THE CIVIL LAW

Including

The Twelve Tables, The Institutes of Gaius, The Rules of
Ulpian, The Opinions of Paulus, The Enactments
of Justinian, and The Constitutions of Leo:

Translated from the original Latin,
edited, and compared with all accessible systems
of jurisprudence ancient and modern.

By S. P. SCOTT, A. M.

Author of "History of the Moorish
Empire in Europe," Translator of
the "Visigothic Code"

IN SEVENTEEN VOLUMES

VOL. I.

Cincinnati
The Central Trust Company
Executor of the Estate Samuel P. Scott, Deceased
Publishers

Copyright, 1932
by the Central Trust Company
Executor of the Estate Samuel P. Scott, Deceased
[Copyright expired without renewal]

CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.

PAGE

HTML Version PREFACE, by S. P. Scott

I.

HTML Version THE LAWS OF THE TWELVE TABLES.

TABLE I. Concerning the summons to court .............................. 57

Law 1, 57; Law II, 57; Law III, 57; Law IV, 57; Law V, 58; Law VI, 58; Law VII, 58; Law VIII, 58; Law IX, 58; Law X, 58.

TABLE II. Concerning judgments and thefts .............................. 58

Law I, 58; Law II, 59; Law III, 59; Law IV, 59; Law V, 60; Law VI, 61; Law VII, 61; Law VIII, 62; Law IX, 62; Law X, 62; Law XI, 62.

TABLE III.

Concerning property which Is lent ............................ 62

Law I, 62; Law II, 62; Law III, 63; Law IV, 63; Law V, 63; Law VI, 63; Law VII, 63; Law VIII, 63; Law IX, 63; Law X, 64.

TABLE IV. Concerning the rights of a father, and of marriage ............ 64

Law I, 64; Law II, 65; Law III, 65; Law IV, 65.

TABLE V.

Concerning estates and guardianships ......................... 66

Law I, 66; Law II, 67; Law III, 67; Law IV, 67; Law V, 67; Law VI, 67; Law VII, 67.

TABLE VI.

Concerning ownership and possession .................... ...... 68

Law I, 68; Law II, 68; Law III, 68; Law IV, 68; Law V, 68; Law VI, 68; Law VII, 68; Law VIII, 69; Law IX, 69; Law X, 69.

TABLE VII. Concerning crimes ............................................. 69

Law I, 69; Law II, 69; Law III, 69; Law IV, 70; Law V, 70; Law VI, 70; Law VII, 70; Law VIII, 70; Law IX, 70; Law X, 71; Law XI, 71; Law XII, 71; Law XIII, 71; Law XIV, 71; Law XV, 71; Law XVI, 71; Law XVII, 72.

TABLE VIII. Concerning the laws of real property .......................... 72

Law I, 72; Law II, 72; Law III, 72; Law IV, 72; Law V, 72; Law VI, 72; Law VII, 72; Law VIII, 73; Law IX, 73.

TABLE IX. page Concerning public law ......................................... 73

Law I, 73; Law II, 73; Law III, 73; Law IV, 73; Law V, 73; Law VI, 74; Law VII, 74.

TABLE X. Concerning religious law ....................................... 74

Law I, 74; Law II, 74; Law III, 74; Law IV, 74; Law V, 74; Law VI, 74; Law VII, 75; Law VIII, 75; Law IX, 75; Law X, 75; Law XI, 75; Law XII, 75; Law XIII, 75; Law XIV, 75; Law XV, 76; Law XVI, 76; Law XVII, 76; Law XVIII, 76.

TABLE XI. supplement to the five preceding ones ......................... 76

Law I, 76; Law II, 76.

TABLE XII. supplement to the five preceding ones ......................... 76

Law I, 76; Law II, 76; Law III, 76.

II.

THE FOUR COMMENTARIES OF GAIUS. ON THE INSTITUTES OF THE CIVIL LAW.

HTML Version FIRST COMMENTARY.

I. Concerning civil and natural law ........................ 81

II. Concerning the divisions of the law ...................... 83

III. Concerning the different conditions of men .............. 83

IV. Concerning dediticii and the provisions of the Lex Ælia Sentia ................................................ 83

V. Concerning enemies who have surrendered at discretion .. 84

VI. Concerning manumission, and proof of the reason for it. .. 84

VII. Concerning the constitution of the council .............. 84

In what way Latins may obtain Roman citizenship ........ 85

Concerning fiduciary guardianship ........................ 105

HTML Version SECOND COMMENTARY.

