135. VICTORIA: STATUTES (1884-1900)

(A) Representation of the People Act (1884)

An act to amend the law relating to the representation of the people of the united kingdom. Be it enacted ... as follows: —

A uniform household franchise and a uniform lodger franchise at elections shall be established in all counties and boroughs throughout the united kingdom, and every man possessed of a household qualification or a lodger qualification shall, if the qualifying premises be situate in a county in England or Scotland, be entitled to be registered as a voter and when registered to vote at an election for such county; and if the qualifying premises be situate in a county or borough in Ireland, be entitled to be registered as a voter and when registered to vote at an election for such county or borough....

Every man occupying any land or tenement in a county or borough in the united kingdom of a clear yearly value of not less than 10 shall be entitled to be registered as a voter and when registered to vote at an election for such county or borough in respect of such occupation subject to the like conditions respectively as a man is, at the passing of this act, entitled to be registered as a voter and to vote at an election for such county in respect of the county occupation franchise, and at an election for such borough in respect of the borough occupation franchise.

In this act the expression "a household qualification" means, as respects England and Ireland, the qualification enacted by the third section of the Representation of the People Act, 1867....[1]

Public General Statutes, XXI, 3 f.: 48 Victoria, c. 3.

(B) Redistribution of Seats Act (1885)

An act for the redistribution of seats at parliamentary elections and for other purposes. Be it enacted ... as follows: —

... From and after the end of this present parliament, the parliamentary boroughs named in the first part of the first schedule to this act shall cease as boroughs to return any member. Each of the counties of cities and towns in the second part of the said schedule named shall, for the purpose of parliamentary elections, be included in the county at large named opposite thereto....[2]

From and after the end of this present parliament, the city of London shall return two members and no more, and each of the parliamentary boroughs named in the second schedule to this act shall return one member and no more.[3]

From and after the end of this present parliament each of the parliamentary boroughs named in the third schedule to this act shall return the number of members named opposite to such borough....[4]

From and after the end of this present parliament, each of the towns and places named in the fourth schedule to this act shall be a parliamentary borough and return the number of members specified....[5]

From and after the end of this present parliament, each of the parliamentary boroughs named in the fifth schedule to this act shall, for all purposes of and relating to parliamentary elections, include the places and be comprised within the boundaries which are respectively specified and described in the said schedule....[6]

From and after the end of this present parliament, each of the parliamentary boroughs mentioned in the sixth schedule to this act shall, for the purpose of returning members ... , be divided into divisions. The number of members for each division and the number, names, contents, and boundaries of such divisions respectively shall be those specified in the said schedule....[7]

From and after the end of this present parliament, each of the counties at large named in the seventh schedule to this act shall return the number of members in that behalf named in the said schedule; and for the purpose of returning such members, if more than one, shall be divided into the same number of divisions as the number of members....[8]

Ibid., XXI, 128 f.: 48-49 Victoria, c. 23.

(C) Allotments Act (1887)

An act to facilitate the provision of allotments for the labouring classes. Be it enacted ... as follows: —

On a representation in writing to the sanitary authority of any urban or rural district by any six registered parliamentary electors or ratepayers ... that the circumstances of the urban district or parish are such that it is the duty of the sanitary authority to take proceedings under this act therein, the sanitary authority shall take such representation into consideration. If the sanitary authority of any urban or rural district are of opinion, either after inquiry made in consequence of such representation or otherwise, that there is a demand for allotments for the labouring population in such urban district, or in any parish in such rural district, and that such allotments cannot be obtained at a reasonable rent and on reasonable conditions by voluntary arrangement between the owners of land suitable for such allotments and the applicants for the same, the sanitary authority, subject to the provisions of this act, shall by purchase or hire acquire any suitable land which may be available ... , and shall let such land in allotments to persons belonging to the labouring population resident in the said district or parish and desiring to take the same. A sanitary authority shall not under this act acquire land for allotments save at such price or rent that, in the opinion of the sanitary authority, all expenses ... incurred by the sanitary authority in acquiring the land and otherwise in relation to the allotments may reasonably be expected to be recouped out of the rents obtained in respect thereof....

