the phrase "—between Citizens of different States," from cyan to black

United States Government

Page 85 has the passage, "States are free to regulate the use and sale of firearms." That is misleading. The U.S. Supreme Court has never ruled on whether the Second Amendment is incorporated under the 14th Amendment, although the legislative history of that amendment clearly shows that it was supposed to cover all rights recognized by the U.S. Constitution, especially the right to keep and bear arms. See "Intent of the Fourteenth Amendment was to Protect All Rights," at http://www.constitution.org/col/intent_14th.htm . It should simply state that the U.S. Supreme Court has not yet ruled on the question.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 85, column 1, paragraph 3, lines 8-9 Content Change

Change:

"States are free to regulate the use and sale of firearms."

To:

"Many state constitutions guarantee the right to keep and bear arms."

Page 159 presents a column of "implied powers" in a way that presumes the powers are implied, when the implication is controverted for many of them. It would be more accurate to label them as "considered to be implied by the majority in government" or other words to that effect, with the mention that there is opposition by some scholars.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text that introduces the column of "selected implied powers" explains that the implied powers are often subject to conflicting interpretation. The text points out that the meaning of the necessary and proper clause has been under debate, almost from the time the words were written. On page 157 students read:

"Because of the far-reaching implications of the expanding power of Congress, the Supreme Court has often been the site of conflict over what is 'necessary and proper' legislation."

Page 443 contains the statement, after saying a jury must be unanimous in a criminal trial, "If a jury is unable to reach a decision, it is called a hung jury and dismissed, and the trial ends in a mistrial." This is seriously misleading, although it does reflect current practices in the instructions given juries. A close reading of the law and rules of judicial procedure, both federal and state, finds that a unanimous verdict is only required to convict, not to acquit. If a jury cannot reach agreement, it is supposed to return a verdict of not guilty. If pinned down on this point, judges will back down, but they commonly abuse their discretion to pressure juries to convict the accused on some charge, and thereby tamper with the jury and deny due process to the defendant. An omission in this text is sufficient discussion of the role of the jury and the duties of citizens when called for jury duty.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue, the publisher will make the following content changes:

Page 443, paragraph 1, lines 11-14 Content Change

Change:

"In nearly all criminal cases the verdict, or decision, must be unanimous. If a jury is unable to reach a decision, it is called a hung jury and dismissed, and the trial ends in a mistrial. A new trial with another jury may be scheduled at a later date."

To:

"Nearly all criminal cases require a unanimous vote for a verdict, or decision, of guilty. If the jury cannot agree on a verdict, a situation known as a hung jury, the court usually declares a mistrial. A new trial with another jury may be scheduled later."

Page 786, Appendix, U.S. Constitution, has Art. IV Sec. 2 Cl. 3 blued, correctly indicating that it was modified by amendment, although there is no caption explaining what bluing means as there was in The American Republic. However, an explanation is needed that the passage was not repealed by the 13th Amendment, which allowed for slavery or involuntary servitude as punishment for a crime, and thus this provision still applies to such persons.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The introduction to the Constitution includes an explanation of the use of color. On page 774, students read:

"The entire text of the Constitution and its amendments follows. For easier study, those passages that have been set aside or changed by the adoption of amendments are printed in blue. Also included are explanatory notes that will help clarify the meaning of each article and section."

Article IV, Sec. 2, Clause 3 states the unqualified right on the part of slaveholders to repossess slaves, which no state law could control or restrain. This clause was superseded by the Thirteenth Amendment. The annotation provided on page 786 stating, "Formerly this clause meant that slaves could not become free persons by escaping to free states" is correct as written.

The most serious omission in this text is failure to adequately discuss all of the articles of the Bill of Rights, especially the Second, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments. It has some discussion of the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments, but in a way that does not, except for the First, connect the student to the actual language of each amendment, or explain why the wording was chosen that way.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The textbook covers the articles of the Bill of Rights thoroughly on pages 83-87 and again on pages 789-790. Detailed explanation of the Second, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments are provided on pages 84-87. Additional discussion of the Tenth Amendment is included in Chapter 4 "The Federal System," in sections on the supremacy clause, concurrent powers, denied powers, guarantees to the states, (pages 96-99) and in sections on the states' rights position and the nationalist position (pages 106-109).

The language and the wording of the first ten amendments are discussed in the annotations to the Constitution as well as in several other places in the text. For example, the use of the word quartered is related to the British practice of housing troops in private homes (page 789). A section (beginning on page 63) compares the U.S. Constitution with other constitutions in terms of structure. Discussed on pages 78-79 are informal changes to the Constitution, which includes information on the language and meaning of many terms including lay and collect taxes and high crimes and misdemeanors.

David Rogers Review of Our World Today: People, Places, and Issues

Page 32

Reason: Too specific

Change: have the last line read "...set rules in some vital industries such as transportation and energy."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text in question is discussing characteristics of mixed economies. The narrative notes:

"However, the government may regulate prices or set rules as in the airline industry and companies that provide gas and electricity."

The airline industry and companies that provide gas and electricity are simply being used as examples so that students understand some of the ways in which the government may regulate the private sector. They are not overly specific.

Page 176

Reason: Unrelated photos

Change: story is of a person not shown

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The feature presents the idea that young Chinese people have more freedom than their parents had, but that these freedoms are still limited. The photograph on the left depicts this idea visually by showing a young person playing rock music, a practice that was at one time forbidden. The photo on the right is included as a counterbalance. While Chinese people have some new freedoms, young people must still serve in the military.

Page 176

Reason: bias in photo

Change: Angry, menacing armed soldier's face (only one in the book)... see balanced photo on page 115 of Arab-Israeli conflict.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The Chinese soldier is not in military action, but is taking part in a drill. As such, he is neither angry nor menacing.

Page 176

Reason: Conflicting facts

Change: Page 170 states that the government "forces killed thousands of protesters" in Tiananmen Square. Page 176 states soldiers killed at least 300 people.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To correct this information, the publisher will make the following change to correct the error:

Page 170, paragraph 2, lines 10-11 Error Correction

Change:

"killed thousands of protesters and arrested many more."

To:

"killed hundreds of protesters and arrested thousands more."

Page 178

Reason: Biased photo

Change: Soldier used to illustrate Internet usage. No mention is made that PLA is the nation's largest employer and manufacturer... suggests militarism.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The focus of this feature is promoting respect for human rights in China and other countries. Mention of economic change or employment and manufacturing statistics would be out of place. The visual displaying the logo of China's leading Internet communications company, Sohu.com, along with the caption present the idea that the Internet is one way many Chinese people learn about new ideas.

Page 191

Reason: Fact misstated

Change: "Japan and Korea were nations largely destroyed by war."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this information, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 191, Why It Matters feature, lines 1-3 Content Change

Change:

"areas destroyed by war. Japan and South Korea"

To:

"nations largely destroyed by war. The countries"

Page 259

Reason: Fact misstated

Change: "Italy and Germany were finally defeated in 1945" should read "Japan and Germany." Italy surrendered earlier.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this information, the publisher will make the following change to correct the error.

Page 259, paragraph 3, lines 1-2 Error Correction

Change:

"World War II was fought primarily in Europe and Asia. Italy and Germany were finally defeated in May 1945."

To:

"Italy surrendered in 1943. Germany was finally defeated in

May 1945, but the Japanese continued to fight."

Page 269

Reason: confusing question

Change: "How many coins can you identify" should read "How many nations"

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue, the publisher will make the following editorial change:

Page 269, "On Location," caption question Editorial Change

Change: "coins"

To: "nations"

Page 313

Reason: nonfact

Change: Quantify how many years and about how many lives were taken by the Serb-Croat war.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

There is no accepted or verified count on the number of people who lost their lives. Little doubt exists that tens of thousands perished. To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 313, paragraph 2, lines 11-14 Content Change

Change:

"Hundreds of thousands of people died or were murdered. About the same number became refugees, or people who flee to another country to escape danger."

To:

"Tens of thousands died or were murdered. Thousands more

became refugees, or people who flee to another country to escape

danger."

Page 336

Reason: misrepresentation

Change: Russia and USA landmasses are compared omitting Alaska and Hawaii; but all states'

populations are presumably included in comparisons on page 337.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The caption for the maps states that the contiguous land mass of the United States is depicted, and thus does not include Alaska and Hawaii. This visual is a companion piece to the larger regional map on the page and helps students compare relative size quickly and easily.

Kenny Johnson

Madam Chair, members of the Board, thank you for this opportunity to address concerns regarding Proclamation 2000.

Monday, the Washington Times reported the NEA was offering teacher lesson plans on their Web site, suggesting teachers blame America for the events of 9/11 by discussing historical instances of American intolerance. Written proof national efforts are being made to omit the facts.

Further evidence is found in a chapter of one of these submitted textbooks being considered for adoption. The authors attempt to marginalize America's achievements and create a mind set that America is weak. Bright bold orange letters in the headline read "NIGHTMARE AT OMAHA." This textbook quotes, "General Omar Bradley feared (Omaha) was an irreversible catastrophe." The authors offered no discussion about the bravery and courage of the American servicemen, nor the sacrifices made by their families on behalf of freedom.

Standing on Omaha Beach, President Ronald Reagan spoke these words: "We stand today at a place of battle, one that 40 years ago saw and felt the worst of war. Men bled and died here for a few feet of or inches of sand as bullets and shellfire cut through their ranks. About them, General Omar Bradley later said, "Every man who set foot on Omaha Beach that day was a hero." Allied forces stormed the beaches of Normandy 40 years ago. They came not as conquerors, but as liberators. When these troops swept across the French country side and into the forests of Belgium and Luxembourg they came not to take, but to return what had been wrongfully seized. When our forces marched into Germany they came not to prey on a brave and defeated people, but to nurture the seeds of democracy among those who yearned to be free again... This land is secure. We are free. These things are worth dying and fighting for.. ." Which factual account clearly explains what happened at Omaha?

There are those who want to destroy democracy in the heart and soul in our children by rewriting history. President Bush remarked in 2002 State of the Union address, "For too long our culture has said, "if it feels good do it." Now America is raising a new ethic and a new creed: "Let's roll." It would be devastating to have the words, "let's roll" omitted from our history. Deep inside each true American lives a spirit that serves a purpose larger than himself. Ordinary people with extraordinary courage. True Americans understand, when the call comes to defend freedom, we are willing to answer with our lives. Even if the call comes on a seemingly routine flight from New York to San Francisco.

The firewall for freedom is the American people. The firewall for protecting Texas public education is this board. My prayer is that each member will only cast votes in favor of textbooks that report the complete facts of our history. A generation of young Americans are dependent upon you. May God bless you, the children of Texas and the families you serve.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE:

The publisher fully agrees with the reviewer that the events at Omaha

exemplify the American spirit at its best, and represent a triumph of

American arms in the face of tremendous difficulties. The courage and

determination of American soldiers landing at Omaha made victory

possible.

Many military historians regard the battle at Omaha Beach as a key battle of the war, and a turning point in the effort to liberate western Europe from Nazi tyranny. It is for precisely this reason that The American Republic Since 1877 includes a 2-page National Geographic special presentation on

the battle at Omaha Beach. The textbook describes the carnage and problems facing Americans at Omaha precisely because it was the most difficult battle where Americans suffered the most casualties, in order for students to remember the sacrifices made for freedom.

Describing the problems Americans faced during the landing in France does not diminish their achievement. Rather, it enhances it. There is no better way for students to understand the heroism of the American soldiers than to describe the obstacles they had to overcome to achieve victory. After reading the story of what American soldiers faced on Omaha, students should come away with an extraordinary pride in the heroism of the American soldiers.

Neither the authors nor the publisher intended to imply that the invasion was a military disaster or a mistake. Nothing could be further from the truth. The National Geographic features are intended to link historical events to geography. In this case, the text of the feature stresses the geographic conditions shaping the battle. It does so to give students a "snapshot" of the geographic and battle conditions the Americans faced. It is not telling the entire story of D-Day.

The title of the feature, "Nightmare at Omaha," comes from the comment by one American commander who was there that "Utah was a cakewalk, but Omaha was a nightmare." Neither the authors nor the publisher intend this title as criticism of the American attack. It is intended to give students a sense of the horrendous conditions into which American soldiers bravely flung themselves and to increase the sense of pride in the eventual American triumph.

The text also does not imply that this was an ill-planned military strategy. To the contrary, on page 638, beneath the map, the feature's text does state the following:

"The Americans reached their first-day objective (dotted blue line on map) only after more than two days of bloody fighting. Despite terrible losses, American forces successfully carried out one of the most crucial missions of the war."

