126. GEORGE III: STATUTES
(A) Stamp Act (1765)
An act for granting and applying certain stamp duties and other duties
in the British colonies and plantations in America towards further defraying
the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same, and for amending
such parts of the several acts of parliament relating to the trade and revenues
of the said colonies and plantations as direct the manner of determining and
recovering the penalties and forfeitures therein mentioned. Whereas, by an act
made in the last session of parliament, several duties were granted ... towards
defraying the expenses of defending ... the British colonies and plantations in
America; and whereas it is just and necessary that provision be made for
raising a further revenue within your majesty's dominions in America towards
defraying the said expenses: we ... , the commons of Great Britain in
parliament assembled, have therefore resolved to give ... unto your majesty the
several rates and duties hereinafter mentioned ...; and be it enacted ... that
... there shall be raised ... and paid unto his majesty, his heirs, and
successors throughout the colonies and plantations in America ..., for every
skin ... of vellum ... or sheet ... of paper, on which shall be engrossed ...
any declaration ... or other pleading, or any copy thereof, in any court of law
within the British colonies and plantations in America, a stamp duty of
And be it further enacted ... that all the moneys which shall arise by
the several rates and duties hereby granted, except the necessary charges of
raising ... and accounting for the same, and the necessary charges ... incurred
in relation to this act and the execution thereof, shall be paid into the
receipt of his majesty's exchequer, and shall be entered separate and apart
from all other moneys, and shall be there reserved to be from time to time
disposed of by parliament towards further defraying the necessary expenses of
defending, protecting, and securing the said colonies and plantations....
Statutes at Large, XXVI, 179 f.: 5 George III, c.
(B) Declaratory Act (1766)
An act for the better securing the dependency of his majesty's dominions
in America upon the crown and parliament of Great Britain. Whereas several of
the houses of representatives in his majesty's colonies and plantations in
America have of late against law claimed to themselves, or to the general
assemblies of the same, the sole and exclusive right of imposing duties and
taxes upon his majesty's subjects in the said colonies and plantations; and
have in pursuance of such claim passed certain votes, resolutions, and orders
derogatory to the legislative authority of parliament and inconsistent with the
dependency of the said colonies and plantations upon the crown of Great
Britain: ... be it declared by the king's most excellent majesty, by and with
the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal and commons in this
present parliament assembled ... , that the said colonies in America have been,
are, and of right ought to be subordinate unto and dependent upon the imperial
crown and parliament of Great Britain; and that the king's majesty, by and with
the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal and commons of Great
Britain in parliament assembled, had, hath, and of right ought to have full
power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity
to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the crown of Great
Britain, in all cases whatsoever. And be it further declared and enacted by the
authority aforesaid that all resolutions, votes, orders, and proceedings in any
of the said colonies or plantations, whereby the power and authority of the
parliament of Great Britain to make laws and statutes as aforesaid is denied or
drawn into question, are and are hereby declared to be utterly null and void to
all intents and purposes whatsoever.
Ibid., XXVII, 19 f.: 6 George III, c. 12.
(C) Townshend's Revenue Act (1767)
An act for granting certain duties in the British colonies and
plantations in America ... and for more effectually preventing the clandestine
running of goods in the said colonies and plantations. Whereas it is expedient
that a revenue should be raised in your majesty's dominions in America for
making a more certain and adequate provision for defraying the charge of the
administration of justice and the support of civil government in such provinces
where it shall be found necessary, and towards further defraying the expenses
of defending, protecting, and securing the said dominions: we, your majesty's
most dutiful and loyal subjects, the commons of Great Britain in parliament
assembled, have therefore resolved to give and grant unto your majesty the
several rates and duties hereinafter mentioned....
And, for the more effectual preventing the clandestine running of goods
in the British dominions in America, be it further enacted by the authority
aforesaid that ... the master or other person having ... command of every ship
... arriving in any British colony or plantation in America shall, before he
proceeds with his vessel to the place of unlading, come directly to the
custom-house for the port or district where he arrives and make a just and true
entry upon oath ... of the burden, contents, and lading of such ship ...; and
... shall likewise ... answer upon oath to such questions as shall be demanded
of him by the collector or comptroller or other principal officer of the
customs ... concerning such ship ... or concerning any goods or merchandise
that shall or may be laden on board her, upon forfeiture of £100
And whereas, by an act of parliament made in the fourteenth year of the
reign of Charles II ... and several other acts now in force, it is lawful for
any officer of his majesty's customs, authorized by writ of assistance under
the seal of his majesty's court of exchequer, to take a constable ... or other
public officer inhabiting near unto the place and in the daytime to enter ...
any house, shop, cellar, warehouse ... , or other place and ... to seize and
from thence to bring any kind of goods or merchandise whatsoever prohibited ...
, and to put and secure the same in his majesty's storehouse ...: be it enacted
... that ... such writs of assistance ... shall and may be granted by the ...
supreme court of justice ... within such colony or plantation....
Ibid., XXVII, 505 f,; 7 George III, c. 46.
