Formal Response to Written Comments, August 23, 2002

Submitted by Prentice Hall September 13, 2002

Don Zimmerman

Response to Don Zimmerman's written testimony about Prentice Hall's The American Nation.

D. Zimmerman: Student Edition (SE), p. 94. "The Compact actually starts with "IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 94, Primary Source sidebar, line 5, add at beginning of excerpt:

"In the name of God, Amen."

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 95. "BIAS — the Mayflower did establish a tradition, but it is NOT mentioned in the text. That tradition was in creating civil and moral law outside the specific approval of English government and official church Dom. The Compact lists the primary motivation as "advancement of the Christian Faith" ahead of obedience to Kingly authority. The King at that time possessed much more power than he does today; this crucial point is neglected."

Publisher's Response:

Historical scholarship indicates it is appropriate to emphasize, as the text does, that the Mayflower Compact strengthened "the English tradition of governing through elected representatives." In his Oxford History of the American People (1965), the preeminent New England historian Samuel Eliot Morison noted that "This compact, like the Virginia assembly, is an almost startling revelation of the capacity of Englishmen in that era for self-government. Moreover, it was a second instance of Englishmen's determination to live in the colonies under a rule of law." (55) William C. P. Breckinridge, in his oration at Plymouth in 1889, noted that the Compact was "the complete demonstration that [the Pilgrims] were planting the seeds of the old truths, not attempting to make some new and unknown harvest from untried seed." The Museum at Plimoth Plantation today states, "The agreement was not a revolutionary departure from English precedent but a pragmatic application of it."

(http://www.plimoth.org/Librarv/compact.htm) Within the Compact, the signers style themselves "Loyal Subjects of the dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God..."

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 97. "BIAS — the prior paragraph ends with a quote from William Bradford: "What could now sustain them, but the Spirit of God and His grace?" The textbook suggests a different view; it was Squanto the Indian who saved them, rather than their God. Centuries later, countless millions of Americans still believe that that same God who sent both the Pilgrims and the Native Americans a very good harvest continues to send us a good harvest. Those same Americans treat thanksgiving as a religious holiday, not merely a "national" one."

Publisher's Response:

The text states that the Pilgrims called Squanto "a special instrument sent of God." To specify the ways in which Squanto helped them does not contradict the view that God saved them through Squanto.

Thanksgiving is one of the ten official federal holidays, most of which are observed by all the states. The statement that Thanksgiving is a "national holiday" does not negate the fact that many Americans also observe Thanksgiving as a religious holiday. The religious roots of Thanksgiving are clearly explained in the text.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 133. "Omission — the most crucial outcome of this case was establishment of "jury nullification," a process vehemently opposed by judges in our time. "... your upright conduct this day will not only entitle you to the love and esteem of your fellow citizens, but every man who prefers freedom to a life of slavery will bless and honor you as men who have baffled the attempt of tyranny, and by an impartial and uncorrupt verdict have laid a noble foundation for securing to ourselves, our posterity, and our neighbors, that to which nature and the laws of our country have given us a right to liberty of both exposing and opposing arbitrary power (in these parts of the world at least) by speaking and writing truth.."

Publisher's Response:

The excerpt cited is not presented as an exhaustive interpretation of the Zenger case. It is part of a Skills Assessment exercise on Analyzing Primary Sources. The excerpt was chosen based on how well an eighth grader could be expected to answer questions about it.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 143. "Bias — this battle ignores a religious significance of the said battle (the defeat of General Braddock). A pertinent, alternative quote based on statements from an Indian chief who ordered the killing of Washington during that battle:

'I am a chief, and the ruler over many tribes ... It was on the day when the white man's blood mixed with the streams of our forest that I first beheld this chief [Washington] ... Quick, let your aim be certain, and he dies. Our rifles were leveled, rifles which but for him knew not how to miss — 'twas all in vain; a power mightier far than we shielded him from harm. He cannot die in battle ... Listen! The Great Spirit protects that man, and guides his destinies — he will become the chief of nations, and a people yet unborn will hail him as the founder of a mighty empire!'"

Publisher's Response:

As George Washington himself made clear shortly after Braddock's defeat ("I luckily escaped without a wound"), he was too humble to claim that God intervened to save his life. Authoritative treatments of Braddock's defeat by modern scholars do not emphasize religious significance in the battle. (The proposed quotation by the Indian chief expresses a belief and makes a prophecy; religious Americans may differ as to its significance.)

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 147. "Problem solving: This presents an incredibly naive interpretation. The British had killed countless numbers of Indians allied with French in wars — would it now "protect" them? Being only 10 years prior to the Boston Tea Party, and correctly citing that the troops never went to the frontier, suggests that "Indian protection" was a ruse for the real motivation — to strengthen Britain's military presence in the colonies. In addition, stopping Colonial expansion also served Britain's interest by keeping the emerging nation smaller, more controllable."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 147, paragraph 7 (entire), change to:

"The proclamation was meant to bring order to the western lands. To enforce it, Britain stationed 10,000 troops in the colonies. Few troops remained on the frontier, however. During the 1760s, many were moved to the cities along the Atlantic coast."

SE page 147, paragraph 8, sentence 2, delete:

", including New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia,".

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 156. "Faulty analysis: On page 153, King George is quoted: "There must always be one tax to keep up the right to tax." The colonists were not stupid; they understood the motivation of Britain was not to save colonists money on tea, but to buy the precedent of permanently taxing the colonies. Why is this obvious fact not pointed out?"

Publisher's Response:

We agree with the reviewer. The text as written and quoted on p. 156 explicitly makes the same point.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 185. "BIAS -why is Washington's reported prayer during "The Hardships of Valley Forge" not even mentioned?

'There,' said he, 'laid the army of Washington. It was a most distressing time of ye war, and all were for giving up the Ship but that great and good man. In that woods pointing to a close in view, I heard a plaintive sound as, of a man at prayer. I tied my horse to a sapling & went quietly into the woods & to my astonishment I saw the great George Washington on his knees alone, with his sword on one side and his cocked hat on the other. He was at Prayer to the God of the Armies, beseeching to interpose with his Divine aid, as it was ye Crisis, & the cause of the country, of humanity & of the world. Such a prayer I never heard from the lips of man. I left him alone praying.'"

Publisher's Response:

In a textbook which must cover so much ground, it is impossible to include many dramatic aspects and details of American history. The story of Washington seen praying by the Quaker Isaac Potts was first reported by Parson Mason Weems, and its authenticity (like other aspects of Weems' biography, including the famous story of Washington chopping down the cherry tree) is contested. The uncertain provenance of the story, combined with a lack of space, supports the decision to omit discussion of this episode.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 194. "Bias — this 'analysis' seems to be written from Britain's point of view. It ignores the religious convictions of the faith-based colonists, their tradition of self-reliance, the spirit of the "Great Awakening" revivals, their self-education outside the British tradition."

Publisher's Response:

The analysis on these pages is not exhaustive. It focuses primarily on quantifiable military reasons for the colonists' victory. The role of religious conviction in instilling a spirit of independence among the colonists is not ignored in the text. For example, see the final paragraph about the Great Awakening on p. 127.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 128. "Faulty analysis — These were not the "first public schools" as we know them today. The so-called "non-sectarian" contemporary school system was conceived by Horace Mann, based on the onerous state-controlled Prussian school system. Colonial schools educated children through Bible reading. Contemporary schools prohibit the same. Many American founders (like Ben Franklin) had virtually no schooling."

Publisher's Response:

The text defines "public schools" as "schools supported by taxes." No claim is made that the Puritan tax-supported schools were similar to today's public school system. In fact, in the paragraph above it is stated that "the Massachusetts assembly passed a law ordering all parents to teach their children " to read and understand the principles of religion. They also required all towns with 50 or more families to hire a school teacher." The importance of the Bible to Puritan schooling is explicitly cited elsewhere on the page, for example: "Puritans taught that all people had a duty to study the Bible. If colonists did not learn to read, how would they fulfill this duty?"

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 127. "Christians always capitalize as a proper noun the "Holy Spirit."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 127, paragraph 8, sentence 3, capitalize "Holy Spirit."

D. Zimmerman: TE, p. 127. "Bias further exposed in "Teacher's Edition," pg. 127, "Background — Linking Past and Present," which states "Whitefield's real importance lay not in his preaching but in his marketing methods ... Inaugural events in the commercialization of religion." Do the authors feel Whitefield is more an influence for televangelists, than for the American Republic?"

Publisher's Response:

TE page 91, right wrap column, delete "Linking Past and Present" note.

D. Zimmerman: SE, pp.218 and 259. "Leftist Political Advocacy — After conceding that the Constitution was intended to NOT change without difficulty, the authors coin the phrase "living document" for the Constitution, suggesting it is easily changed."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 218, paragraph 6, sentence 2, for clarification change to:

"The Constitution has endured for more than 200 years because it contains timeless principles, yet can be amended."

SE page 259, Before You Read, Main Idea statement, for clarification change to: "The formal amendment process has allowed changes to be made in the Constitution." SE page 259, paragraph 3, sentence 4, for clarification change to:

"They created a formal amendment process to allow the nation to deal with issues they could not have foreseen."

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 228. "Erroneous commentary — The authors' commentary simply claims that "marque and reprisal" is struck because it's "no longer used;" it could in fact be used today against terrorists. Declarations of war are NOT "granted at the request of the President;" they are voted on by Congress."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 228, column 1, paragraph 1, sentence 2, change to:

"Historically, such declarations have been made after a formal request by the President. "

SE page 228, column 1, paragraph 1, delete sentence 4.

