Holt, Rinehart and Winston

Formal Response to Written Testimony,

August 23, 2002

Reviewer: Texas Council for the Social Studies (TCSS) [Holt American Government]

HRW Response: We would like to thank the reviewer for the many positive comments about Holt American Government. The reviewer points out numerous strengths of the program.

TCSS Comment: Needs to be written more in human interest outlook

HRW Response: We cannot be certain of the reviewer's meaning with regard to the phrase "human interest outlook" and would welcome a more specific explanation of the reviewer's intent. We have attempted to highlight what we view as a human-interest element via special features located throughout the text, many of which focus on the lives of young people. These include "Careers in Government" and "Citizenship in Action" (see especially Student Edition [S] pp. 13, 54, 125, 236, 284, 354, 483).

TCSS Comment: Would prefer primary sources within content

HRW Response: Holt American Government does include primary sources within context. Quotations from individuals, which are primary sources, are frequently integrated into the text (see S pp. 13, 54, 96-97, 102, 122, 127, 131, 144, 154, 169, 179, 183, 198, 199, 206, 251, 256, 259, 269, 263, 284, 315, 325, 331, 332, 351, 352, 378, 405, 411, 413, 430, 433, 435, 437, 445, 448, 461, 462, 483, 532, 541). We have included the full text of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution in the Reference section of the Student Edition (pp. R16-R19, R28-R48, respectively) instead of within the content of one particular chapter because we believe students will want to refer to these documents frequently throughout their reading of the book. In addition, we have opted to highlight primary source selections in each of the 23 chapter reviews, where the passage can be the focus of an assessment activity developing students' analytical skills.

TCSS Comment: Writing points for section reviews should be bulleted

HRW Response: We are not certain of the meaning of the reviewer's comment. We would point out that every section review in the text contains a Writing and Critical Thinking question, and that each question includes bulleted items for the student to "consider" in forming an answer.

TCSS Comment: Seems to be more male bias

HRW Response: We will need further, more specific clarification of the reviewer's concern in order to effectively respond to this comment.

Reviewer: Lupita Ramirez [Holt American Government^

Ms. Ramirez (P. 229, under "World War I" heading, column 1): There is a repeated word in the last part of the last sentence "at least until until December 1941." The second until should be deleted.

HRW Response: Thank you for pointing out this proofing error. We will delete the repeated "until." [TYPE OF CHANGE: B]

Ms. Ramirez (P. 345, under "Benefits of Diversity" heading, column 2): The following sentence is missing a word: "More than 35 million Hispanics lived in the United States in 2000. More than 34 African Americans lived in the United States that same year." It should be 34 million African Americans.

HRW Response: Thank you for pointing out this error, which we identified in our corrections list submitted to the TEA on June 27. As stated in that report, we will insert "million" after "34".

Ms. Ramirez (P. 345, under "Challenges of Diversity" heading, column 2): The following sentence needs to be corrected: "Particularly in this century, as you will see, much progress has been made in ending discrimination." It should read, "Particularly in the 20th century," because we are now in the 21st century.

HRW Response: Thank you for pointing out this error. We will replace "this century" with "the 1900s" and replace "has been" with "was". [TYPE OF CHANGE: C]

Ms. Ramirez (P. 342-44, in subsection "Immigration Restrictions"): The authors fail to mention that Repatriation was another form of restrictive immigration. Between 1931 and 1940, Mexican Americans and their American born children and/or wives were deported. Both the local and federal governments during this period, encouraged repatriation without regard to their civil rights. In addition, the US government's failure to clearly apprise these citizens of their rights, caused many, who later wished to return to the US, to lose their citizenship.

HRW Response: The reviewer's point is well taken; however, this subsection is intended as a brief overview of immigration restrictions pertaining to entry into the United States, from their initial imposition in the 1880s through World War II. Examples of such restrictions are given, and deportation is mentioned only in context of current approaches to illegal immigration. The specific coverage suggested by the reviewer is not required by the TEKS for this course, and because the issue of repatriation concerns the conditions under which Mexicans and Mexican Americans left the country, not their entry, it is a somewhat different subject. Its complexity would necessitate extended contextual discussion of the 1930s depression, and of Congress's broad deportation powers. For all these reasons, as well as space limitations, we believe it is beyond the scope of this

course. However, we have treated this subject in Chapter 15 of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.

Ms. Ramirez (P. 347-48, in subsection "Civil Rights and Equal Protection"): The section on civil rights fails to mention the Chicano Movement, which dealt with the civil rights movement of Mexican Americans. It does not mention, Jeies Lopez Tijerina and the land grant movement, Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales in Denver who defines the meaning of Chicano through his poem / am Joaquin, Cesar Chavez and the farm workers, the struggles of the urban youth in California, nor the growing political awareness and participation of Mexican Americans through La Raza Unida Party.

HRW Response: The reviewer's comments on our discussions of civil rights are well taken. The specific coverage suggested by the reviewer is not, however, required by the TEKS for this course. Because this topic is related more to U.S. political and social history than to government per se, we cover all of these individuals, the movements or struggles they led or inspired, and their contributions to American society extensively in Chapter 23, Section 2, of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.

We agree, however, that mention of La Raza Unida Party would be a worthwhile addition to the Holt American Government program, and we will insert on T p. 414, in the chapter on Political Parties, the following Internet Connect activity (replacing the existing Internet Connect):

TOPIC: La Raza Unida Party GO TO: go.hrw.com KEYWORD: SV3GV18

Have students access the Internet through the HRW Go site to conduct research on the formation of La Raza Unida Party in 1970. Then have each student create a poster presenting information on the leaders, goals, and influence of this third party that focused on political participation by Hispanic Americans. [TEKS star] 22D


Ms. Ramirez (P. 352, in subsection "Extending Civil Rights and Equal Protection"): There are only 2 small paragraphs on Hispanics and one small sentence, which states that we faced discrimination in several areas such as employment and housing. It fails to mention that service was also refused to Mexican Americans and that there were signs that read, "No Mexicans or dogs allowed." It also does not mention the other forms of discrimination Mexican Americans and Tejanos faced. To list a few: in 1901 Gregorio Cortez shot the local sheriff in self-defense in Karnes County and fled to Mexico knowing he would face lynch law. The people that helped him suffered threats and imprisonment. A 13 year-old boy was tortured in order to get information on

Cortez's whereabouts. Denial of due process: in November 1910 Antonio Rodriguez, age 20, who was accused of killing a white woman, was taken out of jail by Anglo vigilantes in Rocksprings, Texas and burned alive. He was awaiting trial. In June 1911, a white mob in Thorndale, Texas beat 14-year old Antonio Gomez to death and his body was dragged around town tied to the back of a buggy. He was accused of killing a German Texan in a fight after refusing to leave a place of business. Attempts to deny them their rights to vote: in 1896 in the case In re Ricardo Rodriguez, two lawyers petition a San Antonio judge to deprive Mexicans of the vote on the reasoning that they had Indian blood.

HRW Response: The reviewer's comments are well taken, but we believe that the material requested is beyond the scope of the half-year government course for which this text is written, and that the specific details are not required by the TEKS. As noted earlier, we provide much more extensive coverage of the history of civil rights struggles, especially including that of Mexican Americans, in Chapter 23 of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.

Reviewer: Norman Binder [Holt American Government]

Mr. Binder: The text I reviewed is a classic example of traditional texts that simply omit, distort, or falsify the role of minorities in American society.

HRW Response: We have made a consistent, concerted effort to treat respectfully the roles of all Americans in our texts on American government, history, and society; therefore, we believe that the reviewer's characterization of our textbook is inaccurate.

Mr. Binder: Chapter 11 discusses the federal courts

Section 1. No mention of lack of minority representation in district and appellate courts. Since you have some information on minority representation in Legislature, it would be useful to include some information on number of women, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans in district and appellate courts.

HRW Response: Due to space limitations, we are unable to mention all occurrences of minority "underrepresentation." We feel that the information cited by the reviewer that is currently in the text makes the intended point about lack of minority representation. For other text discussions related to minorities in American government and society, see Sections 3 and 4 of Chapter 15, titled "Struggle for Civil Rights" and "Civil Rights Laws," respectively (pp. 346-56); the Case Study on "Racial Gerrymandering" (pp. 100-101); as well as the subsections on "Presidential Background" (pp. 145-46) and "Representing Minority Concerns" (pp. 396-97).