(D) Quebec Act (1774)
An act for making more effectual provision for the government of the
province of Quebec in North America. Whereas his majesty by his royal
proclamation, bearing date the 7th day of October in the third year of his
reign, thought fit to declare the provisions which have been made in respect to
certain countries, territories, and islands in America, ceded to his majesty by
the definitive treaty of peace concluded at Paris ...; and whereas,
by the arrangements made by the said royal proclamation, a very large extent of
country, within which there were several colonies and settlements of the
subjects of France who claimed to remain therein under the faith of the said
treaty, was left without any provision being made for the administration of
civil government therein ...: be it enacted ... that all the territories,
islands, and countries in North America [as aforesaid] ... be ...
annexed to and made part and parcel of the province of Quebec.... Provided
always that nothing herein contained relative to the boundary of the province
of Quebec shall in any wise affect the boundaries of any other colony....
And whereas the provisions made by the said proclamation in respect to
the civil government of the said province of Quebec ... have been found upon
experience to be inapplicable to ... the said province, the inhabitants whereof
amounted at the conquest to above 65,000 persons, professing the religion of
the Church of Rome and enjoying an established form of constitution and system
of laws ...: be it therefore further enacted ... that the said proclamation, so
far as the same relates to the said province of Quebec ... , be ... hereby
revoked, annulled, and made void....
And, for the more perfect security and ease of the minds of the
inhabitants of the said province, it is hereby declared that his majesty's
subjects professing the religion of the Church of Rome ... in the said province
of Quebec may have, hold, and enjoy the free exercise of the religion of the
Church of Rome, subject to the king's supremacy ...; and that the
clergy of the said Church may hold, receive, and enjoy their accustomed dues
and rights with respect to such persons only as shall profess the said
religion. Provided, nevertheless, that it shall be lawful for his majesty, his
heirs, or successors to make such provision out of the rest of the said
accustomed dues and rights for the encouragement of the Protestant religion and
for the maintenance and support of a Protestant clergy within the said province
as he or they shall ... think necessary and expedient....
And be it further enacted ... that his majesty's Canadian subjects
within the province of Quebec, the religious orders and communities only
excepted, may also hold and enjoy their property and possessions ... and all
other their civil rights in as large, ample, and beneficial manner ... as may
consist with their allegiance to his majesty and subjection to the crown and
parliament of Great Britain; and that, in all matters of controversy relative
to property and civil rights, resort shall be had to the laws of Canada as the
rule for the decision of the same ... , until they shall be ... altered by any
ordinances that shall from time to time be passed in the said province by the
governor, lieutenant governor, or commander-in-chief ... by and with the advice
and consent of the legislative council of the same....
And whereas the certainty and lenity of the criminal law of England and
the benefits and advantages resulting from the use of it have been sensibly
felt by the inhabitants from an experience of more than nine years ...: be it
... enacted ... that the same shall continue to be administered and shall be
observed as law in the province of Quebec, as well in the description and
quality of the offence as in the method of prosecution and trial ...; subject,
nevertheless, to such alterations [as aforesaid]....
And whereas it may be necessary to ordain many regulations for the
future welfare and good government of the province of Quebec, the occasions of
which cannot now be foreseen nor without much delay and inconvenience be
provided for, without entrusting that authority ... to persons resident there;
and whereas it is at present inexpedient to call an assembly: be it therefore
enacted ... that it shall and may be lawful for his majesty, his heirs, and
successors ... , with the advice of the privy council, to constitute and
appoint a council for the affairs of the province of Quebec, to consist of such
persons resident there, not exceeding twenty-three nor less than seventeen, as
his majesty, his heirs, and successors shall be pleased to appoint ...; which
council ... shall have power and authority to make ordinances for the peace,
welfare, and good government of the said province with the consent of his
Provided always that nothing in this act contained shall extend to ...
empower the said legislative council to lay any taxes or duties within the said
province; such rates and taxes only excepted as the inhabitants of any town or
district within the province may be authorized by the said council to assess,
levy, and apply within the said town or district for the purpose of making
roads, erecting and repairing public buildings, or for any other purpose
respecting the local convenience and economy of such town or district. Provided
also ... that every ordinance so to be made shall within six months be
transmitted by the governor ... and laid before his majesty for his royal
approbation. And if his majesty shall think fit to disallow thereof, the same
shall cease and be void from the time that his majesty's order in council
thereupon shall be promulgated at Quebec. Provided also that no ordinance
touching religion, or by which any punishment may be inflicted greater than
fine or imprisonment for three months, shall be of any force or effect until
the same shall have received his majesty's approbation....
Provided always ... that nothing in this act contained shall ... be
construed ... to repeal or make void, within the said province of Quebec, any
act or acts of the parliament of Great Britain heretofore made for ...
regulating the trade or commerce of his majesty's colonies and plantations in
America; but that ... all acts of parliament heretofore made ... respecting the
said colonies and plantations shall be ... in force within the said province of
Ibid., XXX, 549 f.: 14 George III, c. 83.