SE page 228, column 2, paragraph 1, delete strikethrough line.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 232. "Erroneous commentary — The Constitution gives no such authority for "executive agreements." Might Presidents violate the Constitution by effectively enacting treaties without Senate approval by calling them 'executive agreements'?".

Publisher's Response:

Page 232, column 1, paragraph 1, delete sentences 3 and 4.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 235. "Erroneous commentary — No mention of schools or marriage are mentioned anywhere in the Constitution — what are the authors talking about?"

Publisher's Response:

This graphic organizer cited illustrates to students how federalism works in practice. Under the heading "Powers Reserved to the States," it lists examples of how states use reserved powers which, by definition, are not spelled out in the Constitution. (The Tenth Amendment states that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to it by the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.")

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 237. "Opinionated commentary — The right to bear arms is the right of self-protection (to life, liberty,...) granted by the Creator to the people. Text claims this right is enjoyed only by the state (militia) for the states' protection."

Publisher's Response:

This commentary has already been changed to "The right of the people to keep and bear arms was insured by the 2nd Amendment." The controversy over interpretation of the Second Amendment is discussed on p. 260.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 247. "Bias — how could "South Africa elections" hold any significance in comparison to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the nuclear superpower, the USSR, in the late 20th century?"

Publisher's Response:

The cited time line entry appears at the beginning of Chapter 8. Both American and World events on the time line reflect the theme expressed in the chapter title, "Government, Citizenship, and the Constitution." Other World Events include the writing of the French constitution (1791), New Zealand granting women's suffrage (1893), and Japan adopting a democratic constitution (1947). The collapse of the Soviet Union is included as a World Event in the time line for the Epilogue (p. 541).

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 248. "Opinionated commentary — There was no "crisis" in America; the country did not stop functioning just because the election was in doubt."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 248, paragraph 3, last sentence, delete phrase "in a time of crisis".

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 249. "Erroneous commentary — The Constitution seeks to set up a government limited to enumerated powers. A vague, generalized goal of "Promoting the General Welfare" could suggest any power not authorized by the Constitution. Specifically, the NIH is not authorized by the Constitution. Also mentioned is "Power to Ensure Domestic Tranquility" — no such power is enumerated in the Constitution!"

Publisher's Response:

The phrases "insure domestic tranquility" and "promote the general welfare" are taken from the Preamble to the Constitution.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 250. "Bias — the Declaration of Independence claims that the people are "endowed by their Creator" with rights, or power. So the people claimed that power from God belonged to them, NOT merely to the monarch. The text suggests that "power from God" is an erroneous or antiquated concept. In general, democracy is not a "revolutionary" idea."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 250, paragraph 4 (entire), change to:

"Popular Sovereignty In the 1700s, most rulers claimed to receive absolute power directly from God. The Declaration of Independence asserted that people "are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights." They thus have the right to alter or abolish their government. The Constitution reflects this principle of popular sovereignty: that a government gets its authority from the people."

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 251. "Erroneous commentary — The Constitution established limited, enumerated powers for government, and Congress has no "right to prevent" evil under the Constitution, as Holmes contends. Rather than expose judicial activism as an assault on liberty, the authors affirm the presumed authority of a judge to do so."

Publisher's Response:

The inclusion of this quotation is intended to familiarize students with a famous, oft-quoted argument. No comment on Holmes's judicial authority is made.

SE page 251, Primary Source sidebar, paragraph 1, sentence 1, change to:

"The Constitution protects individual rights. Still, Americans have long debated whether these rights are unlimited."

D. Zimmerman: SE, pp. 253 & 256. "Error — Judges do NOT serve for life — Kings and dictators do."

Publisher's Response:

The Constitution states federal judges "shall hold their offices during good behavior." The chart on p. 250 makes clear that judges may be removed from office.

SE page 253, graphic organizer, add footnote under "Term" for both "President and Vice President" and "Supreme Court Justice":

"The President, Vice President, and Supreme Court justices may be impeached and removed from office."

SE page 256, paragraph 6, last sentence, change to:

"Justices do not serve terms of specific length. They may serve on the Court until they die, retire, resign, or are removed from office."

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 255. "Kings, dictators, and despots use such titles for self-aggrandizement. President Washington refused such lofty titles. The Constitution could be interpreted to prohibit such a lofty title."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 255, paragraph 3, sentence 5, change to:

"The President may also act as a representative of the American people." (The sentence that follows in the text explains this statement.)

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 257. "Political Bias in quote — in the words of Thomas Jefferson: 'The opinion which gives to the judges the right to decide what laws are constitutional and what not, not only for themselves in their own sphere of action, but for the legislative and executive also in their spheres, would make the judiciary a despotic branch.'"

Publisher's Response:

SE page 257, paragraph 1, delete sentence 2.

D. Zimmerman: SE, p. 265. "Erroneous commentary — We have no "democracy;" in fact, each state in the United States is guaranteed as a republic."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 265, paragraph 5, last sentence, change to:

"To safeguard our democratic republic, each of us must exercise our rights and fulfill our responsibilities as citizens."

Meg McKain Grier

Response to Meg McKain Grier's written testimony about Prentice Hall Lone Star: The Story of Texas.

M McKain Grier: "Lone Star: Page 456, authors say that women sought political office in the 1960s after the call for equal rights when the Texas Women's Political Caucus formed in 1971 encouraging them. That's true but the Republican Party had encouraged women leaders and candidates since the 1950s."

Publisher's Response:

The scope of Chapter 19, Section 1 is to give a broad overview of Texas politics from 1970 to 2000. Given the large scope and limited space, some details cannot be included. Until the 1970s, Texas was largely a one-party state, and the Republican Party was only a nominal presence. Any efforts made to encourage Republican women to run for office were, therefore, not effective in increasing the numbers of women in political office.

According to the Handbook of Texas Online, the real impetus for change was the combination of the women's rights movement and the civil rights movement. Groups such as the Texas Women's Political Caucus (founded in 1971) and La Raza Unida party (founded in 1970) helped women effectively achieve greater political visibility in the 1970s. This information is discussed on page 456 of the Student Edition.

Dr. Ricky Dobbs

Response to Dr. Ricky Dobbs' written testimony about Prentice Hall America: Pathways to the Present.

Dr. R. Dobbs: "Haphazard coverage of New Deal, pp. 544-551.

Publisher's Response:

The authors have included several sections on modern-day critics of the New Deal (pp. 549-550) to help students understand the contemporary debate over the proper role of the federal government. Although this does interfere with the chronology, these sections are clearly labeled as "modern." In addition, TEKS 13.C.02 requires students to "analyze the effects of the Great Depression on the U.S. government, " and TEKS 15.A requires students to "evaluate the impact of New Deal legislation on the historical roles of state and federal governments."

Dr. R. Dobbs: "Poor treatment of the Progressive effort to eradicate Populism after 1896."

Publisher's Response:

SE page 333, paragraph 2. Change paragraph 2 to read:

"In many southern communities, whites were concerned that African Americans would gain too much political power if they were allowed to vote. Also, they feared that black voters would unite with poor white farmers and elect Populist candidates. As a result, during the 1890s southern states began using several tactics to deny the vote to blacks. Some states required voters to own property or pay a poll tax, a special fee that must be paid before a person was permitted to vote. Most African Americans found both requirements difficult to meet. Voters also had to pass literacy tests that showed that they could read, write, and meet minimum standards of knowledge. But, like the property requirement and poll tax, literacy tests were really designed to keep African Americans from voting."

Also, SE page 333, paragraph 3, delete the first sentence and replace it with the following: "Both poll taxes and literacy tests could keep poor whites from voting as well. In some states, southern Democrats wanted to keep these voters from supporting Populist candidates. Other states sought to protect white voting rights by passing special laws with grandfather clauses."

To fit these changes, delete the following:

SE page 333, 3rd paragraph, third sentence, delete "and thus were required to take the literacy tests."

SE page 333,4th paragraph, delete "and baggy clothes grinned broadly as he" from the 6th sentence.

Dr. R. Dobbs: "Book fails to take into account the often antidemocractic designs of Progressive advocates of the commission system."

Publisher's Response:

SE, p. 390, paragraph 4. The book does mention that some Progressives were not necessarily democratic: "Some reformers also held negative views of immigrants, who they felt were responsible for many city problems."

SE, p. 391, "New Forms of Municipal Government," first paragraph, revise last three sentences as follows:

"To manage the huge relief and rebuilding effort needed, the city created an emergency commission of five appointed administrators to replace the mayor and aldermen. The commission worked so efficiently that Galveston permanently instituted the commission form of government, with later reforms to make it more democratic. Other cities rapidly adopted the Galveston model, adapting it to their needs."

Dr. R. Dobbs: "Lindbergh appears as a lonely voice crying against war in 1940."

Publisher's Response:

Lindbergh is mentioned as a prominent member of the America First Committee on page 587 in the Student Edition. A Background Note in the Teacher's Edition on page 586 states that "American isolationism in the late 1930s had significant support." The quote by Lindbergh on page 586 is intended to represent the views of the isolationist. It is not intended to portray Lindbergh as a civic hero.

Dr. R. Dobbs: "Text sanitizes unpleasant realities... claims that Hiroshima and Nagasaki were targets of military and industrial importance. Text avoids mentioning that the atomic bombs killed far fewer people than the conventional firebombing..."