Mr. Binder: Section 2. In history of US only two women and two blacks ever appointed to Supreme Court. No Hispanics or Native Americans. This should be noted. Might ask why? What would be the impact on decisions if there were more minorities on Supreme Court?

HRW Response: Please see our response above to the Section 1 comment.

Mr. Binder: Section 3. Good place to note that most of civil rights "law" developed through judicial activism of Courts. Thinking critically: Why have the courts been the arena for civil rights instead of legislative bodies.

HRW Response: Please see our response above to the Section 1 comment. Further, we refer the reviewer to the second full paragraph on p. 265 (within Sec. 3 of Chap. 11), which focuses on this very issue, stating that "the federal courts sometimes give special weight to intense concerns of a minority of the population" and concluding: "many people believe that judicial activism is sometimes necessary to ensure that the views and rights of the minority are heard and protected." Sections 3 and 4 of Chapter 15 (pp. 346-56) discuss further the role of the courts as related to civil rights.

Mr. Binder: Interestingly the authors placed in the section on judicial activism a picture and notation saying courts forced schools to use bi-lingual education as an example of judicial activism. In light of the fact that there is overwhelming opposition to bilingual education in much of the US this picture automatically acts to bias the reader against judicial activism. I would like to see this picture in the section on expanded civil rights of Hispanics.

HRW Response: We believe that the photograph on p. 264 to which the reviewer refers accurately presents the fact that bilingual education was historically promoted through judicial intervention, not merely through legislation. No intent to bias the reader/viewer is meant, nor was any detected by our editors and reviewers during the development of the program. We believe that the photograph complements the text in a fair and balanced presentation of the issue of judicial activism, in compliance with TEKS 9(F).

Mr. Binder: Chapter 15. Pages 333-34 note history of Court decisions on Death Penalty. Does note that Furman v. Georgia ruled that death penalty "influenced by racism", then tend to suggest that this problem was corrected and SC approved application of death penalty in Gregg v. Georgia. Fails to mention that Blacks and Hispanics still are given death penalty much more often than whites who commit similar crimes.

HRW Response: The subsection on capital punishment referred to by the reviewer is a brief overview of the death penalty, not an exhaustive history. The subject is also discussed on pp. 282-83 in the subsection titled "Capital Punishment," which concludes: "But possibly the most controversial charge leveled by opponents [of the death penalty] is the claim that capital punishment is discriminatory. In support of this claim, they note that African Americans receive the death penalty in a much higher proportion than do whites in cases involving similar circumstances." We believe that the text is accurate with regard to the issue of race and the Supreme Court rulings on capital punishment mentioned. Further discussion of this issue is provided on p. 333 in a sidebar annotation in the Teacher's Edition.

Mr. Binder: Page 345 "34 African Americans lived in the US"

HRW Response: Thank you for pointing out this error, which we identified in our corrections list submitted to the TEA on June 27. As stated in that report, we will insert "million" after "34".

Mr. Binder: Page 345. Concludes that "much progress has been made in ending discrimination" Might be useful to discuss continuation of discrimination against minorities and women that violates basic civil rights.

HRW Response: In this context, we do not believe that it is necessary to mention that discrimination is an ongoing concern.

Mr. Binder: Page 352. Hispanic Americans—Really inadequate coverage. Need to discuss history of discrimination against Hispanics.

HRW Response: We would remind the reviewer that this text was developed to meet the requirements for an American government course. It is not a history text; space limitations and TEKS requirements for this course do not allow that we cover historical developments in depth. The focus in Section 4 is on the laws that pertain to civil rights, particularly as civil rights law underwent change as a result of the civil rights movement. For that reason, proportionally more attention has been given in the text to the struggle for African Americans' civil rights, because of its more direct contribution to the changes in the broader legal landscape. As noted earlier, we provide much more extensive coverage of the history of civil rights struggles, especially including that of Mexican Americans, in Chapter 23 of our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.

Mr. Binder: Section that notes that 21 seats in House and 197 Hispanic Americans in state legislatures as of 2001. Meaningless numbers unless we know how that relates to equal representation according to population. How underrepresented are they in US and state legislative bodies? With their population numbers of about 12% of the population, Hispanics should have at least 50+ members in the House of Representatives. The information on representation would better be put in on section on Legislature.

HRW Response: As noted previously, we believe it is beyond the scope of this half-year course to discuss issues of minority "underrepresentation" in more detail than has already been done. We do address the disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities, including Hispanics, in the section on "Houses and Members of Congress" (see S p. 104). That section also includes a special Case Study on apportionment entitled "Racial Gerrymandering" (S pp. 100-101). The inclusion of the figures on Hispanic representation in 2000 are presented in the context of "progress" and thus can be understood to be an improvement on previous levels of representation, even if these levels are not mentioned. In addition, space limitations prevent providing the kind of background information suggested by the reviewer.

Mr. Binder: No mention in this section of minority groups NAACP (only mention in regard to a Supreme Court case on page 314, MALDEF etc. that fought for civil rights.) Allows minority students to relate to political activism.

HRW Response: We are uncertain what "section" the reviewer is addressing here. The text does address the topic of interest groups "giving minority concerns a voice in the political process through lobbying, filing lawsuits, and protesting" on S p. 397. The caption to the photograph on p. 396 highlights "people

representing minority interests [expressing] their views in public meetings such as government hearings."

Mr. Binder: Chapter 10 Foreign policy

Organized almost as a fairy tale about the goodness of the US in foreign affairs. Case study on Cuba fails to mention that US government supported Batista, a brutal dictator, as it has supported dictators throughout the Western Hemisphere as long as they allowed US businesses to operate in their countries. It fails to mention the 20 odd attempts made by the CIA to assassinate Castro or all their efforts like bombing oil refineries, setting fires to stores and to cane fields in an effort to overthrow Castro. These were violations of international law as was the military invasion of Panama.

HRW Response: We believe that the points raised by the reviewer are well beyond the scope and purpose of the American government course for which this text has been written. This chapter is meant as a brief overview of the fundamental goals and underlying principles of U.S. foreign policy, a necessarily brief look at how foreign policy is made, who the key players are, which government departments and agencies are involved, and what the broad lines of foreign policy in U.S. history have been. These are subjects not covered in detail by the TEKS for this course. We believe that by including this chapter we have helped provide students with a basic framework for understanding the role of the United States in the world. For a more in-depth discussion of historical issues, we refer the reviewer to our 11th-grade U.S. history text, Holt American Nation in the Modern Era.

Mr. Binder: The section of Vietnam notes the deaths of Americans, but fails to mention the deaths of other Southeast Asian countries or the gross violation by the US to a Geneva Convention prohibiting the bombing of Laos. We dropped more bombs on Laos in violation of international law than we did against German and Japan in WWII. Thousands continue to die in Laos as un-detonated cluster bombs explode each year killing children and peasants.

HRW Response: Please see our response immediately above to previous comment on Chapter 10.

Mr. Binder: While it is good to point out the positive things the US has done we must have a more balanced analysis of American foreign policy. The little insert comparing governments in terms of aid to developing countries was instructive. I am not suggesting that the entire section be critical of US foreign policy, but it needs to be balanced a bit more so students can understand why, quite frequently, other countries do not support the US in its foreign policies.

HRW Response: Please see our response above to previous comment on Chapter 10. We believe that given the limited purpose and scope of this chapter, the coverage of this topic is appropriately balanced.

Mr. Binder: Page 164. Electoral Votes 1992-2000

Data are in error. This map shows Texas with 34 Electoral Votes. Texas only had

32 electoral votes from 1992-2000. It will have 34 electoral votes in 2002 House


HRW Response: Thank you for pointing out this error, which we identified in our corrections list submitted to the TEA on June 27. The data are correct; it is the map's title that is in error: it will be changed to "Electoral Vote per State, 2002-2010".

Mr. Binder: Interestingly, you can read the entire book and hardly realize that our country once had slavery, killed thousands of Indians, allowed and facilitated the theft of most of the land from the Hispanics all as US policy-Put these into the "public good" commentaries.

HRW Response: As previously noted, we believe that such points as the reviewer raises here are beyond the scope of the American government course for which this text has been written.

Reviewer: Jon Roland [Holt American Government^

Mr. Roland: Page 58, refers to the U.S. Constitution as a "living document" in a way that suggests it did not have a definite meaning to the Founders, or need not have the force of a command for us. This is an ideological position, not appropriate for a high school textbook.

