THE CIVIL LAW

INCLUDING

The Twelve Tables, The Institutes of Gaius, The Rules of

Ulpian, The Opinions of Paulus, The Enactments

of Justinian, and The Constitutions of Leo:

Translated from the original Latin, edited, and compared with all accessible systems of jurisprudence ancient and modern.

By S. P. SCOTT, A. M.

Author of "History of the Moorish

Empire in Europe," Translator of

the "Visigothic Code"

IN SEVENTEEN VOLUMES VOL. XVII.

CINCINNATI

THE CENTRAL TRUST COMPANY Executor of the Estate Samuel P. Scott, Deceased

PUBLISHERS

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XVII.

AUTHENTIC OR NEW CONSTITUTIONS OF OUR LORD THE MOST HOLY EMPEROR JUSTINIAN.

EIGHTH COLLECTION.

TITLE I. PAGE

CONCERNING THE TIME AVAILABLE WHEN MONEY FORMING PART OF THE DOWRY HAS NOT BEEN PAID.

ONE HUNDREDTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................................ 3

PREFACE ........................................................ 3

I. CONCERNING DOWRIES WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN PAID .............. 3

II. .............................................................. 4

TITLE II.

CONCERNING DONATIONS MADE BY DECURIONS TO THEIR SUCCESSORS EITHER AB INTESTATO OR BY WILL.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIRST NEW CONSTITUTION ....................... 5

PREFACE ........................................................ 5

I. ............................................................. 6

II. ............................................................. 6

III. ............................................................. 7

IV. ............................................................. 8

TITLE III.

CONCERNING THE GOVERNOR OF ARABIA. ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND NEW CONSTITUTION ...................... 9

PREFACE ........................................................ 9

L, ............................................................. 10

II. ............................................................. 11

III. ............................................................. 11

TITLE IV.

CONCERNING THE PROCONSUL OF PALESTINE. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRD NEW CONSTITUTION ....................... 12

PREFACE ........................................................ 12

I. ............................................................. 13

II. ............................................................. 13

III. ............................................................. 14

TITLE V.

CONCERNING THE PRAETOR OF SICILY. ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH NEW CONSTITUTION. .................... 15

TITLE VI.

CONCERNING CONSULS.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTH NEW CONSTITUTION ....................... 16

PREFACE ........................................................ 16

I. CONCERNING THE SEVEN PROCESSIONS OF THE CONSULS ............ 17

II. CONCERNING THE WIFE AND THE MOTHER OF THE CONSUL. ......... 17

TITLE VII.

CONCERNING MARITIME INTEREST. ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTH NEW CONSTITUTION. ...................... 21

PREFACE ......................................................... 21

I. ............................................................... 22

TITLE Vill.

CONCERNING IMPERFECT WILLS EXECUTED BY PARENTS WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR CHILDREN; AND CONCERNING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ESTATE OF A FATHER MADE AND SIGNED BY His CHILDREN IN His PRESENCE.

ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTH NEW CONSTITUTION .................... 23

PREFACE ........................................................ 23

I. CONCERNING THE WISHES OF PARENTS AS TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF

THEIR ESTATES .......................................... 23

II. ............................................................. 24

III. ............................................................. 24

TITLE IX. CONCERNING TRANSFERS.

ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTH NEW CONSTITUTION ...................... 25

PREFACE ........................................................ 25

I. .............................................................. 25

II. .............................................................. 26

TITLE X.

CONCERNING THE DOTAL PRIVILEGES WHICH ARE NOT GRANTED TO WOMEN WHO ARE HERETICS.

ONE HUNDRED AND NINTH NEW CONSTITUTION ...................... 27

PREFACE ........................................................ 27

I. .............................................................. 28

II. .............................................................. 28

TITLE XI. CONCERNING MARITIME INTEREST.

ONE HUNDRED AND TENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ...................... 29

PREFACE ........................................................ 29

I. .............................................................. 29

TITLE XII.

THIS CONSTITUTION REPEALS THE ONE WHICH GRANTED TO RELIGIOUS PLACES FREEDOM FROM PRESCRIPTION, UNLESS A HUNDRED YEARS HAD ELAPSED.

ONE HUNDRED AND ELEVENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................... 30'

PREFACE ................................:....................... 30

L ............................................................... 3O

TITLE XIII.