If a sanitary authority are unable by hiring or purchase by agreement to acquire suitable land sufficient for allotments under this act for any district or parish at a reasonable price or rent and subject to reasonable conditions, such authority may petition the county authority ... and the county authority may make a provisional order authorizing the sanitary authority to put in force, as respects the land mentioned in the order, the provisions of the Lands Clauses Consolidation Act, 1845....[9]

Subject to the provisions of this act, the sanitary authority may from time to time make, revoke, and vary such regulations as appear to be necessary or proper for regulating the letting of allotments under this act, and for preventing any undue preference in the letting thereof, and generally for carrying the provisions of this act into effect.... Provided ... that all regulations made under this section shall not be of any force unless and until they have been confirmed by the local government board....

Where allotments have been provided under this act for a parish in any rural district, a petition to the sanitary authority may be presented by a number of the electors of allotment managers in such parish, not being less than one sixth of the whole number of such electors, praying for the election of allotment managers in such parish, and thereupon the sanitary authority shall order such election, and the allotment managers so elected shall be the allotment managers appointed by the sanitary authority, who, on an election under this act, shall cease to hold office....

The electors of allotment managers shall be the parliamentary electors in the parish....

Ibid., XXIV, 196 f.: 50-51 Victoria, c. 48.

(D) Local Government Act (1888)

An act to amend the laws relating to local government in England and Wales and for other purposes connected therewith. Be it enacted ... as follows: —

A council shall be established in every administrative county as defined by this act and be entrusted with the management of the administrative and financial business of that county, and shall consist of the chairman, aldermen, and councillors. The council of a county and the members thereof shall be constituted and elected and conduct their proceedings in like manner and be in the like position in all respects as the council of a borough divided into wards, subject nevertheless to the provisions of this act and in particular to the following provisions....

As respects the aldermen or councillors: clerks in holy orders and other ministers of religion shall not be disqualified for being elected ...; a person shall be qualified ... who ... is a peer owning property in the county or is registered as a parliamentary voter in respect of the ownership of property of whatsoever tenure situate in the county ...; the county councillors shall be elected for a term of three years ...; the divisions of the county for the purpose of the election of county councillors shall be called electoral divisions ... and one county councillor only shall be elected for each electoral division.

As respects the number of the county councillors and the boundaries of the electoral divisions in every county: the number of the county councillors and their apportionment ... shall be such as the local government board may determine; and any borough returning one councillor only shall be an electoral division; and in the rest of the county the electoral divisions shall be such as, in the case of a borough returning more than one councillor, the council of the borough and, in the rest of the county, the quarter sessions for the county may determine....

As respects the electors of the county councillors: the persons entitled to vote at their election shall be, in a borough, the burgesses enrolled in pursuance of the Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, and the acts amending the same, and elsewhere the persons registered as county electors under the County Electors Act, 1888.[10]

As respects the chairman of the county council: he shall .... by virtue of his office, be a justice of the peace for the county....

There shall be transferred to the council of each county, on and after the appointed day, the administrative business of the justices of the county in quarter sessions assembled, that is to say, all business done by the quarter sessions or any committee appointed by the quarter sessions, in respect of the several matters following: namely, the making, assessing, and levying of county, police, hundred, and all rates and the application and expenditure thereof ... ; the borrowing of money; the passing of the accounts of ... the county treasurer; ... county buildings, works, and property ... ; the licensing under any general act of houses and other places for music or for dancing, and the granting of licences under the Racecourses Licensing Act, 1879; the provision, enlargement, maintenance, management, and visitation of ... asylums for pauper lunatics; the establishment and maintenance of and the contribution to reformatory and industrial schools; bridges and roads repairable with bridges and any powers vested by the Highways and Locomotives (Amendment) Act, 1878, in the county authority ... ; the appointment, removal, and determination of salaries of the county treasurer, the county surveyor, the public analysts ... , and any officers whose remuneration is paid out of the county rate, other than the clerk of the peace and the clerks of the justices ... ; the execution as local authority of the acts relating to contagious diseases of animals, to destructive insects, to fish-conservancy, to wild birds, to weights and measures, and to gas meters ... ; any other business transferred by this act. After the appointed day a coroner for a county shall not be elected by the freeholders of the county, and on any vacancy occurring in the office of a coroner for a county, who is elected to that office ... , the county council shall thereupon appoint a fit person, not being a county alderman or county councillor, to fill such office, and in the case of a county divided into coroner's districts shall assign him a district....