HRW Response: We believe that our discussion of the "living Constitution" idea presents the widely held view regarding the U.S. Constitution's flexibility over time and that this idea accords with mainstream constitutional scholarship. In support of our text, we refer to the following sources: "the idea of a 'living Constitution'.. . has guided judicial interpretation throughout most of American history and has made it possible to adapt the Constitution to changing circumstances without extensive use of the amendment process" (American Political Dictionary, 10th ed., 272; emphasis added); "it is anachronistic and presumptuous to assume that we can determine what the framers and ratifiers of a particular [constitutional] provision, drafted a century or two before the present, would have preferred to happen in a world they could no more anticipate than we can successfully imagine theirs" (Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court, p. 184). We believe that to focus on the prevailing view—the text on p. 56 says only that "the Constitution has been called a 'living document'" and defines what that means—is not ideological. Further, we believe the supporting examples of the adaptability of the Constitution given in this section are wholly appropriate for a high school American government course. In the actual U.S. constitutional tradition, "original intent" has not been the dominant view, but it is not neglected in the text, which also treats the subject of constitutional interpretation on S pp. 249-50, 272.

Mr. Roland: Page 68, refers to Art. I Sec. 8 Cl. 18 as the "elastic clause" in a way that misleads the reader into thinking it was intended to be more elastic by the Founders than many people today would like to consider it to be. It needs to be made clear that the Founders would not have approved of current doctrine on its interpretation.

HRW Response: In pointing out that the '"necessary and proper" clause has been called the "Elastic Clause," we are merely recognizing how in fact this part of Article I, Section 8, has been applied in matters of Congress's powers. We do not presume to know what the Founders would approve or not approve of in regard to current understandings of the government's implied powers, but we would note that it was during the first term of President George Washington (that is, in the lifetime of the Founders' generation) that the trend toward loose construction in regard to the "necessary and proper" (so-called elastic) clause began. According to The American Political Dictionary, "The issue of loose versus strict construction arose early in American history. . . . Chief Justice John Marshall resolved the issue in favor of the implied-powers doctrine and established the principle of, and necessity for, a loose construction of the Constitution. . . . Loose construction . . . remains the basis for constitutional interpretation and has facilitated adaptation of the Constitution to the needs of the time." "[This clause] has given elasticity to the constitutional system and has reduced the need for frequent constitutional amendments" (10th ed., 35, 46).

Mr. Roland: Page 256 discusses judicial review in a way that fails to explain that it is not a power but the exercise of a duty which everyone has, to help enforce the law whenever the situation presents itself, and to resolve conflicts of law, in favor of the Constitution when it is one of the laws in conflict. It is only called judicial review when judges do it.

HRW Response: The mention of "judicial review" on p. 256 is merely a cross-reference to Chapter 3, where on pp. 49-50 we discuss judicial review. We disagree with the reviewer that "judicial review" should be defined other than we have defined it. Numerous sources support the text as it currently reads. We cite three—Black's Law Dictionary: "judicial review A court's power to review the actions of other branches or levels of government; esp., the courts' power to invalidate legislative and executive actions as being unconstitutional" (7th ed., 852). Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court: "Judicial Review is a distinctive power associated with the Supreme Court. . . . Since the origins of constitutional government in America, judicial review has followed [Alexander] Hamilton's thinking that judges have a special capacity and responsibility to expound the meaning of the Constitution" (pp. 464-65); and The American Political Dictionary: "Judicial Review The power of the courts to declare acts of the legislative and executive branches unconstitutional. All courts, both state and national, may exercise this authority, though a final decision is usually made by the highest state or federal court" (10th ed., 266). Authoritative sources do not recognize the "duty which everyone has" mentioned by the reviewer.

Mr. Roland: Page 279 states:

In states requiring a unanimous verdict, the presence of one or more jurors who vote differently from the majority results in a hung jury—a jury that is unable to reach a verdict.

As explained above, in the point on United States Government, page 443, this is not correct [by which the reviewer means his comments on another publisher's text, thus: "A close reading of the law and rules of judicial procedure, both federal and state, finds that a unanimous verdict is only required to convict, not to acquit. If a jury cannot reach agreement, it is supposed to return a verdict of not guilty. If pinned down on this point, judges will back down, but they commonly abuse their discretion to pressure juries to convict the accused on some charge, and thereby tamper with the jury and deny due process to the defendant."]. A unanimous verdict is only required to convict, not to acquit. A hung jury is supposed to be nearly impossible, unless some of the jurors refuse to vote at all. That is not is not to say that judges do not allow jurors to think they must be unanimous to acquit, by cleverly worded instructions that take advantage of the jurors' ignorance. It is often appropriate to apply to such a practice a good 19th century word, tergiversation, clever deception that avoids statements that are demonstrably false, but worded in such as way that someone is led into a mistaken position or action. Textbooks need to do better than abet this practice.

HRW Response: We believe that the text is accurate as is. In Black's Law Dictionary, "hung jury" is defined as "A jury that cannot reach a verdict by the required voting margin" (7th ed., 860), which accords with our text; that volume contains no discussion of the requirement that verdicts to convict be unanimous. The text also alludes to the fact that it is state law that dictates the conditions regarding unanimous verdicts, implying that from state to state this may vary; however, according to The American Political Dictionary: "The Supreme Court has ruled that... [v]erdict by less than unanimous vote is permissible [in states], except in the case of a six-person jury (Johnson v. Louisiana, 406 U.S. 356 [1972]; Burch v. Louisiana, 441 U.S. 130 [1979]). In federal criminal trials, ... a unanimous verdict is still required" (10th ed., 268). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court notes that "the Court, in Johnson v. Louisiana (1972) and Apodaca v. Oregon (1972), held that a state criminal jury could convict (in a noncapital case)" by a non-unanimous verdict.

Mr. Roland: Page 298, box on Morris Dees, should be omitted. He is good at self-promotion and fundraising, but a thorough and objective examination of his work and that of the Southern Poverty Law Center will reveal that he is not someone who should be held up as some kind of hero.

HRW Response: The "box" cited by the reviewer is a Careers feature, which presents Morris Dees as an example of a "civil rights lawyer." The text makes no attempt to heroicize Mr. Dees; nor does it present him and his accomplishments or the Southern Poverty Law Center in other than a factual, straightforward manner.

Mr. Roland: Page 323 on gun control, properly opens the question to debate, but omits to explain the main purpose of the Second Amendment, which was to preserve the capability of the public to resist abuses and usurpations of power by government, by enabling them to organize, train and equip themselves as militia. That omission, in context, is tergiversation.

HRW Response: We do not agree that any such omission exists; rather, the point the reviewer is expecting to find is beyond the contemporary scope of this Case Study. Although the text quotes the Second Amendment in full, its focus is the present-day gun control debate, not the original purpose of the amendment.

Mr. Roland: Page 335, in the discussion of "incorporation" of rights under the 14th Amendment, incorrectly states that almost all the rights recognized by the Constitution have been incorporated. In fact the U.S. Supreme Court has never taken a case on the incorporation of the Second Amendment, and has specifically rejected incorporation of many due process rights, including grand jury indictment (Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516, 1884), no self-incrimination Twining v. New Jersey, 211 U.S. 78, 1908), double jeopardy (Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319, 1937), non-use of refusal to testify against the accused (Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46, 1947), and the 12-person jury (Ballew v. Georgia, 435 U.S. 223, 1978). There is reason to think the Supreme Court might reverse many of these precedents, but it has not to date.

HRW Response: We agree with the reviewer that "virtually all" slightly overstates the extent of incorporation; we will replace "virtually" with "most but not". [TYPE OF CHANGE: C]

Mr. Roland: Appendix, R36, strikes out (rather than blues) Art. IV Sec. 2 Cl. 3, incorrectly indicating (without a caption explaining the strikethroughs) the clause was repealed, but the same point made above for United States Government, page 786, applies. [Here the reviewer means his comments on another publisher's text:"... an explanation is needed that the passage was not repealed by the 13th Amendment, which allowed for slavery or involuntary servitude as punishment for a crime, and thus this provision still applies to such persons."]

HRW Response: According to our source (The National Archives and Records Administration) as to what parts of the Constitution "are no longer in force or no longer apply" due to amendments or the passage of time, the so-called Fugitive Slave Clause (Art. IV, Sec. 2, Cl. 3) has been superseded by the 13th Amendment. We therefore disagree with the reviewer's claim that this clause may still apply to hypothetical convicts subject to enslavement or servitude. It is our understanding that the constitutional history of the clause in question clearly associates it with slavery of the type that is understood to have been abolished by the 13th Amendment.