Whether or not wards can alienate property ............. 120

Concerning military wills ................................ 125

Concerning substitutions ................. ................ 134

Concerning legacies ...................................... 137

On the Falcidian Law ..................................... 142

Concerning inoperative legacies ........................... 143

HTML Version THIRD COMMENTARY. ............................................................ 150

HTML Version FOURTH COMMENTARY. ............................................................ 184

III

HTML Version FRAGMENTS OF THE RULES OF DOMITIUS ULPIANUS .. ................ 223

TITLE I. Concerning freedmen ........................................... 223

TITLE II. Concerning a slave, or slaves, who are to be free under a condition ......................... ........ ................ 225

TITLE III. Concerning Latins .......................................... ... 226

TITLE IV. Concerning those who are their own masters ................. 227

TITLE V. Concerning those who are under control ...................... 227

TITLE VI. Concerning dowries ............................................. 228

TITLE VII. Concerning the law of donations between husband and wife .... 230

TITLE VIII. Concerning adoptions ........................................... 230

TITLE IX. Concerning those who are in the hands of their husbands. .... 231

TITLE X. In what way persons under the control or subject to the authority of others are released from the exercise of that right ....................................................... 231

TITLE XI. Concerning guardianship ....................................... 232

TITLE XII. Concerning curators ........................................... 235

TITLE XIII. Concerning a man who is unmarried, one who has no children, and a father who has but a single child .................. 235

TITLE XIV. Concerning the penalty of the Lex Julia ........................ 235

TITLE XV. Concerning tenths ............................................. 236

TITLE XVI. Concerning the capacity of husband and wife to receive in full what may be left by the other ............................ 236

TITLE XVII. Concerning lapsed legacies ..................................... 237

TITLE XVIII. Who are governed by the ancient law in the case of lapsed legacies .................................................... 237

TITLE XIX. Concerning owners, and their acquisition of property .......... 238

TITLE XX. Concerning wills ............................................... 239

TITLE XXI. How an heir should be appointed ............................... 241

TITLE XXII. Who can be appointed heirs .................................... 241

TITLE XXIII. How wills are broken ......................................... 245

TITLE XXIV. Concerning legacies ............................................ 247

TITLE XXV. Concerning trusts .............................................. 249

TITLE XXVI. Concerning heirs-at-law ........................................ 251

TITLE XXVII. Concerning the estates and property of freedmen ............... 252

TITLE XXVIII. Concerning the granting of possession .......................... 253

TITLE XXIX. Concerning the estates of freedmen ............................ 254

IV.

HTML Version THE OPINIONS OF JULIUS PAULUS. BOOK I.

TITLE I. page Concerning agreements and contracts ......................... 259

TITLE II. Concerning attorneys and agents .............................. 259

TITLE III. Concerning agents ............................................. 260

TITLE IV. Concerning the transaction of business ........................ 260

TITLE V. Concerning calumniators ....................................... 261

TITLE VI. A. Concerning fugitive slaves ..................................... 261

TITLE VI. B. Concerning the accusation of defendants ...................... 261

TITLE VII. Concerning complete restitution ............................... 262

TITLE VIII. Concerning fraud .............................................. 262

TITLE IX. Concerning minors under the age of twenty-five years ........ 263

TITLE X. Concerning one who loses his case by claiming more than he is entitled to .............................................. 263

TITLE XI. Concerning the giving of security .............................. 263

TITLE XII. Concerning all criminal cases ................................. 264

TITLE XIII. Concerning judgment ........................................... 264

TITLE XIII. A. where an estate, or any other property is claimed ............ 264

TITLE XIV. Concerning the public highway ................................ 265

TITLE XV. Where a quadruped commits damage ............................ 265

TITLE XVI. Concerning the establishment of boundaries ................... 265

TITLE XVII. Concerning servitudes .......................................... 265

TITLE XVIII. The partition of estates ....................................... 266

TITLE XIX. In what way actions may be doubled by the denial of the defendant .................................................... 266

TITLE XX. Concerning sureties and sponsors .............................. 266

TITLE XXI. Concerning sepulchres and mourning ........................... 266

HTML Version BOOK II.

TITLE I. Concerning property loaned, and oaths ........................ 268

TITLE II. Concerning pre-existing pecuniary debts ....................... 268

TITLE III. Concerning contracts .......................................... 268

TITLE IV. Concerning loans for use and deposit, and also pledges and trusts ...................................................... 268

TITLE V. Concerning pledges ............................................. 269

TITLE VI. Concerning shipmasters ........................................ 270

TITLE VII. On the Lex Rhodia ............................................. 270

TITLE VIII. Concerning agents ............................................. 271

TITLE IX. Concerning property employed for the benefit of another ..... 272

TITLE X. Concerning the Macedonian decree of the senate .............. 272

TITLE XI. On the Velleian decree of the senate .......................... 272

TITLE XII. Concerning deposit ............................................. 272

TITLE XIII. Concerning the Lex Commissoria ................................ 273

TITLE XIV. Concerning interest ............................................ 274

TITLE XV. Concerning mandates ........................................... 274

TITLE XVI. On partnership ................................................. 274

TITLE XVII. Concerning purchase and sale .................................. 275

TITLE XVIII. Concerning leasing and hiring ................................. 276

TITLE XIX. Concerning marriage ........................................... 276

TITLE XX. Concerning concubines ......................................... 277

TITLE XXI. Concerning women who form unions with the slaves of others, and on the claudian decree of the senate .................. 277

TITLE XXI. A. Concerning dowries ............................................ 278