Publisher's Response:

The text states on page 621 that Hiroshima was the site of a large army base and, in the quote by Harry Truman on page 622, that the sites were "heavy military-manufacturing areas." The text does point out greater casualty figures for conventional fighting, including 80,000 dead in Leyte and 100,000 in Manila. No attempt is made to sanitize the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Dr. R. Dobbs: "The Kennedy Administration's vacillation over and at times outright hostility toward civil rights is whitewashed."

Publisher's Response:

SE p. 712, replace the first two sentences of the third paragraph under the heading "Integration at 'Ole Miss'" with the following:

"Barnett's defiance of the Supreme Court decision forced a reluctant President Kennedy to act.

Kennedy sent federal marshals to accompany Meredith to the campus."

Note: The text mentions Attorney General Kennedy's reluctance to protect the Freedom Riders and their arrest in Jackson earlier on this page under the C-head "National Reactions." President Kennedy's reluctance to displease southern Democrats by acting on Civil Rights receives further coverage on page 716.

SE p. 716, Delete second sentence of the caption.

Chris Hammons

Response to Chris Hammons' written testimony about Prentice Hall Magruder's American Government.

C. Hammons: "1. Constitutional Interpretation: Organic vs. Strict Construction:

Tell students that the Constitution is a flexible document that can be changed if the need arises (p. 73)"

Publisher's Response:

Change TE, page 72 Quick Lesson Plan Focus to:

"Tell students that the Constitution has survived for more than 200 years because it contains timeless principles yet can be amended. Ask students to discuss what they know about the formal amendment process." [Please note that the passage referred to is on page 72.]

C. Hammons: "The Assessment exercise on page 82 asks students to read why the constitution is called the "Living Constitution."

Publisher's Response:

Change SE, page 82, Take It to the Net activity to:

"Read about the ways in which the Constitution can be amended. Then write a "constitution" for your classroom that consists of 10 rules for good classroom behavior. Debate whether these rules should remain fixed or be flexible. If fixed, will they become outdated? If flexible will they eventually become meaningless, as students amend them to get away with whatever behavior they want?"

C. Hammons: "Page 67 has a political cartoon endorsing an organic conception of the constitution."

Publisher's Response:

Change TE, page 67, answer to "Interpreting Political Cartoons," as follows.

"Some students may answer that the speaker means that the Constitution can change with the times as necessary. Others may argue that the speaker is using irony to support the notion that the Constitution should be interpreted strictly, according to the Framers' original intent."

C. Hammons: "Page 51 encourages students to read a book by Jack Rakove indicating the strict constructionist approach to constitutionalism."

Publisher's Response:

Change TE, p. 51, Background Note to:

"A subject of serious debate in politics today is whether current interpretations of the Constitution should be based on the Framers' original intent. Originalists argue that the best way to interpret the Constitution is to determine how the Framers intended it to be interpreted. In Original Arguments: Constitutional Interpretation, Textual Meaning, Original Intent and Judicial Review, Keith E. Whittington buttresses the originalists' argument by making the case that originalism, or original intent, should be the preferred method of constitutional interpretation, as it is the method best suited for a democratic government. On the opposite side of the spectrum, in Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution, Jack Rakove argues that there was no single "original intent" among the Framers. Rakove analyzes the sharply different perspectives of the Framers and points to how those differences led to dynamic debate and compromise." [Please note that this information is intended as background information for teachers.]

C. Hammons: "What is the basis for the statement on page 292 that the "American people have generally agreed with a liberal interpretation of the Constitution?""

Publisher's Response:

Change SE, page 292, second column, fourth paragraph, first sentence to:

"Today, United States politics is marked by a lack of consensus, or general agreement, over the proper limits of national power. Liberals generally favor a liberal construction, while conservatives favor a strict construction. This fundamental split is reflected in the different points of view of the Democratic and Republican parties."

C. Hammons: "Students should be informed of the concept of a "living constitution" but the discussion should be balanced with a discussion of the merits of strict constructionism."

Publisher's Response:

Change SE page 72, bottom of column 1 ff, to "How has the Constitution, written in 1787, endured despite that astounding change and growth? Strict constructionists point out that the Constitution is based on timeless principles. These principles should not be tampered with lest the words of the Constitution become meaningless. Thus, in this view, we must look to the Framers' original intent for guidance when grappling with today's issues. Liberal constructionists, on the other hand, believe that the answer to this question lies with the concept of a "Living Constitution." That is, that the Constitution has endured because it can change and grow with the times.

This process of constitutional change can occur in two basic ways: ..."

In addition to the changes above, see SE page 292, Take It to the NET activity, in which students read about originalism.

C. Hammons: "2. Role of Government: Limited vs. Expansive: Government must "provide for education, guard the public's health, and protect the environment. It must also pave the streets, punish criminals, protect civil rights, care for the elderly, and do much, much more (p. 4)"

Publisher's Response:

Change SE, page 4, paragraph 2, column 1, to "Government in this country is now focused on the fight against terrorism at home and abroad. Still, government has many other tasks to perform. It punishes criminals, protects civil rights, and regulates trade. Although Americans disagree on government's role in providing services, today's government also provides for education, guards the public's health, cares for the elderly, and does much, much more." [Note: Passage has been amended to make clear that these are not roles that government "must" or "should" have (except for those responsibilities listed in the Constitution), but simply that government does have at the present time.]

C. Hammons: "3. 2nd Amendment: Individual vs. Collectivist Right: The 2nd amendment was added to the Constitution to protect the right of each State to keep a militia (p. 750)." Then the publishers contend that "Many insist that the 2nd amendment also sets out an individual right.... The Supreme Court has never accepted that interpretation of the 2nd Amendment (p. 571)" Why do publishers seem to endorse the first statement by making it so definitive but disassociate themselves with the other?"

Publisher's Response:

Change SE, page 570, column 2, last paragraph ff, to "These words excite as much controversy as any words in the Constitution. On one side are those who argue that the amendment sets out an individual right to keep and bear arms. This interpretation rests partly on Locke's Second Treatise on Government, which says that people have the right to overthrow a tyrannical government when peaceful means fail.

On the other side are those who argue that the amendment was added to protect the right of each State to keep a militia. In their view, the amendment does not set out the right of the individual to own and use firearms.

In United States v, Miller, 1939, the Supreme Court upheld a section of the National Firearms Act of 1934___"

[Please note that the above amends the changes to this passage previously submitted to TPPF. We have made a further effort to provide the most strictly balanced view of the issue possible. Also note the reference to page 750 above should be to page 570.]

C. Hammons: "4. Economics Systems: Socialism vs. Capitalism:

Prentice Hall offers a more balanced discussion [than Holt], exploring the merits and weaknesses of both capitalism and socialism. The same is true with the Glencoe text. However, in their efforts to present the theoretical virtues of both capitalism and socialism, neither text presents any empirical data to draw conclusions about the merits of either system."

Publisher's Response:

See description of how social democracies have moved away from socialism in recent years on page 668 and the description of "The Third Way" on page 671. See also the chart on page 670 that compares unemployment rates in the United States with rates in two European social democracies. Note also the emphasis on the positive qualities of freedom, private ownership, and individual initiative in the explanation of capitalism on pages 559-660.

C. Hammons: "5. Patriotism: Defined as Political Activism:

Prentice Hall has the greatest tendency in this direction [of defining patriotism as the promotion of causes]. The majority of examples from the book seem to center around three causes — gun control, the environment, and social welfare. The use of environmental examples and call to environmentalism is particularly frequent (see pages 3, 4, 25, 135, 394, 413, 418, 426, 443, 494, 699)."

Publisher's Response: Page 4: See response above.

Page 135: The Green Party is included in a list of third parties, which also includes the Reform, Libertarian, Natural Law, Constitution, Socialist, and Prohibition parties. None of these parties is singled out for special mention.

Pages 294, 418, and 494 activities were chosen in an effort to select a topic of interest and familiarity to most students. Remaining pages cited refer to "You Can Make a Difference" features. This feature was created in response to teachers' requests for relevance and for service learning activities. Topics include the constitutional rights of students (p. 27), getting involved in one's local board of education (p. 30), peer mediation (p. 61), participating in the political process (p. 62), working as a government intern (p. 63), Project Vote Smart (pp 176 and 177), and many other topics covering a broad range of issues in addition to gun control, the environment, and social welfare.

C. Hammons: "The book also advocates that students investigate gun control organizations (page 234, Teachers Commentary, and 235)."

Publisher's Response:

TE page 234, change "You Can Make a Difference" to:

"The SAFE in SAFE Students stands for "Sane Alternatives to the Firearms Epidemic," an interest group that supports gun control. NRA stands for the National Rifle Association, which promotes the right to gun ownership. Point out that these organizations represent just two of the hundreds of interest groups in this country. Then direct a committee of students to consult each group's Web site (www.safestudents.org and www.nra.org) and evaluate SAFE Students and the NRA. They should compare and contrast each group's purposes and activities and make a presentation to the class."

C. Hammons: "The book also advocates that students investigate the Green Party (page 136, the Green Party receives a full page reprint of its platform)."

Publisher's Response:

The excerpt from the Green Party platform was chosen because the Green Party received more votes than the other minor parties in the 2000 election. It was in no way chosen to further that party's positions. It serves as an example of a third party platform within the section titled "The Minor Parties."

C. Hammons: "The book also advocates that students consider protesting multi-national corporations (page 497, Teachers Commentary)."