Reviewer: Texas Council for the Social Studies (TCSS) [Holt World Geography Today]

HRW Response: We would like to thank the reviewer for the many positive comments about Holt World Geography Today. The reviewer points out numerous strengths of the program.

TCSS Comment: Factual knowledge: Needs more on social, political, and cultural issues

HRW Response: We appreciate the reviewer's suggestion but would like to point out that we address social, political, and cultural issues in general in Chapters 5 (Human Geography) and 6 (Human Systems) as well as in regional chapters throughout the textbook. For example, Chapter 5 addresses population issues, including migration and population change, on S pp. 87-93; cultural geography, including culture change, on S pp. 94-98; and world languages and religions on S pp. 100-109. Chapter 6 reviews economic issues in geography, including economic development, on S pp. 113-18; urban and rural geography, including land use and urban growth, on S pp. 119-27; and political geography and issues, including terrorism, conflict, and cooperation on the national and international levels, on S pp. 128-31. Regional chapters include discussions of social, political, and cultural issues on S pp. TX13-14, TX16-19, 169-71, 173-79, 180-83, 191-97, 199-201, 224-33, 245-8, 250-53, 266-73, 307-10, 311-14, 315-17, 318-21, 329-31, 334, 335-37, 338-41, 343-5, 350-53, 357-59, 361-65, 388-91, 396-97, 409-11, 412-15, 439-0, 441-4, 452-53, 456-59, 460-63, 464-65, 489-91, 492-95, 506-07, 508, 509-11, 512-13, 523-24, 525-28, 529, 539-41, 542-5, 546-7, 571-73, 574-79, 589, 592-93, 594-97, 598-99, 624-25, 627-31, 644-8, 650-53, 665-67, 668, 669-73, 674-75, 686-89, 690-93, 694-95, 715-16, 717, 718-19, 720-21, 724-27, 737-39, 740, and 741-3.

TCSS Comment: Timeline could be strengthened.

HRW Response: We agree with the reviewer that time lines are an important tool in teaching students about historical geography. This strong belief led us to include illustrated time lines at the beginning of each regional unit (see S pp. 146, 216, 286, 378, 430, 478, 560, 612, and 708). We also believe it is important to teach students how to understand timelines; therefore, we included a skill lesson on time lines on S p. 421.

TCSS Comment: Visual presentation: Color for clarity OK but not the best

HRW Response: We agree with the reviewer that color clarity is important, particularly in a geography textbook. We would appreciate receiving specific suggestions from the reviewer as to how we might improve our use of color.

Reviewer: Robert Bohmfalk [Holt American Nation in the Modern Era]

Mr. Bohmfalk: "All of American History should be included in these textbooks. It should include the good, he bad, and the ugly—"warts and all". A nation grows and matures by learning from the mistakes made in the past. All events that shocked us should be included. Nothing should be taken out, unless wrong information.. . .

Every textbook left out Jim Jones and the Jonestown mass suicide of the People's Temple in September 1978. Students need to know how easily people can be brainwashed by a religious cult and follow a spiritual leader to mass suicide. . . . Happen twice since then—with David Koresh and Branch Davidians near Waco in 1993, and the "Heaven's Gate" cult near San Diego in 1997. Also, the Columbine School Shooting was in only one textbook.

Other events absent in some of these textbooks were: Three-Mile Island Incident, Marine barracks bombing in Beiruit/Lebanon, Challenger explosion, David Koresh and FBI seige near Waco, Oklahoma City bombing, and the Columbine School shooting."

[HRW: The reviewer also provided a chart of certain events mentioned in nine different high school U.S. history textbooks in which he noted that Holt American Nation in the Modern Era included discussions of the Three Mile Island incident (1979); the Challenger explosion (1986); and the Oklahoma City bombing (1995). The reviewer claimed the Holt text did not mention Jim Jones and the Jonestown mass suicide (1978); Marine barracks bombing in Beirut, Lebanon (1983); David Koresh and Branch Davidians/FBI (1993); or the Columbine school shooting (1999).]

HRW Response: We agree with the reviewer that a U.S. history textbook should include the tragedies as well as the triumphs in history. We feel that Holt American Nation in the Modem Era accomplishes this in a balanced, appropriate manner. Obviously, due to space limitations, decisions must be made as to which events will be discussed in the text. Please note that our text does in fact discuss the Jonestown massacre on S p. 762. For examples other than the ones charted by the reviewer, see the text's discussion of the 1970 Kent State shooting (S p. 724) and instances of domestic terrorism—the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center, the Unabomber, and the bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta (S p. 802). Of course, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, are covered in detail.

Reviewer: Dr. Ricky Dobbs [American Nation in the Modern Era]

Dr. Dobbs: p. 300-301 - "Three of the books unquestioningly celebrated the commission system of municipal government, but failed to take into account the often antidemocratic designs of its Progressive advocates."

HRW Response: The text on S p. 300-301 refers specifically to the commission system of city government in Galveston and how it was more honest and efficient than the city's previous government. We feel that the section on "Reforming Government" (S pp. 298-302) presents a balanced description of progressive government reforms. On S p. 300, in the paragraph immediately preceding the discussion of city commissions, the text describes the "antidemocratic" attitudes of some progressives, including those who feared that the lower classes might gain too much power. In the discussion of reforming state government, on S p. 302, 3rd paragraph, the text clearly states that "southern progressives often supported racial segregation and tried to keep African Americans from voting."

Dr. Dobbs: p. 520 - "Heroification is the presentation of historical figures— except of course, Hitler and Stalin—as personifications of virtue and greatness, without attention to their human characteristics. ... A notable example of the worst kind of heroification is Charles Lindbergh, the aviator who flew across the Atlantic alone in 1927. ... Lindbergh is used as a civics lesson about the importance of speaking out on behalf of an unpopular cause."

HRW Response: We feel it is appropriate to describe Lindbergh's solo flight across the Atlantic and the celebrity status he achieved because of it (this appears in the text on S p. 427 in a section titled "Life in the Twenties"). He was, at that time, considered a hero, even if he later held unpopular political views. On T p. 520, the sidebar annotation describes Lindbergh as a famous aviator and isolationist who had visited Germany three times in the 1930s and tested German aircraft. We fully expect that any instruction involving this and other similar annotations in the Teacher's Edition is optional for the teacher, and thus is mediated to students through the choice by the teacher to use the material. While a teacher could conceivably use this "as a civics lesson," the annotation itself does not ask students to use Lindbergh as an example of the importance of speaking out on behalf of an unpopular cause. The answer suggests that students might recognize "that critics have linked Lindbergh's isolationist views to support for the Nazis."

Dr. Dobbs: p. 430 - "...failure to deal frankly with the incidence of prostitution renders without context the dispersal of such jazz greats as Joe 'King' Oliver and Louis Armstrong from the Big Sleazy and the eventual spread of the music from across the nation. ... Without an understanding of why Storyville was closed down in the Progressive era, the appearance of jazz in St. Louis, Chicago and New York is a puzzling mystery."

HRW Response: We appreciate the reviewer's comment. However, we believe the text is clear about how\azz spread, even if it does not detail why. "Jelly Roll" Morton moved to Chicago, as did "King" Oliver and then Louis Armstrong. While the role of Storyville is certainly interesting, we chose to give more detailed coverage to different musicians and their music. Space considerations prevent us from including greater detail on Storyville. The reviewer's focus on the "puzzling mystery" results, we believe, from his prior knowledge of the full story, not on any evasiveness in the text. We certainly acknowledge that we are unable to cover all of the details that can be known about a given topic; further, space limitations require that we focus on what is most essential for our 11th-grade reading audience.

Dr. Dobbs: p. 650-654 - "The frequent opposition and obstruction the civil rights movement encountered from the federal government and major politicians is also handled gently or not at all. The Kennedy Administration's vacillation over and at times outright hostility toward civil rights is whitewashed. The efforts of J. Edgar Hoover's FBI to intimidate and undermine the movement and its leaders are also dropped out of the story."