(E) Colonial Tax Repeal Act (1778)
An act for removing all doubts and apprehensions concerning taxation by
the parliament of Great Britain in any of the colonies, provinces, and
plantations in North America and the West Indies.... Whereas taxation by the
parliament of Great Britain for the purpose of raising a revenue in his
majesty's colonies, provinces, and plantations in North America has been found
by experience to occasion great uneasinesses and disorders among his majesty's
faithful subjects, who may nevertheless be disposed to acknowledge the justice
of contributing to the common defence of the empire, provided such contribution
should be raised under the authority of the general court or general assembly
of each respective colony ...: it is hereby declared and enacted ... that, from
and after the passing of this act, the king and parliament of Great Britain
will not impose any duty, tax, or assessment whatever, payable in any of his
majesty's colonies ... in North America or the West Indies, except only such
duties as it may be expedient to impose for the regulation of commerce; the net
produce of such duties to be always paid and applied to and for the use of the
colony ... in which the same shall be ... levied.
And be it further enacted ... that ... so much of an act made in the
seventh year of his present majesty's reign ... as imposes a duty
on tea imported from Great Britain into any colony ... in America ... is hereby
Ibid., XXXII, 4: 18 George III, c. 12.
(F) Burke's Place Act (1782)
An act for better securing the freedom of elections of members to serve
in parliament by disabling certain officers employed in the collection or
management of his majesty's revenues from giving their votes at such elections.
For the better securing the freedom of elections of members to serve in
parliament, be it enacted ... that ... no commissioner, collector, supervisor,
gauger, or other officer or person whatsoever concerned or employed in the
charging, collecting, levying, or managing the duties of excise ... , the
customs ... , the duties on ... parchment and paper ... , the duties on salt
... , the duties on windows or houses ... , the revenue of the post office ...
, nor any captain, master, or mate of any ship ... or other vessel employed ...
in conveying the mail to and from foreign ports, shall be capable of giving his
vote for the election of any knight of the shire, commissioner, citizen,
burgess, or baron to serve in parliament....
Ibid., XXXIV, 48 f.: 22 George III, c. 41.
(G) Irish Appeals Act (1783)
An act for removing and preventing all doubts which may have arisen or
might arise concerning the exclusive rights of the parliament and courts of
Ireland in matters of legislation and judicature.... Whereas, by an act of the
last session of this present parliament entitled An Act to Repeal an Act Made
in the Sixth Year of ... George I ... , it was enacted that the
said last-mentioned act and all matters and things therein contained should be
repealed ...: for removing all doubts respecting the same ... , be it declared
and enacted ... that the ... right claimed by the people of Ireland to be bound
only by laws enacted by his majesty and the parliament of that kingdom in all
cases whatever, and to have all actions and suits at law or in equity which may
be instituted in that kingdom decided in his majesty's courts therein finally
and without appeal from thence, shall be and it is hereby declared to be
established and ascertained forever, and shall at no time hereafter be
questioned or questionable. And be it further enacted by the authority
aforesaid that no writ of error or appeal shall be received or adjudged, or any
other proceeding be had, by or in any of his majesty's courts in this kingdom
in any action or suit at law or in equity instituted in any of his majesty's
courts in the kingdom of Ireland....
Ibid., XXXIV, 256: 23 George III, c. 28.
(H) Canadian Constitution Act (1791)
An act to repeal certain parts of an act passed in the fourteenth year
of his majesty's reign ... and to make further provision for the government of
the said provinces....
And whereas his majesty has been pleased to signify, by his message to
both houses of parliament, his royal intention to divide his province of Quebec
into two separate provinces, to be called the province of Upper Canada and the
province of Lower Canada: be it enacted ... that there shall be within each of
the said provinces respectively a legislative council and an assembly ...; and
that in each of the said provinces respectively his majesty, his heirs, or
successors shall have power ... , by and with the advice and consent of the
legislative council and assembly ... , to make laws for the peace, welfare, and
good government thereof, such laws not being repugnant to this act; and that
all such laws ... , assented to by his majesty, his heirs, or successors, or
assented to in his majesty's name ... , shall be ... valid and binding....
And be it further enacted ... that, for the purpose of constituting such
legislative council as aforesaid ... , it shall and may be lawful for his
majesty, his heirs, or successors ... to authorize and direct the governor ...
or person administering the government in each of the said provinces
respectively ... to summon to the said legislative council ... a sufficient
number of discreet and proper persons, being not fewer than seven ... for ...
Upper Canada and not fewer than fifteen ... for ... Lower Canada ...; and ...
that every member of each of the said legislative councils shall hold his seat
therein for the term of his life....
And be it further enacted ... that, for the purpose of constituting such
assembly as aforesaid in each of the said provinces respectively, it shall and
may be lawful for his majesty, his heirs, or successors ... to authorize and
direct the governor ... or person administering the government in each of the
said provinces respectively ... to summon ... an assembly in and for such
province. And be it further enacted ... that, for the purpose of electing the
members of such assemblies respectively, it shall and may be lawful for his
majesty, his heirs, or successors ... to authorize the governor ... or the
person administering the government therein ... to issue a proclamation
dividing such province into districts ... and towns or townships ... and
declaring ... the number of representatives to be chosen by each.... Provided
... that the whole number of members to be chosen in the province of Upper
Canada shall not be less than sixteen and ... in the province of Lower Canada
shall not be less than fifty....