Publisher's Response:

Change TE, page 497, "Make It Relevant" to:

"Multinational corporations benefit consumers and workers by providing jobs and products throughout the world. Some multinational clothing manufacturers, however, have come under scrutiny for allowing clothing to be produced in overseas sweatshops under unsafe conditions. One group, United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS), has been working to protest these conditions. USAS focuses on t-shirts and other apparel sold on their own campuses. This group wants colleges to pressure their suppliers to end these practices, and 160 colleges have agreed to try. What's more, one of the biggest manufacturers in this $2.5 billion industry has disclosed the identity of its foreign factories, thus allowing better oversight. ASAS has found supporters in Congress, and its members have been invited to the White House."

Please note also the many references throughout the text to participation in the political process and love of one's country. These include pages 5, 18-21, 176-177, 178-179, 186, 195, 554, and 706.

Laura Sargent

Response to Laura Sargent's written testimony about Prentice Hall's The American Nation.

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall thanks Ms. Sargent for her comments. The important role of religion in the founding of the English colonies is a well-documented matter of historical record.

Texas Council for the Social Studies

Response to Texas Council for the Social Studies written testimony about Prentice Hall's Lone Star: The Story of Texas.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Strengths. Visual

• Uses maps frequently, easy to read

• Good use of photographs Content

• Good balance on social, political issues

• Economic presentation strong Age Appropriateness

• On level

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall thanks the reviewers for acknowledging these strengths of Lone Star: The Story of Texas.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Could use more graphics. Relies heavily on photos instead of other sources."

Publisher's Response:

In addition to the graphics that appear in the Lone Star: The Story of Texas Student Edition, there are numerous graphics in the Teaching Resources and other ancillaries that support the program. In the Teaching Resources, there are 22 Geography and Maps activities, and 10 Connecting History and Art activities, plus one graphic organizer per section in the Guide to the Essentials. The Section Reading Support Transparency System also offers one graphic organizer per section. The Color Transparencies with Lesson Suggestions offer 29 graphic organizers, including timelines, graphs, and charts, 7 maps, 3 pieces of fine art, and 22 photos. Experiencing Texas History uses 138 graphics, including charts, graphs, timelines, photos, fine art and maps as sources of information for students to use to complete chapter-level history-based activities.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Primary sources, historical documents need to be more available."

Publisher's Response:

In addition to the numerous primary sources in the Student Edition of Lone Star: The Story of Texas, the Teacher Edition has 17 primary sources in unit-based activities. Teachers also have access to additional primary sources in the Primary Sources section of Lone Star's web site, where they would find excerpts from historical documents such as the Joint Resolution of 1845 and the Texas Constitution Bill of Rights. Within the Teaching Resources, there are!2 Connecting History and Literature activities, as well 27 other primary source excerpts within various activities. Local History and Primary Sources pairs thematic primary source readings with a local history activity for each chapter. Another ancillary, Experiencing Texas History, uses 32 primary sources as sources of information for students to use to complete chapter-level history-based activities.

Texas Council for the Social Studies

Response to Texas Council for the Social Studies written testimony about Prentice Hall's America: Pathways to the Present.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Strengths. Factual Knowledge

• Did not find substantial errors

• Shows more than 1 point of view

• Good balance of social, economic issues

• Evidence of primary sources but not as effectively Special Features

• Good charts/graphs

• Good placement of maps, but need more questioning

• Good graphic organizers

• Adequate use of pictures Study Aids

• Maps/graphs relate to topic

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall thanks the reviewers for acknowledging these strengths of America: Pathways to the Present.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Could be stronger in cultural issues"

Publisher's Response:

We are uncertain what specific cultural issues the reviewer is referring to. America: Pathways to the Present includes a great deal of information on the nation's culture groups and the issues that these groups have faced throughout our history.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Chapter excerpts are too short; need to be in chapter, not at end."

Publisher's Response:

American Literature excerpts are placed at the end of the book so as not to interrupt the text.

They are intended as an extra resource for students.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Map activities could be stronger."

Publisher's Response:

Every attempt was made to make the map activities challenging, informative, and age appropriate. All questions in Map Skills captions are based on the five themes of geography and require careful study of the map to answer.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Section activities need to include vocabulary, people."

Publisher's Response:

Review of the key terms and people mentioned in each section have been integrated into the Reading Comprehension and Critical Thinking questions in the Section Assessments. Key Terms appear in boldface type in the questions. In addition, all key terms and people appear in the Glossary, Spanish Glossary, and Biographical Dictionary found on pp. 976-1015. These reference sections are intended to assist students in their review.

Texas Council for the Social Studies

Response to Texas Council for the Social Studies written testimony about Prentice Hall's Magruder's American Government.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Strengths. Factual Knowledge

• No blatant errors

• Tends to be bipartisan

• Balance in social, political, and economic issues

• Cultural influence linked to laws

• Liked the emphasis of the Constitution principles throughout the book Special Features

• Primary sources adequate

• Like the section "You Can Make a Difference" because the topics relate to teens Study Aids

• Life skills exceptional

• 90 graphic organizers

• Useful maps

Visual Presentation

• Graphics had good use of color

• Graphics and pictures break up reading

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall thanks the reviewers for acknowledging these strengths of Magruder's American Government.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Would like to include graphic organizers in section assessments."

Publisher's Response:

Graphic organizers for all 99 sections of the text are available as transparencies in the Prentice Hall Reading Support Transparency System. These transparencies may be used to preview section material or as section assessments.

Texas Council for the Social Studies

Response to Texas Council for the Social Studies written testimony about Prentice Hall's Economics: Principles in Action.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Strengths. Factual Knowledge

• No obvious mistakes

• Free enterprise point of view

• Affiliated with Wall Street Journal Special Features

• Graphic organizers

• Use of Internet

• Relevant high interest features for student "hook"

• Case studies, economic profiles Study Aids

• Questions under charts/graphs

• Graphics easy to read and highlighted with explanations Visual Presentations

• Good use of visuals, including cartoons

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall thanks the reviewers for acknowledging these strengths of Economics: Principles in Action.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Limited on primary sources."

Publisher's Response:

Primary sources in the student text include The Wall Street Journal "Debating Current Issues" feature (14 pages) and 30 "In the News" briefs from The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition. Primary Sources in the Teaching Resources include 7 two-page articles from The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition with debate activity worksheets and a 60-page booklet of source articles from The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition. The "You and Your Money" booklet the "Personal Finance Kit" consists of articles from The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition and The Wall Street Journal on issues involving personal finance. Additional primary sources are also available on the Economics: Principles in Action Web site at phschool.com.

Texas Council for the Social Studies

Response to Texas Council for the Social Studies written testimony about Prentice Hall's World History: Connections to Today.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Strengths. Factual Knowledge

• No obvious errors

• Relatively unbiased

• Relatively balanced on social issues

• Excellent placement of maps/graphics within content

• Best job of using maps integrating with content Special Features

• Adequate maps/graphics

• Maps/graphics clearly and easily examined"

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall thanks the reviewers for acknowledging these strengths of World History: Connections to Today.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Lacks continuity on economic issues."

Publisher's Response:

Economics is a major theme of World History: Connections to Today. Because of the vast number of regions and time periods covered, not all economic themes can be covered in successive chapters, but major economic themes are developed consistently. Here are two examples:

The development of capitalism is covered over the course of several chapters. In Chapter 8, pp. 199-200, the commercial revolution in medieval Europe is discussed in detail. Topics include new business organizations (such as partnerships), the concept of capital, and the role of guilds. These themes are expanded in Chapter 16, pp. 404-406. Topics include new business organizations (such as the joint stock company), the growth of capitalism, and the decline of the guilds. Mercantilism is also introduced. In Chapters 18 (p. 450) and 20 (pp. 510-511), students are introduced to Adam Smith and the capitalist challenge to mercantilism. The developing discussion culminates in Chapter 22, pp. 549-550, with the rise of big business. Topics include new business organizations (such as corporations and trusts) and the use of stock as a means of raising capital.

In Unit 8, the themes of economic interdependence and economic development are introduced in Chapter 32, pp. 812-815. These themes are followed up in each of the succeeding chapters as students study the various regions of the modern world.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Maps, graphic activities not adequate."

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall is alone among secondary school publishers in providing extensive, multilevel questions in each map caption. Many activities in the SE and TE require students to use or create maps/graphics. For example, see SE pages 153, 372, and 767; and TE pages 79, 644, and 702. Additional ancillary material provide further map and graphic activities, including the Color and Skills Transparencies, the Geography and History booklet in the Teaching Resources, the Nystrom Desk Atlas, and the Historical Outline Map Book.

Texas Council for the Social Studies

Response to Texas Council for the Social Studies written testimony about Prentice Hall's World Geography: Building a Global Perspective.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Strengths. Factual Knowledge

• Good primary sources

• Geography facts seem to be accurate

• No obvious bias Special Features

• Skills for Life section Study Aids

• Chapter reviews

• Section assessments

• Skill activities

• Spanish glossary

Visual Presentation

• Many pictures

• Clear maps

• Include sketch maps

• Chart of available resources

• Desk atlas

• Evidence of video(s)

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall thanks the reviewers for acknowledging these strengths of World Geography: Building a Global Perspective.

Texas Council for the Social Studies: "Stronger in political/economic; needs more in social and cultural issues."

Publisher's Response:

Please note that this textbook is just one component of a complete program on World Geography. Several of World Geography's components pay special attention to social and cultural issues. Some examples follow.

• The Teaching Resources component includes an activity booklet titled "People and Geography," which focuses on a number of social and cultural topics, including global interdependence, urbanization, conflict, population, and human rights.

• Social and cultural issues are also addressed by our World Geography Map and Photo Transparencies, which include a set of photos and critical-thinking questions titled "People and Cultures."