Although the National Geographic feature focuses on the first day at Omaha Beach, the main text of the World War II chapter examines the history of the entire D-Day battle in more detail on pages 633-635. It is important to remember that the goal of a history textbook is to explain why historical events happened as they did. For this reason, the text describes the problems Americans encountered in order to explain why the battle cost so many lives. Contrary to the reviewer's assertions, the text clearly explains how the American soldiers turned the tide of the battle and achieved success. On page 635, the text reads as follows:

"Slowly, however, the American troops began to knock out the German defenses. More landing craft arrived, ramming their way through obstacles to get to the beach. Nearly 2,500 Americans were either killed or wounded on Omaha, but by early afternoon Bradley received this message:

'Troops formerly pinned down on the beaches ... [are] advancing up heights behind the beaches." By the end of the day, nearly 35,000 American troops had landed at Omaha, and another 23,000 had landed at Utah. Over 75,000 British and Canadian troops were onshore as well. The invasion had succeeded."

Every major study of the Omaha landing stresses the problems the American troops encountered and the losses they suffered. They point out that General Bradley briefly feared he would have to evacuate Omaha Beach. They also note that despite fearful casualties, American troops pushed their way inland. See for example The Mighty Endeavor by Charles MacDonald, former Deputy Chief Historian of the Army and author of the army's official histories of the European campaign in World War II. See also Stephen Ambrose, D-Day, June 6, 1944.

The text provides further examples of the bravery American troops exhibited at Omaha Beach in An American Story that appears on page 631. The story relates the experience of Lieutenant John Bentz Carroll of the 16th Infantry Regiment:

"On the morning of June 6,1944, Lieutenant John Bentz Carroll of the 16 Infantry Regiment scrambled down a net ladder from his troop ship to a small landing craft tossing in the waves 30 feet (9 m) below. The invasion of France had begun. Carroll's platoon would be among the first Americans to land in Normandy. Their objective was a beach, code-named "Omaha":

"Two hundred yards out, we took a direct hit-----[A machine

gun] was shooting a rat-tat-tat on the front of the boat. Somehow or other, the ramp door opened up ... and the men in front were being struck by machine gun fire. Everyone started to jump off into the water. They were being hit as they jumped, the machine gun fire was so heavy.... The tide was moving us so rapidly.... We would grab out on some of those underwater obstructions and mines built on telephone poles and girders, and hang on. We'd take cover, then make a dash through the surf to the next one, fifty feet beyond. The men would line up behind those poles. They'd say, 'You go—you go—you go,' and then it got so bad everyone just had to go anyway, because the waves were hitting with such intensity on these things."

It is worth noting that no other high school textbook submitted for adoption in Texas devotes as much coverage to the D-Day landing as does The American Republic Since 1877. One textbook does not even mention the battle of Omaha Beach. Other texts devote only a paragraph to this critical battle, and do little more than quote individual soldiers as to how horrible it was.

Although the text is not unpatriotic in its presentation of D-Day, the publisher and authors want to ensure that students understand that the

Omaha invasion was a success, and that the American effort was an example of extraordinary heroism and courage. For this reason, the publisher will make the following content changes:

Page 639, Title Content Change

Delete:

"Nightmare at Omaha"

Insert:

"A Day for Heroes"

Page 639, column 1, paragraph 3: Content Change

Delete:

"But at Omaha Beach (map), between Utah and Gold, the landing of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division threatened to turn into what American general Omar Bradley feared was an "irreversible catastrophe."

Insert:

"But at Omaha Beach (map), between Utah and Gold, the bravery

and determination of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division was tested in one

of the fiercest battles of the war."

Page 639, column 2, last line:

Content Change

Insert the following after the last sentence:

"Although many died, the Americans took control of the beach and fought

their way inland. As General Omar Bradley later wrote:

"Every man who set foot on Omaha Beach that day was a hero."

[set quote in bold type]

Page 639:

Make the following deletions to fit the new material above:

Content Change

Column 1, lines 5-7

Delete:

"considered coastlines from Denmark to Portugal in search of

Insert: "needed"

Column 2, lines 12-14: Content Change

Delete:

", which had been divided into sectors with code names such as

Dog Red and Easy Green"

Although the publisher and authors have agreed to make these changes to avoid any misunderstanding on the part of students and teachers concerning the events at Omaha Beach, they reject the notion that the textbook's discussion of World War II is in any way unpatriotic or negative.

All of Chapter 20 describes in detail the heroic efforts of Americans to mobilize their economy, organize their troops and defeat the Germans, Japanese, and Italians in battle. The text on page 61 quotes Churchill's famous observation about the American economy: "Once the fire is lighted under it there is no limit to the power it can generate." The text then states the following:

"Churchill was right. The industrial output of the United States during the war astounded the rest of the world. American workers were twice as productive as German workers and five times more productive than Japanese workers. American war production turned the tide in favor of the Allies. In less than four years, the United States achieved what no other nation had ever done—it fought and won a two-front war against two powerful military empires, forcing each to surrender unconditionally."

The above description is a powerful statement that should generate pride in any American reading it. Similarly, the text's description of the American army as it headed off to war should also generate pride in the citizen soldiers of the young republic that defeated the Axis. On page 617, the text reads:

"The Americans who went to war in 1941 were not well trained. Most of the troops had no previous military experience. Most of the officers had never led men in combat. The armed forces mirrored many of the tensions and prejudices of American society. Despite these challenges, the United States armed forces performed well in battle. Of all the major powers involved in the war, the United States suffered the fewest casualties in combat.

American troops never adopted the spit-and-polish style of the Europeans. When they arrived at the front, Americans' uniforms were usually a mess, and they rarely marched in step. When one Czechoslovakian was asked what he thought of the sloppy, unprofessional American soldiers, he commented, "They walk like free men."

On page 618, the text presents a tale of individual heroism at Midway in An American Story, which recounts the experience of fighter pilot James Thach.

On page 619, the text details the heroic efforts of the pilots who flew the Doolittle raid, not sure they even had enough fuel to reach land.

On pages 620-21, the text describes the triumph of the Americans over the Japanese at Midway, noting: "Just six months after Pearl Harbor, the United States had stopped the Japanese advance in the Pacific."

On page 632, the text outlines the dramatic success of American troops in Sicily led by General Patton.

On page 635, the text quotes combat reporter Robert Sherrod's description of the heroic action of several Marines during the savage battle of Tarawa. The following page outlines American technological ingenuity in developing the amphtrac to make amphibious invasions easier.

On page 641, the text describes the heroic American defense of Bastogne that turned the tide in the Battle of the Bulge.

On page 644, the text describes the heroism of American Marines as they landed on Iwo Jima. The text quotes Admiral Nimitz's comment that on Iwo Jima "uncommon valor was a common virtue." The text also includes the famous photo of the flag raising on Iwo Jima.

These details and others in the text will not only leave students with a clear idea of the history of World War II, and the role played by the United States in the Allied victory, they will also make very clear the sacrifices Americans made to achieve victory, and will help to instill a powerful sense of pride in their nation and a sense of humble gratitude for what "The Greatest Generation" was able to accomplish.

Naomi Carrier Grundy

My preference of the four seventh grade Texas History texts is Texas and Texans by Glenco, McGraw-Hill.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comment.

Eleanor Hutcheson Texas DAR

The comment in Glencoe grade 8 page 178 about a rumor. No "rumor" as you can see from the scalp package documentation.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher acknowledges the error and will make the following change

to correct the error.

Page 178, column 1, paragraph 2, line 3: Error Correction

Delete:

"of rumors that"

Temple Elizabeth McKinnon

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Charlotte H. Coffelt Americans United for Separation of Church and State

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Rebekah Carlson Review of The American Republic Since 1877

First let me tell you what I liked about the book. I think it is balanced and largely unbiased. There has been an effort to state the historical facts in a cause and effect framework instead of presenting an effect and then placing blame. These may seem like synonymous concepts but when events and the circumstances leading up to those events are presented, then the reader must use his or her own mind to relate the two in meaningful ways and draw conclusions that may indeed include blame, but the important thing is that they have come to a conclusion based on facts and not on the word of someone who may or may not have an agenda for placing blame in certain circumstances. Presenting facts in a cause and effect manner forces the reader to use his or her own mind instead of borrowing the use of another's.

Another thing I like about this book, which also ties in with my first point, is that, although it doesn't gloss over America's failures and inadequacies, neither does it gloss over America's triumphs and victories, especially when they come in response to a failure. I have absolutely no patience with anti-American rhetoric prettied up and packaged as history; it is dishonest and shows the intellectual laziness of someone who cannot be bothered to research the facts and present the truth in it's entirety. When America is presented honestly and factually, one cannot help but be impressed, and while I don't think this textbook has a pro-American agenda, it is honest and factual which satisfies my America-loving heart.

I also particularly like the documents section of this book which includes such things as the Magna Carta, several of the Federalist Papers, and "I Have a Dream" among many others. I like the Flag Etiquette section, the list of U.S. Presidents and the primary source library (especially the introduction which discusses using, checking, and interpreting primary sources).

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comments.

My only real problem with this book concerns Chapter 24, The Civil Rights Movement. While I have no problem with the material that was included in the chapter, I do question the omissions. Reading this chapter one would think that there were no average, ordinary, white Americans who participated in and supported the civil rights movement. I only counted two mentions in the whole chapter (page 754, "In 1961 CORE leader James Farmer asked teams of African Americans and whites to travel into the South to draw attention to the South's refusal to integrate bus terminals" and page 757, "On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 demonstrators of all races ...") My problem with this chapter is summed up by the following quote in the last section of this chapter:

"Dr. King's death marked the end of an era in American history. Although the civil rights movement continued, it lacked the unity of purpose and vision that Dr. King had given it. Under his leadership, and with the help of tens of thousands of dedicated African Americans, many of whom were students, the civil rights movement transformed American society." (emphasis added)

It's morally imperative to discuss the shortcomings of this nation as a whole and of white Americans in particular, but let's tell the full story—put blame where blame is due but give credit where credit is due. The civil rights movement was not a movement exclusively of, but, and for

African Americans, it affects every American citizen. I would not advocate for one moment that watering down of the hatred, racism, brutality, and discrimination perpetrated against African Americans by white Americans of this era, but it is a disservice to history and to the efforts of many Americans who, for no personal gain and often at personal loss, gave themselves to a cause because they believed in the ideal of freedom regardless of color. It doesn't tarnish the struggle to mention that some of these Americans were white or Hispanic or Asian American, etc. I would like to see the balance that marks the rest of this book a little more in this chapter. To be fair, some of this is covered in Chapter 26 The Politics of Protest, but it is brief.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The major participants of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s were African American, but the text does point out that many whites worked within the movement. The Chapter Opener illustration on page 745, for example, shows the March from Selma to Montgomery in support of civil rights. The marchers include several white Americans. On page 754, students read:

"African American college students from all across the South made up the majority of SNCC's members, although many whites also joined."

On page 754 students learn that whites took part in the Freedom Rides. The photo on page 755 shows whites and African Americans alongside one of the burning buses during the rides.

On page 766, the authors discuss the "Poor People's Campaign," pointing out that

"People of all races and nationalities were to converge on the nation's capital, as they had in 1963 during the March on Washington, where they would camp out until both Congress and President Johnson agreed to pass the requested legislation to fund the proposal."

The discussion of the civil rights movement is continued in Chapter 26. On page 801, students read that

"Concern about the future led many young people to become more active in social causes, from the civil rights movement to President Kennedy's Peace Corps."

This sentence does not identify these young people by race. It merely identifies them as young, showing that they were from all ethnic backgrounds.

Pages 812-817 then detail African American, Hispanic American, and Native American civil rights movements.

Overall, this is a very good book PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comment.

Paul Allen Meridian Magazine

PUBLISHER'S COMMENT

As there are no references to any Glencoe/McGraw-Hill textbooks, the

publisher has no comment.

Robert Raborn

However, we find that this book treats the values that we cherish, as though they might be just another TEKS requirement. Yes, patriotism, freemarkets, the Constitution and republic are all mentioned, even Jesus Christ and Christianity, but not in a manner that would cause a student to embrace these values any more than they might embrace the values of socialist countries or the tenants of Islam.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The book begins by telling students on page TEKS1: "Comparing the various peoples, places, and issues in our world today also helps us to become better citizens. It sheds new light on our American values and institutions, such as patriotism, free enterprise, and democracy. We hope that this textbook will help you succeed as a student and an informed citizen." The textbook then goes on to provide students with the descriptions of the various cultures of the world as mandated by the State Board of Education.