And be it further enacted ... that the members for the several districts
... shall be chosen by the majority of votes of such persons as shall severally
be possessed ... of lands or tenements within such district ... of the yearly
value of 40s. sterling or upwards ...; and that the members
for the several towns or townships ... shall be chosen by the majority of votes
of such persons as either shall severally be possessed ... of a dwelling-house
and lot of ground in such town or township ... of the yearly value of £5
sterling or upwards, or as, having been resident within the said town or
townships for the space of twelve calendar months ... , shall ... have paid one
year's rent ... at the rate of £10 sterling per annum or upwards....
And be it enacted ... that the said legislative council and assembly in
each of the said provinces shall be called together once at the least in every
twelve calendar months, and that every assembly shall continue for four years
... , subject, nevertheless, to be sooner prorogued or dissolved by the
governor ... or person administering his majesty's government therein.... And
be it further enacted ... that, whenever any bill which has been passed by the
legislative council and by the house of assembly ... shall be presented for his
majesty's assent ... , such governor ... shall ... declare ... that he assents
to such bill in his majesty's name, or that he withholds his majesty's assent
from such bill, or that he reserves such bill for the signification of his
majesty's pleasure thereon. Provided always ... that, whenever any bill ...
shall ... have been assented to ... , such governor ... shall ... transmit to
one of his majesty's principal secretaries of state an authentic copy of such
bill ...; and that it shall and may be lawful, at any time within two years ...
, for his majesty, his heirs, or successors ... to declare his ... disallowance
of such bill....
Be it... enacted ... that nothing in this act contained shall ... be
construed to extend to prevent or affect the execution of any law ... made by
his majesty, his heirs, or successors and the parliament of Great Britain ...
for the regulation of the commerce ... between the said two provinces, or
between either of the said provinces and any other part of his majesty's
dominions, or between either of the said provinces and any foreign country....
Provided always ... that the net produce of all duties which shall be so
imposed shall ... be applied to and for the use of each of the provinces
respectively, and in such manner only as shall be directed ... by his majesty,
his heirs, or successors by and with the advice and consent of the legislative
council and assembly of such province....
Ibid., XXXVII, 294 f.: 31 George III, c. 31.
(I) Fox's Libel Act (1792)
An act to remove doubts respecting the functions of juries in cases of
libel. Whereas doubts have arisen whether, on the trial of an indictment or
information for the making or publishing any libel ... , it be competent to the
jury ... to give their verdict upon the whole matter in issue: be it therefore
declared and enacted ... that on every such trial the jury sworn to try the
issue may give a general verdict of guilty or not guilty upon the whole matter
put in issue upon such indictment or information, and shall not be required or
directed by the court or judge ... to find the defendant or defendants guilty
merely on the proof of the publication by such defendant or defendants of the
paper charged to be a libel and of the sense ascribed to the same in such
indictment or information.
Provided always that on every such trial the court or judge ... shall,
according to their or his discretion, give their or his opinion and directions
to the jury on the matter in issue between the king and the defendant or
defendants in like manner as in other criminal cases. Provided also that
nothing herein contained shall ... be construed to extend to prevent the jury
from finding a special verdict in their discretion, as in other criminal
Ibid., XXXVII, 627 f.: 32 George III, c. 60.
(J) Act Suspending Habeas Corpus in Certain Cases
An act to empower his majesty to secure and detain such persons as his
majesty shall suspect are conspiring against his person and government. Whereas
a traitorous and detestable conspiracy has been formed for subverting the
existing laws and constitution and for introducing the system of anarchy and
confusion which has so fatally prevailed in France: therefore, for the better
preservation of his majesty's sacred person and for securing the peace and the
laws and liberties of this kingdom, be it enacted ... that every person or
persons that are or shall be in prison within the kingdom of Great Britain at
or upon the day on which this act shall receive his majesty's royal assent or
after, by warrant of his majesty's most honourable privy council signed by six
of the said privy council for high treason or suspicion of high treason or
treasonable practices, or by warrant signed by any of his majesty's secretaries
of state for such causes as aforesaid, may be detained in safe custody without
bail or main-prise until the first day of February, 1795; and that no judge or
justice of the peace shall bail or try any such person or persons so committed
without order from his said majesty's privy council, signed by six of the said
privy council, till the said first day of February, 1795 — any law or
statute to the contrary notwithstanding....
Provided always and be it enacted that nothing in this act shall be
construed to extend to invalidate the ancient rights and privileges of
parliament, or to the imprisonment or detaining of any member of either house
of parliament, during the sitting of such parliament, until the matter of which
he stands suspected be first communicated to the house of which he is a member
and the consent of the said house obtained for his commitment or detaining.
Ibid., XXXIX, 556 f.: 34 George III, c. 54.