• Yet another source for coverage of social and cultural issues is our award-winning World Geography Video Collection. Many of the 34 segments in this series deal with societies and cultures around the world. Some examples are titled:

"Cultures: Russia"

"Movement: West and Central Africa"

"Population Growth: China"

"Science and Technology: The Countries of South Asia"

"Regions: Regions of the United States"

"Place: Canada"

Robert Bohmfalk

Response to Robert Bohmfalk's written testimony about Prentice Hall's America: Pathways to the Present.

R. Bohmfalk: "Many important events of the last 25 years were absent."

Publisher's Response:

We regret that for space reasons we are not able to cover all events. Although it is not shown on Mr. Bohmfalk's chart, America: Pathways to the Present does cover the Challenger explosion on p. 879.

Emily R. Vasquez

Response to Emily R Vasquez's written testimony about Prentice Hall's Lone Star: The Story of Texas.

E. Vasquez: "Despite resources given, it lacks emphasis on Hispanics, Mexican Americans and especially women who have made a difference in Texas, whether in its history or culture. For example, on page 456, a brief description was given on Ann Richards former governor of Texas; even less was mentioned about Miriam "ma" Ferguson the first female governor.

Other examples: Page 240 a brief mention of what women's rights were, page 290 a small paragraph on the role women played in the civil war does no justice, page 373-372 covers other aspect of the roles women played, the way it is worded make the accomplishments sound demeaning."

Publisher's Response:

Lone Star: The Story of Texas contains coverage of the contributions of Hispanic Americans and women throughout the program — not just in the student edition. Please see the following examples.

Coverage of individual women and their contributions

Francita Alavez, "Angel of Goliad," SE: 175 Mrs. W.M. Anderson, Experiencing Texas History, 83 Jane Cazneau, SE: 243, TR: Unit 4 booklet, 25 Patricia De Leon, SE: 250

Suzanna Dickinson, SE: 170, 172; image, 170; TR: Unit 3 booklet, 42 Dixie Chicks, SE: 468

Miriam "Ma" Ferguson, SE: 397, 408, 456; image, 397 Sarah Ford, Local History and Primary Sources, 35 Mrs. Dilue Harris, SE: quote, 164 Rebecca Henry Hayes, SE: 368 Oveta Gulp Hobby, SE: 421-422

Mary Austin Holley, SE: quote, 212; image, 126p; Experiencing Texas History: 130 Kay Bailey Hutchison, SE: 456 Lady Bird Johnson, SE: image, 517 Janis Joplin, SE: 468

Barbara Jordan, SE: 452, 456, 493; image, 456; quote, 454, 478; Local History and Primary Sources, 57

Ninfa Rodriguez Laurenzo, SE: 513

Tara Lipinski, SE: 466

Frances Cooke Lipscomb, SE: quote, 227

Matilda Lickhart, SE: 218

Jane Long, SE: 96, 96p, 121

Myra McDaniel: SE: 456

Elisabet Ney, SE: 466; TR: Unit 5 booklet, 41

Bonnie Parker, SE: 404, 407-408; image, 408

Cynthia Ann Parker, SE: 307, TE: 307

Katherine Anne Porter, TR: Unit 5 booklet, 61

Mary Crownover Rabb, SE: quote, 121

Melinda Rankin, SE: 280

Mary Lou Retton, SE: 466

Ann Richards, SE: 456, 507, 561; image, 496

Dilue Rose, TR: Unit 3 booklet, 58

Carole Keeton Rylander, TR: Unit 7 booklet, 7

Rose Spector, SE: 456

Helen Stoddard, SE: image, 368

Annette Strauss, SE: 456

Susan Swenson, SE: 272

Mrs. Terrell, SE: quote, 191

Kate Scurry Terrell, Local History and Primary Sources, 21

Emma Tiller, SE: quote, 412; Local History and Primary Sources, 50-51

Sara Martinez Tucker, SE: image, 532

Kathy Whitmire, SE: 456

Elizabeth Johnson Williams, TR: Unit 5 booklet, 24

Lizzie E. Williams, SE: 315

Babe Didrikson Zaharias, SE: 466

Other information about women and their contributions

American G.I. Forum Women's Auxiliary, Experiencing Texas History: 105

in Archives War, SE: image, 221

in Austin's Colony, SE: 212, 121q, image, 122

in cattle industry, SE: 315

civil rights of, SE: 371-372, image, 372

in the Civil War, SE: 290, image, 290

in Congress, SE: 454

in Council House Fight, SE: 218

in education, SE: 397, 401, image, 532

governors, SE: 397, 456; image, 397, 496

on juries, SE: 512

in Mexican War, SE: 243

Native American, SE: 33, 35, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 307

in politics, SE: 368, 456; image, 368, 456

rights of, SE: 240

sports teams, SE: 465, 466

suffrage for, SE: 368, 392; image, 368, 392, 398

as teachers, SE: 372; image, 372

during Texas Revolution, SE: 159, 170, 172, 174-175; image, 170

voting rights of, SE: 239, 240, 295, 297, 368, 392; image, 368, 392

in workforce, SE: 401

in World War I, SE: 395

in World War II, SE: 417, 417, 419-420, 424; image, 417, 424

Coverage of individual Hispanics and Mexican Americans and their contributions

Francita Alavez, "Angel of Goliad," SE: 175

Juan Almonte, SE: 126, 148, 195; Experiencing Texas History p 35-36

Pedro de Alvarado: SE: 59

Ramon Alvarado, SE: 315

Mariano Arista, SE: 242-243

Placido Benavides, SE: 160,161

Santos Benavides, SE: 249, 286-287; TR: Unit 4 booklet, 59

Francisco Leyva de Bonilla, Experiencing Texas History: 16

Juan Cabal, Experiencing Texas History: 17

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, SE: 27, 41, 49, 54, 64-65, 66; quote, 32, 44, 49, 62 TR: Unit 2

booklet, 6

Antonio Canales, SE: 235 Henry Cisneros, SE: 457

Mario Compean, Local History and Primary Sources: 53 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, SE: 54, 67-69, 536; image, 69; quote, 52, 516 Hernan Cortes, SE: 27, 54, 59-61, 62; image, 59 Juan Cortina, Local History and Primary Sources: 30 Henry Cuellar, SE: quote, 510 Alonso de Leon, TR: Unit 2 booklet, 23

Martin De Leon, SE: 107,123, 124, 138; Experiencing Texas History: 27 Patricia De Leon, SE: 250

Antonio de Espejo, Experiencing Texas History: 16 Bernardo de Galvez, SE: 382 Hector Garcia, SE: 437 Macario Garcia, SE: 420 Felipe de la Garza, SE: 122 Alberto Gonzales, SE: 457, 515 Raul Gonzales, SE: 457 Alfredo Gonzalez, SE: 448; image, 448 Henry B. Gonzalez, SE: 428, 437; TR: Unit 5 booklet, 43 Jose Angel Gutierrez, SE: 457; Local History and Primary Sources: 53-54

Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, SE: 78, 95; image, 95

Antonio Gutierrez de Humana, Experiencing Texas History: 16

Ninfa Rodriguez Laurenzo, SE: 513

Jose Francisco Lopez, SE: quote, 86, 101

Antonio Maria Martinez, SE: 114-115, 118, 119

Benito Martinez, SE: 448

Narciso Martinez, SE: 468

Luis de Moscoso, SE: 54, 69-70, 386, 536

Ramsey Muniz, SE: 456

Ramon Musquiz, SE: 145

Panfilo de Narvaez, SE: 63-64

Jose Antonio Navarro: SE: 238-239; image, 185; TE 239, 249

Marcos de Niza, SE: 54, 66-67

Juan de Onate, SE: 70, 519; image, 70; Experiencing Texas History: 16

Americo Paredes, SE: 467; TR: Unit 5 booklet, 60

Juan Perez, Experiencing Texas History: 17

Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, SE: 54, 62-63

Roger Pineiro, SE: quote, 458

Francisco Pizarro, SE: 61; image, 61

Rolando Quintana, SE: quote, 470

Agustin Rodriguez, Experiencing Texas History: 16

Cleto Rodriguez, SE: 420; Experiencing Texas History: 99

Jose Francisco Ruiz, TR: Unit 3 booklet, 24

Francisco Sanchez, Experiencing Texas History: 16

Jose Maria Sanchez, SE: quote, 108

Jose Sanchez y Tapia, SE: 466

Juan Seguin, SE: 161, 169, 169p; TR: Unit 4 booklet, 21

Caspar Jose de Solis, TR: Unit 2 booklet, 24

Caspar Castano de Sosa, Experiencing Texas History: 16

Hernando de Soto, SE: 69

Domingo Teran, TR: Unit 2 booklet, 23

Sara Martinez Tucker, SE: 532

Ignacio Zaragoza, SE: 514

Lorenzo de Zavala, SE: 107, 124, 184, 249; image, 125; Experiencing Texas History: 33

Other information about Hispanics and Mexican Americans and their contributions

American G.I. Forum, Experiencing Texas History: 105

American G.I. Forum's Women's Auxiliary, Experiencing Texas History: 105

on cattle drives, 315 Cinco de Mayo, 514 culture of, 523-524, 514g

Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District (1970), Experiencing Texas History: 107

civil rights of 371-372, 372p, 436-437

in Civil War, 285, 286-287

Conferencia de Mujeres por La Raza, Experiencing Texas History: 105

Congreso Mexicanista, Experiencing Texas History: 105

conjunto music, 468

cowboys, 315

culture of, 513-514, 514g

Delgado v. Bastrop Independent School District (1948), Experiencing Texas History: 107

folklorists, 467

in government, 437

Hernandez v. Driscoll Consolidated School District (1957), Experiencing Texas History: 107