We were bothered by the very title.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The title, Our World Today: People, Places, and Issues, aptly summarizes the course required to be taught in 6th grade social studies. According to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills: "In Grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world."

We believe 6th graders need to learn the facts of history and geography, especially those of our country, to lay a foundation of knowledge to build upon through out their educational years, then they will be able to make informed decisions as adults. However, when we begin to teach issues, we are injecting subjective opinion and agendas that 6th graders are intellectually unprepared to analyze. It seemed the real purpose of this book was revealed on page 25 in the section Building Bridges, "You can start by learning about the beliefs and values of other people of the world." 6th graders need to first leam the historical American beliefs and values. To understand why this is the most prosperous and generous country in the world. Why this country attracts immigrants (legal and illegal) from around the world. If we start teaching, in a positive manner, the beliefs and values of the rest of the world, before the student has established a firm appreciation for their own country, then we are concerned that the future of this country could be at risk. If this practice is continued, no one should be surprised if there is an ever increasing number of "John Walkers."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The purpose of the book, as stated above, is that comparing "the various peoples, places, and issues in our world today also helps us to become better citizens. It sheds new light on our American values and institutions, such as patriotism, free enterprise, and democracy."

It is important to note that students study early United States history in 5th grade and have thus learned historical American beliefs and values prior to entering the 6th grade and studying world cultures and geography.

According to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills; "In Grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world. Societies selected for study are chosen from the following regions of the world: Europe, Russia and the Eurasian republics, North America, Middle America, South America, Southwest Asia-North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Realm. Students describe the influence of individuals and groups on historical and contemporary events in those societies and identify the locations and geographic characteristics of selected societies." The TEKS strands call for a course on the history, geography, economics, government, citizenship, culture, and science and technology of contemporary societies, as well as social studies skills. In keeping with the emphasis of the very first strand of the TEKS, the book is organized with an emphasis on history. After introductory chapters on social studies skills and geography, the book explores the earliest civilizations in Southwest Asia and North Africa (moving in the next chapter to an examination of contemporary society in the same area). The book then moves in order to Asia, Europe, Russia, Africa, North and Middle America, South America, and finally, to Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica. This helps the teacher bring a historical perspective to the course.

The authors and publisher strongly disagree that teaching about other countries will negatively impact the future of our country.

We support and appreciate the patriotic material supplied on the fly page at the front of the book. However, the United States as a separate country is not even introduced until pg. 500. This is justified by saying they arranged the text in the way civilization developed. We might have accepted this if the discussion of America had occurred with Columbus and the discovery of the New World, but to have the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Uzbekistan, Botswana, and Ghana, all recognized before the United Stated, does not seem the best way to teach history to American students. It might be the way to teach students to be global citizens with no appreciation for their own national heritage. However, we believe American students should view the world first with an understanding of America's place in the world, not that we are just another country!

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

As discussed above, the book is organized chronologically by region of the world as people migrated. Each world region section presents early and contemporary societies, because it would not make sense to go back and forth between countries. For example, Chapter 3 presents early cultures in Southwest Asia and North Africa, followed by Chapter 4 on modern cultures in that region. That is why the United Arab Emirates and Oman, for example, are briefly mentioned in Chapter 4 on page 110, before Chapter 19 on the United States.

Pg. 504 "Glaciers formed (the Great Lakes) millions of years ago" This is the opinion of some scientist who support the theory of evolution. There are equally valid theories such as "young earth" or "intelligent design" but this book excludes this information from its students.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 504, paragraph 4, line 3: Content Change

Change:

"millions of years ago."

To:

"in the distant past."

Page 507 "Americans are free to start their own businesses and keep the profits they earn ..." This in no way warns the student of the excessive taxing system that may take over 50% of that profit from the individual.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text cited by the reviewer appears in the section entitled "An Economic Leader." The purpose of this section is to discuss the role of the United States as the leading economic power in the world. On page 507, the narrative points out that

"the United States has a large, energetic, and growing economy. Fueling all of this economic activity is freedom. The free enterprise system is built on the idea that individual people have the right to run businesses to make a profit with limited government interference and regulation."

The narrative goes on to discuss the ways in which the United States is the world's economic leader. The authors and publisher do not believe that it is appropriate to discuss taxation in the United States in this context.

Pg. 508 Challenges of the 21st Century. Right out of the bag is "how to clean up pollution and trash." Not national security, loss of freedoms, excessive government taxation and regulation ... we must make sure we have politically correct thinking students. In the same paragraph, "If not carefully controlled"... by whom? ... of course the government. These students must see the government as their protector... The statements concerning pollution and acid rain are not the only view, but are the only view given the students. It also goes on to indict the US as not only a polluter of itself, but of Canada also.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The section of the book "An Economic Leader" (discussed above)

concludes by looking forward. It points out that

"the American economy, although strong, faces challenges in the twenty-first century."

The narrative then provides a discussion of some of the challenges facing our nation in the areas of the environment, education, health care, and world trade.

As noted in the Publisher's List of Corrections and Changes submitted to the Texas Education Agency on June 27, the publisher is making the following content change:

Page 509, first full sentence: Content Change

Change:

"Acid rain damages trees and harms rivers and lakes."

To:

"Many scientists believe that acid rain harms trees, rivers, and lakes."

In order to clarify the issue of acid rain for students, the publisher will also make the following content changes:

Page 508, last paragraph, sentences 3 and 4: Content Change

Change:

"If not carefully controlled, burning these fuels pollutes the air. The pollution also mixes with water vapor in the air to make acid rain, or rain containing high amounts of chemical pollutants."

To:

"When sulfur oxides from coal-burning power plants and nitrogen oxides from cars combine with moisture in the air, they form acids. When acidic moisture falls to Earth as rain or snow, it is called acid rain."

Page 509, first paragraph, second sentence: Content Change

Delete:

"Acid rain that is produced in the United States and carried north by wind

is a major environmental problem for Canada."

Pg. 510 Health care..unbelievable scare tactics of children... "Approximately 1 out of five people in the US does not have medical insurance. The majority of these uninsured are children of lower income families. Because they do not have insurance, they might not be able to get some forms of medical treatment. For example, some emergency rooms will not treat people without insurance." It was our understanding that all government (and that is a great number) hospitals cannot turn anyone away from emergency care and consequently loose many dollars that must be funded by the taxpayers.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text is pointing out that children without medical insurance might not be able to get some medical care. It is true that hospitals and charity care provide for ill children in Texas and other states. In many cases, however, these programs do not provide preventive services, which are "forms of medical care."

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 510, paragraph 1, last sentence: Content Change

Change:

"For example, some emergency rooms will not treat people without medical

insurance."

To:

"For example, some preventative services are not available to people

without medical insurance."

Of the 21 pages of text concerning the US, 5 are devoted to Sept. 11 and terrorism. That seems totally unbalanced.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The events of September 11, 2001, will tragically become the defining moment in the lives of many Americans—particularly the nation's youth— much as Pearl Harbor, the Kennedy assassination, and the moon landing became defining moments for earlier generations. Not to include coverage on the topic would be a grave disservice to the students of Texas.

Pg. 513 "These attacks horrified people around the world including the nearly 7 million Muslims who live in the US." A totally unfounded statement. Most of the group reviewing this and other books are from the Houston area where there is a large Muslim. We observed some regret expressed by some Muslims, but it was a small portion of the community and we understand this was fairly representative of other Muslim communities. "Out cry from 7 million," was unheard.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Islam today includes approximately 1.3 billion followers. A Gallup Poll conducted among Muslims in December 2001 and January 2002 in Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Kuwait, Turkey, and Iran found that 67 percent of Muslim respondents condemned the attacks as morally unjustifiable. That comes out to approximately 805 million Muslims who condemned the attacks.

Many other sources also show that Muslims condemned the attack:

• In an address on September 17, 2001, President George W. Bush noted: "Like the good folks standing with me, the American people were appalled and outraged at last Tuesday's attacks. And so were Muslims all across the world. Both Americans and Muslim friends and citizens, tax-paying citizens, and Muslims in nations were just appalled and could not believe what we saw on our TV screens... These acts of violence against innocents violate the fundamental tenets of the Islamic faith. And it's important for my fellow

Americans to understand that-----The face of terror is not the true

faith of Islam. That's not what Islam is all about. Islam is peace. These terrorists don't represent peace. They represent evil and war. When we think of Islam we think of a faith that brings comfort to a billion people around the world. Billions of people find comfort and solace and peace. And that's made brothers and sisters out of every race—out of every race-----"

In an address to a joint-session of Congress on September 20, 2001, the president pointed out that "the terrorists practice a fringe form of Islamic extremism that has been rejected by Muslim scholars and the vast majority of Muslim clerics—a fringe movement that perverts the peaceful teachings of Islam."

In an article for The Washington File, published by the Department of State, on September 19, 2001, Susan Domowitz noted "American Muslim leaders representing an array of Muslim organizations in the United States said at a September 18 press conference that they "would like to make it absolutely clear that we join all other Americans in our unequivocal condemnation of the attacks as un-Islamic, barbaric, and inhumane." Speaking at the National Press Club, the Secretary General of the Muslim Society, Shaker Elsayed said the Muslim American community is also mourning losses at the World Trade Center. Terrorist attacks, he said, "cannot be condoned or justified under any circumstances." Elsayed went on to say that American Muslims very much appreciate the recent statements by President Bush, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Attorney General John Ashcroft and others, warning against the mistreatment of Muslims, Arabs, and others in the wake of the terrorist attacks. "The American flag," he said, "symbolizes all of our Islamic values: freedom, civil liberties, and respect for human life."

James Zogby, president of the Arab American Institute noted during a briefing with State Department officials on October 25, 2001, that like all Americans, Arab Americans were both devastated and angered by the September 11 attacks. "We were as stunned, as shocked, as horrified and as angered. In a particular way, as it became clear that Arabs were involved, there was a special anger, I think. The fact that people of Arab descent had taken advantage of America, taken advantage of the goodness of Americans, had used opportunities made available to them here for the sole purpose of finding a way to kill our fellow citizens angered us."

To clarify this complex issue for students, as noted in the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the Texas Education Agency on June 27, the publisher has made the following content change in the text on page 513:

The terrorists who hijacked the airplanes belonged to a group called al-Qaeda (al • KY • duh). The group was founded by Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi Arabian.

AI-Qaeda was created to fight the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. After the Russians left Afghanistan, al-Qaeda members changed their goals. They wanted to force all non-Muslims out of the Middle East. They hated the U.S. troops based in Saudi Arabia and the Jewish people living in Israel.

AI-Qaeda's members also believed Muslims were being changed too much by modern ideas. They hated freedom of religion and wanted strict religious leaders to control Muslim countries.

AI-Qaeda's beliefs were not shared by all Muslims. The attacks on the United States horrified people around the world, including millions of Muslims who live in the Middle East, the United States, and elsewhere.

Pg. 13 "Al Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden told his followers that it was a Muslim's duty to kill Americans. No idea could be farther from Muslim teachings. The Quran, Islam's holiest book, tells soldiers to 'show (civilians) kindness and deal with them justly." This is going to great length to put a positive light on Muslim teachings considering other passages in the Quran. Either leave this material out all together or present more balance.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text cited by the reviewer has been changed and no longer appears in the text. This was noted in the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the Texas Education Agency on June 27, The text on page 513 has been changed to read (content change):

The terrorists who hijacked the airplanes belonged to a group called al-Qaeda (al • KY • duh). The group was founded by Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi Arabian.

AI-Qaeda was created to fight the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. After the Russians left Afghanistan, al-Qaeda members changed their goals. They wanted to force all non-Muslims out of the Middle East. They hated the U.S. troops based in Saudi Arabia and the Jewish people living in Israel.

AI-Qaeda's members also believed Muslims were being changed too much by modern ideas. They hated freedom of religion and wanted strict religious leaders to control Muslim countries.

AI-Qaeda's beliefs were not shared by all Muslims. The attacks on the United States horrified people around the world, including millions of Muslims who live in the Middle East, the United States, and elsewhere.