(K) Treasonable and Seditious Practices Act (1795)
An act for the safety and preservation of his majesty's person and
government against treasonable and seditious practices and attempts.... Be it
enacted ... that, if any person ... , during the natural life of our most
gracious sovereign lord the king ... , and until the end of the next session of
parliament after a demise of the crown, shall, within the realm or without,
compass, imagine, invent, devise, or intend death or destruction, or any bodily
harm tending to death or destruction, maim or wounding, imprisonment or
restraint of the person of the same our sovereign lord the king, his heirs, and
successors; or to deprive or depose him or them from the style, honour, or
kingly name of the imperial crown of this realm, or of any other of his
majesty's dominions or countries; or to levy war against his majesty, his
heirs, and successors within this realm, in order by force or constraint to
compel him or them to change his or their measures or counsels, or in order to
put any force or constraint upon ... both houses or either house of parliament,
or to move or stir any foreigner or stranger with force to invade this realm or
any other his majesty's dominions or countries ...; and such ... intentions ...
shall express, utter, or declare by publishing any printing or writing or by
any overt act or deed, being legally convicted thereof upon the oaths of two
lawful and credible witnesses upon trial, or otherwise convicted or attainted
by due course of law; then every such person and persons so as aforesaid
offending shall be deemed, declared, and adjudged to be a traitor and traitors,
and shall suffer pains of death, and also lose and forfeit as in cases of high
treason. And be it further enacted ... that, if any person ... within that part
of Great Britain called England, at any time ... during three years from the
day of passing this act and until the end of the then next session of
parliament, shall maliciously and advisedly, by writing, printing, preaching,
or other speaking ... , declare any words or sentences to excite or stir up the
people to hatred or contempt of the person of his majesty, his heirs, or
successors, or the government and constitution of this realm as by law
established, then every such person ... , being thereof legally convicted,
shall be liable to such punishment as may by law be inflicted in cases of high
Ibid., XL, 561 f.: 36 George III, c. 7.
(L) Seditious Assemblies Act (1795)
An act for the more effectually preventing seditious meetings and
assemblies.... Be it enacted ... that no meeting of any description of persons
exceeding the number of fifty ... shall be holden for the purpose
or on the pretext of considering of or preparing any petition ... or other
address to the king, or to both houses or either house of parliament, for
alteration of matters established in church or state, or for the purpose or on
the pretext of deliberating upon any grievance in church or state, unless
notice of the intention to hold such meeting ... shall be given in
the names of seven persons at the least, being householders resident within the
... place where such meeting shall be proposed to be holden.... And be it
further enacted ... that all meetings ... which shall be holden without such
previous notice as foresaid ... shall be deemed and taken to be unlawful
And ... be it ... enacted ... that every house, room, field, or other
place where lectures or discourses shall be delivered or public debates shall
be had on or concerning any supposed public grievance, or any matters relating
to the laws, constitution, government, or policy of these kingdoms, for the
purpose of raising or collecting money or any other valuable thing from the
persons admitted ... , or, under whatever pretence the same shall be opened or
used, to which any person shall be admitted by the payment of money or by
tickets sold ... , unless the opening or using ... shall have been previously
licensed in manner hereinafter mentioned, shall be deemed a disorderly house or
Provided, nevertheless, and be it enacted ... that it shall be lawful
for two or more justices of the peace of the ... place where any house, room,
or other building shall be, which any person shall be desirous to open for any
of the purposes aforesaid, by writing under their hands and seals ... to grant
a licence to any person or persons desiring the same ...; which licence it
shall be lawful for the justices of the same ... place ... to revoke and
Provided also that nothing in this act contained shall be construed to
extend to any lectures ... to be delivered in any of the universities of these
kingdoms by any member thereof or any person authorized by the chancellor ...
or other proper officers of such universities....
Ibid., XL, 564 f.: 36 George III, c. 8.
(M) Poor Relief Act (1795)
An act to amend so much of an act made in the ninth year of the reign of
King George I ... as prevents the distributing occasional relief
to poor persons in their own houses under certain circumstances and in certain
cases.... Whereas ... the act above mentioned has been found to ... be
inconvenient and oppressive, inasmuch as it often prevents an industrious poor
person from receiving such occasional relief as is best suited to the peculiar
case of such poor person, and inasmuch as in certain cases it holds out
conditions of relief injurious to the comfort and domestic situation and
happiness of such poor persons: be it therefore enacted ... that ... it shall
and may be lawful for the overseer or overseers of any parish ... or place,
with the approbation of the parishioners ... or with the approbation in writing
of any of his majesty's ... justices of the peace ... , to distribute and pay
collection and relief to any industrious poor ... persons at ... their homes
... under certain circumstances of temporary illness or distress....
Provided always that the special cause ... of ordering and directing
collection or relief to any poor person ... at his ... house ... be assigned
and written on each order for relief given ... as aforesaid. And provided
always that such order be given for ... a time not to exceed one month....
Provided also that it shall and may be lawful for any two justices as aforesaid
to make any further order for the same or like purpose for any further time not
exceeding one month ... , and so on from time to time....
Provided always ... that nothing in this act contained shall ... be
construed ... to extend to authorize ... any ... overseers or any ... justices
of the peace ... to distribute ... any collection or relief to any poor person
... at his ... house ... in any parish ... or place in or for which any house
of industry or other place for the reception and provision of the poor thereof
hath been ... or shall hereafter be erected or provided by and under the
authority ... of an act passed in the twenty-second year of the reign of his
present majesty ... or under the authority ... of any special act of
Ibid., XL, 626 f.: 36 George III, c. 23.