TITLE XXII. Concerning agreements entered into between husband and wife. 279

TITLE XXIII. Concerning donations between husband and wife .............. 279

TITLE XXIV. Concerning the birth of children ............................. 279

TITLE XXV. In what way children become their own masters .............. 280

TITLE XXVI. Concerning adultery ........................................... 281

TITLE XXVII. Concerning the excuses of guardians .......................... 282

TITLE XXVIII. Concerning the appointment of persons of superior power ...... 282

TITLE XXIX. Who cannot appoint persons of superior authority ............ 283

TITLE XXX. On the rescript of the divine Severus .......................... 283

TITLE XXXI. Concerning thefts ............................................. 283

TITLE XXXII. Concerning the services of freedmen ........................... 286

HTML Version BOOK III.

TITLE I. Concerning the carbonian edict ............................... 286

TITLE II. Concerning the estates of freedmen ........................... 286

TITLE III. Concerning the Fabian formula ................................ 286

TITLE IV. A. Concerning wills .............................................. 286

TITLE IV. B. Concerning the appointment of heirs ......... ................. 288

TITLE V. On the Silanian Decree of the Senate .......................... 289

TITLE VI. Concerning legacies ............................................ 291

TITLE VII. Concerning donations mortis causa ............................ 297

TITLE VIII. On the Lex Falcidia ............................................ 297

HTML Version BOOK IV.

TITLE I. Concerning trusts .............................................. 298

TITLE II. Concerning the Trebellian decree of the senate ............... 299

TITLE III. Concerning the Pegasian decree of the senate ................. 299

TITLE IV. Concerning the rejection of an estate ......................... 300

TITLE V. Concerning the complaint that a will is inofficious ........... 300

TITLE VI. Concerning the tax of the twentieth .......................... 302

TITLE VII. Concerning the Lex Cornelia ................................... 302

TITLE VIII. Concerning the succession of persons dying intestate .......... 303

TITLE IX. On the Trebellian decree of the senate ........................ 305

TITLE X. On the Orphitian decree of the senate ........................ 306

TITLE XI. Concerning degrees ............................................. 306

TITLE XII. Concerning manumissions ....................................... 307

TITLE XIII. Concerning grants of freedom under a trust ................... 308

TITLE XIV. On the Lex Fufia Caninia ...................................... 309

HTML Version BOOK V.

TITLE I. Concerning cases involving freedom ............................ 310

TITLE II. Concerning usucaption ......................................... 310

TITLE III. Concerning acts committed by a crowd ......................... 311

TITLE IV. Concerning injuries ............................................ 312

TITLE V. Concerning the effect of decisions and the termination of actions at law ............................................... 314

TITLE V.B. Concerning the possession of property granted by the authority of a judge .................................................. 315

TITLE VI. Concerning interdicts .......................................... 315

TITLE VII. Concerning verbal obligations ................................. 317

TITLE VIII. Concerning novations .......................................... 317

TITLE IX. Concerning stipulations ........................................ 318

TITLE X. Concerning authority for making contracts .................... 319

TITLE XI. Concerning donations .......................................... 319

TITLE XII. Concerning the right of the treasury and the people ........... 319

TITLE XIII. Concerning informers .......................................... 320

TITLE XIV. Concerning the infliction of torture ........................... 321

TITLE XV. Concerning witnesses .......................................... 321

TITLE XVI. Concerning the torture of slaves .............................. 322

TITLE XVII. Concerning acquittals .......................................... 323

TITLE XVIII. Concerning cattle thieves ..................................... 323

TITLE XIX. Concerning sacrilege ........................................... 323

TITLE XX. Concerning incendiaries ........................................ 323

TITLE XXI. Concerning soothsayers and astrologers ........................ 324

TITLE XXII. Concerning seditious persons ................................... 325

TITLE XXIII. On the lex cornelia having reference to assassins and poisoners .... 325

TITLE XXIV. On the Lex Pompeia relating to parricides ...................... 327

TITLE XXV. On the Lex Cornelia having reference to wills ................. 327

TITLE XXVI. On the Lex Julia relating to public and private violence ....... 329

TITLE XXVII. On the Lex Julia relating to peculation ....................... 330

TITLE XXVIII. On the Lex Julia relating to extortion ......................... 330

TITLE XXIX. On the Lex Julia relating to treason ........................... 330

TITLE XXX. A. On the Lex Julia relating to corrupt intriguing for office ...... 330

TITLE XXX. B. On the Lex Favia ............................................... 330

TITLE XXXI. Concerning military punishments .............................. 331

TITLE XXXII. When an appeal can be taken ................................. 331

TITLE XXXIII. Concerning the securities and the penalties of appeals ........ 331

TITLE XXXIV. Concerning proceedings sent up on appeal ..................... 332

TITLE XXXV. Concerning the return of cases which have been appealed .... 332

TITLE XXXVI. What should be observed after an appeal ..................... 332

TITLE XXXVII. Concerning the merits of appeals .............................. 332


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