Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Formal Response to Oral Testimony
August 23, 2002
Reviewer Meg McKain Grier [Holt Texas/]
Ms. Grier: Good morning. . . . [Holt]* Texas!], Page 595 said women were making successful bids for local office in the mid to late 1970s. In fact, women were elected to local office in the 1960s.
HRW Response: We agree that some women were elected to local office in the 1960s, but the focus in this paragraph is on the dramatic increase in women's political success, which took place mostly in the 1970s, as a result of the women's movement; therefore, the statement is not in error. However, to clarify we will revise the 1st sentence thus: "In the mid- to late 1970s, women were increasingly successful in their bids for local office." [TYPE OF CHANGE: C]
Ms. Grier: In sections on citizenship, texts emphasized being an informed citizen. This is important, but passive. Texts don't teach students how to be active in the political process. In discussions of political parties, texts do not mention that citizens participate in precinct conventions to influence political parties. Additionally, students will think that working through special interest groups is only way to communicate to elected officials. Only one texts mentions that citizens can write letters directly to an official.
HRW Response: Both the Student Edition and the Teacher's Edition strive to help students understand the state's political process and to show them how they can participate directly in that process. For example, see the portfolio activity on S p. 675 ("Imagine that you and several of your classmates belong to a political party. . . . Create a platform for your party. . .."), the History in Action Unit Simulation on S p. 677, the Citizenship and You features on S pp. 212 ("The First Amendment.. . protects the right of free speech. . . . There are many other ways to stage a protest.... Some people use the Internet to protest issues."), p. 403, and p. 499 ("Texans still work with government to meet today's challenges. Voting, organizing into political groups, and meeting with government officials are just a few ways people can try to change society. Teenagers can get involved. . . .). See also the text of S pp. 668-73. The Teacher's Edition also contains many activities that will show students how they might become involved in the state's political process. For example, see the activities on T pp. 498-99, 505, 508, 512, 587-88, 592, 645, 656-57, 662, 671-73, and 677.
* Boldface text in brackets has been added to transcript excerpts for clarification.
Reviewer Lupita Ramirez [Holt American Government]
MS. RAMIREZ: Hello, my name is Lupita Ramirez. I'm an undergraduate student at the University of Texas at Brownsville. ... I reviewed American Government published by Holt and found some clerical errors, which are laid out on my text that you are receiving. However, I would like to focus on the incomplete information about Mexican-Americans.
On Page 342 to 344, the topic was immigration policies, immigration restrictions. The authors failed to mention that repatriation was another form of restrictive immigration.
HRW Response: The reviewer's point is well taken; however, this subsection is intended as a brief overview of immigration restrictions pertaining to entry into the United States, from their initial imposition in the 1880s through World War II. Examples of such restrictions are given, and deportation is mentioned only in context of current approaches to illegal immigration. The specific coverage suggested by the reviewer is not required by the TEKS for this course, and because the issue of repatriation concerns the conditions under which Mexicans and Mexican Americans left the country, not their entry, it is a somewhat different subject. Its complexity would necessitate extended contextual discussion of the 1930s depression, and of Congress's broad deportation powers. For all these reasons, as well as space limitations, we believe it is beyond the scope of this course. However, we have treated this subject in Chapter 15 of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.
MS. RAMIREZ (cont.): On Page 347 to 348, the topic was civil rights, equal protection to joint (phonetic) segregation. This section on civil rights fails to mention the Chicano movement, which dealt with the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. It does not mention Reies Lopez Tijerina, Land Grant War movement. Nor Corky Gonzales in Denver who defines the meaning of Chicano in his poem, "I am Joaquin." Cesar Chavez and the farmworkers, the struggle of the urban youth in California, nor the growing political awareness and participation of the Mexican-American through the La Raza Unida party.
HRW Response: The reviewer's comments on our discussions of civil rights are well taken. The specific coverage suggested by the reviewer is not, however, required by the TEKS for this course; because this topic is related more to U.S. political and social history than to government per se, we cover all of these individuals, the movements or struggles they led or inspired, and their contributions to American society extensively in Chapter 23, Section 2, of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.
We agree that mention of La Raza Unida Party would be a worthwhile addition to the Holt American Government program, and we will insert on T p. 414, in the chapter on Political Parties, the following Internet Connect activity (replacing the existing Internet Connect):
TOPIC: La Raza Unida Party GO TO: go.hrw.com KEYWORD: SV3GV18
Have students access the Internet through the HRW Go site to conduct research on the formation of La Raza Unida Party in 1970. Then have each student create a poster presenting information on the leaders, goals, and influence of this third party that focused on political participation by Hispanic Americans. [TEKS star] 22D
[TYPE OF CHANGE: C]
MS. RAMIREZ (cont.): On Page 352, extending civil rights, subtopic Hispanic-Americans, there's only two small paragraphs on Hispanics and one small sentence which states that we base discrimination in several areas such as employment and housing. It fails to mention that Mexican-Americans were refused service and that there were signs that read no Mexicans or dogs allowed. It also does not mention the other forms of discrimination that Mexican-Americans and Tejanos faced. To list a few, in 1901, Gregorio Cortez who shot the local sheriff in self-defense in Karnes County, fled to Mexico knowing he would face lynch law. There's denial of due process. In November 1910, Antonio Rodriguez was accused of killing a white woman, was taken out of jail by white vigilantes in Rock Springs, Texas, and burned alive. There are so many others. There's one in 1911 when White Marvin Rodel, Texas, beat 14-year-old and Antonio Gonzales to death and his body was dragged, tied in the back of a buggy.