(N) Act of Union with Ireland (1800)
An act for the union of Great Britain and Ireland. Whereas, in pursuance
of his majesty's ... recommendation to the two houses of parliament in Great
Britain and Ireland respectively ... , the two houses of the parliament of
Great Britain and the two houses of the parliament of Ireland have severally
agreed and resolved that ... it will be advisable to concur in such measures as
may best tend to unite the two kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland into one
kingdom ...; and whereas, in furtherance of the same resolution, both houses of
the said two parliaments respectively have likewise agreed upon certain
articles for effectuating and establishing the said purposes in the tenor
following ...: be it enacted ... that the said ... articles ... be
ratified, confirmed, and approved ... , and they are hereby declared to be the
articles of the union of Great Britain and Ireland; and the same shall be in
force and have effect forever from the first day of January which shall be in
the year of our Lord 1801, provided that before that period an act shall have
been passed by the parliament of Ireland for carrying into effect in the like
manner the said ... articles....
[Articles of Union.] Article I.... That the said kingdoms of Great
Britain and Ireland shall ... be united into one kingdom by the name of the
united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland....
Article II.... That the succession to the imperial crown of the said
united kingdom and of the dominions thereunto belonging shall continue limited
and settled ... according to the existing laws and to the terms of union
between England and Scotland.
Article III.... That the said united kingdom be represented in one and
the same parliament....
Article IV.... That four lords spiritual of Ireland by rotation of
sessions, and twenty-eight lords temporal of Ireland elected for life by the
peers of Ireland, shall be the number to sit and vote on the part of Ireland in
the house of lords of the parliament of the united kingdom; and one hundred
commoners — two for each county of Ireland, two for the city of Dublin,
two for the city of Cork, one for the university of Trinity College, and one
for each of the thirty-one most considerable cities, towns, and boroughs —
be the number to sit and vote on the part of Ireland in the house of commons of
the parliament of the united kingdom. That such act as shall be passed in the
parliament of Ireland previous to the union to regulate the mode by which the
lords spiritual and temporal and the commons, to serve in the parliament of the
united kingdom on the part of Ireland, shall be summoned and returned to the
said parliament shall be considered as forming part of the treaty of union....
That all questions touching the rotation or election of lords spiritual or
temporal of Ireland to sit in the parliament of the united kingdom shall be
decided by the house of lords thereof.... That all questions touching the
election of members to sit on the part of Ireland in the house of commons of
the united kingdom shall be heard and decided in the same manner as questions
touching such elections in Great Britain now are or at any time hereafter shall
by law be heard and decided.... That the qualifications in respect of property
of the members elected on the part of Ireland to sit in the house of commons of
the united kingdom shall be respectively the same as are now provided by law in
the cases of elections for counties and cities and boroughs respectively in
that part of Great Britain called England, unless any other provision shall
hereafter be made in that respect by act of parliament of the united
Article V.... That the Churches of England and Ireland, as now by law
established, be united into one Protestant Episcopal Church, to be called the
United Church of England and Ireland; and that the doctrine, worship,
discipline, and government of the said United Church shall be and shall remain
in full force forever as the same are now by law established for the Church of
England; and that the continuance and preservation of the said United Church as
the established Church of England and Ireland shall be deemed and taken to be
an essential and fundamental part of the union; and that in like manner the
doctrine, worship, discipline, and government of the Church of Scotland shall
remain and be preserved as the same are now established by law and by the acts
for the union of the two kingdoms of England and Scotland.
Article VI.... That his majesty's subjects of Great Britain and Ireland
shall ... be entitled to the same privileges ... as to encouragements and
bounties on the like articles, being the growth, produce, or manufacture of
either country respectively, and generally in respect of trade and navigation
in all ports and places in the united kingdom and its dependencies; and that in
all treaties made by his majesty, his heirs, and successors with any foreign
power his majesty's subjects of Ireland shall have the same privileges ... as
his majesty's subjects of Great Britain....
Article VII.... That the charge arising from the payment of the interest
and the sinking fund for the reduction of the principal of the debt incurred in
either kingdom before the union shall continue to be separately defrayed by
Great Britain and Ireland respectively.... That, for the space of twenty years
after the union shall take place, the contribution of Great Britain and Ireland
respectively towards the expenditure of the united kingdom in each year shall
be defrayed in the proportion of fifteen parts for Great Britain, and two parts
for Ireland, and that, at the expiration of the said twenty years, the future
expenditure of the united kingdom ... shall be defrayed in such proportion as
the parliament of the united kingdom shall deem just and reasonable....
Article VIII.... That all laws in force at the time of the union and all
the courts of civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction within the respective
kingdoms shall remain as now by law established within the same, subject only
to such alterations and regulations from time to time as circumstances may
appear to the parliament of the united kingdom to require; provided that all
writs of error and appeals, depending at the time of the union or hereafter to
be brought, and which might now be finally decided by the house of lords of
either kingdom, shall, from and after the union, be finally decided by the
house of lords of the united kingdom....
Ibid., XLII, 648 f.: 40 George III, c. 67.