Hernandez v. Texas (1954), Experiencing Texas History: 107

influence of Hispanic culture in Texas, SE: 90

influence on place names, 33, 69, 81

La Raza Unida Party, 456; Experiencing Texas History: 106

League of Latin American Citizens (LULAC), 456; Experiencing Texas History: 105

Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Experiencing Texas History: 105

Mexican American Youth Foundation (MAYO), Experiencing Texas History: 105

Orden Hijos de America, 436; Experiencing Texas History: 106

Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations (PASSO), Experiencing Texas

History: 106 in politics, 456-457, 533

School Improvement League, Experiencing Texas History: 106 sheep ranching and, 347

in Texas Revolution, 161, 167, 168, 169, 169p, 172, 173 vaqueros, 312-313 Viva Kennedy campaign, 434, 437 voting by, 437 in West Texas, 319 in World War I, 395 in World War II, 420, 424, 436-437

Manuel Medrano

Response to Manuel Medrano's written testimony about Prentice Hall America: Pathways to the Present

M. Medrano: "pp. 4-5 Olmec, Mayas and Aztecs are completely excluded..."

Publisher's Response:

Due to the condensed nature of the review materials, which cover from beginnings to 1861, many topics are not included or receive only brief treatment. The Maya and the Aztec are shown on the map on p. 3.

M. Medrano: "p. 16 Include information about the rancho institution and its impact on Borderland settlement."

Publisher's Response:

Due to the condensed nature of the review materials, which cover from beginnings to 1861, many topics are not included or receive only brief treatment.

M. Medrano: "p. 48 No mention of Spanish assistance."

Publisher's Response:

SE p. 48, paragraph 4, 'Help From Abroad". Revise as follows:

"Even before France entered the war, the Marquis de Lafayette, a French nobleman, had volunteered to help the Patriots. So, too, had Polish military engineer Thaddeus Kosciusko and German Baron Friedrich von Steuben. A year later, Spain joined the war as France's ally."

M. Medrano: "p. 49 Include the role of women, blacks, and the Dutch in the American effort."

Publisher's Response:

Due to the condensed nature of the review materials, which cover from beginnings to 1861, many topics are not included or receive only brief treatment.

M. Medrano: "p. 268 Add that placer mining and other mining methods were Spanish in origin and not just Spanish language."

Publisher's Response:

SE p. 268, paragraph 3, revise fourth sentence as follows:

"A Spanish technique called placer mining used this method on a large scale."

M. Medrano: "p. 272 Include the King Ranch of Texas as one of the largest cattle ranches in the Americas."

Publisher's Response:

TE p. 272 Add the following Background Biography below the current biography on Charles Goodnight (above the Captions Answers):

Background Biography

Huge ranches spread across Texas. Richard King started with 15,000 acres in Nueces County in 1852. A few years later Mifflin Kennedy joined him and they bought more land. When King died in 1885, he owned more than 600,000 acres. His son-in-law, Robert Justus Kleberg, and widow, Henrietta King, more than doubled the size of the ranch. The King ranch grew to more than one million acres — about as large as the state of Rhode Island.

M. Medrano: "p. 607 Include the photographs of Jose M. Lopez, Aguila Azteca, and Audey Murphy"

Publisher's Response:

SE p. 607 Delete photograph and caption of Allied soldiers parachuting into France and replace with the following Focus on Citizenship. Include photographs of Jose M. Lopez and Audey Murphy.

"Focus on Citizenship Texas War Heroes

Jose M. Lopez from Mission, Texas received a Congressional Medal of Honor for single-handedly holding off a German tank and infantry assault against his company near Krinkelt, Belgium in December 1944. Another famous war hero, Audey Murphy, fought in Europe and became the nation's most decorated soldier, earning 28 medals, including the Congressional Medal of Honor, three medals from France, and one from Belgium. Following the war Murphy embarked on an acting career and appeared in more than 40 films. Murphy is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

M. Medrano: "p. 629 Add faces to the ex-Rosie the Riveters returning to home life."

Publisher's Response:

We have included the poster showing Rosie the Riveter on page 629 as a primary source documenting government efforts to persuade women to return to homemaking.

M. Medrano: "p. 704 Include Mexican American civil rights efforts spearheaded by Cesar Chavez, Jose Angel Gutierrez, Reies Lopez Tijerina, Rodolfo Gonzalez, and academic Americo Paredes."

Publisher's Response:

Jose Angel Gutierrez and Reies Lopez Tijerina are included in the text on p. 773. Cesar Chavez in included in the text on pp. 762, 771, 772, and 773. His speech to the National Press Club in 1973 is also included on the Sounds of an Era Audio CD which is referenced in the student text on p. 773:

Transcript of Chavez's National Press Club speech on the Sounds of an Era Audio CD: "Nonviolently, we are going to move the consciousness, hearts and minds of the American people. We are going to throw them [the Teamsters] out of the fields until we get the growers to understand that you're not just fighting the worker, you're fighting the wife, the son, the grandfather, the first and second cousins. You take our union on, you're taking on a lot of people."

M. Medrano: "p. 730 Include "a Mexican school" in South Texas or a sign indicating "No Mexicans Allowed" in Texas and other states.

Publisher's Response:

To expand the coverage of Hispanic Americans' struggle for equal rights, the following changes are proposed to the SE on p. 703.

To make room for additional content, delete the Eisenhower quote.

Change "In a speech to the nation on September 24, 1957, Eisenhower justified his actions" to "In a speech to the nation on September 24, 1957, Eisenhower told the nation that his actions were necessary to defend the authority of the Supreme Court."

Add the following new content after the first paragraph under the heading "Other Voices of Protest":

"Like African American children in southern states, Mexican American children in parts of California and Texas attended inferior segregated public schools. Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez of Orange County, California, sued their school district over this discrimination. In 1947, a Federal District Court judge ruled that segregating Mexican American students was unconstitutional. Soon thereafter, attorney Gus Garcia filed a similar lawsuit in Texas. That case, Delgado v. Bastrop ISD, made the segregation of Mexican American children in Texas illegal as well."

To expand the coverage of Hispanic Americans' struggle for equal rights, replace the "Focus on Citizenship" feature on p. 719 of the SE with the following new content:

Focus on Citizenship

Jim Crow and Mexican Americans

The Jim Crow laws that were overturned by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 had historically affected both African Americans and Mexican Americans. In states with Jim Crow laws, Mexican Americans were often barred from public facilities, such as restaurants, and they were banned from serving on juries because they were not always considered "white." Many Mexican American children were segregated into separate inferior schools, and in some parts of Texas were not allowed to speak Spanish in school.

Mexican Americans challenged this discrimination in court. A 1948 court case in Texas, Delgado v. Bastrop ISD, made the school segregation of Mexican American children illegal. In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in Hernandez v. State of Texas that Mexican Americans were not covered by Jim Crow laws. In 1968, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) organized to continue the fight for equal rights for Mexican Americans.

M. Medrano: "p. 772 Americo Paredes, eminent folklorist and scholar from South Texas, as an academic activist who through his research and writing, championed cultural pride."

Publisher's Response:

SE p. 772, Cultural Identity, revise first sentence as follows:

Activists such as Americo Paredes, a noted folklorist and author from Texas, began encouraging Mexican Americans to take pride in their culture and its dual heritage from Spain and the ancient cultures of Mexico."

Linda Parrish, Dale Baum, Armando Alonzo, Joseph G. Dawson

Response to Parrish's, Baum's, Alonzo's, and Dawson's testimony about Prentice Hall America: Pathways to the Present

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall would like to thank Professor's Parrish, Baum, Alonzo, and Dawson for their review of the text.

Eleanor Hutchinson

Response to Eleanor Hutchinson's written testimony about Prentice Hall's Lone Star: The Story of Texas.

E. Hutchinson: "Prentice Hall for Formal Response, may I suggest that you use a more current reference as to politics in Texas. Note that ALL the state offices in Texas are currently held by elected Republicans. The Republicans control the Senate, and perhaps the House will be after this next election."

Publisher's Response:

The scope of Chapter 19, Section 1 is to give a broad overview of Texas politics from 1970 to 2000. Given the large scope and limited space, some details cannot be included. However, students are encouraged to research their current elected officials in activities on pages 451 and 507 of the Student Edition and 497 of the Teacher Edition. The activity on page 451 of the Student Edition in particular asks students to research the role of the Republican Party in Texas politics today.

E. Hutchinson: "You failed to even mention the Presidents that have come from Texas."

Publisher's Response:

Lone Star: The Story of Texas includes a reference section called "Texan Presidents of the United States," which gives students full biographies with photos of the four Texan presidents. In addition, President Eisenhower is mentioned on pages 378, 419, and 433. President Lyndon Johnson is mentioned on pages 415, 429, 433, 434, 437, 438, 439, 449, with a quote on page 437 and photos on pages 434 and 439. President George H.W. Bush appears on pages 455, 462, 543. He is quoted on page 462 and appears in photos on pages 455 and 543. President George W. Bush is mentioned on pages 455, 457, 463, 466, and 497. He is quoted on page 497.

Charlotte Coffelt

Response to Charlotte Coffelt's written testimony about Prentice Hall's Magruder's American Government.