CONCERNING PROPERTY IN LITIGATION, AND THE BOND FOR THE TENTH PART OF THE VALUE OF THE OBJECT IN CONTROVERSY WHICH MUST BE FURNISHED BY THE PLAINTIFF. ONE HUNDRED AND TWELFTH NEW CONSTITUTION .................... 31

PREFACE ........................................................ 31

I. WHAT PROPERTY is SUBJECT TO LITIGATION ...................... 32

II. CONCERNING THE BOND WHICH SHOULD BE FURNISHED BY THE

PLAINTIFF BEFORE SERVING NOTICE ON THE DEFENDANT. ...... 33

III. AFTER THE LAPSE OF A YEAR AND THE PUBLICATION OF THREE EDICTS, A DECISION SHOULD BE RENDERED WITH REFERENCE TO THE CLAIM OF THE PLAINTIFF WHO is GUILTY OF CONTUMACY. . 34

TITLE XIV.

IMPERIAL PRAGMATIC SANCTIONS OR ORDERS SHALL NOT BE GIVEN CONSIDERATION IF INTRODUCED DURING THE HEARING OF A CASE, BUT SUITS SHALL BE DECIDED IN CONFORMITY WITH GENERAL ANCIENT LAWS. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 35

PREFACE ........................................................ 35

I. ............................................................. 36

II. ............................................................. 37

III. ............................................................. 37

TITLE XV.

IMPERIAL ORDERS SHALL BEAR THE SIGNATURE OF THE MOST GLORIOUS QUAESTOR.

ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTEENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 38

PREFACE ........................................................ 38

I. .............................................................. 38

A SHORT EPITOME OF THE SAME NOVEL. ............................ 39

TITLE XVI.

WHEN A JUDGE HEARS AN APPEAL, HE SHOULD DECIDE IN CONFORMITY WITH THOSE LAWS WHICH WERE IN FORCE AT THE TIME WHEN THE DECISION WAS RENDERED, AND NOT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THOSE WHICH WERE SUBSEQUENTLY PROMULGATED; AND CONCERNING OTHER MATTERS. ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH NEW CONSTITUTION .................. 39

PREFACE ........................................................ 39

I. CASES TAKEN UP ON APPEAL SHALL BE DECIDED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS IN FORCE AT THE TIME WHEN THE DECISION APPEALED FROM WAS RENDERED........................... 40

II. CONCERNING THOSE WHO STATE THAT THEY HAVE OTHER ALLEGATIONS TO MAKE, AFTER THEIR ADVERSARIES HAVE FORMALLY DECLARED THAT THEY HAD NOTHING MORE TO ADVANCE. ..... 40

III. WHAT ARE JUST CAUSES FOR THE DISINHERITANCE OF CHILDREN ... 41

IV. WHAT ARE GOOD REASONS FOR THE DISINHERITANCE OF PARENTS ... 45

V. A CREDITOR SHALL NOT BE PERMITTED TO ANNOY THE HEIRS OF A DECEASED PERSON ON ACCOUNT OF THE DEBT BEFORE TEN DAYS HAVE ELAPSED AFTER His DEATH .......................... 46

VI. CONCERNING THE ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF A DEBT ALREADY DUE .... 48

TITLE XVII.

No SOLDIER OR ALLY SHALL BE KEPT IN THE PRIVATE HOUSE OR POSSESSION OF ANYONE.

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTEENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................... 48

PREFACE ........................................................ 48

I. .............................................................. 49

TITLE XVIII.

A MOTHER, GRANDMOTHER, AND OTHER KELATIVES SHALL BE PERMITTED TO DISPOSE OF THE REMAINDER OF THEIR ESTATES IN ANY WAY THEY MAY DESIRE, AFTER HAVING LEFT TO THEIR CHILDREN THE SHARE PRESCRIBED BY LAW; AND CONCERNING SEVERAL OTHER MATTERS.

ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTEENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 50

PREFACE ........................................................ 50

I. WHERE ANYONE APPOINTS A SON UNDER PATERNAL CONTROL His HEIR, SUBJECT TO THE CONDITION THAT THE FATHER OF THE LATTER SHALL NOT HAVE THE USUFRUCT OF THE ESTATE. ... 50

II. CONCERNING ONE WHO WAS EEFERRED TO AS A CHILD IN SOME INSTRUMENT ............................................ 51

III. CONCERNING A WOMAN WHO MARRIES WITHOUT ANY DOTAL CONTRACT ................................................ 51

IV. CONCERNING THE MARRIAGES OF ILLUSTRIOUS PERSONS, AND WHEN

THEY ARE CONTRACTED BY MEANS OF DOTAL INSTRUMENTS. . 52

V. WHEN A MARRIAGE is CONTRACTED WITHOUT A DOWRY AND THE SURVIVING HUSBAND is POOR, HE SHALL BE ENTITLED TO THE FOURTH PART OF THE ESTATE OF His DECEASED WIFE ...... 52

VI. CONCERNING THE CONSTITUTIONS ENACTED BY THE EMPEROR LEO

AND THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE ......................... 53

VII. How AND BY WHOM CHILDREN ARE SUPPORTED AFTER A MARRIAGE

HAS BEEN DISSOLVED BY REPUDIATION .................... 53

Vill. CONCERNING THE JUST CAUSES FOR WHICH A HUSBAND is PERMITTED TO OBTAIN A DIVORCE ........................... 54

IX. CONCERNING THE JUST CAUSES FOR DIVORCE WHICH ARE GRANTED

TO THE WIFE .......................................... 55

X. IT SHALL NOT BE LAWFUL TO DISSOLVE A MARRIAGE BY COMMON

CONSENT, UNLESS FOR SOME PLAUSIBLE REASON ........... 56

XI. FOR How LONG A TIME A WIFE SHOULD WAIT BEFORE MARRYING

AGAIN WHILE HER HUSBAND is ABSENT ON AN EXPEDITION .. 57

XII. FOR WHAT REASONS A MARRIAGE is DISSOLVED WITHOUT A PENALTY ................................................. 57

XIII. WHERE A WIFE HAS GIVEN NOTICE OF REPUDIATION TO HER HUSBAND WITHOUT JUST CAUSE ............................. 58

XIV. WHERE ANYONE PUNISHES His WIFE BY BEATING HER. ......... 59

XV. WHERE A HUSBAND SUSPECTS ANYONE OF WISHING TO ATTACK

THE MODESTY OF His WIFE .............................. 59

NINTH COLLECTION.

TITLE I.

CONCERNING HEIRS WHO SUCCEED AB INTESTATO, AND THE ABOLITION OF THE RIGHT OF AGNATES.

ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 61

PREFACE ........................................................ 61

I. CONCERNING THE SUCCESSION OF DESCENDANTS. ................. 61

II. CONCERNING THE SUCCESSION OF ASCENDANTS. .................. 62

III. CONCERNING THE SUCCESSION OF COLLATERALS ................... 63

IV. CONCERNING THE ABOLITION OF THE RIGHT OF AGNATES TO INHERITANCE ................................................. 64

V. CONCERNING THE LEGAL GUARDIANSHIP OF CHILDREN, AND CONCERNING THE MOTHER AND GRANDMOTHER ....................... 64

VI. CONCERNING THE FORCE AND AUTHORITY OF THIS CONSTITUTION

WITH REFERENCE TO PERSONS AND THINGS ................. 65

TITLE II.

AN ANTE-NUPTIAL DONATION SHALL BE CONSIDERED A SPECIAL CONTRACT, AND CONCERNING DIVERS OTHER MATTERS.

ONE HUNDRED AND NINETEENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 65

I. AN ANTE-NUPTIAL DONATION DOES NOT REQUIRE TO BE RECORDED 66

II. A MINOR CAN MANUMIT SLAVES BY WILL ..................... 66

III. No CREDIT SHALL BE GIVEN TO A WRITTEN INSTRUMENT IN WHICH ANOTHER INSTRUMENT is MENTIONED, UNLESS THE LATTER is PRODUCED ........................................... 66

IV. CONCERNING APPEALS ...................................... 66

V. CONCERNING THE REVIEW OF DECISIONS RENDERED RY PRAETORIAN

PREFECTS ............................................. 67

VI. WHERE A MINOR OF TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF AGE WISHES TO DEMAND RESTITUTION AGAINST THE ACCEPTANCE OF AN ESTATE 67 VII. CONCERNING PRESCRIPTIONS, OR, IN OTHER WORDS, CONCERNING