Nothing in this act shall transfer to a county council any business of the quarter sessions or justices in relation to appeals by any overseers or persons against the basis or standard for the county rate or against that or any other rate. All business of the quarter sessions or any committees thereof not transferred by or in pursuance of this act to the county council shall be reserved to and transacted by the quarter sessions or committee thereof in the same manner, as far as circumstances admit, as if this act had not passed. The powers, duties, and liabilities of quarter sessions and of justices out of session with respect to the county police shall, on and after the appointed day, vest in and attach to the quarter sessions and the county council jointly.... Nothing in this act shall affect the powers, duties, and liabilities of justices of the peace as conservators of the peace, or the obligation of the chief constable or other constables to obey their lawful orders given in that behalf....

Each of the boroughs named in the third schedule to this act, being a borough which, on the first day of June, 1888, either had a population of not less than 50,000 or was a county of itself, shall ... be for the purposes of this act an administrative county of itself....[11] The mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of each county borough, acting by the council, shall ... have and be subject to all the powers, duties, and liabilities of a county council under this act....

Ibid., XXV, 231 f.: 51-52 Victoria, c. 41.

(E) Workmen's Compensation Act (1897)

An act to amend the law with respect to compensation to workmen for accidental injuries suffered in the course of their employment. Be it enacted ... as follows: —

If in any employment to which this act applies personal injury by accident arising out of and in the course of the employment is caused to a workman, his employer shall, subject as hereinafter mentioned, be liable to pay compensation in accordance with the first schedule to this act. Provided that (a) the employer shall not be liable under this act in respect of any injury which does not disable the workman for a period of at least two weeks from earning full wages at the work at which he was employed; (b) when the injury was caused by the personal negligence or wilful act of the employer, or of some person for whose act or default the employer is responsible, nothing in this act shall affect any civil liability of the employer, but in that case the workman may, at his option, either claim compensation under this act, or take the same proceedings as were open to him before the commencement of this act ...; (c) if it is proved that the injury to a workman is attributable to the serious and wilful misconduct of that workman, any compensation claimed in respect of that injury shall be disallowed.

If any question arises in any proceedings under this act as to the liability to pay compensation under this act ... , or as to the amount or duration of compensation under this act, the question, if not settled by agreement, shall ... be settled by arbitration in accordance with the second schedule to this act....

If the registrar of friendly societies, after taking steps to ascertain the views of the employer and workmen, certifies that any scheme of compensation, benefit, or insurance for the workmen of an employer in any employment, whether or not such scheme includes other employers and their workmen, is on the whole not less favourable to the general body of workmen and their dependants than the provisions of this act, the employer may, until the certificate is revoked, contract with any of those workmen that the provisions of the scheme shall be substituted for the provisions of this act, and thereupon the employer shall be liable only in accordance with the scheme; but, save as aforesaid, this act shall apply notwithstanding any contract to the contrary made after the commencement of this act....

This act shall apply only to employment ... on or in or about a railway, factory, mine, quarry, or engineering work, and to employment ... on, in, or about any building which exceeds thirty feet in height and is either being constructed or repaired by means of a scaffolding, or being demolished, or on which machinery driven by steam, water, or other mechanical power is being used for the purpose of the construction, repair, or demolition thereof....

Ibid., XXXIV, 53 f.: 60-61 Victoria, c. 37.

(F) Commonwealth of Australia Act (1900)

An act to constitute the commonwealth of Australia. Whereas the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, humbly relying on the blessing of Almighty God, have agreed to unite in one indissoluble federal commonwealth under the crown of the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and under the constitution hereby established; and whereas it is expedient to provide for the admission into the commonwealth of other Australasian colonies and possessions of the queen: be it therefore enacted ... as follows: —

... It shall be lawful for the queen with the advice of the privy council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if her majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a federal commonwealth under the name of the commonwealth of Australia. But the queen may, at any time after the proclamation, appoint a governor general for the commonwealth....