Please be assured that Magruder's America Government contains a thorough discussion of religious diversity. See in particular pages 537-544, "Freedom of Religion," which discuss the necessity of freedom of religion to a free society and describe how the Free Exercise Clause protects the individual's right to believe whatever he or she wishes.

Margie Raborn

Response to Margie Raborn's written testimony about Prentice Hall's World Explorer: People, Places, and Cultures.

M. Raborn: p. 33 Title: "A Scarce Natural Resource: Energy" An opinion stated as fact, there are vast energy resources, many that we may not have harnessed or even know about yet.

Publisher's Response:

SE, p. 33, change head to "Energy Resources."

M. Raborn: p. 41 Critical Thinking Exercise: "How do very crowded situations make you feel?" Is this course about learning or getting in touch with one's feelings?

Publisher's Response:

The question quoted above is part of a caption for a photo showing a Tokyo subway station. The captions says, "CULTURE: At rush hour in Tokyo, white-gloved guards jam two more passengers onto an already full train." The accompanying text further explains how crowded the city of Tokyo and its trains are. The purpose of the question is to help students understand what it is like to live in a place where such crowded conditions are taken for granted — in other words, to understand another culture. It corresponds to the purpose of a world cultures course as

described in 113.22 Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies: "(1) In Grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world....." and "(15) Culture. The student understands the similarities and differences within and among cultures in different societies."

M. Raborn: p. 43 Boxed information stating that because of global warming "the Earth's polar ice is melting. This is causing the oceans to rise." Theory presented as fact without presenting other views. Critical Thinking Exercise: "Who do you think is responsible for solving this problem (melting ice caps)?" Opportunity to prepare student to look to the government for solutions to problems.

Publisher's Response:

The entire box called "Changing the Earth's Environment" will be deleted. Please see Prentice

Hall TEA Editorial Corrections List dated 9/16/02.

M. Raborn: p. 49 Present the concept of "nuclear family" and "extended family" as equal.

Publisher's Response:

Definitions of these two types of families appear in a paragraph titled "Kinds of Families" under the heading "Institutions Basic to All Societies" in the Section "Cultures and Cultural Institutions." They conform to the purpose of a world cultures course as defined in the Texas State Curriculum for 6th grade social studies:

"(16) Culture. The student understands that certain institutions are basic to all societies, but characteristics of these institutions may vary from one society to another. The student is expected to: (A) Identify institutions basic to all societies ... (B) compare characteristics of institutions in selected contemporary societies."

The paragraphs in the text explain that the institution of the family is basic to any culture; then the types of families are explained. The text does not promote value judgments of any kind of family, singly or in comparison to each other. Its purpose is to inform students of the types of institutions found around the world.

M. Raborn: p. 50 Chart comparing 6 major religions. God is equated to "various gods," "Allah," "Brahman," and "Yaweh." Jesus is equated to "The Buddha," "Muhammad," "Abraham," and "Confucius." Demeaning and offensive to anyone who believes in God and/or Jesus.

Publisher's response:

The purpose of this chart is to provide information on the characteristics of the world's major religions, as required in the Texas State Curriculum for 6th grade social studies: "(16 A) identify institutions basic to all societies, including ... religious institutions; and (B) compare characteristics of institutions in selected contemporary societies."

M. Raborn: p. 53 Horrific definition of socialism. "In a socialist system, the government owns most of the basic industries. It runs them for the good of society, not for profit. The government decides how much to pay workers and how much to charge for goods. It uses profits to pay for services such as health care and education." Preparing the students to accept more government control because it is "for the good of society!"

Publisher's response:

On SE p. 53, delete second sentence of last paragraph: "It runs them for the good of the society, not for profit."

Revise fourth and fifth sentences of last paragraph, p. 53, as follows: "It uses profits to pay for services such as health care and education. In this system, other industries and services follow the capitalist model."

M. Raborn: p. 54 Next logical step. "In a communist system, the central government owns all property, such as farms and factories, for the benefit of its citizens.' Unbelievable in an American textbook!

Publisher's response:

The following correction has already been made. Please see Prentice Hall TEA Editorial

Corrections List:

On SE page 54, first full paragraph, line 2, delete the phrase "for the benefit of its citizens."

M. Raborn: p. 54-56 Types of Government: They list Direct Democracy, Monarchy, Representative Democracy, and Dictatorship. No mention of republic, or that we have a constitution to limit the role of government.

Publisher's response:

The following correction will be made. Please see Prentice Hall TEA Editorial Corrections List dated 9/16/02:

On SE page 55, revise first and last sentences of final paragraph as follows: "Representative Government In a representative government, also known as a republic, the people hold the power to govern and rule.... The United States and Canada are examples of representative government."

The fact that the role of government is limited in the United States is addressed in two places:

On page 56, first paragraph, third sentence and following: "Gradually citizens began demanding more personal freedoms. They demanded protection from actions of their own governments, and wanted a voice in the decisions made by government. The democracy established in the United States provided these rights and freedoms."

On page 89, final paragraph, second sentence: "The Constitution, approved in 1789, established a government of three branches in which government's powers are limited and citizens have rights that the government cannot take away."

M. Raborn: p. 87 "Perhaps as early as 30,000 years ago ... during the last ice age... " Theory presented as fact without other views presented.

Publisher's response:

The use of the word "perhaps" indicates that this information is not being presented as established fact. Other qualifiers in the paragraph underscore this: "Some scientists think..." "Other migrating peoples may have ..." This information represents the most widely held view of scientists. It is clear that this migration is still being studied and interpreted.

M. Raborn: p. 89 "George Washington led the American forces to victory in 1781." No farther mention of him as President or 'Father of our Country' or any quotes from him. Though leaders of other countries get their pictures and write-ups.

Publisher's Response:

Prentice Hall regrets that we cannot cover everything in depth in a survey of world cultures text. Because this book is for a course in world cultures, it must cover many countries and societies, as described in the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies: "(1) In Grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world." The history of the United States is covered (most specifically on pages 86-97), and there are Americans featured in the text and in photos. Students study the United States in more detail in their fifth- and eighth-grade American history courses.

M. Raborn: p.91 The United States also continued to gain land. In 1836, American settlers in the Mexican territory of Texas rebelled against Mexican authority. With a force of more than 4,000 men, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexico's new leader, marched towards San Antonio to personally put down the rebellion." Poor coverage of the significance of the Alamo.

Publisher's response:

Prentice Hall regrets that we cannot cover everything in depth in a survey of world cultures text. The Alamo, however, is mentioned more specifically in the sentence following the one quoted above. "Although Santa Anna would defeat the Texans at the Alamo and Goliad, he would lose decisively to Sam Houston, the leader of the Texas volunteers, and his men at the battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836."

M. Raborn: p. 97 Critical Thinking Exercise: "In the civil rights movement, many people broke the law by fighting for equality. Do you think their actions were justified? Why?" Question the value of an exercise that would encourage 6th graders to consider breaking the law for any reason.

Publisher's response:

On SE page 97, replace the current Critical Thinking question in the photo caption as follows:

"Why do you think this peaceful gathering of citizens helped to change public opinion and government policy"

M. Raborn: p. 105 "I think about an ideal society where there's a little bit of every culture and it goes together just right." One person's opinion of what is "ideal." A continued effort to make the student see all cultures as equal.

Publisher's response:

The statement quoted above is part of a quotation introduced this way: "This view of cultural diversity, or a wide variety of cultures, comes from Tito, a teenager from Mexico." This introduction makes it clear that the statement is the opinion of one individual, a teenager from Mexico, and represents only that one person's point of view. It therefore implies that other individuals of other age groups and in other circumstances may hold different opinions. There is no suggestion that different cultures are equal.

M. Raborn: p. 107-108 "Just as there has always been cultural diversity in North America, there has always been religious diversity." There seems to be an effort to make all cultures, religions, and all forms of government equal, so that the student will have no particular loyalty to any.

Publisher's response:

This sentence is a statement of fact: different cultures and different religions were found in North America throughout its history. It does not make any value judgment about those cultures or religions — merely that they existed in the same place at the same time.

M. Raborn: p. 121 "For at least a century, life in New York City has been described in one way: crowded." P. 124 "One word describes New York City — huge." Generalities, simplistic.

Publisher's response:

Change SE page, paragraph 1, sentence 1, as follows: "For at least a century, the streets of New York City have been crowded."

Change SE page 124, paragraph 1, sentence 1, as follows: "Visitors are often surprised by how big New York City is."

M. Raborn: p. 122 "The population is denser in parts of New Jersey than in crowded countries like India or Japan." Certainly there are "parts" of New Jersey that are less crowded than India or Japan. Unjustified comparison, to mold an attitude.

Publisher's response:

The quoted sentence is a statement of fact. It provides a basis of comparison among places, as required by the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies: "(4) Geography. The student understands the characteristics and relative locations of major historical and contemporary societies. The student is expected to (B) identify and explain the geographic factors responsible for patterns of populations in places and regions.. ..[and] (15 C) analyze the similarities and differences among selected world societies." The statement also implies that since only parts of New Jersey are more crowded than India and Japan, other parts must be less crowded. No attitude or value judgment is implied.

M. Raborn: p. 125 "From July 19 to August 4, 1996, the city of Atlanta, Georgia, was the center of the world." Another unjustified statement, even if it is only trying to make a point.

Publisher's response:

The dates refer to the Olympics held at Atlanta. The term "center" is used as a metaphor to underline the international focus on that particular city during those dates.