HRW Response: We believe the text provides appropriate coverage of the mixed support and opposition of various government leaders to the civil rights movement, within the space limitations of our overview of the movement. On S p. 651, the text mentions that Kennedy told his aides to instruct civil rights leaders to discontinue the Freedom Rides. The text also acknowledges on S pp. 651-52 the Kennedy administration's ineffectiveness in protecting the Freedom Riders. S pp. 652-53 provide several examples of actions politicians and police took to intimidate leaders and undermine the civil rights movement. Further, we disagree that the efforts of Hoover's FBI are glossed over. On S p. 668 the photograph of J. Edgar Hoover includes a caption noting that he "organized counterintelligence programs to block the activities of black nationalist and civil rights groups," while the text mentions that the FBI under Hoover began "numerous operations . . . against various civil rights organizations." We believe our high school textbook accurately portrays many of the political obstacles faced by civil rights activists.

Reviewer: Texas Council for the Social Studies (TCSS) [Holt American Nation in the Modern Era]

HRW Response: We would like to thank the reviewer for the many positive comments about Holt American Nation in the Modern Era. The reviewer points out numerous strengths of the program.

TCSS Comment: Could be more extensive in perspectives

HRW Response: We are unsure of the reviewer's final analysis regarding our inclusion of various perspectives, since "perspectives" were mentioned as both a strength and a weakness. For additional perspectives throughout history, we refer the reviewer to S pp. xiv-xvii (in Table of Contents) for a complete listing of our primary source documents in the text, including History Makers Speak (quotes), Historical Documents, and Political Cartoons.

TCSS Comment: Primary sources limited HRW Response: See previous response. TCSS Comment: Not as many pictures as other textbooks

HRW Response: The textbook contains approximately 1,690 photos and images. The percent ratio of pictures/illustrations to text is the result of research in readability, and we believe the balance is appropriate for a high school textbook.

TCSS Comment: US/World timeline, too busy

HRW Response: The time lines are provided both for the information they contain and as high-interest openers for each chapter. We believe that the variety of colorful illustrations, each of which is closely tied to a text item in the time line, creates a strong presentation for visual learners.

Reviewer: Naomi Carrier Grundy [Holt Texas/]

HRW Response: Thank you for your comments. Please contact us if you have specific comments or questions about Holt Texas!

Reviewer: Meg McKain Grier [Holt Texas/]

Ms. Grier: "Page 595, said women were making successful bids for local office in the mid to late 1970s. In fact, women were elected to local office in the 1960s."

HRW Response: We agree that some women were elected to local office in the 1960s, but the focus in this paragraph is on the dramatic increase in women's political success, which took place mostly in the 1970s, as a result of the women's movement; therefore, the statement is not in error. However, to clarify we will revise the 1st sentence thus: "In the mid- to late 1970s, women were increasingly successful in their bids for local office." [TYPE OF CHANGE: C]

Ms. Grundy: "In sections on citizenship, texts emphasize being an informed citizen. This is important but passive. Texts don't teach students how to be active in the political process. In discussions of political parties, texts do not mention that citizens participate in precinct conventions to influence political parties. Additionally, students will think that working through special interest groups is the only way to communicate to elected officials. Only one text mentions that citizens can write a letter directly to an official."

HRW Response: Both the Student Edition and the Teacher's Edition strive to help students understand the state's political process and to show them how they can participate directly in that process. For example, see the portfolio activity on S p. 675 ("Imagine that you and several of your classmates belong to a political party. . . . Create a platform for your party. . .."), the History in Action Unit Simulation on S p. 677, the Citizenship and You features on S p. 212 ("The First Amendment.. . protects the right of free speech. . . . There are many other ways to stage a protest.... Some people use the Internet to protest issues."), p. 403, and p. 499 ("Texans still work with government to meet today's challenges. Voting, organizing into political groups, and meeting with government officials are just a few ways people can try to change society. Teenagers can get involved. . . ."). See also the text of S pp. 668-73. The Teacher's Edition also contains many activities that will show students how they might become involved in the state's political process. For example, see the activities on T pp. 498-99, 505, 508, 512, 587-88, 592, 645, 656-57, 662, 671-73, and 677.

Reviewer: Texas Council for the Social Studies (TCSS) [Holt Texas/]

HRW Response: We would like to thank the reviewer for the many positive comments about Holt Texas! The reviewer points out numerous strengths of the program.

TCSS Comment: Maps not as plentiful

HRW Response: In addition to the 69 maps listed in the Table of Contents of Holt Texas! (S p. xxiv), there are several others within the Student Edition as well as in the program's supplemental materials.

Reviewer: Texas Council for the Social Studies (TCSS) [Holt World History: The Human Journey]

HRW Response: We would like to thank the reviewer for the many positive comments about Holt World History: The Human Journey. The reviewer points out numerous strengths of the program.

TCSS Comment: Weak in economic issues

HRW Response: We feel that the coverage of economics in this book is more than adequate and meets all the needs of any teacher for this course. We have included five Connecting to Economics features (S pp. 55, 325, 493, 686, 912) as well as a two-page Cross-Cultural Connections feature devoted entirely to economics (S pp. 350). However, most of our economic coverage is woven throughout the text. The economic aspects of virtually all major societies mentioned in the text are covered, as is evident by the wealth of headings containing economic terms such as "Economy," "Trade," "Labor" (see, e.g., S pp. 12,28-29,42,55,58,69,81,94, 118, 142,162, 172, 173, 177, 191-95 in just the first two units).

TCSS Comment: American perspective

HRW Response: This two-word comment is listed under weakness, but it is unclear whether the reviewer means we are weak on covering American perspectives of events or that we have too much of an American perspective. We feel that the book offers the appropriate level of American perspective for a course on world history for use in Texas schools.

TCSS Comment: Written primary sources weak

HRW Response: We disagree with this assessment of our primary sources, which are numerous and, we believe, well chosen. We have nearly 200 excerpts from primary sources highlighted as either block quotes or feature selections as well as numerous quotes in the run-in text. We feel this use of primary source material adds much richness and depth to the text. Throughout the textbook, excerpts from primary sources are presented in chapter reviews for analysis by students (see, e.g., S pp. TX15, 17, 73, 97, 127, 147, 179, 197, 213 in just the first two units).

TCSS Comment: Chapter reviews could be stronger

HRW Response: We feel that our chapter reviews are well suited for the grade level of this book and the teaching needs of instructors. Our chapter reviews offer a variety of ways to assess students, including time line activities, identifying and main idea questions, critical thinking questions, writing activities with graphic

organizers, standardized test practice, portfolio assessment, and Internet activities. We welcome specific suggestions for improving the chapter reviews.

Reviewer: Texas Council for the Social Studies (TCSS) [Holt Economics]

HRW Response: We would like to thank the reviewer for the many positive comments about Holt Economics. The reviewer points out numerous strengths of the program.

TCSS Comment: Lacking in primary sources

HRW Response: We would refer the reviewer to the program's chapter reviews, each of which provides (under the heading Analyzing Primary Sources) students with a primary source quotation from someone in the field of economics and asks them to evaluate and analyze the content of the material. For examples, see S pp. 21, 43, 71, 95, 115, etc.). These exercises allow students the opportunity to practice the important TEKS skills outlined in 23(E): "analyze and evaluate the validity of information from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference."

TCSS Comment: Vocabulary needs to be defined on page

HRW Response: Our standard practice is to define each new vocabulary term on the page in which the term appears. In addition, we would point out that the terms are defined in context. The following are just a few examples from Holt Economics that demonstrate on-page treatment of vocabulary (S pp. 76-77): "Elasticity of supply is the degree to which price changes affect the quantity supplied. A product's supply, like demand, can be either elastic or inelastic." (S p. 82): "Payments to private businesses by the government are called subsidies. For example, to ensure consumers an affordable supply of flour, cereal, and other essential wheat products, the government might grant a subsidy to wheat farmers." There are many other examples throughout the program.

Reviewer: Margie Raborn [Holt People, Places, and Change]

Ms. Raborn: Pg. xxiv. "Geography involves asking questions and solving problems. It focuses on looking at people and their ways of life... Looking at why things are where they are and all the relationships between humans and physical features of the Earth." This is all very subjective, it is more about opinions than facts and influences student attitudes more than it educates.