"The commonwealth" shall mean the commonwealth of Australia as established under this act. "The states" shall mean such of the colonies of New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia, and South Australia, including the northern territory of South Australia, as for the time being are parts of the commonwealth, and such colonies and territories as may be admitted into or established by the commonwealth as states.... "Original states" shall mean such states as are parts of the commonwealth at its establishment....

Chapter I: The Parliament. The legislative power of the commonwealth shall be vested in a federal parliament which shall consist of the queen, a senate, and a house of representatives, and which is hereinafter called "the parliament" or "the parliament of the commonwealth."

A governor general appointed by the queen shall be her majesty's representative in the commonwealth, and shall have and may exercise in the commonwealth during the queen's pleasure, but subject to this constitution, such powers and functions of the queen as her majesty may be pleased to assign to him.... The governor general may appoint such times for holding the sessions of the parliament as he thinks fit and may also from time to time ... prorogue the parliament and ... dissolve the house of representatives.... There shall be a session of the parliament once at least in every year; so that twelve months shall not intervene between the last sitting of the parliament in one session and its first sitting in the next session....

The senate shall be composed of senators for each state, directly chosen by the people of the state, voting, until the parliament otherwise provides, as one electorate.... Until the parliament otherwise provides, there shall be six senators for each original state. The parliament may make laws increasing or diminishing the number of senators for each state, but so that equal representation of the several original states shall be maintained and that no original state shall have less than six senators. The senators shall be chosen for a term of six years, and the names of the senators chosen for each state shall be certified by the governor to the governor general.... Until the parliament otherwise provides, but subject to this constitution, the laws in force in each state for the time being relating to elections for the more numerous house of the parliament of the state shall, as nearly as practicable, apply to elections of senators for the state.... The qualifications of a senator shall be the same as those of a member of the house of representatives....

The house of representatives shall be composed of members directly chosen by the people of the commonwealth, and the number of such members shall be, as nearly as practicable, twice the number of the senators. The number of members chosen in the several states shall be in proportion to the respective numbers of their people.... But ... five members at least shall be chosen in each original state.... Until the parliament otherwise provides, the qualification of electors of members of the house of representatives shall be in each state that which is prescribed by the law of the state as the qualification of electors of the more numerous house of parliament of the state....

Until the parliament otherwise provides, the qualifications of a member of the house of representatives shall be as follows: (1) He must be of the full age of twenty-one years, and must be an elector entitled to vote at the election of members of the house of representatives ... and must have been for three years at the least a resident within the limits of the commonwealth as existing at the time when he is chosen. (2) He must be a subject of the queen, either natural-born or for at least five years naturalized under a law of the united kingdom, or of a colony which has become or becomes a state, or of the commonwealth, or of a state....

The parliament shall, subject to this constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the commonwealth with respect to (1) trade and commerce with other countries and among the states; (2) taxation, but so as not to discriminate between states or parts of states; (3) bounties on the production or export of goods, but so that such bounties shall be uniform throughout the commonwealth; (4) borrowing money on the public credit of the commonwealth; (5) postal, telegraphic, telephonic, and other like services; (6) the naval and military defence of the commonwealth and of the several states and the control of the forces to execute and maintain the laws of the commonwealth; (7) lighthouses, lightships, beacons, and buoys; (8) astronomical and meteorological observations; (9) quarantine; (10) fisheries in Australian waters beyond territorial limits; (11) census and statistics; (12) currency, coinage, and legal tender; (13) banking other than state banking, also state banking extending beyond the limits of the state concerned, the incorporation of banks, and the issue of paper money; (14) insurance other than state insurance, also state insurance extending beyond the limits of the state concerned; (15) weights and measures; (16) bills of exchange and promissory notes; (17) bankruptcy and insolvency; (18) copyrights, patents of inventions and designs, and trade marks; (19) naturalization and aliens; (20) foreign corporations and trading or financial corporations formed within the limits of the commonwealth; (21) marriage; (22) divorce and matrimonial causes and, in relation thereto, parental rights and the custody and guardianship of infants; (23) invalid and old age pensions; (24) the service and execution throughout the commonwealth of the civil and criminal process and the judgments of the courts of the states; (25) the recognition throughout the commonwealth of the laws, the public acts and records, and the judicial proceedings of the states; (26) the people of any race, other than the aboriginal race in any state, for whom it is deemed necessary to make special laws; (27) immigration and emigration; (28) the influx of criminals; (29) external affairs; (30) the relations of the commonwealth with the islands of the Pacific; (31) the acquisition of property on just terms from any state or person for any purpose in respect of which the parliament has power to make laws; (32) the control of railways with respect to transport for the naval and military purposes of the commonwealth; (33) the acquisition with the consent of a state of any railways of the state ...; (34) railway construction and extension in any state, with the consent of that state; (35) conciliation and arbitration for the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes extending beyond the limits of any one state.... Proposed laws appropriating revenue or moneys, or imposing taxation, shall not originate in the senate.... The senate may not amend proposed laws imposing taxation or proposed laws appropriating revenue or moneys for the ordinary annual services of the government. The senate may not amend any proposed law so as to increase any proposed charge or burden on the people. The senate may at any stage return to the house of representatives any proposed law which the senate may not amend, requesting by message the omission or amendment of any items or provisions therein.... Except as provided in this section, the senate shall have equal power with the house of representatives in respect of all proposed laws....