(O) Cotton Industry Arbitration Act (1800)
An act for settling disputes that may arise between masters and workmen
engaged in the cotton manufacture in that part of Great Britain called
England.... Be it enacted ... that ... , in all cases that shall or may arise
... where the masters and workmen cannot agree respecting the price or prices
to be paid for work done or to be done in the said manufacture ... , and in all
cases of dispute or difference arising ... out of ... such trade or manufacture
which cannot be otherwise mutually adjusted and settled by and between them, it
shall ... be lawful ... for such masters and workmen ... , or either of them,
to demand and have an arbitration ... of such ... matters in dispute, and each
of them is hereby authorized and empowered forthwith to nominate and appoint an
arbitrator ... on his ... behalf.... And such arbitrators ... , after they
shall have accepted ... the business of the said arbitration, are hereby
authorized and required to summon before them and examine upon oath the parties
and their witnesses ... , and forthwith to proceed to hear and determine the
complaints of the parties and the matter or matters in dispute between them;
and the award to be made by such arbitrators shall in all cases be final and
conclusive between the parties. But, in case such arbitrators so appointed
cannot agree to decide such ... matters in dispute ... , and do not make and
sign their award within the space of three days after the signing of the said
submission ... , they shall forthwith ... go before ... one of his majesty's
justices of the peace ... residing nearest to the place where such dispute
shall happen and be referred, and state to such justice the points in
difference between them, the said arbitrators; which points in difference the
said justice ... is hereby authorized ... to hear and determine. Which
determination of such justice shall be made and signed within the space of
three days after the expiration of the time hereby allowed the arbitrators to
make and sign their award, and shall be final and conclusive between the
parties so differing as aforesaid....
Ibid., XLII, 792 f.: 39-40 George III, c. 90.
(P) Combination Act (1800)
An act to repeal an act passed in the last session of parliament ... and
to substitute other provisions in lieu thereof. Whereas it is expedient to
explain and amend an act passed in the thirty-ninth year of the reign of his
present majesty, entitled An Act to Prevent Unlawful Combinations of Workmen:
be it therefore enacted ... that, from and after the passing of this act, the
said act shall be repealed; and that all contracts, covenants, and agreements
whatsoever, in writing or not in writing, at any time ... heretofore made ...
between any journeymen, manufacturers, or other persons within this kingdom for
obtaining an advance of wages ... , or for lessening or altering their ...
usual hours ... of working, or for decreasing the quantity of work (save and
except any contract made or to be made between any master and his journeyman or
manufacturer for or on account of the work or service of such journeyman or
manufacturer....), or for preventing or hindering any person ... from employing
whomsoever he ... shall think proper to employ ... , or for controlling or any
way affecting any person ... carrying on any ... business in the conduct or
management thereof, shall be ... illegal, null, and void....
And be it further enacted that no journeyman, workman, or other person
shall ... make or enter into ... any such contract, covenant, or agreement ...
as is hereinbefore declared to be an illegal covenant ... , and every
journeyman ... or other person who ... shall be guilty of any of the said
offences, being thereof lawfully convicted ... , shall ... be committed to ...
the common jail ... for any time not exceeding three calendar months; or ... to
some house of correction ... , there to remain and to be kept to hard labour
for any time not exceeding two calendar months.
And be it further enacted that every journeyman ... or other person who
shall ... enter into any combination to obtain an advance of wages ... or for
any other purpose contrary to this act; or who shall, by giving money or ... by
any other means, wilfully and maliciously endeavour to prevent any ...
unemployed journeyman ... or other person ... from hiring himself to any
manufacturer ... or person conducting any ... business; or who shall, for the
purpose of obtaining an advance of wages or for any other purpose contrary to
the provisions of this act, wilfully and maliciously decoy, persuade, solicit,
intimidate, influence, or prevail ... on any journeyman ... or other person ...
employed in any such ... business to quit ... his work ...; or who shall
wilfully and maliciously hinder ... any ... person from employing ... such
journeymen ... and other persons as he ... shall think proper; or who, being
... employed, shall without any just or reasonable cause refuse to work ...;
and who shall be lawfully convicted of any of the said offences ... , shall ...
be committed to ... the common jail ... for any time not exceeding three
calendar months; or ... to some house of correction ... , there to remain and
to be kept to hard labour for any time not exceeding two calendar
And be it further enacted ... that all contracts ... made or to be made
by or between any masters or other persons for reducing the wages of workmen,
or for adding to or altering the usual hours ... of working, or for increasing
the quantity of work ... are hereby declared to be illegal, null, and void....
And all ... such masters, being thereof lawfully convicted ... shall forfeit
... the sum of £20....
Ibid., XLII, 847 f.: 39-40 George III, c. 106.