Pg. 514. Totally inappropriate anti-Israel and pro Palestinian propaganda. We agree all of our "foreign entanglements" warned against by our founding fathers have caused us great problems, but to present it in this manner is too simplistic and leaves the wrong impression. Also the Commentary on pages 116-120 leaves too much out to be an accurate presentation. Finally the political activism suggested on page 120 that 6th graders should be the ones to explain these complex issues to others is absurd. We do not appreciate all the websites suggested for students. That way parents or citizens have little idea or control over what students are being exposed to. No one is able to constantly monitor each of these many websites.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The narrative on page 514 is included to help students understand the history of the virulent anti-American feelings that created a climate in which the terrorists successfully recruited support for the heinous acts of September 11.

The narrative is not anti-Israeli as the reviewer alleges. Rather, the authors state the facts of the case, pointing out that

"Israel has offered to exchange land for a promise of peace. But so far the Palestinians have rejected that offer."

Pages 116-120 are devoted to a special feature on the Arab-Israeli conflict. It begins with a discussion of two families—one Israeli and one Palestinian—who lost children in the violence in the Middle East and who came together under the auspices of a peace group in Amman, Jordan, in April 2001. The text notes that the region has been the site of violence since the founding of Israel in 1948, stating

"Israelis and Arabs have fought four major wars since 1948. The violence has never completely stopped. And it has boiled over into the nations of North Africa and Southwest Asia."

The textbook then gives a brief history of the founding of Israel and the beginnings of the conflict.

Textbooks, by their very nature, must summarize information for students. The authors and publisher believe that the facts presented on pages 116-120 provide an objective outline of the information and key events of the Arab-Israeli conflict in an objective and straightforward manner that 6th grade students will find understandable.

Regarding the textbook's activity about discussing the complex issues involved in the Arab-Israeli conflict, page 120 concludes with the following paragraph:

"Do students in your school understand the Arab and Israeli points of view? If not, you could help your fellow students see how complex the issue is. Set up a discussion panel. Bring together people on each side and have them discuss their views."

The narrative here is suggesting not that students explain these issues to other students, but that students work to set up a discussion panel, bringing outside authorities on the issue into the classroom to discuss their views.

In order to eliminate web sites not expressly under the control of the authors or the publisher, the publisher will make the following editorial changes:

Page 45, #4, lines 1 and 2: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to epals.com. With your teacher's help, contact"

To:

"With your teacher's help, use Internet resources to contact"

Page 45, #5, lines 1 and 2: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to www.pbs.org/internet/timeline. Browse through the time line

of Internet history."

To:

"Use the Internet to find information on the history of the Internet."

Page 71 Editorial Change

Delete Use the Internet heading and the accompanying activity

Page 120, column 2, last sentence: Editorial Change

Change:

"The Seeds of Peace website (www.seedsofpeace.org) can suggest other

ideas."

To:

"Ask your teachers to see if they can suggest other ideas."

Page 121, #4, lines 1-4: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to the United Nations websites of both Palestine www.palestine-

un.org/index.html and Israel www.israel-un.org."

To:

"With your teacher's help, find resources on the Internet that find

information on relations between the Palestinians and Israel today."

Page 121, #5: Editorial Change

Change:

"Christians trace their religion's roots to the Holy Land. To learn how one

Christian group views the conflict, go to the website of Churches for a

Middle East Peace www.cmep.org. Browse the site to find out what goals

CMEP shares with Palestinian Muslims and Israeli Jews. Discuss those

goals."

To:

"Christians trace their religion's roots to the Holy Land. With your teacher's help, use Internet resources to learn about how some of the many Christian groups and their missionaries in the region are working to help end the violence in Israel. Find out what goals these groups have."

Page 121, #7: Editorial Change

Change:

"With your teacher's help, make e-pals with students in Israel and in Arab countries. A group called e-PALS (www.epals.com) can help you. Ask your e-pals to tell you how the dispute between Arabs and Israelis affects them."

To:

"With your teacher's help, find information on efforts that people in your community are making to promote international understanding and cooperation. Contact these people to learn more about their work."

Page 131 Editorial Change

Delete Use the Internet heading and the accompanying activity.

Page 179, #4, lines 1-3: Editorial Change

Change:

"Explore the website of China's embassy in Washington, D.C.: www.china-

embassv.org/eng."

To:

"With your teacher's help, use the Internet to find information about

conditions in China today."

Page 179, #5, lines 5-10: Editorial Change

Change:

"start with the story of the "Chinese Ellis Island" at www.angel-island.com

or by browsing through the site of the Organization of Chinese Americans

www.ocanatl.org."

To:

"browse through the Internet to find information on Angel Island in San Francisco harbor or search for information on the Chinese immigrant experience in America."

Page 275 Editorial Change

Delete Use the Internet heading and the accompanying activity.

Page 327, #4, lines 1-3: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to http://europa.eu.int. Click on the English words, then ABC and

Institutions."

To:

"Use Internet resources to find information about the European Union."

Page 327, #5, lines 1-3: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to http://europa.eu.int/abc/svmbols/index en.htm. Research the

symbols of the"

To:

"With your teacher's help, use Internet resources to research the symbols

of the"

Page, 382, paragraph 2, line 3: Editorial Change

Delete: "(www.eurasia.org)"

Page 382, paragraph 2, line 5: Editorial Change

Delete: "(www.wwf.ru/eng/index.html)"

Page 382, paragraph 3, line 2: Editorial Change

Delete: "(http://www.nhlpa.com/)"

Page 383, column 2, lines 7-8: Editorial Change

Change:

"explore www.child-soldiers.org and www.uschild-soldiers.org. List ways"

To:

"with your teacher's help, browse the Internet for information. List ways"

Page 383, #5, lines 6-9: Editorial Change

Change:

"Explore the Russian Leadership Program's website at

http://lcweb.loc.gov/rlp."

To:

"Browse the Internet to find out more about this Library of Congress

program."

Page 421, #4, lines 1-5: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to the United States Committee for Refugees website at

www.refugees.org/index.cfm. Click on the button for News and Resources."

To:

"With your teacher's help, use Internet resources to find information on

issues involving refugees in the world, particularly in Africa today."

Page 421, #5: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to the website of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at www.unhcr.ch. Click on the World, then click on the map of Africa. Report on what the UN is doing to ease refugee problems in two nations south of the Sahara."

To:

"With your teacher's help, choose two nations in Africa south of the Sahara. Then use Internet resources to learn more about these countries. Concentrate your research on refugee problems in your chosen nations and report your findings to the class."

Page 517, #4: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to www.libertvunite.org/kids.adp to find out what kids are doing to help the victims of terrorism. Brainstorm ways you and your classmates can help, and send your ideas to LibertvUnites@aol.com."

To:

"Use Internet resources to find information on what individuals and organizations are doing today to help victims of terrorism. Use what you learn to write a report on current efforts and share it with the class."

Page 517, #5: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to www.terrorism.com/terrorism/links.shtml. Scroll through the list of hyperlinks. Click on one or two that interest you. What do these sites teach you about terrorism? Put your answers in a list, under the title 'What I Learned About Terrorism.' Share your list with your classmates in a discussion about terrorism."

To:

"With your teacher's help, use Internet resources to learn more about how the tragedies of September 11 resulted in an increase of visible patriotism in the United States. Focus your research on finding personal stories of how the attacks increased individual Americans' beliefs in and loyalty to the United States. Prepare a brief report on your findings."

Page, 531: Editorial Change

Delete Use the Internet heading and the accompanying activity.

Page 601: Editorial Change

Delete Use the Internet heading and the accompanying activity.

Page, 615, #4, lines 5-14: Editorial Change

Change:

"the ads? You be the judge. Go to www.mediacampaign.org. Browse through the print ads aimed at parents and kids. Choose two you think are effective, and two you think are not effective. Print out all four. Attach a comment to each one explaining why it does or doesn't work well."

To:

"the ads? You be the judge. Browse the Internet or use copies of current magazines and newspapers to find ads designed to combat drug abuse. Choose two you think are effective and two you think are not effective. Either print copies off the Internet, or photocopy ads from magazines and newspapers. Attach a comment to each one explaining why it does or doesn't work well."

Page 615, #5: Editorial Change

Change:

"The No. 1 drug problem in America isn't cocaine or heroin. It's underage drinking. The Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) website contains some startling facts on this issue. Navigate to ..

.http://www.madd.org/stats. Write down the five facts that you think best sum up the impact alcohol has on your people. Compare your choices with those of your classmates."

To:

"The No. 1 drug problem in America isn't cocaine or heroin. It's underage drinking. One organization that works to prevent underage drinking is Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD). Use Internet resources to learn more about this organization and report your findings to the class."

Page 653, #4, lines 1-4: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to www.tetaurawhiri.govt.nz. Click on the English Gateway.

Browse through the site. Read about the history of

To:

"With your teacher's help, use Internet resources to learn more about New

Zealand. Read about the history of

Page 653, #5, lines 1-5: Editorial Change

Change:

"Navigate to www.culture.co.nz/recipes. What can food tell you about

people who eat it? The Maori recipes you find on this site will suggest

answers."

To:

"With your teacher's help, use Internet resources to find information on

Maori food. Try to find specific sites that list Maori recipes in particular."

Pg. 515 Problem Solving "What liberties if any might you be willing to give up in order to feel safe?" What is "feeling safe." Probably most people that boarded those fateful planes on 9-11 "felt" safe. It would be better for student to understand the admonition of one of the founding father that goes something like, "he who would trade liberty for security, will enjoy neither!"

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change:

Page 515, column 2, #2: Content Change

Change: "feel safe"

To:

"ensure national security"

Pg. 516-517 'To prevent terrorist attacks, would you favor or oppose the government doing each of the following." and several suggestions and proposals. Adults and heads of countries are unsure how to prevent terrorism, why ask 6th graders, unless one is trying to get them to accept certain positions. Children have endured enough from all the media coverage of 9-11 without having to endure more badgering from their school and being sent to the Internet on how to become an activist.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The reviewer has taken this excerpt out of context. On page 517, on the "Building Graph Reading Skills" portion of the Review and Assess page, the text reproduces the results of a TIME/CNN Poll. It includes both the questions asked and the numerical results. The textbook does not ask students to take part in the poll. The page concludes by referring students to a Web site that TIME and the publisher maintain to provide updates on World Issues. Students are not sent to the Internet to become activists, as the reviewer suggests.

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following content change.

Page 517, shaded box at bottom of page, title Content Change

Change:

"FIGHTING TERRORISM: HOW FAR WOULD YOU GO?"

To:

"TIME/CNN Poll

Fighting Terrorism: How Far Would You Go?"

Pg. 520 "A Living Document" Ignores that the value of our Constitution are its absolute unchangeable principles, but instead concentrates on the liberal premise that "The Constitution is a remarkable document that grows with the needs of the country."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text explains that the Constitution "grows with the needs of the country" through the amendment process. Nowhere does it discuss changes through judicial interpretation. However, to clarify the issue for students, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 520, Paragraph 3, line 1, Content Change

Change:

"A Living Document"

To:

"The Constitution"

Pg. 523 "The official language of the US is English." We wish that were so, but it is not!

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

This error was reported on the Publisher's List of Editorial Corrections submitted to the Texas Education Agency on June 27. The following correction will be made.

Page 523, paragraph 3, line 1: Correct Error

Change: "official"

To: "main"

Pg. 524 "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion (or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.) Why omit the rest of the quote? This pertains to the establishment of a State religion as experienced in England and other European countries. True history proves that Christianity (Protestant faith) and Biblical principles were the foundational building blocks of our governments both state and federal and this principle was upheld until 1947 in Everson v. Board of Education. If you can't state the truth correctly, please do not assist in furthering the myth of "separation of church and state."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text explores the "free exercise" clause in the Exploring Government feature on page 524. The feature points out that "The Constitution of the United States grants citizens certain rights. Many of those rights, such as freedom of religion ..." To clarify this point for students, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 524, line 1: Content Change

Change: "religion...."

To:

"religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."

Pg. 524 Box: Exploring Government "The Constitution of the US grants citizens certain rights" Untrue. Rights come from God Almighty, the Constitution was established to protect those rights.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Publisher will make the following content change:

Page 524, Exploring Government, first sentence: Content Change

Change:

"The Constitution of the United States grants citizens certain rights."

To:

"The Constitution of the United States protects certain rights of citizens."

Later in the paragraph it states, "In the US everyone has a right to free public education." From the presentation one would believe that was a right protected by the US Constitution. Not so. It is in the Texas state consitution and perhaps other State Constitutions, but even that is an untrue statement. Public education is not free, it comes at an incredibly high cost to the taxpayers, but commentary as provided here would make students think it is a "free entitlement."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Publisher will make the following content change:

Page 524, Exploring Government, fourth sentence: Content Change

Delete:

"In the United States, everyone has a right to free public education."