When a proposed law passed by both houses of the parliament is presented to the governor general for the queen's assent, he shall declare, according to his discretion but subject to this constitution, that he assents in the queen's name, or that he withholds assent, or that he reserves the law for the queen's pleasure. The governor general may return to the house in which it originated any proposed law so presented to him and may transmit therewith any amendments which he may recommend, and the houses may deal with the recommendation. The queen may disallow any law within one year from the governor general's assent, and such disallowance, on being made known by the governor general by speech or message to each of the houses of parliament or by proclamation, shall annul the law from the day when the disallowance is so made known. A proposed law reserved for the queen's pleasure shall not have any force unless and until, within two years from the day on which it was presented to the governor general for the queen's assent, the governor general makes known, by speech or message to each of the houses of the parliament or by proclamation, that it has received the queen's assent.

Chapter II: The Executive Government. The executive power of the commonwealth is vested in the queen and is exercisable by the governor general as the queen's representative, and extends to the execution and maintenance of this constitution and of the laws of the commonwealth. There shall be a federal executive council to advise the governor general in the government of the commonwealth, and the members of the council shall be chosen and summoned by the governor general and sworn as executive councillors and shall hold office during his pleasure.... The governor general may appoint officers to administer such departments of state of the commonwealth as the governor general in council may establish. Such officers shall hold office during the pleasure of the governor general. They shall be members of the federal executive council and shall be the queen's ministers of state for the commonwealth.... Until the parliament otherwise provides, the ministers of state shall not exceed seven in number and shall hold such offices as the parliament prescribes or, in the absence of provision, as the governor general directs.... The command-in-chief of the naval and military forces of the commonwealth is vested in the governor general as the queen's representative....

Chapter III: The Judicature. The judicial power of the commonwealth shall be vested in a federal supreme court, to be called the high court of Australia, and in such other federal courts as the parliament creates, and in such other courts as it invests with federal jurisdiction. The high court shall consist of a chief justice and so many other justices, not less than two, as the parliament prescribes.

The justices of the high court and of the other courts created by the parliament (1) shall be appointed by the governor general in council; (2) shall not be removed except by the governor general in council on an address from both houses of the parliament in the same session, praying for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity....

The high court shall have jurisdiction, with such exceptions and subject to such regulations as the parliament prescribes, to hear and determine appeals from all judgments, decrees, orders, and sentences of any justice or justices exercising the original jurisdiction of the high court; of any other federal court or court exercising federal jurisdiction, or of the supreme court of any state, or of any other court of any state from which, at the establishment of the commonwealth, an appeal lies to the queen in council.... No appeal shall be permitted to the queen in council from a decision of the high court upon any question, howsoever arising, as to the limits inter se of the constitutional powers of the commonwealth and those of any state or states, or as to the limits inter se of the constitutional powers of any two or more states, unless the high court shall certify that the question is one which ought to be determined by her majesty in council. The high court may so certify if satisfied that for any special reason the certificate should be granted, and thereupon an appeal shall lie to her majesty in council on the question without further leave.

