25. PIPE ROLL OF 31 HENRY I (1130)

(A) Warwickshire Account

Geoffrey de Clinton renders account of 44s. 8d. blanch[1] from the old farm. He has paid it into the treasury. And he is quit.

And the same man [renders account] of the new farm. In the treasury £100. 4s. 4d. by weight. And he owes £32. 9s. 4d. blanch.

And the same Geoffrey renders account of 310m. of silver for an office in the treasury at Winchester. In the treasury 100m. of silver. And he owes 210m. of silver.

And the same man owes 40m. of silver on behalf of the earl of Leicester for the debt of Ernald de Vétheuil.

And the same man owes 20m. of silver and 1m. of gold that the king will confirm in a charter for his church of Arden everything that the carl of Warwick gave him for the benefit of the said church.

And the same man owes £7. 13s. 8d. from the old farm of the land of William de Roumare.

And the same man owes 40m. of silver with which he should acquit Nicholas Fitz-Gundewin of Rouen.

Geoffrey Lovet owes £9. 13s. 4d. for the security that he unjustly took from a certain man; of which [money] the pledges are Geoffrey de Clinton and Robert de Neufbourg.

Osbert of Arden renders account of £10 for the pleas of William Hubold.[2] In the treasury 40s. And he owes £8.

And the same sheriff renders account of 100s. from old pleas and murders.[3] In pardon by the king's writ to the earl of Warwick 100s. And he is quit.

Hugh Fitz-Richard renders account of 200m. of silver and one valuable horse (equo de pretio) and two war-horses (dextrariis) for the land that Geoffrey de Lovet holds of him. In the treasury £30. And by the witness of Miles of Gloucester he has acquitted himself toward the king of the valuable war-horse (dextrario pretioso). And he owes 155m. of silver and two horses. And thereof [these men] are pledges: the earl of Warwick, 60m. of silver; Henry de Sai, 20m. of silver; Henry d'Armentières, 20m. of silver.

William Fitz-Ralph renders account of 113s. 4d. and one war-horse that he may have the land of his father. In the treasury 30s. And he owes £4. 3s. 4d. and one war-horse.

Robert Fitz-Ralph renders account of £4 for his portion of his father's land. In the treasury 20s. And he owes 60s.

The earl of Warwick renders account of £72. 16s. 8d. and two war-horses for pleas concerning stags;[4] and of 20m. of silver for the land which Geoffrey Lovet holds of him; and of 200m. of silver that the king will pardon him the surplus hidage of his manor of Brailles.[5 ]In the treasury £43. 6s. 8d. And he owes £176. 2s. 4d.

Guibert, steward of Roger de Mowbray, renders account of 1m. of silver from the pleas of Geoffrey de Clinton. He has paid it into the treasury. And he is quit.

Agnes de Clincamp renders account of 40s. that her sons may secure the inheritance of their father's land. She has paid it into the treasury. And she is quit.

And the same sheriff renders account of £8. 5d. from arrears of Danegeld. In the treasury 70s. 5d. And in pardons by the king's writ to the chancellor £4. 10s. And he is quit.

Walter Croc renders account of 33s. 4d. from the old rent of the forest during four years. He has paid it into the treasury. And he is quit.

And the same Walter renders account of 10m. of silver from the new rent of the forest. In the treasury 106s. 8d. And he owes 26s. 8d.

And the same man owes 3m. of gold for having his office again; and £13. 11s. 5d. for the land of Richard Chienewe; and £7. 6s. 8d. for the plea of Roger, son of Eli the scutellarius;[6] and £18. 5s. from the pleas of William of Gloucester; and 10 horses and 106 oxen and 200 pigs which he took from the forest, and which did not belong to him but to the forester. And he is in the king's mercy unless the king will be his warrantor for the 30s. that he unlawfully took and did not return.

And the same sheriff renders account of £12. 3s. 10d. from arrears of Danegeld. In the treasury 19s. And in pardons by the king's writ: to Ralph the Butler 60s.; to the count of Meulan 24s.; to Geoffrey de Mandeville 60s. 9d.; to Curtis 10s.; to the earl of Warwick £4. 4s. Total £11. 4s. 10d. And he is quit.

And the same sheriff renders acount of 37s. 2d. from arrears of aid from the borough of Tamworth.[7] He has paid it into the treasury. And he is quit.

New Pleas and New Obligations[8]

Robert Tortran renders account of 60m. of silver for the chattels of William de Chenfara that he took. In the treasury 30m. of silver. And he owes 30m. of silver.

Hugh Hall (de Hella) renders account of 100s. for the claims of Leofric Lock. In the treasury 30s. And he owes 70s.

Rodbricht of Bradwell renders account of 100s. from the same pleas. In the treasury 30s. And in pardon by the king's writ to the same Rodbricht 20s. And he owes 50s.