Within in text on the US, we found no mention of any American heroes except under American Culture pgs. 524 and 525 there, are several authors and painters named with a noticeable ethnic balance. Then the index was checked to see if there were noted American in other parts of the book. The omissions were glaring. No Washington, Jefferson, Madison, or Hamilton of our founding fathers, no inventors as Franklin, Bell, Ford or Wright Brothers, no Generals as Lee, Grant, MacArthur, Eisenhower. We did find one picture of President Clinton. Though there were several references and pictures of Gorbachev, Mandela, Marx and Lenin. With only 5 pages for India, they were able to find space for pictures of Indira Gandhi, Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru and believe they were worthy to be included.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Page 511 includes the powerful photograph of firefighters raising the American flag amid the rubble of the World Trade Center. There is perhaps no other photograph within recent memory that typifies the triumphant spirit of heroism in the United States than this one. In addition, other firefighters are shown on page 512. In contrast to other chapters, the chapter on the United States includes a two-page section entitled "A Day for Heroes" which describes the valiant efforts of ordinary Americans who rose to be heroes in the aftermath of 9/11.

The textbook includes photos of George W. Bush on page 325 and John Kennedy on page 324.

To provide students with more information on the Founders, the publisher will make the following editorial changes.

Page 521 photograph Editorial Change

Delete:

Photograph of immigrants

Insert:

Photographs of Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James

Madison

Page 521, caption Editorial Change

Delete:

Ellis Island In 1900, these immigrants waited to leave Ellis Island, New

York, where they had been allowed to enter the United States.

Movement What are some reasons people immigrate to the United States?

Insert:

The Founders

With very few exceptions, the world knew only monarchies and absolute

rulers when courageous leaders such as Thomas Jefferson (left), George

Washington (center), and James Madison (right) risked their lives and

fortunes to spearhead the drive for an independent United States. Jefferson

was the chief author of the Declaration of Independence that the

Continental Congress formally issued on July 4,1776. Washington led the

new nation's army in the Revolution, chaired the Constitutional

Convention, and became the first president under the Constitution.

Madison is considered the master builder of the Constitution and later

served as president.

Beliefs Why do you think that the Founders were willing to risk their lives

and fortunes to establish the United States?

Change:

Red dot on locator map to Philadelphia and place map below caption

Page 521, teacher's edition, More About the Photo Editorial Change

Change:

Ellis Island From 1892 to 1954, over 12 million immigrants entered the United States through the portal of Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor. Ellis Island is located within the shadow of the Statue of Liberty. Caption Answer freedom, economic opportunity, the hope of enjoying a better life

To:

The Founders The delegates to the Second Continental Congress were

aware that by signing the Declaration of Independence they were signing

their death warrants because they were declaring their open rebellion against Britain. In British eyes, they were committing treason. Caption Answer Students might suggest that they were willing to sacrifice everything to safeguard individual liberty.

Pg. 566 credits Castro with a successful revolution and states, "Cuban people benefit from good education and health care."

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change.

Page 566, paragraph 3 Content Change

Change:

"Before 1989, Cuba relied on aid from the Soviet Union. The Cuban people benefit from good educations and healthcare, but the economy is struggling. The Cuban economy is struggling, and many Cubans live in poverty. With the end of the Cold War, some Americans favor ending the trade embargo with Cuba. Other Americans, especially relatives of Cubans who suffered under Castro and refugees who fled to the United States for safety, strongly oppose recognizing Castro's Cuban government."

To:

"Cuba lost its major source of aid when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. Since then, Cuba's leaders have been unable to meet even the basic needs of their people. Some Americans believe that the United States should help the Cuban people by ending the trade embargo with Cuba. Other Americans, especially Cuban Americans, many of whom fled Castro's regime, strongly oppose reopening trade. They believe that such trade would only help an oppressive Communist dictator stay in power."

Pg. 145 "Like the US, India is a democracy." Misleading at best. Why?

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this information for students, the publisher will make the

following content change:

Page 145, last paragraph, first sentence Content Change

Change:

"Like the United States, India is a democracy."

To:

"India is a representative democracy."

With in the pages designated to coverage of the US, there is a picture of Osama bin Laden. There are group pictures of NYC Firemen, along with Muslims, immigrants African American protestors, Native Americans, and African Americans picking cotton. There is one whole page dedicated to poetry and pictures of the hardships and injustices endured by Native and African Americans. It is such a shame the authors and publishers could not find some more positive pictures to present the vision of opportunity and hope offered by this country.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The chapter on the United States provides students with text and images

that foster pride in their country and the ideals it stands for. Included are:

Page 500

The chapter on the United States begins with a full-page photograph of the

Statue of Liberty. The accompanying text points out that

"The United States is the most powerful nation in the world. It has the world's largest economy and is a leading democracy. Immigrants from nearly every other nation of the world have moved here in order to enjoy the freedom the United States Constitution provides."

Page 507

The section " An Economic Leader" begins with the following:

"The United States has a large, energetic, and growing economy. Fueling all of this economic activity is freedom. The free enterprise system is built on the idea that individual people have the right to run businesses to make a profit with limited government. Americans are free to start their own businesses and to keep the profits they earn. They are free to work in whatever jobs they want—and for whatever employers they want. This has helped create great economic successes."

Page 507

Under the heading "The World's Economic Leader" the text states:

"The United States is rich in resources and has a hardworking labor force. As a result, the country has built the world's largest economy—in terms of how much money is made for the sale of its goods and services. In fact, the American economy is larger than the next two largest economies—China's and Japan's—combined."

Page 509

Under the heading "Quality Schools" the text notes:

"The ability to develop new technology has been a major source of strength for the American economy... .Quality schools that produce educated and creative people have helped the country become a world leader in satellites, computers, health care, and many other fields."

Page 519

The section "The Americans" begins as follows:

"The United States is full of people from many different lands. What attracts people to the United States? One attraction is the freedom that Americans enjoy. Economic opportunity is another. The United States gives people in many other lands hope that they and their children can enjoy better lives."

Page 521

Under the head "A World Leader" the text states:

"During the early 1900s, the United States became one of the leading economies in the world. Automobiles rolled off assembly lines, electricity became common, and other technologies—the telephone and radio, for example— entered daily life.

The world plunged into two world wars in the first half of the twentieth century. The United States took part in these wars. Our country's leaders urged the world's people to fight for freedom. American factories built tanks and airplanes, while American soldiers helped win the wars.

After World War II, the United States enjoyed great influence around the world. American companies shipped their products to all continents. American leaders worked to establish democracy and free enterprise in other countries. American culture spread around the globe."

The images noted by the reviewer are part of America's story. For example, the image of the NYC firemen triumphantly raising the flag amid the ruins of the World Trade Center captures the essence of American heroism as perhaps no other photograph in recent memory. The images of Native Americans and African Americans accompanies a feature that focuses on the pride and determination of these groups of American citizens.

The textbook devotes seven pages to discussing the events of September 11, 2001, which will tragically become the defining moment in the lives of many Americans—particularly the nation's youth—much as Pearl Harbor, the Kennedy assassination, and the moon landing became defining moments for earlier generations. Not to include coverage on the topic— along with some of the images of the heroes involved, which precipitated a new war that touches all Americans' lives-would be a grave disservice to the students of Texas.

As noted above, to provide students with more information on the Founders, the publisher will make the following editorial changes.

Page 521 photograph Editorial Change

Delete:

Photograph of immigrants

Insert:

Photographs of Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James

Madison

Page 521, caption Editorial Change

Delete:

Ellis Island In 1900, these immigrants waited to leave Ellis Island, New

York, where they had been allowed to enter the United States.

Movement What are some reasons people immigrate to the United States?

Insert:

The Founders

With very few exceptions, the world knew only monarchies and absolute

rulers when courageous leaders such as Thomas Jefferson (left), George

Washington (center), and James Madison (right) risked their lives and

fortunes to spearhead the drive for an independent United States. Jefferson

was the chief author of the Declaration of Independence that the

Continental Congress formally issued on July 4,1776. Washington led the

new nation's army in the Revolution, chaired the Constitutional

Convention, and became the first president under the Constitution.

Madison is considered the master builder of the Constitution and later

served as president.

Beliefs Why do you think that the Founders were willing to risk their lives

and fortunes to establish the United States?

Change:

Red dot on locator map to Philadelphia and place map below caption

Page 521, teacher's edition, More About the Photo Editorial Change

Change:

Ellis Island From 1892 to 1954, over 12 million immigrants entered the United States through the portal of Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor. Ellis Island is located within the shadow of the Statue of Liberty. Caption Answer freedom, economic opportunity, the hope of enjoying a better life

To:

The Founders The delegates to the Second Continental Congress were

aware that by signing the Declaration of Independence they were signing

their death warrants because they were declaring their open rebellion against Britain. In British eyes, they were committing treason. Caption Answer Students might suggest that they were willing to sacrifice everything to safeguard individual liberty.

The only mention of socialism is pg. 211, "Socialism is an economic system in which most businesses are owned and run by the government." Such a limited definition is not adequate to warn the students of the threats posed to our country and our freedoms by such a system today.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The textbook provides extensive coverage of the conflict between the democratic ideals of the United States and the authoritarian socialism, or communism, of the former Soviet Union and its allies on pages 261-265. The narrative examines the complete collapse of European communism and the steps toward establishing democratic republics on pages 266-269.

Pg. 239 The comments concerning Jesus Christ are so demeaning, it would be better if they are left out. Most references to Christianity were that it is just another religion of equal value to Judaism, Islam, Buddhism etc.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The comments concerning Jesus Christ are not demeaning. It is important

to note that the reviewer's comments are limited to page 239, in the context

of ancient Rome. This is not the only discussion of Jesus Christ or of

Christianity.

On pages 90-92, the text provides 39 lines on the origins and beliefs of Christianity. These lines detail the major beliefs of Christianity:

"The traditions of Judaism gave rise to the world's largest religion, Christianity. Christianity is made up of people, called Christians, who are followers of Jesus Christ. The word Christ is from the Greek word for 'anointed,' which means chosen one. Christians believe Jesus is the Son of God and that he was the Messiah that the Jews were awaiting. Christians see Jesus as the Messiah for all people-----

The holy book of the Christians is the Bible. The first part, the Old Testament, is composed of the books of Moses and other Jewish writers. It contains the history and traditions of Judaism that led up to the birth of Jesus. The second part, the New Testament, deals with the birth, the life, and the teachings of Jesus as recorded by his followers, called disciples. Christians believe that after Jesus was killed, he rose from the dead, thereby proving the existence of an afterlife with God for all who truly believe.

The disciples spread Jesus' teachings across the Roman world and beyond. However, until about A.D. 300, Christians were persecuted in the Roman Empire. Then the emperor Constantine the Great proclaimed that Christianity was to be a lawful religion. At this point, Christians were no longer persecuted.

The spread of Christianity was achieved primarily through the work of individuals and missionaries who built churches, schools, and hospitals to minister to, or take care of, new Christians. Europe—especially Rome and Constantinople—became the center of Christianity. For hundreds of years, the Christian church shared power with the rulers of many of the nations of Europe. The most famous universities of Europe were begun by Christian scholars. Catholic popes and kings organized military campaigns, called the Crusades, to capture the city of Jerusalem. Today, Christians of many denominations look to Jerusalem as a holy city where important churches and shrines are located.

Christians around the world mark important events in the life of Jesus. Christmas celebrates Jesus' birth. Most Christians celebrate Palm Sunday, the occasion when Jesus entered Jerusalem in triumph, and Good Friday, the day of Jesus' crucifixion, or death on a cross. Easter, believed to be the day that God raised Jesus from the dead, is the most important day of the Christian calendar."

The text also examines Christianity in Albania on page 315, among Arabs, on pages 108 and 112, in Azerbaijan on pages 356-357, in China on page 188, West Africa on page 444, in the Republic of the Congo on page 424, in Ethiopia on page 412, in Europe on page 235, in Georgia on page 357, in Guyana on page 594, in India on page 148, in Indonesia on page 217, in Lebanon on page 112, in Macedonia on page 314, in Malaysia on page 218, in Melanesia on page 662, in Micronesia on page 663, in Mozambique on page 467, in the Netherlands on page 286, in the Philippines on page 219, in Russia on pages 350 and 353, in Singapore on page 219, in South Africa on page 457, in South Korea on page 202, in Sudan on page 411, in Suriname on page 595, in Tanzania on page 408, in Uganda on page 413, in Ukraine on page 316, in the United Kingdom on page 28, in the United States on page 524, and in Zimbabwe on page 461.