HRW Response: The excerpt quoted by the reviewer comes from a two-page feature titled "Why Geography Matters" (S pp. xxiii-xxiv), a feature found throughout the book that attempts to explain what geography is and how it is relevant to students' lives. As noted in the feature, geography is more than just memorizing countries and capitals or looking at maps—geography helps people understand current events, solve certain problems, and interpret the world around them. This description of the meaning, purpose, and utility of geography is supported by numerous articles and publications, most notably, Geography for Life: National Geography Standards (1994), which was compiled by the Geography Education Standards Project on behalf of the American Geographical Society, the Association of American Geographers, the National Council for Geographic Education, and the National Geographic Society. On p. 18, the Standards state:

Geography is not a collection of arcane information. Rather, it is the study of spatial aspects of human existence. People everywhere need to know about the nature of their world and their place in it. Geography has much more to do with asking questions and solving problems than it does with rote memorization of isolated facts.

So what exactly is geography? It is an integrative discipline that brings together the physical and human dimensions of the world in the study of people, places, and environments. Its subject matter is Earth's surface and the processes that shape it, the relationship between people and environments, and the connections between people and places.

These National Geography Standards were consulted in the writing of Holt People, Places, and Change, which was developed to meet the objectives of the 6th-grade TEKS. We refer the reviewer to TEKS 6.3-6.7 in particular. These TEKS outline the concepts of geography that students must know and understand. According to these TEKS, to which our text has fully conformed, students must be able, among other things, to "pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns" (6.3B), "locate major historical and contemporary societies on maps and globes" (6.4A), and understand "the impact of interactions between people and the physical environment in selected places and regions" (6.7).

Ms. Raborn: S23 In their description of Decision Making and Problem Solving there is no mention of right and wrong values, only consequences. There is a

danger that this can lead to the idea that the ends justifies the means. If the results of our actions bring the desired consequences, and there is nothing that addresses right and wrong or legal and illegal.

HRW Response: This one-page feature teaches decision-making and problem-solving skills as outlined by TEKS 6.23. As such, it instructs students on how to: "(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and (B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision" (emphasis added). Our text conveys these objectives to students. While we agree with the reviewer that a student's sense of right and wrong is part of any decision making, we do not agree that the text endorses an ends-justify-the-means viewpoint.

Ms. Raborn: TX1. Right off the bat in boxed information, "Over use of some resources has caused water shortages." From the very first page the interest is on influencing the students attitude about conservation. Immediately they are sent to a web site. No one can monitor all the web site information of what students are being told. There is concern that such heavy reliance on the Internet is not in the best interest of the student.

HRW Response: The passage excerpted by the reviewer comes from a short feature titled "Why It Matters," the intent of which is to show students how the information they are about to read (in this case, a section on the natural environments of Texas) may affect their lives and connect to current events. Our research on reading indicates that students are more likely to engage with the content of what they read if they see its relevance to their own lives. Because (1) water is a critical resource for people, (2) Texas has in fact suffered from droughts and water shortages in recent years, and (3) the state's population is growing rapidly, the issue of water resource management is clearly an appropriate topic for this introductory feature to a section that covers, among other things, water and natural resources. Furthermore, the feature simply attempts to raise students' awareness of the interrelated issues of water use, water resources, and shortages presenting students with an opportunity to learn more by using the Internet, or another type of current events source, if they or their teachers are so inclined. There is no attempt to influence students' attitudes toward conservation.

Regarding the reviewer's comment on directed use of the Internet, we would like to point out that student learning is in no way dependent on the Internet. Our research shows that teachers want students to learn how to use the Internet as a research tool and that they want links provided. All sites referenced in the textbook are monitored on an ongoing basis to ensure that they always contain

appropriate, noncommercial, and valuable information that enhances student learning.

Ms. Raborn: TX 3 "The process by which rainwater naturally refills an aquifer may be very slow." That is true, but they do not inform the students that over such porous aquifers as the Edward's, recharge can occur very rapidly. Such a presentation is leading the student to a desired conclusion.

HRW Response: While it is true that some aquifers such as the Edwards can recharge quickly with heavy rains, we believe that the general statement that an aquifer may refill very slowly is particularly relevant to a discussion of aquifers in Texas. The Handbook of Texas (q.v. "Underground Water"), Texas Almanac, and other sources support our general statement that water is being pumped out of Texas aquifers faster than they can recharge. The Ogallala Aquifer, by far the largest source of underground water in the state, has a very slow recharge rate. Three major Texas aquifers are noted: the Ogallala, Edwards, and Gulf Coast. Due to the book's grade level and space constraints, detailed information about recharge rates for these aquifers is not given.

Ms. Raborn: TX4-5 Right from the start the discussions center on Droughts, Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, and Blizzards. Students would never expect that many people actually move to Texas because of our wonderful mild climate.

HRW Response: The reviewer's claim that discussions of severe weather are presented "right from the start" is inaccurate and misrepresents the subsection dealing with climate. Climate is a fundamental geographic concept and we address it early on in our text; however, our discussion of climate in Texas begins with an explanation of the difference between weather and climate, then describes how factors such as latitude, relative location near the Gulf of Mexico, wind patterns, and elevation influence the state's climate. Precipitation patterns are discussed next. Only then are the topics of droughts, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and blizzards covered. These examples of severe weather are in fact quite characteristic of Texas weather, as students will undoubtedly learn during their lives through either personal experience or the news media. A few recent examples of severe weather in Texas include the floods in New Braunfels in July 2002 and in Houston in June 2001 (the result of tropical storm Allison), and the Jarrell tornado in May 1997.

We do not understand the reviewer's comment that "students would never expect that many people actually move to Texas because of our wonderful mild climate." On the page cited (S TX4), a photo caption for San Antonio reads: "A mild climate has helped make San Antonio a popular destination for tourists throughout the year. Here sightseers cruise along San Antonio's Riverwalk." Further descriptions of the varied climates in Texas regions (not all of which can be classified as mild) are included in the section beginning on S p. TX18.

Ms. Raborn: TX 9 "With a growing population, Texas uses more natural resources that ever... great demands are placed on the air, land, and water, forest may be lost if people do not plant trees to replace those cut down. Soil can wash away or loss its fertility if it is not conserved. Run off from fields and streets can pollute rivers and streams. Car exhaust and factory fumes pollute the air." This is sounding more like an environmental textbook than a history and geography book. Repeats the idea that aquifers fill slowly. "Because aquifers refill slowly, water shortages may become common." Then they go on to promote the government solution of "water conservation districts." This is very inappropriate when communities across Texas are voting on whether to form water conservation districts or not, textbooks are promoting one side of the issue to the students.

HRW Response: We believe that pointing out resource use and pollution issues is entirely appropriate in a world geography/world cultures course, and that doing so addresses TEKS 6.5A, 6.6B, and 6.7. It is widely accepted that the study of the relationship between humans and their environment is at the core of geography. One of the most fundamental aspects of this relationship is people's need to use resources for survival and the consequent changes this use causes to the natural world. The aforementioned National Geography Standards state: "Environmental modifications have economic, social, and political implications for most of the world's people. Therefore, the geographically informed person must understand the reasons for and consequences of human modifications of the environment in different parts of the world" (92).

It is well documented that roughly half of the water used in Texas each year comes from groundwater and that water from aquifers is being used faster than it is being recharged. Because of this, Texans in various localities have formed more than 30 water conservation districts in an effort to better manage and conserve underground water resources (see the Handbook of Texas, q.v. "Underground Water" and "Underground Water Conservation Districts"). These water conservation districts are mentioned in the text as an example of how Texans are grappling with issues of resource use and management. The conservation districts are not "promoted as a government solution" as the reviewer claims.

Ms. Raborn: TX 10-12 They don't mention the religion of Europeans, Hispanics, or African Americans, but, "Among the religions these immigrants (Asians) follow are Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam."

HRW Response: The text does in fact discuss aspects of the religions of the groups named. We would call the reviewer's attention to S p. TX11 of the text, which notes that Hispanics "introduced the Spanish language and Roman Catholic religion"; S p. TX12, which points out that African Americans have influenced religious practices in the state; and S p. TX13, which states: "Some Germans of the Fredericksburg area built Sunday houses—small second homes

near a church. A family would come to town for a weekend of shopping, socializing, and church attendance and stay at the modest home." Also on S p. TX13 is a photo of a church interior, the caption for which reads: "Fayette County, in Central Texas, boasts several churches with beautiful interiors. These Roman Catholic churches were built by Czech immigrants. Pictured is St. Mary's Catholic Church at High Hill."

Ms. Raborn: TX 11 "A person of any race or ethnicity may be Hispanic." Unsure of the accuracy of such a statement.