Ralph, son of Godwin Hall (de Halla) renders account of 10m. of silver from the same pleas. In the treasury 40s. And he owes 7m. of silver.

Fulk of Mauritania renders account of 30m. of silver for the plea concerning the chattels of Matilda of Stafford. In the treasury 5m. of silver. And he owes 25m. of silver.

Ivo, son of Hugh of Leicester, owes 20m. of silver for the grant of the land which belonged to William de Beaumont, and which the earl of Warwick gave him.

And the same sheriff renders account of Danegeld. In the treasury £78. 12s. 1d. And in pardons by the king's writ: to William Comyn 13s.; to the earl of Chester 24s....[9] Total £50. 5d. And he is quit.

And the same sheriff owes 30s. from the aid of the borough of Tamworth.

Geoffrey de Clinton renders account of the farm of Wargrave. In the treasury £80. And he is quit.

And the same Geoffrey renders account of £20 from the old farm of Wallop. He has paid it into the treasury. And he is quit.

And the same Geoffrey renders account of the new farm of Wallop. In the treasury £20. And he owes £20.

And the same Geoffrey renders account of the revenues of the abbey of Evesham. In the treasury £40.

(Latin) Pipe Roll of 31 Henry I, pp. 104 f.

(B) Miscellaneous Entries

Oxfordshire.... Matthew de Vernon owes 100 muids[10] of wine for the settlement of his brother's duel.... The cordwainers of Oxford render account of 5 ounces of gold as a bonus (gersoma) for having their gild again. In the treasury 30s. in place of 2 ounces of gold. And they owe 3 ounces of gold....

Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.... Robert de Lusors renders account of £8. 6s. 8d. that he may marry the sister of Ilbert de Lacy.... Ralph Halselin renders account of 200m. of silver and 1m. of gold for the relief of his father's land....

Wiltshire.... Humphrey de Bohun renders account of £22. 10s. for the relief of his father's land; and of 400m. of silver in order to be steward of the king.[11]... And the same sheriff owes 41s. 6d. from arrears of Danegeld. And the same sheriff owes £6. 18d. from arrears of the county's aid.[12]...

Yorkshire.... And the same sheriff owes £27. 10s. 7d. from arrears of the county's aid.... Walter de Chauncey renders account of £15 that he may marry a wife of his own choosing.... Thomas of York, son of Wulfgeat (Ulvieti), owes one hunting dog in order to be alderman of the gild merchant of York....

Cambridgeshire.... Hervey, bishop of Ely, renders account of 7½m. of gold for the office of his nephew William. In the treasury £18 in place of 3m. of gold. And he owes 4½m. of gold.... And the same bishop owes £240 that the king will quitclaim him of the bishop's surplus of knights and that the abbey of Charteris may be quit of wardpenny.[13]...

Surrey.... And the same [John Belet] owes 60s. from old aid of his knights.[14] ...

Essex.... And the same [Richard Fitz-Gilbert] owes 200m. of silver for the help that the king gave him in connection with his debt to the Jews. Juliana, wife of William of Hastings, owes £6 from old aid of knights from the fief of Waleran, her grandfather....

Kent.... Turgis, [bishop of] Avranches, renders account of 300m. of silver and 1m. of gold and a war-horse for the land and the widow of Hugh d'Auberville and to have wardship over his son until the latter is twenty years old....

Northamptonshire.... Osbert of Leicester owes 200m. of silver that the king will pardon him and Osbert, his clerk, for their malevolence.... Guy Maufé renders account of one war-horse that he may be justly treated in the court of his lord.[15] In the treasury 40s. in place of one war-horse. And he is quit....

Norfolk.... Benjamin renders account of £4. 5s. that he may keep the pleas that belong to the king's crown.[16] In the treasury 56s. 8d. And he owes 28s. 4d.; and [guarantees] to make a profit of 500m. for the king....

Suffolk.... William of Middlehall renders account of 4m. of silver from the pleas of Richard Basset. But he cannot be found in the county, nor has he anything. And so he is quit....

Lincolnshire.... And the same sheriff renders account of 1m. of gold for the weavers' gild of Lincoln. In the treasury £6 in place of 1m. of gold. And he is quit.... Lucy, countess of Chester, renders account of £266. 13s. 4d. for the land of her father. In the treasury £166. 13s. 6d. And she owes £100; also 500m. of silver that she need not take a husband inside five years. And the same countess renders account of 45m. of silver for the same agreement, to be given to whom the king pleases. To the queen 20m. of silver. And she owes 25m. of silver. And the same lady owes 100m. of silver that she may hold justice in her court among her own men.... The burgesses of Lincoln render account of 200m. of silver and 4m. of gold that they may hold the city of the king in chief.[17]... Lambert Fitz-Peter renders account of one palfrey for the land of his father. In the treasury 30s. in place of one palfrey. And he is quit....