This coverage of Christianity throughout the world is more than twice as much as that given to Judaism and about 40 percent more than that devoted to Islam.

Pg. 530-531 Eye on Environment... Too much Trash .. Promotes activism and sends students to EPA websites.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

This feature encourages civic participation and is included in order to meet the requirements of TEKS 6.14A as mandated by the State Board of Education: "identify and explain the importance of voluntary civic participation in democratic societies."

In order to eliminate Web sites not under the control of the publisher, the publisher will make the following editorial change:

Page, 531 Editorial Change

Delete Use the Internet heading and the accompanying activity.

Pg. 57 "...landscapes formed millions of years ago" more evolution theory

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content changes:

Page 57, first paragraph after "Exploring Our World," line 4: Content Change

Change: "millions of years"

To:

"over time"

Page 59, paragraph 4, line 5: Content Change

Change:

"For millions of years,"

To:

"Over time"

Pg. 125 "In Oct. 2001, the US accused the Taliban of supporting terrorist and began bombing Taliban Forces." No mention for the reasons for the accusations.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change:

Page 125, paragraph 2, line 12: Content Change

Change:

"In October 2001, the United States accused the Taliban of supporting

terrorists and began bombing Taliban forces."

To:

"In October 2001, after the attack on the World Trade Center, the United States accused the Taliban of supporting terrorists and began bombing Taliban forces."

Pg. 61 Discussion of greenhouse effect uses "many" to describe the scientist that support their theory, but use only "some" when discussing those who argue the world is not warming. This appears to be a definite effort to influence the opinions of students.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The use of the word "some" here is to distinguish among scientists who do

not agree about the greenhouse effect. The text states,

"Some argue that the world is not warming. Others say that even if it is, predictions of disaster are extreme. Many scientists are studying world temperature trends closely. They hope to be able to discover whether the greenhouse effect is a real threat."

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following content change:

Paged, line4: Content Change

Change: "Many"

To: "Some"

Pg. 65 "Industries and vehicles that burn fossil fuels are the main sources of air pollution." Can't equate to one volcanic eruption.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The textbook is correct. According to the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, "with a few exceptions nationwide, on-road mobile sources constitute the largest single source category of air pollution." TNRCC notes that off-road non-mobile sources account for the next level of pollutants. Taken together, on-road mobile sources (cars and trucks) and off-road non-mobile (industries) are the main sources of air pollution. While it is true that natural disasters such as volcanoes and forest fires are also responsible for pollution, they do not provide constant

sources. The Environmental Protection Agency breaks down the agents responsible for sulfur dioxide emissions as follows: Fuel Combustion Electrical Utilities 67 percent; fuel combustion industrial and others 18 percent; non-road engines and vehicles 5 percent; all other (including fires, volcanoes, decomposition) 7 percent. The EPA breaks down sources of carbon monoxide, another major pollutant, as follows: on-road vehicles 56 percent; non-road vehicles and engines 22 percent; fuel combustion 6 percent; industrial process 4 percent; miscellaneous (such as outdoor fires) 12 percent.

Our World Today: People Places and Issues has "republic" in the Index as follows:

Page 560 "Six countries (in Central America) are also republics .."

Page 587 "Today Brazil is a democratic republic, where people elect a president and other

leaders."

Page 375 "Russia, like the United States, is a federal republic."

Page 520 Under a section titled A Democratic Republic, they state, "The United States is a

representative democracy, in which the voters choose leaders who make and enforce the laws for

the benefit of the people they represent." Still no definition of "republic" or the important role of our

Constitution.

Page 297 "Portugal is a parliamentary republic, with a president as head of state. Still no

definition of republic.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify the definition of republic for students, the publisher will make the

following content changes:

Page 520, paragraphs 1 and 2 Content Change

Change:

"A Democratic Republic By the mid-1700s, the people living in the British colonies had started to see themselves as Americans. From 1775 to 1781, the new Americans fought a war that freed the colonies from British rule and formed a new country—the United States of America.

The United States is a representative democracy, in which voters choose leaders who make and enforce the laws for the benefit of the people they represent. The United States is also a federal republic. This means government is divided between national and state powers, with a president who leads the national government. As you can see from the chart above, the national government is divided into three branches."

To:

"A Federal Republic By the mid-1700s, many people living in the British colonies were frustrated with British policies that infringed on their rights. In 1775,13 colonies rebelled. On July 4,1776, they declared independence and created the United States of America. In 1788, they adopted a new constitution that is still used today.

The United States is a republic. A republic is a form of government in which there is no king. The head of a republic is usually a president. In a republic,

power belongs to the citizens who vote. A republic is a type of representative democracy. Voters elect representatives to make laws for the benefit of the people they represent. The United States is also a federal republic. A federal government is divided between a central or national government, and individual state governments. As you can see from the chart above, the national government of the United States is also divided into three branches."

Page 520, paragraph 3, last sentence Content Change

Change:

"It has been used by many countries as a model for their own

constitutions."

To:

"It has been used as a model by many countries."

Page 521, paragraph 2, second sentence Content Change

Delete:

"The population boomed as millions of people settled here from

other lands."

Page 521, paragraph 3, fourth and fifth sentences Content Change

Change:

"The Civil War did more than end slavery. It also launched the country into a period of great industrial and economic growth, the Industrial Revolution."

To:

"Afterward, the country began a period of great industrial and

economic growth."

Pat Jackson

The first problem with Glencoe's book is the title, The American Republic Since 1877. The first 280 pages of this book covers history before 1877. The easiest thing would be to change the title, but this book is over 1000 pages, and probably ten pounds. I suggest cutting the book in two, which would be about 1920, Might be a good division, between "the past" and "modern" America, as it began to be a major player on the world stage.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The textbook has been submitted for the course United States History Since Reconstruction. In the state of Texas, students take American history to 1877 in eighth grade as mandated in the curriculum. They then take a course on United States history since Reconstruction in high school—either in ninth, tenth, or eleventh grade. In order to provide flexibility to teachers who wish to provide a short review of the material studied in eighth grade, the authors and publisher of The American Republic Since 1877 have provided seven chapters of review material. These chapters also help teachers to review material with students that they will have to master before completing the TAKS test at the end of grades 10 and 11. Those teachers who believe that the review is not necessary may easily skip the first two units and begin with chapter eight.

Splitting the textbook at approximately 1920 would render it useless for the Texas course, which requires that students take a course in United States History Since Reconstruction in high school.

Other problems involve the photographs. If you just look at the photos, you'd think that only whites were sharecroppers and poor in Chicago. Hispanics are largely absent.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Illustrations throughout the text show that groups other than white Americans also faced the challenges of poverty. See pages 303, 381, 707, 708, 737, 747, and 749 for examples. The textbook includes more than 600 images of Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans.

Another problem is just in the Teacher's edition. Every few pages, it features a suggestion by a teacher, along with their photo. Every one of them is white. No, repeat, no, minorities. Thankfully the students won't see this, but it surely must insult all those Hispanic and Black teachers who have just as many good ideas as their white counterparts. And it must, at least subliminally, influence, the white teachers to think that no teachers of color have good ideas, since, if they did, they'd be represented in the textbook.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The reviewer is referring to the 29 Teacher's Corners included in the teacher's edition. These are suggested teaching strategies supplied by classroom teachers. The contributors are not all white.

Another problem is dates. I was particularly wanting to make sure of the dates to put into the spreadsheet, and kept finding that dates were often missing. The book might say something like "the Harlem Renaissance was a creative time," (a made up quote), might even say "in the 20s" but didn't mention who had published what in what year.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The purpose of an American history textbook is to focus student attention on the events of history and upon why these events unfolded as they did. It is essential that such a presentation include important dates throughout the text as reference points for students. Toward this end, each chapter of the textbook begins with a two-page time line detailing significant dates. Each section of the textbook also begins with a time line detailing for students the significant events to be studied in that section and how they relate chronologically to each other. Finally, the narrative itself includes dates when those dates are important to the discussion. The authors and publisher firmly believe that the textbook includes all of the dates necessary for a thorough understanding of American history. The textbook does not, however, include dates with every fact it presents. To do so would perpetuate the myth that history is nothing but an endless series of dates to be memorized, rather than a rich fabric of events to be understood.

Other specifics are needed, such as mentioning what Sarah Buell Hull, for example, was a leading editor and literary light of.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The narrative in question is on page 181 and deals with women in the work force. Sarah Buell Hale is mentioned as a prominent editor. The purpose of an American history textbook is to explain changes throughout history. Sarah Buell Hale is included because she was a part of the growing movement of women into the work force. Her career is mentioned because women editors were almost nonexistent at that time. Including the name of the publication that she edited—which ceased publication in 1898 and which had no lasting impact on the nation-is unimportant. The fact that she was breaking into a male-dominated field—editing and publishing—is.

Another major oversight is not mentioning Mary Baker Eddy, the only woman to found a worldwide religion, and the author of one of the seventy-five books written by women which has changed the world, according to the Women's National Book Association. The Mormons, the Universalists, even the Moonies are mentioned, but not Christian Science or Mrs. Eddy.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

By its very nature, a textbook, as the reviewer points out in her first comment on the length of the book, must have a finite number of pages. Using the TEKS as a starting point for what content to include and what content to exclude, the authors of The American Republic Since 1877, each of whom is a distinguished historian, settled on a comprehensive table of contents. In so doing, the authors had to choose what to include and what to exclude in order to provide students not only with explanations of what events happened in the history of our nation, but with why these events happened as they did. Using such a text would mean that students would complete the course with a thorough understanding of the myriad forces that have shaped the modern United States. The

authors and publisher firmly believe that The American Republic Since 1877 provides such a narrative for the students of Texas.

On p. 4, the Elements of Geography—either have the photos correlate with the examples given, or identify the photos with a cut line. Check for this problem throughout the book.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The photographs included on this page are provided as examples of the elements of geography—the world in spatial terms, place and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and the uses of geography—being described in the narrative. As such, cut lines are unnecessary.

p. 10, should mention the possible settlement on the East Coast in prehistoric times. In fact, in light of the book's mention that the Mandan Indians were blond, it would appear certain that the proto-Vikings, say, had colonized the East Coast.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Page 10 is the Chapter Opener for Chapter 1. The time line included here has a few of the major events that occurred in the Americas over a long time span. The publisher includes only the dates of the first human migrations to North America and the rise of early Mesoamerican civilizations during prehistory. To include other entries would mean cutting one of these vital and important entries.

Glad to see that Glencoe did cover Galvez and the Spaniards help in the Revolution, unlike the Prentice Hall book I testified to at the last hearing.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher appreciates the positive comment.

p. 128, the photo shows a town meeting with only white men. Maybe there's no minorities in that city, but there are women. And why not find a town where the people are more representative of the nation?

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Women are portrayed in the second and third rows of the meeting. Although the photograph does not portray minorities, the textbook includes more than 600 images of Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans throughout.

In what I had a chance to read, I didn't see any mention that slaves weren't allowed to learn to read and write. Nor anything about the concerted effort, after the Civil War, by people in the North to provide teachers for the children in the South thirsting for education.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

On page 184, the narrative states:

"State slave codes forbade enslaved men and women from owning property, leaving a slaveholder's premises without permission, or testifying in court against a white person. Laws even banned them from learning to read and write."

In addition to a photograph of a school for African Americans on page 274, the narrative on that page states:

"Upon gaining their freedom, many African Americans desired an education, something they had been denied under slavery. In the first years of Reconstruction, the Freedmen's Bureau, with the help of Northern charities, had established schools for African Americans across the South.

Gradually, the number of both African American students and teachers increased, and by 1876 about 40 percent of all African American children (roughly 600,000 students) attended school in the region."

p. 331 shows only white working women, no blacks or Hispanic women

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

Because the women in the photograph are not identified, it is impossible to tell whether any of the workers shown are Hispanic, since Hispanics may be of any race. The photograph is included to show students a sample of some of the women who were working in the nation's burgeoning factories. The vast majority of these factories had segregated work forces at this time. Although no African American workers are shown here, the textbook includes 152 images of African American and Hispanic women.

p. 351, profile of Moses Fleetwood Walker, an early Black baseball player—with no dates!