HRW Response: The passage on S p. TX11 reads: "The term Hispanic describes someone of Latin American descent. A person of any race or ethnicity may be Hispanic. Use of the Spanish language is often the defining characteristic." According to the definitions used by the U.S. Census Bureau in the 2000 Census, "People of Hispanic origin may be of any race." Latin Americans from countries such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, and Peru who identify themselves as Hispanic may have ancestors who are African, South American Indian, Asian, and European.

Ms. Raborn: TX 12 African contributions are stereotyped...ragtime, blues, Zydeco and Juneteenth.

HRW Response: We disagree with the reviewer's contention that the text stereotypes African Americans. Obviously the history of African Americans in Texas is long and complex, and African Americans have made many valuable contributions to the state. In this part of the text, however, there is only space for a very brief overview of the various ethnic groups' roles in the state's diversity. Regrettably space does not permit an exhaustive description of any group's contributions. In this subsection titled "Who Texans Are," we believe that it is appropriate to discuss religion, music, and celebrations as culture traits of a group. The paragraph on African Americans, which falls within the subsection, is meant to provide students with examples of some of the noteworthy contributions made by African Americans. The passages on European Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans are equally brief (S pp. TX11-12).

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 31 Highlighted information, "About 200 million years ago, it is believed..." By whom and what do others believe? This is theory and should be identified as such

HRW Response: This caption, which describes the map above it, reinforces and adds to what is stated in the text; the text does identify this information as theory: ". . . scientists proposed the theory of continental drift. This theory states that the continents were once united in a single super-continent" (emphasis added). Numerous sources (e.g., Encyclopaedia Britannica, Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., National Geographic Desk Reference) report a range of dates estimating that this super-continent existed from 275 to 175 million years ago. This is the

prevailing and most accepted theory among scientists and is based on a wealth of geologic and fossil evidence and widely used dating techniques. We feel our coverage is appropriate and accurate.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 33 "Over the past 2 million years Earth has experienced several ice ages." More theory, not fact.

HRW Response: We appreciate the reviewer bringing our attention to this statement. All geologic dates used in this book are based on thorough academic research and sources. However, the text here should discuss the several periods of change within the one ice age, not several ice ages. We will revise the paragraph in question to read as follows: "Giant sheets of thick ice called continental glaciers cover Greenland and Antarctica. Earth has experienced several ice ages—periods of extreme cold. During the last ice age glaciers covered most of Canada and the northern United States. This ice age, which began about 2 million years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago, was broken up by warmer periods when the glaciers retreated. The Great Lakes were carved out by the movement of a continental glacier." [TYPE OF CHANGE: A]

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 64 "Acid Rain" and "Global Warming" "Ozone Thinning" They do acknowledge that some scientist disagree, but most of the discussions were given to validate these theories.

HRW Response: The discussions on S p. 64 are provided as basic factual explanations of the phenomena of acid rain, global warming, and ozone thinning, not as validations of theories as to their cause. We feel that we have presented a balanced treatment of these environmental issues, supported by scientific data, that is appropriate for the scope of this course. We also have included mention of the debate surrounding them, but because of space limitations and our 6th-grade audience, we have chosen not to elaborate further on these issues that would require considerable additional scientific background discussion.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 85 When discussing economic systems there is a total failure to discuss "socialism" and the dangers of such a system.

HRW Response: Our discussion of economic systems thoroughly covers TEKS 6.8B, which states that the student is to "identify and differentiate among traditional, market, and command economies in selected contemporary societies, including the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system." We chose to use communism in Cuba as an example of a command economy because it more closely follows the model of a command economy than does socialism. We would also like to point out that the majority of the discussion on economic systems in this book is devoted to the benefits and advantages of the free-enterprise system.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 86 Describes an "oligarchy," but fails to name it. States the US is a "democracy" and "rule by majority." No mention of the problems of democracy or majority rule. No definition of a republic. The omissions in this book may be more revealing than the errors.

HRW Response: The discussion of world governments on S p. 86 to which the reviewer refers was written to meet TEKS 6.11 and 6.12, which require that students understand the concepts of limited and unlimited government and the different ways in which governments are organized. The text precisely meets the specific criteria of TEKS 6.12A, which states that the student should "identify alternative ways of organizing governments such as rule by one, few, or many" (emphasis added). We do not use of the term oligarchy or include a discussion of the problems and benefits of each type of government because we feel that would be beyond what is appropriate at this grade level. The topic of limited and unlimited governments is also addressed on S p. 114 where we describe the United States as having "a limited, democratic government based on the U.S. Constitution." We feel that the book's coverage is accurate and appropriate given the scope of the course and our 6th-grade audience.

We are unsure what the reviewer means by the statement "The omissions in this book may be more revealing than the errors." We would point out that students will be provided with more in-depth information and opportunities to compare and contrast different systems of government in their high school history and government courses.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 106 Too much stress on culture, which is at best subjective and not fact. Asking the student questions about, "What beliefs do you have?...Do you practice a religious faith, etc." This does not seem appropriate for the classroom.

HRW Response: We would direct the reviewer's attention to the TEKS for this course: of the 23 TEKS items, 5 are designated as Culture. We believe that the questions asked of students on S p. 106 are appropriate for helping students discover "some traits that define cultures" (TEKS 6.15B). It is helpful to identify one's own culture traits in order to be able to "analyze the similarities and differences among selected world societies" (TEKS 6.15C). Religious institutions are basic to human societies, and discussion of them is required by TEKS 6.16. Every other regional chapter in this book begins by introducing readers to a profile of a young person from another part of the world, based on actual interviews. The youths describe their beliefs, favorite foods, games, and ways of life—aspects of their culture to which 6th-grade American students may be expected to relate. The chapter on the United States begins in a similar way—by asking students to think about their own habits, likes and dislikes, beliefs, and opinions. The use of such questions, which ask students to draw on their own background knowledge prior to reading the text, is also an aspect of a widely

accepted and highly valuable reading comprehension strategy used by many educators in the classroom.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 108 "300 million years ago.." Theory not fact.

HRW Response: As stated previously, all geologic dates used in this book are based on thorough academic research. Numerous widely accepted sources such as the U.S. Geological Survey confirm the existence of scientific evidence showing that the Appalachian Mountains formed approximately 300 million years ago. We feel it is appropriate to present accepted scientific evidence and conclusion as fact in a discussion of landforms in this textbook; further elaboration (e.g., explanation of dating methods, with their dependence on chemistry) we believe is beyond the scope of this course.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 112 "...at least 20,000 years ago." More theory

HRW Response: The text states that "Scientists believe people first crossed into North America from Asia at least 20,000 years ago" (emphasis added). We used this specific phrasing in recognition that there is much debate about exactly how and when the first people arrived in the Americas. Because new research is constantly providing more information on the topic, the range of dates during which this transcontinental migration may have occurred is somewhat in flux; however, "20,000 years ago" is squarely within the time frame on which there is a general consensus. Scientists have arrived at their conclusions based on evidence from many fields (e.g., paleontology, climatology, genetics).

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 113 "By the mid-1700s the British Empire included more than a dozen colonies." Why not teach 13 colonies as other history books do, or is this an effort not to make students learn exact facts or numbers?

HRW Response: The passage in question, about European settlement in North America, actually says, "By the mid-1700s the British Empire included more than a dozen colonies along the Atlantic coast' (emphasis added). By this time, the British had colonies in what is now Canada; it was these that the writer had in mind, in addition to those that became the United States. Therefore, it would be incorrect to state, as the reviewer suggests, that the British Empire included 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast. As previously noted, Holt People, Places, and Change (the text under review) was written to meet the objectives of the 6th-grade TEKS, which outline a world cultures/world geography course—not a U.S. history course.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 113 "The American colonies declared independence from the British Empire in 1776." No explanation given for why. This one statement is the sum total of what the student will learn about the early history of this country. There is no mention of any of the founding fathers or any quotes from them or the early documents of our country, such as the Declaration of Independence or

our Constitution. This is a pitiful excuse of representing why our students should be patriotic. However, the authors could find space and thought it was important to include write ups and pictures of other world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Napoleon, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, etc.