Durham.... And the same Geoffrey renders account of the old farm of the bishropic for the previous year.... And the same Geoffrey renders account of the new farm of the bishropric.[18]...

London and Middlesex. The four sheriffs of London render account of the farm of London. In the treasury £16. 14s. 9d. blanch. And in fixed liveries £8. 2s. 1d. by tale. And in livery to the count of Mortain £12. 12s. 6d. by tale. And in clothes for the same count 65s. by tale. And in liveries to the serjeants who guard the count and to watchmen and doorkeepers at the Tower £12. 3s. 4d. by tale. And in livery to the wife of Owen the Naperer[19] 46s. 8d. by tale. And in livery to Geoffrey the Engineer[20] £10. 12s. 11d. by tale. And in livery to Ralph the Arborer[21] £7. 12s. 1d. by tale. And to the goldsmiths of London for charcoal 60s. 10d. by tale. And in oil to burn before the queen's sepulchre 16s. 2½d. And in livery to the archbishop of Rouen and in clothes for the count of Normandy £23. 10s. by tale. And in herrings, unguent, oil, nuts, and transportation to Woodstock £8. 18s. 5d. by tale. And in the purchase of wine and in transportation £45. 6s. 2d. by tale. And in the purchase of pepper, cummin, ginger, towels, basinets, and linen cloth for the king's use £23. 19s. 9d. by tale. And in building two arches of London Bridge £25 by tale. And in work on the Tower of London £17. 6s. by tale. And in repairing the houses that belonged to Othweard (Otuerus), [in repairing] the chapel, and in other minor work 22s. 9d. by tale. And in quittances of toll[22] to the merchants of Thierry, count of Provence, 75s. 3d. by tale. And in the purchase of cloth to place on the queen's sepulchre 3s. by tale. And they owe £310. 9s. 2d. blanch.... Abraham and Deuslesalt,[23] Jews, render account of 1m. of gold that they may have their debts from Osbert of Leicester.... Rabbi Joseph (Rubi Gotsce), the Jew, and Jacob and Manasseh render account of 6m. of gold that the king will help them against Richard Fitz-Gilbert in the matter of his debts.... The men of London render account of 100m, of silver that they may have a sheriff of their own choosing.[24 ]... The Jews of London render account of £2000 for the infirm man whom they slew.... The abbot of Westminster renders account of 1000m. of silver to collect the goods of his church which were unlawfully dispersed, and to have the custody of them when collected....

(Latin) Ibid., pp. 4 f.


[1] Payment by tale was made by counting out 240s. to the pound, as distinguished from payment by weight, when an actual pound of silver was demanded. If, furthermore, sample coins were melted down and an additional sum was thrown in as compensation for proved debasement, payment was said to be blanch. For a description of this procedure and of the whole exchequer system, see R. L. Poole, The Exchequer in the Twelfth Century.

[2] Entries of this sort normally refer to trials held before the king's justices on mission — already an important source of revenue.

[3] See above, p. 36, n. 2.

[4] Violations of forest law. There are many such entries in the roll.

[5] A reduction of hidage would, of course, mean a reduction of Danegeld, which, as this roll testifies, was by now an annual exaction.

[6] Probably keeper of the dishes in the royal kitchen; see below, p. 67.

[7] On the annual auxilia burgorum that accompanied the Danegeld, see C. Stephenson, Borough and Town, pp. 160 f.

[8]Conventiones is the regular form, but it covered a variety of payments besides those based on agreement.

[9] Thirty-five other items enumerated.

[10] The modius seems to have been a large, rather than a small barrel; cf. the modius of grain, below, p. 67.

[11] See below, p. 66.

[12] Auxilium comitatus — a tax supplementary to the Danegeld, apparently raised through negotiation with the county court.

[13] Cf. no. 27D.

[14] Entries such as this, in the light of the one preceding, would appear to refer to scutage.

[15] Cf. no. 33E.

[16] Keeping the crown pleas should be distinguished from trying them. The keeper, whose functions were later taken over by the coroner, had charge of a case until the time that it came to trial before a justice.

[17] That is to say, farm the city direct from the king. The grant, presumably, was not in fee, as was that secured by the Londoners; see no. 28B.

[18] Taken into the king's hands during a vacancy despite his Coronation Charter.

[19] See below, p. 67.

[20]Ingeniator, one in charge of a siege engine.

[21]Arborarius, the exact meaning of which remains doubtful.

[22] The tolls collected in the port of London were included in the farm of the city; hence any special pardon of such payments was charged off on the account as a credit to the sheriffs.

[23]Dieu-le-saut, the French equivalent of the Hebrew Isaiah.

[24] This liberty was subsequently confirmed by Henry's charter, no. 28B.


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