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The photo in question is a feature about the origins of the seventh-inning stretch, not a profile of Moses Fleetwood Walker. The photo is intended to show a baseball player from the period, not biographical information. Life dates are therefore unnecessary.

p. 384 and other places, need to bring out conflict between Booker T. Washington and his "let's not rock the boat with voting, let's only do it through education" and W.E.B. DuBois and his faction, which insisted on getting to vote as a means to get everything else.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher is uncertain of the exact criticism here since part of the text on page 383 and all of the text on page 384 discusses this conflict, which the reviewer alleges is missing. Students read:

"Some African American leaders like Wells chose the path of protest, but others recommended different solutions to discrimination. One such person was the influential educator Booker T. Washington. He proposed that African Americans concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones. In 1895 he summed up his views in a speech before a mostly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. Known as the Atlanta Compromise, the address came amid increasing acts of discrimination against African Americans. Washington urged his fellow African Americans to postpone the fight for civil rights and instead concentrate on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality:

'The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremes! folly, and that the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing ... It is important and right that all privileges of the law be ours, but it is vastly more important that we be prepared for the exercise of these privileges. The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera-house.'

Voice of the Future The Atlanta Compromise speech provoked a strong challenge from W.E.B. Du Bois, the leader of a new generation of African American activists born after the Civil War. Du Bois pointed out in his 1903 book The Souls of Black Folk that white Southerners continued to strip African Americans of their civil rights. This was true in spite of the progress African Americans were making in education and vocational training. They could regain that lost ground and achieve full equality, Du Bois argued, only by demanding their rights. Du Bois was particularly concerned with protecting and exercising voting rights. 'Negroes must insist continually, in season and out of season,' he wrote, 'that voting is necessary to proper manhood, that color discrimination is barbarism,' In the years that followed, many African Americans worked to win the vote and end discrimination. The struggle, however, would prove to be a long one."

p. 421, this covers the same activities as on p. 199. Also, it talks about the suffrage movement as being from 1890 top 1920, but p. 418 says it started with the Seneca Falls meeting, in 1848.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The narrative discusses the Seneca Falls meeting on page 199 in the

context of the women's movement before the Civil War. It picks up this

discussion on page 421 (not on page 418) when it explains to students the

woman suffrage movement of the late 1800s. It is briefly mentioned in the

introduction here to reinforce student understanding of the women's rights

movement.

To clarify the major dates shown on the map on page 423, the publisher will make the following editorial changes:

Page 423, Map Title Editorial Change

Change: "1890"

To: "1869"

Page xviii, column 2, line 5 under Unit 4 Editorial Change

Change: "1890"

To: "1869"

Page T18, column 2, line 5 under Unit 4 Editorial Change

Change: "1890"

To: "1869"

p. 423, need to show successful suffragettes

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The map on page 423 details the successes of the woman suffrage movement before the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. The photograph is that of one of the suffragists who successfully advocated that women receive the right to vote.

p. 424, it's good to show two white girls protesting child labor, but Blacks and possible Hispanics were also involved. And should show more photos of child labor, including those of minorities. Should also point out that children still labor in other countries, in very unsafe conditions.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The photograph in question is part of the National Geographic Moment in

History feature. This particular feature shows two Jewish girls

demonstrating against child labor practices. The inclusion of the

photograph does not in any way imply that African Americans and Hispanic

Americans did not also oppose child labor. It is merely used here as an

example.

The authors and publisher do detail the campaign against child labor on pages 423 and 424, noting the vital role that the Progressive reformers played in this campaign. The narrative vividly describes the conditions, noting that "the work bent their backs permanently and often crippled their hands." Showing photographs of the abysmal conditions would serve only to dwell on a particularly negative part of our nation's history. The authors and publisher believe that it is more beneficial to students to have them understand the conditions and to see images, such as the one of the two girls, of individuals who worked to better the conditions and thus the lives of all concerned.

While child labor existed in other countries in the early 1900s, the course and the textbook are about American rather than world history. Stories and images that had no impact on conditions in the United States would be inappropriate and would serve to confuse rather than to instruct.

The book has no coverage of LULAC

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To provide information on LULAC, the publisher will include the following

content changes:

Page 815, second column, first heading "Growing Political Activism" Content Change

Under the heading "Growing Political Activism." insert: "The League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC, founded in Corpus Christi, Texas, in 1929, had long worked for Mexican American rights in the court system, in hiring, and in education. In 1954, LULAC brought the landmark case of Hernandez v. the State of Texas to the Supreme Court, winning the right for Mexican Americans to serve on juries."

Page 815, first full paragraph, line 7 Content Change

Change:

"In conjunction with similar organizations in Colorado and

California, the group mobilized Mexican American voters behind a

political agenda that called for job training programs and greater access to financial institutions."

To:

"The group mobilized Mexican American voters to push for job

training programs and greater access to financial institutions."

Page 814, paragraph 1, lines 7-9 Content Change

Delete:

"[icon] (Seepage 965 for more information on Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education./'

Page 815, column 1, paragraph 1, lines 1-2 Content Change

Change:

"African Americans also became significantly more influential in

Congress."

To:

"African Americans also won influence in Congress."

Page 815, column 1, paragraph 1, line 4 Editorial Change

Delete: "in order"

Page 815, column 1, paragraphs 2-4 Editorial Change

Combine paragraphs into one paragraph

p. 456 Debs speech: what part of his speech violated what provision of the Espionage Act? And how long was he jailed? What happened to him afterward? What happened to the Espionage Act?

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The speech in question is part of an American Story that introduces a

section. The authors include these to pique student interest in the topic

that they are about to study. In this case, the story includes a description of

the Debs speech and the fact that he was jailed under the Espionage Act.

Then students learn about the provisions of the act in the section, on page

460.

p. 451, it is stated that 400,000 Blacks were drafted in WWI. The books needs to expand on "Many of them won praise." My spreadsheet lists some of the Black Medal of Honor winners. Some were from the first WW. It's important that outstanding people be mentioned, if nothing more than "A,B, C were Medal of Honor winners." But it should be expanded on, i.e., stating that this was more remarkable because of the discrimination not only for civilian Negroes, but also for

those in the services. As, for example, one Black Marine beaten for wearing that uniform (the whites couldn't conceive of a Black Marine, so they thought he'd stolen it)—And also the discrimination in the services, themselves—separate barracks, recreations areas, etc., and, all too often, white officers.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The text in question appears on page 457. There students read:

"Of the nearly 400,000 African Americans who were drafted, about 42,000 served overseas as combat troops. African American soldiers encountered discrimination and prejudice in the army, where they served in racially segregated units almost always under the supervision of white officers.

Despite these challenges, many African American soldiers fought with distinction in the war. For example, the African American 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions fought in bitter battles along the Western Front. Many of them won praise from both the French commander, Marshal Henri Retain, and the United States commander, General John Pershing. The entire 369th Infantry Division won the highly prized French decoration, the Croix de Guerre ('war cross'), for gallantry in combat."

Rather than merely listing a few medal winners, the authors have chosen to show how entire divisions were singled out for bravery and courage.

p. 461, the photo of George Creel belongs on p. 460 with "Selling the War," and/or need to refer to it in the text and under the photo giving the connection between the two.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

It is the policy of the publisher to include photographs on the same spread

that the copy about the person or event appears. The copy about George

Creel appears on page 460, the same spread as his photograph on page

461.

p. 497, expand on the Reynolds vs. U.S. situation. Also make verbs parallel: "violated the laws or undermined," or "violate the laws or undermine" (no d)

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The Reynolds case is part of a two-page feature entitled "Religious Freedom in the United States." The feature discusses several Supreme Court decisions in addition to Reynolds. It also includes references to the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the First Amendment, and the Great Awakening and discusses the topics of religious toleration and separation of church and state. The purpose of the feature is to allow students to examine the issue of religious freedom as it has changed over time. Many of the ideas dealing with religious freedom are expanded upon in the text

narrative. Rather than addressing the details of the case, the text presents to students the decision in the Reynolds case established that people are not free to worship in ways that "violate the law or undermine the public interest."

To correct the grammar on page 497, the publisher will make the following editorial change:

Page 497, column 2, paragraph 2, line 6

Change: "undermined"

To: "undermine"

The issue, in prayer in the schools, is not "avoid federal support of a particular church," but school administration support of a particular church to a captive audience.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher believes that both issues are essential. The first clause of the First Amendment, the establishment clause, prohibits the government from establishing a state-supported religion. The second clause, labeled the free exercise clause, prohibits government from unduly interfering with the free exercise of religion. The text focuses on two major decisions regarding school prayer on pages 722-723. In Engelv. Vitale (1962), the Supreme Court declared that a school prayer composed by the New York Board of Regents was unconstitutional. In the decision, Justice Hugo Black interpreted the First Amendment to mean the following:

"In this country it is no part of the business of government to compose official prayers for any group of the American people to recite as part of a religious program carried on by government."

In the Abington School District case in 1963, the Court banned school-sponsored Bible reading and recitation in public schools. The Court ruled that the Constitution's establishment clause leaves religious beliefs and religious practices to each individual's choice and expressly commands that government not intrude into this decision-making process.

Identify the painter and year of the painting "Virginia Colonists Attending Old Bruton Church"

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The name of the painting and of the artist of this painting are not available, as is the case of many old works. The tag line, "Virginia colonists attending Old Bruton Church," describes the topic of the illustration. It is not the title of the painting.

499 Ralph Ellison is mentioned here, but not listed in the Index. Same with Toni Morrison

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

The publisher acknowledges the error and will make the following change to correct the

error.

Page 997, column 2, line after Ellis Island Error Correction

Insert:

Ellison, Ralph, p. 499

Page 1005, column 3, line after Robert Morris Error Correction

Insert:

Morrison, Toni, p. 499

That's as far as I got in the text, but it should be clear that a lot more needs to be added to properly cover American history. I particularly want to point out the need to show how much women did do, fighting in the Revolutionary and Civil Wars as men, and beside their men, and as active "campfollowers" in the orginal sense, where they went with their men to the battlefront and took care of the food, water, sewing, nursing—and occasionally shot the cannons when their soldiers couldn't.

Also the centuries-long fight for civil rights and women's rights, the tension and help of women struggling to cross the racial divide, the fact that women of all races have done much to effect changes in this nation, because the men were not as interested in changing, since they were in power vis a vis the women.

You'll also note I've put in a few of the many woman and Black scientists and inventors. I was amazed to discover how many have invented so much that we count on. Whitney's cotton gin was, at the least, co-invented by a woman. The cell phone. And countless other matchines and parts. And AZT and other major breakthroughs in medicine. But my last comment concerns the TV or frozen dinner. You'll note that the textbook covers the TV dinner, even having a photo of it, but the text fails to note that this major progress was developed by a woman.

It's high time that women and Hispanics and Blacks and Japanese and Chines and all the others get their fair recognition for their contributions to history. We all need to be proud of what our ancestors have done, and feel confident that we, too, and our children and grandchildren, can do as well as, and even surpass, these ancestors—for we are all, equally, Americans with the can-do spirit that has made this nation great. Let's give credit where credit is due. It's the least we can do!

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

By its very nature, a textbook, as the reviewer points out in her first comment on the length of the book, must have a finite number of pages. Using the TEKS as a starting point for what content to include and what content to exclude, the authors of The American Republic Since 1877, each of whom is a distinguished historian, settled on a comprehensive table of contents. Foremost among the goals of the authors was to develop a narrative that provided students not only with explanations of what events

happened in the history of our nation, but with why these events happened as they did. Using such a text would mean that students would complete the course with a thorough understanding of the myriad forces that have shaped the modern United States. The authors and publisher firmly believe that The American Republic Since 1877 provides such a narrative for the students of Texas. The text provides fully understandable and detailed explanations of the major movements in American history that continue to influence our lives today. The authors have carefully included the contributions of all groups of Americans in this story so that students can finish the course with a thorough understanding that ours is indeed a diverse society, a result of the sacrifices and triumphs of men and women from all ethnic groups and from all walks of life. To provide students with less would, the authors and publisher believe, be a great disservice to the people of Texas.

Marta Bourgeois & Sharon Brady Review of American History: A Survey

As published (page 405-406): Among the most important efforts to create a new and more ordered society within the old was that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints—the Mormons. Mormonism began in upstate New York as a result of the efforts of Joseph Smith, a young, energetic, but economically unsuccessful man, who had spent most of his twenty-four years moving restlessly through New England and the Northeast. Then, in 1830, he published a remarkable document—the Book of Mormon, named for the ancient prophet who he claimed had written it. It was, he said, a translation of a set of golden tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God.