HRW Response: Page 113 is not the only mention of this important topic. The historical significance of the American Revolution for the development of democratic rule in the world is noted on S p. 86. While the text does not include quotations from historical documents such as the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution, on S p. 114 the caption above the illustration of the first page of the Constitution notes it "has served as a model for governments in other countries." We would again like to point out that Holt People, Places, and Change was written to meet the objectives of the 6th-grade TEKS, which outline a world cultures/world geography course—not a world history survey (10th grade) or a U.S. history course (8th and 11th grades). The description for this course in Proclamation 2000 of the State Board of Education begins with the sentence "In grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world" (emphasis added). Only 2 of the 23 TEKS for this course are designated as History TEKS, whereas 5 each are labeled Geography and Culture—thus accounting for the brief coverage of early U.S. history. The history sections in People, Places, and Change, not just for the United States but also for the rest of the regions of the world, have been provided to address the History TEKS for this course and to serve as background for a more complete understanding of the geography and cultures of the world. They are not meant to provide an exhaustive history of each region and country. Moreover, this is not the primary opportunity that students will have to learn about the events and persons that the reviewer points out are not mentioned. We believe that the inclusion of the individuals whom the reviewer notes are mentioned was justified within their historical sections. For more extensive coverage of various historical items mentioned, we refer the reviewer to our texts Call to Freedom (8th-grade U.S. history), American Nation in the Modern Era (11th-grade U.S. history), World History: The Human Journey (10th-grade world history), American Government (12th grade), and Economics (12th grade).

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 114 "US troops served in several foreign wars in the last half of the 1900s." Need to explain the difference between war, foreign conflicts and military engagements. Please name the Declared Wars in the last half of 1900.

HRW Response: In the context of our necessarily brief coverage of 20th-century U.S. history, we do not believe that further detail or distinctions between declared or undeclared wars, conflicts, or military engagements is appropriate for this course of study. As previously noted, Holt People, Places, and Change was written to meet the objectives of the 6th-grade TEKS, which outline a world cultures/world geography course—not a world history survey or a U.S. history course. The history sections included in People, Places, and Change are not meant to provide an exhaustive history of each region and country.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 114 Under "Government" and "Rights and Responsibilities" there is a need to explain more clearly the function of the constitution to limit the power of government and to protect the rights of the citizens.

HRW Response: The text of S p. 114 clearly states that "the United States has a limited, democratic government based on the U.S. Constitution" (emphasis added); also, the government of the United States is contrasted with governments that limit political rights. Earlier, on S p. 86, the concept of limited government is discussed, with specific mention made of the role of constitutions in holding government leaders accountable for their actions and in protecting citizens "from abuses of power"; the United States is clearly identified as having such a limited government. We believe that our discussion of this concept is appropriate given the scope and intent of this course as described in earlier responses.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 114-15 "A Diverse People" In one paragraph it discusses "many religious faiths" making them all of equal value. The next paragraph states "America's food is as diverse as its people." This seems to trivialize one's faith to no more than his preference for a food." However, when they discuss artists and writers they actually named several. It seems the authors believe these are more important than our founding fathers or national heroes. Then they discuss movies, television and sports. No wonder students know more trivia that history!

HRW Response: We disagree that the text cited by the reviewer either states or implies anything about the value of one religion over another; at the same time, the text does clearly identify the nation's majority faith (i.e., Christianity) by stating, "Most people are Protestant Christians or Roman Catholics." We have been careful to avoid the inclusion of any value judgments and religious comparisons in the text, while also noting the actual religious diversity of the U.S. population.

The first new paragraph on p. 115 begins with a simple transitional sentence to connect it to the previous paragraph. We believe that there is nothing in this simple narrative device to suggest an attempt to trivialize religion. In the various sections on different countries or regions throughout the text, aspects of culture such as language, religion, food, art, and so on are often mentioned together or in proximity; space limitations and the grade level of our audience do not always allow for in-depth treatment.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 287 "About 6 million Jews and millions of other people were murdered in a mass killing called the Holocaust." It would seem best to say "many Jews and others" as there is considerable disagreement over these exact numbers.

HRW Response: While it is true that there is "disagreement" in this area, we do not agree that it is "considerable" and stand by the "6 million" figure that we have used, which is strongly supported by historical scholarship. See Oxford Companion to World War II (q.v. "Final Solution"), Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (q.v. "Holocaust") et al.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 440 "Connecting to Literature" selects a pagan story that would be similar to the Biblical account of the flood. Surely there is a more appropriate selection of literature that would be less offensive to Christians. As stated earlier, some times the omissions are more revealing than the errors. Besides the omission of any information and quotes by noted American leaders and the omission of the definition of socialism, we found no definition or discussion of "republic" as a form of government or that America is a republic. We found no discussion or quotes from the Declaration of Independence nor the Constitution. We found no mention of Columbus or any of the other earlier explorers. No mention of the Mayflower or the Pilgrims.

HRW Response: The selection from the Epic ofGilgamesh was included to introduce students to "one of the oldest and most important major epics in literature" (Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, 3rd ed., 381); our research does not indicate that an excerpt of this classic of ancient world literature is likely to be regarded as offensive, either by Christians or by other students of literature.

Regarding "republic," the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, the Mayflower, and the Pilgrims—as noted previously, the text under review was written to meet the TEKS objectives for a world cultures/world geography course, not a U.S. history course. Only 2 of the 23 TEKS for this course are designated as History TEKS, which accounts for the brief coverage of early U.S. history. The history sections serve primarily as background for a more complete understanding of the geography and cultures of each region and country.

On Columbus, see S pp. 187, 269; on other explorers, see S pp. 712, 722 (Cook), p. 167 (Cortes), pp. 722 (Magellan), pp. 235-36 (Pizarro), p. 579 (Polo), p. 269 (Vespucci), and pp. 132, 376 (Vikings).

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 286 We found no positive information concerning the Protestant Reformation and the important role it played in the formation of this country. The only reference is, "This conflict eventually led to the Thirty Year War."

HRW Response: The passage to which the reviewer refers is found, in context, within a brief summary of the history of Germany, centuries prior to the founding of the United States. The discussion of the Reformation is certainly brief, but it is beyond the scope of this course to make the connections suggested by the reviewer; our research on reading comprehension suggests that presentation of concepts for this reading level should be kept fairly simple, without cross-

references to events and developments beyond the focus of the text (which in this case is the history of Germany, within a chapter on west-central Europe). As noted previously, People, Places, and Change was written to meet the objectives of the 6th-grade TEKS, which outline a world cultures/world geography course— not a world history survey or a U.S. history course.

Ms. Raborn: Pg. 419 While the Quaran is identified as "the holy book of Islam," we found no mention of the Torah or the Bible. While all the discussions were brief concerning both subjects, there were only 5 references to Christianity and 10 to Islam.

HRW Response: The reviewer correctly notes the number of page references listed in the Index to Islam and Christianity; however, the number of page citations for these terms is not indicative of the amount of text devoted to the discussion of each religion and its adherents. Terms such as Christian, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant were not included in the Index, but their frequent occurrences represent additional occasions in the text where the Christian religion is mentioned. (The term Muslims was included in the Index because its connection to Islam is less obvious for readers at this level than is the relationship of Christian to Christianity, Buddhistic Buddhism, etc.) We believe that the text discusses the various world religions in a balanced manner appropriate to the scope of this course and the reading audience.

Ms. Raborn: We found no information concerning America's successes in space exploration or any information concerning our great inventor such as Bell, Franklin, Edison and the Wright Brothers. In general the message seemed to be "there are no absolutes and we are all equal." If students truly believe this, then accepting a one world government will be very easy and natural for them. We hope that this is adequate documentation to convince the board that this book should not be approved without some major changes. As presented, we believe that it fails to meet the minimal requirements of TEC 28.002(H) "A primary purpose of the public school curriculum is to prepare thoughtful, active citizens who understand the importance of patriotism and can function productively in a free enterprise society with appreciation for the basic democratic values of our state and national heritage.

HRW Response: While the reviewer correctly notes the absence of references

to space exploration and the specific inventors named, the broad scope of the

world cultures/world geography course (as noted previously) for which this text

was written did not always allow for such detailed treatment.

We are uncertain as to the meaning of the comment about "the message" that

the reviewer perceives; we disagree with the assertion that the text conveys an

underlying message or bias.

We disagree with the reviewer's assessment of the text's fitness within the

context of the broad requirements of TEC 28.002(h) regarding the public school

curriculum. The text was written to meet the objectives of the 6th-grade TEKS,

which outline a world cultures/world geography course. The Texas Education Agency's formal review panel has found the program 100 percent conforming, and we believe that it has in no way disparaged patriotism, free enterprise, or democratic values.