THE BAD FAITH OF A POSSESSOR WHO ALIENATES PROPERTY .. 68 Vill. CONCERNING PERSONS WHO ARE ABSENT AND PRESENT WHERE A

DECENNIAL PRESCRIPTION is INVOLVED. .................. 68

IX. A TESTATOR SHALL NOT BE COMPELLED TO WRITE THE NAMES OF

His HEIRS WITH His OWN HAND. ....................... 68

X. CONCERNING IMMOVABLE PROPERTY WHICH BELONGS TO RELIGIOUS

PLACES .............:................................. 69

XI. CONCERNING THE FALCIDIAN LAW, WHICH DOES NOT APPLY TO

PROPERTY WHOSE ALIENATION is PROHIBITED ......:...... 69

TITLE III.

CONCERNING ALIENATION, EMPHYTEUSIS, LEASE, HYPOTHECATION, AND DIVERS OTHER CONTRACTS HAVING REFERENCE TO SACRED PROPERTY EVERYWHERE. ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTIETH NEW CONSTITUTION .................. 69

PREFACE ........................................................ 70

I. CONCERNING THE ALIENATION AND EMPHYTEUSIS OF ECCLESIASTICAL PROPERTY ....................................... 70

PAGE

II. WHEKE ANYONE DESIRES TO ACQUIRE THE USUFRUCT OF PROPERTY

BELONGING TO A CHURCH ............................... 71

III. IT SHALL BE PERMISSIBLE TO LEASE ECCLESIASTICAL PROPERTY FOR

NOT MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS ......................... 71

IV. IT SHALL BE PERMITTED TO ENCUMBER IMMOVABLE ECCLESIASTICAL PROPERTY BY GIVING IT IN PLEDGE .................... 71

V. CONCERNING THE EMPHYTEUSIS AND HYPOTHECATION OF ECCLESIASTICAL PROPERTY 72

VI. CONCERNING THE PROPERTY OF OTHER CHURCHES SITUATED OUTSIDE THE CITY OF CONSTANTINOPLE. ..................... 72

VII. CONCERNING THE EXCHANGE OF ECCLESIASTICAL PROPERTY. ...... 75

Vill. WHERE THE EMPHYTEUTA OF THE CHURCH DOES NOT PAY His

KENT FOR Two YEARS................................... 76

IX. CHURCHES SHALL BE PERMITTED TO ALIENATE IMMOVABLE PROPERTY FOR THE PURPOSE OF REDEEMING CAPTIVES. .......... 76

X. CONCERNING THE SACRED UTENSILS OF ANY CHURCH OR ORATORY 77

XI. To WHAT PENALTY PERSONS WILL BE LIABLE WHO VIOLATE THE

PRESENT CONSTITUTION ................................. 78

TITLE IV.

PARTIAL PAYMENTS OF INTEREST SHALL BE DOUBLED. ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIRST NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 79

PREFACE ........................................................ 79

I. .............................................................. 79

II. .............................................................. 80

TITLE V.

EDICT OF OUR MOST Pious LORD JUSTINIAN, WITH REFERENCE TO THE REGULATION OF ARTISANS.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SECOND NEW CONSTITUTION ............. 80

PREFACE ........................................................ 80

I. .............................................................. 81

TITLE VI.

CONCERNING THE MOST HOLY BISHOPS AND THE MOST REVEREND CLERGY AND MONKS.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-THIRD NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 81

PREFACE ........................................................ 81

I. CONCERNING THE CONSECRATION OF BISHOPS .............. 82

II. CONCERNING THE ACCUSERS OF BISHOPS .................. 83

III. WHERE A BISHOP OFFERS His PROPERTY TO THE CHURCH EITHER BEFORE OR AFTER His CONSECRATION, AND WHAT SHALL BE PAID FOR THE RIGHT OF THE SEE. .......... 84

IV. THE EPISCOPATE RELEASES A MAN FROM THE CONDITION OF

SLAVE OR SERF .................................... 85

V. CONCERNING PRIESTS, DEACONS, AND SUBDEACONS, CALLED BY THE RIGHT OF COGNATION TO DISCHARGE THE DUTIES OF GUARDIANS OR CURATORS. ........................... 85