M. Raborn: p. 132 "Today, Chicago is the biggest city in the heartland. It is known for its ethnic diversity and lively culture." Opinion not fact. Is probably better known for its Sears Tower, O'Hare Airport or as a financial center.

Publisher's response:

Sentences that follow the one quoted above go on to make a similar point: "It is the hub of major transportation routes — highways, railroads, airlines, and shipping routes. Chicago is also the home of the first skyscraper to be built in the Midwest." The paragraph as a whole gives a balanced picture of Chicago today.

M. Raborn: p. 136 "The greater the population density has created crowded freeways and air pollution. To counter these problems, San Jose has built a light-rail mass transit system. Mass Transit replaces individual cars with energy-saving buses or trains." Definitely written to give students a favorable impression of mass transit systems.

Publisher's response:

The quoted passage is merely a statement of facts. It defines mass transit, and provides information as to what one city did to counter its problems of crowded highways and air pollution. No advocacy is stated or implied.

M. Raborn: p. 189 Picture and write up of Toussaint L'Overture. "The flame of liberty sparked in Haiti soon spread across Latin America." No such glowing words for the love of liberty spread from the American shores.

Publisher's response:

Prentice Hall regrets that we cannot cover everything in depth in a survey of world cultures text. Because this book is for a course in world cultures, it must cover many countries and societies, as described in the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies: "(1) In Grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world." and "(2) History. The student understands the contributions of individuals and groups from various cultures to selected historical and contemporary societies."

M. Raborn: p. 190 Picture and write-up concerning the efforts of Father Hidalgo's call for revolution. No mention of the efforts of Paul Revere.

Publisher's response:

Prentice Hall regrets that we cannot cover everything in depth in a survey of world cultures text. Because this book is for a course in world cultures, it must cover many countries and societies, as described in the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies: "(1) In Grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world." and "(2) History. The student understands the contributions of individuals and groups from various cultures to selected historical and contemporary societies." American patriots who called for revolution, such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and the Sons of Liberty, are discussed on page 89. Students will find more information on this topic in their fifth- and eighth-grade American history courses.

M. Raborn: p. 193 Skills For Life: Making Decisions. An interesting break down for the process, but no mention of right or wrong or unlawful... just weigh the consequences.

Publisher's Response:

In Skills For Life: Making Decisions, students are expected to take community values into account as part of the decision-making process. Part D of the process is "Think about each option and the possible consequences of each action. Write down the risks as well as the outcome not only for yourself, but for your family, school, and community. Others, such as which candidate to vote for or which political issue to support, may affect your entire state or country." Unlawful acts necessarily carry consequences which the student must consider.

In the "Practice the Skill" section, students are asked to judge whether Father Hidalgo's decision was right and to support their answer.

M. Raborn: p. 230 Picture and very glowing write-up of Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Students would have no idea of the atrocities that occurred under his leadership. If this is an example of the presentation of facts in Haiti, one would have to question presentations for other countries.

Publisher's Response:

SE, p. 231, paragraph 4, replace first sentences with:

"There have been attempts to bring democracy to Haiti. Political violence is an ongoing problem. In 1990, Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected president. Aristide was a controversial Catholic priest..."

M. Raborn: p. 339 "Traditional ways still continue in Siberia.. .but the fall of communism and the arrival of free enterprise are starting to affect life in the region. Under the communistic system, everyone was guaranteed a job. Now Siberians who work in factories and coal mines must worry about losing their jobs." Continual effort to find some good in communism and must show some fault with free enterprise.

Publisher's Response:

The passage is a factual description of employment policies during and after Communism in fulfillment of requirement (9)(A), "The student is expected to compare ways in which various societies organize the production and distribution of goods and services."

The benefits of the free enterprise system are described in the rest of the paragraph immediately following the quoted passage. "On the other hand, for the first time in 70 years, Siberians are able to buy their own homes. Before, they had to live in houses that belonged to the state. People can also now buy stock in the companies where they work."

M. Raborn: p. 386 "In North Africa, many aspects of daily life are affected by the sacred book of Islam, the Quran. Like the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible, the Quran provides a guide to life and forbids lying, stealing, murder. The Quran also prohibits gambling, eating pork, and drinking alcohol. North African law is Islamic law and governs family life, business practices, banking, and government." We can teach that the government of North Africa is based on the Quran, why can't we teach that America was founded on biblical principles?"

Publisher's Response:

The following change has already been submitted. Please see Prentice Hall TEA Corrections

List:

SE, p. 386, Change "North African law is Islamic law" to "North African countries use some Islamic laws to govern family life, business practices, banking, and government."

The discussion of North African governments is in keeping with the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies requirements to describe the cultures and institutions of foreign nations. The founding principles of American government are extensively discussed in curricula concerning American History and U.S. Government.

M. Raborn: p. 400 "Education is a priority in the religion of Islam, one of the major religions practiced in Africa. From the 600s on, Muslims have studied art, literature, philosophy, math, and medicine. Muslim mathematicians invented algebra and Muslim astronomers accurately mapped the location of the stars." Continued promotion of Islam with no balance for Christianity.

Publisher's Response:

Discussion of Islam is included to meet standards (20)(A) of the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies, "The student is expected to give examples of scientific discoveries and technological innovations, including the roles of scientists and inventors, that have transcended the boundaries of societies and have shaped the world," and (2)(B), "The student is expected to describe the influence of individual and group achievement on selected historical or contemporary societies." The introduction to the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies states, "Societies selected for study are chosen from the following regions of the world:... Southwest Asia-North Africa...""

American education and technological accomplishments are found in Chapter 6, Section 3, and Chapter 7, as well as 8th grade and 11th grade curricula.

M. Raborn: p. 403 "Praying and fasting are two ways that Egyptian Muslims have brought their religion into their daily lives. But many other teachings in the Quran, such as the importance of honesty, honor, giving to others and having love and respect for their families, govern their daily lives." More propaganda!

Publisher's Response:

SE, p. 403, first paragraph, delete second sentence.

M. Raborn: There are only 2 references to the Bible listed in the index, as compared to 7 praise worthy references to the Quran. Pg. 402 "Muslims believe that the Quran, their holy book, contains the word of God and that they were revealed to Muhammad during the month of Ramadan. They also believe that the Jewish Torah and the Christian Bible are the word of God." The mention of the Bible is almost an aside and the statement that Muslims believe it is the word of God is untrue. On page 495 is the only other reference to the Bible. It is one line out of 3 paragraphs concerning Christianity that play down the deity of Jesus and there is no indication that the Bible is either holy or the words of God. "Accounts of Jesus's life were later written down by his followers and now form an important part of the New Testament in the Christian Bible."

Publisher's Response

SE, p. 402, first paragraph, change second sentence to:

"Muslims believe in many of the teachings presented in the Jewish Torah and the Christian Bible."

Discussion of the Quran fulfills requirement 113.22 (19)(A) of the Texas State curriculum for 6th grade social studies, "The student is expected to explain the relationship among religious ideas, philosophical ideas, and cultures." The description of the Bible on p. 402 is brief because the context is the history of Islam, and no absolutely no comparison of relative importance is intended or implied.

The three-paragraph discussion of Christianity on p. 495 is intended to be factual and respectful. Christianity is discussed throughout the book in keeping with the curricular goals of the 6th grade social studies curriculum.

M. Raborn: Pg. 525 "In the spirit of democracy, India passed laws to protect the rights of untouchables and to help them improve their lives. The government uses quotas to guarantee jobs to Untouchables." Plants a favorable impression on the use of quotas.

Publisher's Response

Passage is a factual description of Indian government policy toward Untouchables in fulfillment of standards (2)(A), "The student is expected to explain the significance of individuals or groups from selected societies, past and present," and (16)(B), "The student is expected to compare characteristics of institutions in selected contemporary societies." No value judgment is intended or implied.

M. Raborn: Pg. 529 "Also, Alcohol and pork are illegal in Saudi Arabia and all shops must close five times a day when Muslims pray. Saudi Arabians use Western inventions to improve their lives. But they make sure these inventions do not interfere with their traditions." It sounds as though Western inventions would cause Saudis to use alcohol or not pray.

Publisher's Response:

SE, p. 529, fifth paragraph.

Append the first sentence of the paragraph to the end of the preceding paragraph.

Fifth paragraph will now read, "Saudi Arabians use many Western inventions to improve their lives. But they make sure these inventions do not interfere with their traditions."

M. Raborn: Page 577 This seems to be the most telling quote of all as to the intent of message of this textbook. This is an exercise on Identifying Frame of Reference, "Look for evidence of different cultural values, attitudes, and beliefs... being careful not to judge the culture by your own present day values and attitudes." The lesson seems to be all cultures, values, and attitudes are equally acceptable and that we are not to pass any judgments.

Publisher's Response:

Skills For Life: Identifying Frame of Reference conforms to standard (22)(E) of the Texas 6th Grade Social Studies curriculum, "The student is expected to identify the elements of frame of reference that influenced participants in an event." In this exercise, students read a passage describing the eating habits of Aborigines as witnessed by a British explorer. The activity asks students to appreciate the story and to think about it in its historical time and place without ascribing contemporary sensibilities about, in this case, eating cooked moths. Most students would immediately reject the idea of eating moths because it does not make sense in today's America; the purpose of the activity is to have them identify why it would not have seemed strange to Aborigines in Australia 200 years ago to eat moths, and why it did not seem strange to a British explorer at the time.

World Explorer: People, Places, and Cultures does not state or imply that all cultures are equal. The activity has a limited scope and is intended to teach students the skill of Identifying Frame of Reference according to the curricular requirements.


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