HRW Response: The reviewer's comments are well taken, but we believe that the material requested is beyond the scope of the half-year government course for which this text is written, and that the specific details are not required by the TEKS. As noted earlier, we provide much more extensive coverage of the history of civil rights struggles, especially including that of Mexican Americans, in Chapter 23 of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.
MS. RAMIREZ (cont.): Making our students, including Mexican-American students, aware of these and many more incidents that the Mexican-Americans has had to deal with, will make them aware that conditions have existed since the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe in 1848. Documenting these struggles and victories will give them confidence they will need to become great leaders. To me, stop the dropout rate by giving them something to relate to and give them the courage to make a difference in their community.
As a proud member of Cameron Park Community, I'm asking you to give the opportunity to our Texas students, as well as our Mexican-American students. In this fast-growing global village, everyone needs to learn the
struggles of all ethnic groups to know that everyone is fighting for the same cause.
Thank you for your time.
HRW Response: Please see our previous responses.
Reviewer Dr. Norman Binder [Holt American Government]
DR. BINDER: My name is Norman Binder. I teach at the University of Texas at Brownsville. ... I, too, looked at the American government Texas edition Holt. And I'm going to make some representations in terms of inclusion of information about Mexican-Americans. Under the Court - the section on the federal courts, there's no mention of lack of minority representation in the district courts, in the appellate courts. We need to know how many blacks, how many women, how many Hispanics, Native Americans there are and why aren't they equally represented. It's the same thing in terms of civil rights. I handed a whole series of things out for you, but I'm just going to sort of kind of quit. In fact, I find that I can read this book - this government book and it would be very difficult for me to know that we had slavery. I read this book and I find no information in terms of we have killed hundreds of thousands of Indians, allowed and facilitated the theft of most of the land from the Hispanics. Not only do they not include information about Hispanics, but even blacks. NAACP is mentioned one time. Martin Luther King is mentioned one time. It's in these kinds of books that I think we need reinforcements for our students in terms of understanding who they are, where they come from and where they're going. Thank you.
HRW Response: Mr. Binder mentions that he "handed a whole series of things out"by which we assume he means his more extensive written testimony, which we also received. In our Formal Response to Written Testimony, August 23, 2002, we have answered at length each of the general points he has mentioned here. Since Mr. Binder has not introduced any new remarks, we refer to that document.
DR. BINDER: ... I'm really pleased to see that there is a growing emphasis on history. But I think it needs to be reinforced in government books as well. For example, there is no mention of Maldef in this particular government book.
HRW Response: We believe that mention of this topic is beyond the scope of this course. As noted earlier, we provide much more extensive coverage of the history of civil rights struggles, especially including that of Mexican Americans, in Chapter 23 of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.
DR. BINDER: But in terms of political parties, for example, no mention of the La Raza Unida party. And yet, this is the Texas edition. Okay. That I think is very important and - or of political organizations by minorities in the State of Texas.
HRW Response: We agree that mention of La Raza Unida Party would be a worthwhile addition to the Holt American Government program, and we will insert a new Internet Connect activity on T p. 414, in the chapter on Political Parties. (See earlier response to Lupita Ramirez for details of this change.)
Reviewer Jon Roland [Holt American Government]
MR. ROLAND: Good afternoon. My name is John [i.e., Jon]* Roland, I represent the Constitution Society.. . . During this session, I'm testifying on three additional textbooks . . . [including Holt] American Government by Stephen Kelman. . ..
On Page 443 [of United States Government by Richard Reamy, published by Glencoe McGraw-Hill] contains a statement that a jury must be unanimous in a criminal trial in its verdict. It leaves out the word "for a guilty verdict." A jury must only be unanimous for a verdict of guilty, not for a verdict of not guilty. The implication is that if they can't reach agreement, the jury must be hung. Well, all that is is a formula for hanging the accused. A similar error is made in American Government by Stephen Kelman on Page 443 - I'm sorry, Page 159.
HRW Response: The page numbers (443, 159) to which Mr. Roland refers (if he meant to cite Holt American Government) are incorrect; he probably means p. 279. We have responded to his full written testimony on this point in our Formal Response to Written Testimony, August 23, 2002.
MR. ROLAND: American Government. . . could be corrected by making changes to a few pages and by additional material.
HRW Response: This general statement is addressed in our response to Mr. Roland's specific written testimony.
* Boldface text in brackets has been added to transcript excerpts for clarification.