Except as provided in this section, this constitution shall not impair any right which the queen may be pleased to exercise by virtue of her royal prerogative to grant special leave of appeal from the high court to her majesty in council. The parliament may make laws limiting the matters in which such leave may be asked, but proposed laws containing any such limitation shall be reserved by the governor general for her majesty's pleasure.

In all matters arising under any treaty, affecting consuls or other representatives of other countries, in which the commonwealth or a person suing or being sued on behalf of the commonwealth is a party, between states or between residents of different states or between a state and a resident of another state, in which a writ of mandamus or prohibition or an injunction is sought against an officer of the commonwealth, the high court shall have original jurisdiction. The parliament may make laws conferring original jurisdiction on the high court in any matter arising under this constitution or involving its interpretation; arising under any laws made by the parliament; of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; relating to the same subject matter claimed under the laws of different states....

Chapter IV: Finance and Trade. All revenues or moneys raised or received by the executive government of the commonwealth shall form one consolidated revenue fund, to be appropriated for the purposes of the commonwealth.... No money shall be drawn from the treasury of the commonwealth except under appropriation made by law....

Uniform duties of customs shall be imposed within two years after the establishment of the commonwealth.... On the imposition of uniform duties ... trade, commerce, and intercourse among the states ... shall be absolutely free....

Chapter V: The States. The constitution of each state of the commonwealth shall, subject to this constitution, continue as at the establishment of the commonwealth, or as at the admission or establishment of the state, as the case may be, until altered in accordance with the constitution of the state. Every power of the parliament of a colony which has become or becomes a state shall, unless it is by this constitution exclusively vested in the parliament of the commonwealth or withdrawn from the parliament of the state, continue as at the establishment of the commonwealth, or as at the admission or establishment of the state, as the case may be.... When a law of a state is inconsistent with a law of the commonwealth, the latter shall prevail and the former shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be invalid....

Chapter VI: New States. The parliament may admit to the commonwealth or establish new states, and may upon such admission or establishment make or impose such terms and conditions, including the extent of representation in either house of the parliament, as it thinks fit....

Chapter VIII: Alteration of the Constitution. This constitution shall not be altered except in the following manner. The proposed law for the alteration thereof must be passed by an absolute majority of each house of the parliament, and not less than two nor more than six months after its passage through both houses the proposed law shall be submitted in each state to the electors qualified to vote for the election of members of the house of representatives. But if either house passes any such proposed law by an absolute majority, and the other house rejects or fails to pass it or passes it with any amendment to which the first-mentioned house will not agree, and if after an interval of three months the first-mentioned house in the same or the next session again passes the proposed law by an absolute majority with or without any amendment which has been made or agreed to by the other house, and such other house rejects or fails to pass it or passes it with any amendment to which the first-mentioned house will not agree, the governor general may submit the proposed law as last proposed by the first-mentioned house, and either with or without any amendments subsequently agreed to by both houses, to the electors in each state qualified to vote for the election of the house of representatives.

When a proposed law is submitted to the electors, the vote shall be taken in such manner as the parliament prescribes.... And if in a majority of the states a majority of the electors voting approve the proposed law, and if a majority of all the electors voting also approve the proposed law, it shall be presented to the governor general for the queen's assent. No alteration diminishing the proportionate representation of any state in either house of the parliament, or the minimum number of representatives of a state in the house of representatives, or increasing, diminishing, or otherwise altering the limits of the state, or in any manner affecting the provisions of the constitution in relation thereto, shall become law unless the majority of the electors voting in that state approve the proposed law.

Ibid., XXXVIII, 24 f.: 63-64 Victoria, c. 12.


[1] No. 131H.

[2] The first part lists 103 boroughs; the second part lists five counties.

[3] Thirty-nine boroughs are named.

[4] Nineteen boroughs are named with from two to nine members each.

[5] Thirty-three towns and places are named, with from one to four members each. Some of these new boroughs were really extensions of old parliamentary boroughs.

[6] Forty-six old boroughs are given new boundaries.

[7] Here is given a list of single member districts for the large boroughs.

[8] Here is given a list of the counties with their divisions.

[9] That is to say, the sanitary authority might take the necessary land, leaving the price to be determined by arbitration.

[10] These acts had extended the parliamentary franchises of 1867 and 1884 to elections in boroughs and counties.

[11] Sixty-one boroughs are named.


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