Reviewer's comment: Referring to Smith's "unsuccessful" economic status is misleading - he was hardly out of his youth or the home of his parents in 1830, certainly not a man who had tried "restlessly1 and failed at numerous ventures - and unnecessary: suggesting his economic status had something to do with his religious experience is unsupportable.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change:

Page 405, column 2, last three lines, continuing on to page 406, column 1, lines 1-8 Content Change

Change:

"Among the most important efforts to create a new and more ordered society within the old was that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints—the Mormons. Mormonism began in upstate New York as a result of the efforts of Joseph Smith, a young, energetic, but economically unsuccessful man, who had spent most of his twenty-four years moving restlessly through New England and the Northeast. Then, in 1830, he published a remarkable document—the Book of Mormon, named for the ancient prophet who he claimed had written it."

To:

"Among the most important efforts to create a new and more ordered society within the old was that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—the Mormons. Mormonism began in upstate New York as an outgrowth of the religious visions of Joseph Smith, whose struggling parents had moved from farm to farm in Vermont and New York. While still a teenager, he claimed, he was visited by God, and in 1830, when he was just twenty-four, he published a remarkable document—the Book of Mormon, named for the ancient prophet who he claimed had written it."

As published: The Book of Mormon told the story of an ancient and successful civilization in

America, peopled by one of the lost tribes of Israel who had found their way to the New World centuries before Columbus. Its members waited patiently for the appearance of the Messiah, and they were rewarded when Jesus actually came to America after his resurrection. Subsequent generations, however, had strayed from the path of righteousness that Jesus had laid out for them.

Reviewer's comment: The histories of two separate civilizations are told in the Book of Mormon; neither claims to be the only civilization in America at the time.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following content change.

Page 406, column 1, paragraph 1, lines 11-18 Content Change

Change:

"The Book of Mormon told the story of an ancient and successful civilization in America, peopled by one of the lost tribes of Israel who had found their way to the New World centuries before Columbus. Its members waited patiently for the appearance of the Messiah, and they were rewarded when Jesus actually came to America after his resurrection."

To:

"The Book of Mormon told the story of two ancient and successful civilizations in America, descendants of people who had found their way to the New World centuries before Columbus. They anticipated the coming of the Messiah and were rewarded when Jesus actually came to America after his resurrection."

As published: Ultimately, their civilization collapsed, and God punished the sinful by making their skin dark. These darkened people, Smith believed, were the descendants of the American Indians, although the modern tribes had no memory of their origins. But while the ancient Hebrew kingdom in America had ultimately vanished, Smith believed, its history as a righteous society could serve as a model for a new holy community in the United States.

Reviewer's comment: Dark-skin-as-punishment is not Church doctrine; it was an identifying characteristic placed upon some of the disobedient. LDS doctrine does not ascribe Book of Mormon parentage to all native American peoples, only some of them. The phrase "although the modern tribes had no memory of their origins" suggests the Book of Mormon claims the absence of memories by modem tribes. It does not; nor does modern scholarship. Legends and stories that approximate certain elements of the Book of Mormon record and doctrine are common among certain tribes.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change:

Page 406, column 1, paragraph 1, lines 20-24 Content Change

Change:

"Ultimately, their civilization collapsed, and God punished the sinful by making their skin dark. These darkened people, Smith believed, were the descendants of the American Indians, although the modern tribes had no memory of their origins."

To:

"Ultimately, both civilizations collapsed because of their rejection of Christian principles. The survivors of these populations, Smith taught, are ancestors of certain American Indian tribes."

As published: In 1831, gathering a small group of believers around him, Smith began searching for a sanctuary for his new community of "saints," an effort that would continue unhappily for more than twenty years. Time and again, the Mormons attempted to establish their "New Jerusalem." Time and again, they met with persecution from surrounding communities suspicious of their radical religious doctrines—which included polygamy (the right of men to take several wives), a rigid form of social organization, and particularly damaging to their image, an intense secrecy, which gave rise to wild rumors among their critics of conspiracy and depravity.

Reviewer's comment: There were times of peace and relative prosperity within the period 1831-1847 (sixteen years). "New Jerusalem" is not a theological concept; it is a specific place -Jackson County, Missouri. Thus, the term is misapplied here. The limited practice of polygamy was never known publicly until the early 1840s, in Nauvoo. The departures from Palmyra (1831), Kirtland (1837-38), and the mass driving from Missouri (1838) had nothing to do with this practice.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following content change:

Page 406, column 1, paragraph 2 Content Change

Change:

"In 1831, gathering a small group of believers around him, Smith began searching for a sanctuary for his new community of "saints," an effort that would continue unhappily for more than twenty years. Time and again, the Mormons attempted to establish their "New Jerusalem." Time and again, they met with persecution from surrounding communities suspicious of their radical religious doctrines—which included polygamy (the right of men to take several wives), a rigid form of social organization, and particularly damaging to their image, an intense secrecy, which gave rise to wild rumors among their critics of conspiracy and depravity."

To:

"In 1831, gathering a small group of believers around him, Smith began searching for a sanctuary for his new community of "saints," an effort that would continue for more than fifteen years. Time and again, the Latter-day Saints, as they called themselves, attempted to establish peaceful communities. Time and again, they met with persecution from surrounding communities suspicious of their

radical religious doctrines—claims of new prophets, new scripture, and divine authority-and their rapid growth and political strength. Near the end of his life, Joseph Smith introduced the practice of polygamy (the right of men to take several wives), which became public knowledge after Smith's death. From then on, polygamy became the target of anti-Mormon opposition."

As published: Driven from their original settlements in Independence, Missouri, and Kirtland, Ohio, the Mormons moved on to the new town of Nauvoo, Illinois, which in the early 1840s became an imposing and economically successful community. In 1844, however, Joseph Smith was arrested, charged with treason (for allegedly conspiring against the government to win foreign support for a new Mormon colony in the Southwest), and imprisoned in Carthage, Illinois. There an angry mob attacked the jail, forced Smith from his cell, and shot and killed him. The Mormons now abandoned Nauvoo and, under the leadership of Smith's successor, Brigham Young, traveled across the desert—a society of 12,000 people, in one of the largest single group migrations in American history—and established a new community in Utah, the present Salt Lake City. There, at last, the Mormons were able to create a permanent settlement. And although they were not long to remain as isolated from the rest of American society as they were at the beginning, never again were they to be dislodged.

Reviewer's comment: Nauvoo did not exist with Smith purchased 600 acres from Isaac Galland - the area was previously designated by Galland to be the town of "Commerce," but it was merely a plan on paper. The reasons behind Smith's arrest and incarceration are clearly developed in numerous histories; none of them include a "Mormon colony conspiracy." Brigham Young oversaw the establishment of more than 400 western communities: Salt Lake City was merely the largest and the headquarters of the church.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change:

Page 406, column 1, last paragraph, continuing to column 2 Content Change

Change:

"Driven from their original settlements in Independence, Missouri, and Kirtland, Ohio, the Mormons moved on to the new town of Nauvoo, Illinois, which in the early 1840s became an imposing and economically successful community. In 1844, however, Joseph Smith was arrested, charged with treason (for allegedly conspiring against the government to win foreign support for a new Mormon colony in the Southwest), and imprisoned in Carthage, Illinois. There an angry mob attacked the jail, forced Smith from his cell, and shot and killed him. The Mormons now abandoned Nauvoo and, under the leadership of Smith's successor, Brigham Young, traveled across the desert—a society of 12,000 people, in one of the largest single group migrations in American history—and established a new community in Utah, the present Salt Lake City. There, at last, the Mormons were able to create a permanent settlement. And although they were not long to remain as isolated from the rest of American society as they were at the beginning,

never again were they to be dislodged."

To:

"Driven from their original settlements in Independence, Missouri, and Kirtland, Ohio, the Mormons founded a new town in Illinois that they named Nauvoo, which in the early 1840s became an imposing and economically successful community. In 1844, however, bitter enemies of Joseph Smith published an inflammatory newspaper article that threatened to ignite a serious civil disturbance. Smith ordered his followers to destroy the offending press, and he was subsequently arrested and imprisoned in Carthage, Illinois. There an angry mob attacked the jail and shot and killed him. Persecution continued, and the Mormons soon abandoned Nauvoo. Under the leadership of Smith's successor, Brigham Young, the Mormons traveled across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains—a society of 12,000 people, in one of the largest single group migrations in American history. They established several communities in Utah, including the present Salt Lake City. There, at last, the Mormons were able to live in relative peace. Although they were not long to remain as isolated from the rest of American society as they were at the beginning, never again were they to be dislodged."

As published: Like other experiments in social organization of the era, Mormonism reflected a belief in human perfectibility. God had once been a man, the church taught, and thus every man or woman could aspire to become—as Joseph Smith had become—a god. But unlike other new communities, the Mormons did not embrace the doctrine of individual liberty. Instead, they created a highly organized, centrally directed, almost militarized social structure, a refuge against the disorder and uncertainty of the secular world. They placed particular emphasis on the structure of the family. Mormon religious rituals even included a process by which men and women went through a baptism ceremony in the name of a deceased ancestor; as a result, they believed, they would be reunited with those ancestors in heaven. The intense Mormon interest in genealogy, which continues today, is a reflection of this belief in the possibility of reuniting present generations with those of the past.

Reviewer's comment: Nothing in LDS doctrine claims Joseph Smith has become a god, nor does it clearly define what status the faithful can attain. The "doctrine of individual liberty" termed "free agency" by Latter-day Saints, is a fundamental tenet of the faith. Choice and consequence are among the first church doctrines learned by Mormon children. The author has selected past tense as his/her voice throughout this piece. That is accurate in regard to historical elements, of course, but discussions of doctrine would be entirely appropriate in the present tense - and more appropriate. The Church certainly has not faded into the annals of history; it is today the fifth largest church in the United States and, with 11.5 million members, one of the fastest growing in the world.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change:

Page 406, column 2, paragraph 2 Content Change

Change:

"Like other experiments in social organization of the era, Mormonism reflected a belief in human perfectibility. God had once been a man, the church taught, and thus every man or woman could aspire to become—as Joseph Smith had become—a god. But unlike other new communities, the Mormons did not embrace the doctrine of individual liberty. Instead, they created a highly organized, centrally directed, almost militarized social structure, a refuge against the disorder and uncertainty of the secular world. They placed particular emphasis on the structure of the family. Mormon religious rituals even included a process by which men and women went through a baptism ceremony in the name of a deceased ancestor; as a result, they believed, they would be reunited with those ancestors in heaven. The intense Mormon interest in genealogy, which continues today, is a reflection of this belief in the possibility of reuniting present generations with those of the past."

To:

"Like other experiments in social organization of the era, Mormonism reflected a belief in human perfectibility. God had once been a man, the church taught, and thus every man or woman could aspire to eternal progression toward the divine. Within a highly developed and centrally directed ecclesiastical structure, they created a haven for people demoralized by the disorder and uncertainty of the secular world. They placed particular emphasis on the social structure of the family. Mormon religious rituals even include a process by which men and women go through a baptism ceremony in the name of a deceased ancestor; as a result, they believe, they will be reunited with those ancestors in heaven. The intense Mormon interest in genealogy, which continues today, is a reflection of this belief in the possibility of reuniting present generations with those of the past. The original Mormons were, for the most part, men and women who felt displaced in their rapidly changing society—economically marginal people left behind by the material growth and social progress of their era. In the new religion, they found genuine faith. In the society it created, they found security and order."

These proposed revisions are for the section of Chapter 16 entitled "Cattle Kingdom," p. 571:

As published: In Utah, the Mormons granted women suffrage in an effort to stave off criticism of their practice of polygamy.

Reviewer's comment: This is not accurate. Although women within the Church of LDS had been voting within the organization since its inception, they were subject to federal law as citizens of a U.S. territory. As anti-polygamy discussion at the federal level began to flare up, women in Utah organized politically. The legislature of Utah Territory, with the approval of the acting, non-Mormon governor, enfranchised Utah women on February 12, 1870. As anti-polygamy legislation

began taking effect a decade later, women in Utah became more visible on the national scene in an effort to show the nation that the unusual (and still legal) polygamy culture was not depriving of them of their ability to vote within the territory.

PUBLISHER'S RESPONSE

To clarify this issue for students, the publisher will make the following

content change:

Page 571, paragraph 2, lines 3-5 Content Change

Change:

"In Utah, the Mormons granted women suffrage in an effort to stave

off criticsm of their practice of polygamy."

To:

"In Utah, the Mormon-dominated legislature enfranchised women to

show that they were not oppressed under polygamy.