(Q) Factory Act (1802)
An act for the preservation of the health and morals of apprentices and
others employed in cotton and other mills.... Be it enacted that ... all such
mills and factories within Great Britain and Ireland, wherein three or more
apprentices or twenty or more other persons shall at any time be employed,
shall be subject to the several rules and regulations contained in this act
... That all and every the rooms and apartments in or belonging to any
such mill or factory shall, twice at least in every year, be well and
sufficiently washed with quick lime and water over every part of the walls and
ceiling thereof; and that due care and attention shall be paid by the master
and mistress of such mills or factories to provide a sufficient number of
windows and openings in such rooms or apartments, to insure a proper supply of
That every such master or mistress shall constantly supply every
apprentice ... with two whole and complete suits of clothing ... , one new
complete suit being delivered to such apprentice once at least in every
That no apprentice ... bound to any such master or mistress shall be
employed or compelled to work for more than twelve hours in any one day ... ,
exclusive of the time that may be occupied by such apprentice in eating the
necessary meals. Provided always that, from and after the first day of June,
1803, no apprentice shall be employed or compelled to work upon any occasion
whatever between the hours of nine of the clock at night and six of the clock
in the morning....
That every such apprentice shall be instructed in some part of every
working day, for the first four years at least of his or her apprenticeship ...
, in reading, writing, and arithmetic ...; and that the time ... allotted for
such instruction ... shall be deemed ... part ... of the respective periods ...
during which any such apprentice shall be employed or compelled to work....
That the room or apartment in which any male apprentice shall sleep
shall be entirely separate and distinct from the room or apartment in which any
female apprentice shall sleep, and that not more than two apprentices shall in
any case sleep in the same bed....
That every apprentice ... shall, for the space of one hour at least
every Sunday, be instructed and examined in the principles of the Christian
religion ...; and such master or mistress shall send all his or her apprentices
under the care of some proper person, once in a month at least, to attend
during divine service in the church of the parish ... or in some licensed place
of divine worship. And in case the apprentices ... cannot conveniently attend
such church or chapel ... , the master or mistress ... shall cause divine
service to be performed in some convenient room or place in or adjoining to the
mill or factory....
And be it further enacted that the justices of the peace for every
county ... shall ... appoint two persons, not interested in or in any way
connected with any such mills or factories, to be visitors ...; and the said
visitors, or either of them, shall have full power and authority ... to enter
into and inspect any such mill or factory at any time of the day ... , and ...
shall report from time to time in writing to the quarter sessions of the peace
the state and condition of such mills and factories ... , and whether the same
are or not conducted and regulated according to the directions of this
Ibid., XLIII, 632 f.: 42 George III, c. 73.
 Here follows an elaborate schedule of other stamp duties to
be paid on legal documents, calendars, advertisements, playing cards, etc.;
together with provisions for enforcement of the act and penalties for its
 Having repealed the Stamp Act, as being "attended with many
inconveniences" and likely to be "productive of consequences greatly
detrimental to the commercial interests of these kingdoms," parliament then
proceeded to make the present declaration.
 Here follows a schedule of duties to be levied on all sorts
of glass, paint, painter's colours, paper, and tea.
 This was the peace of 1763, ending the Seven Years' War.
The royal proclamation here referred to set up tentative governments in the
recently acquired provinces. See R. Coupland, The Quebec Act.
 The act here sets precise boundaries for the enlarged
province of Quebec — to the southwest the Ohio River, to the west the
 As defined in the Act of Supremacy (no. 81a); but Roman
Catholics are permitted to take an oath of allegiance in place of the oath of
 No. 126C. On account of American protests, all the duties
but tea had been repealed in 1770.
 No. 122C.
 The first article of this statute repeals those parts of
the Quebec Act (no. 126D) relating to the legislative council.
 Such land had to be held by some form of free tenure other
 Cf. no. 129E, 1.
 Except courts of counties or towns and their subdivisions,
or meetings of corporations lawfully summoned.
 Such notice, under a variety of legal formalities, has to
be given to the local clerk of the peace or published in a local newspaper.
 The following articles apply the provisions of the Riot
Act (no. 122A) to such assemblies, and to those of which legal notice has been
given, but in which suggestions of revolutionary action are made or proposals
tending to incite the people to hatred or contempt of the king or of his
government. Persons interfering with the magistrates in the carrying out of
this law are to be liable to the death penalty.
 The owners, occupiers, superintendents, etc., of such
properties, as well as the managers of the meetings there held, are liable to
prosecution and a fine of ?100 for each offence. The local peace officers may
demand admittance to any licensed place of this sort and, if they are not
admitted, it shall be considered disorderly.
 This was a statute of 1722 which provided that parishes or
other units of local government might give the administration of poor relief to
a contractor. In that case all persons desiring relief had to reside in the
poorhouse maintained by such contractor.
 The act of 1782 had authorized owners or occupiers of land
in any parish or group of parishes to substitute for the overseers of the poor
(see no. 114L) paid guardians of the poor and governors of the poorhouse.
Before 1782 individual parishes had gained equivalent privileges through
special acts of parliament. See Bristol Record Society's Publications,
vol. III, introduction by E. E. Butcher.
 For the sake of clarity, the articles of union are placed
at the end of the present document.
 Persons attending any meeting for the purposes described
above, or soliciting or paying any contribution for such purposes, are to be
liable to the same penalties. Elaborate provisions are made for the enforcement
of the act. But the settlement of labour disputes by arbitration is continued
as allowed by earlier statues (e.g., the previous document) and further
articles are added to improve the system.