VI. MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY SHALL NOT PERFORM THE DUTIES

OF PUBLIC OFFICE, OR TRANSACT ANY SECULAR BUSINESS 85

VII. A BISHOP SHALL NOT BE BROUGHT INTO COURT FOR THE PURPOSE OF TESTIFYING ................................ 86

J. AVJ.U

Vill. A BISHOP SHALL NOT BE BROUGHT BEFORE A SECULAR JUDGE

FOR ANY REASON WHATSOEVER. ...................... 87

IX. BISHOPS SHALL NOT LEAVE THEIR OWN CHURCHES. ....... 87

X. ARCHBISHOPS AND PATRIARCHS SHALL FREQUENTLY HOLD

COUNCILS AND SYNODS DURING THE COURSE OF A YEAR. . 87

XI. No ONE SHALL BE EXCOMMUNICATED BEFORE His CASE HAS

BEEN DISPOSED OF ................................. 88

XII. WHO THOSE ARE THAT SHOULD BE ORDAINED PRIESTS. ..... 88

XIII. CONCERNING THE AGE OF PRIESTS AND OTHER MEMBERS OF

THE CLERGY ....................................... 89

XIV. CONCERNING THE WIVES OF MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY ...... 89

XV. UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES DECURIONS CAN BE ORDAINED

MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY. ........................... 89

XVI. ORDINATIONS SHALL BE MADE GRATUITOUSLY .............. 90

XVII. IN WHAT WAY A SLAVE OR A SERF MAY BE ORDAINED A MEMBER OF THE CLERGY ................................. 91

XVIII. CONCERNING THE FOUNDERS OF CHURCHES. ............... 91

XIX. ALL MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY SHALL HAVE CONTROL OF

THEIR OWN PROPERTY ............................. 92

XX. To WHAT PENALTY ECCLESIASTICS ARE SUBJECTED WHO GIVE

FALSE TESTIMONY ................................. 92

XXI. ECCLESIASTICS SHALL BE SUED BEFORE THEIR OWN BISHOPS 92

XXII. BISHOPS SHALL BE SUED BEFORE THEIR OWN METROPOLITAN AND SHALL NOT BE REQUIRED TO FURNISH SECURITY WITH REFERENCE TO LITIGATION ..................... 93

XXIII. STEWARDS AND OTHER ADMINISTRATORS SHALL BE SUED BEFORE THEIR OWN BISHOP ............................ 94

XXIV. BISHOPS SHALL BE SUED IN THE PLACE WHERE THE CAUSE OF

ACTION AROSE ..................................... 94

XXV. CONCERNING APOCEISIARII ............................... 94

XXVI. BISHOPS SHALL NOT BE SUED DURING THE TIME THEY ARE

ACTING AS DELEGATES .............................. 95

XXVII. MONKS SHALL DEFEND THEMSELVES BY AN ATTORNEY; AND

CONCERNING THE AMOUNT OF FEES TO BE PAID ........ 95

XXVIII. CONCERNING THE AMOUNT OF COSTS TO BE PAID WHERE MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY ARE CONCERNED ................. 96

XXIX. NEITHER CLERKS NOR BISHOPS SHALL HAVE SUPERINDUCED

WOMEN IN THEIR HOUSES ........................... 96

XXX. CONCERNING DEACONESSES .............................. 97

XXXI. CONCERNING THOSE WHO ARE GUILTY OF ABUSE OF A BISHOP

OR OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY IN A CHURCH ...... 98

XXXII. THE LAITY SHALL NOT TAKE PART IN RELIGIOUS PROCESSIONS WITHOUT THE PRESENCE OF THE BISHOP, THE CLERGY, AND THE CROSSES. .......................... 98

XXXIII. ...................................................... 98

XXXIV. AN ABBOT SHALL BE. CHOSEN NOT So MUCH ON ACCOUNT OF His TERM OF MONASTIC SERVICE AS BECAUSE OF His GOOD REPUTATION .................................. 99

XXXV. CONCERNING THE NOVITIATE OF MONKS. .................. 99

XXXVI. MONKS SHALL OCCUPY THE SAME ROOM .................. 100

XXXVII. WHERE ANYONE ENTERS A MONASTERY, THE FACT THAT HE is MARRIED AND HAS CHILDREN WILL MAKE No DIFFERENCE .......................................... 100

XXXVIII. PERSONS WHO ENTER A MONASTERY DEDICATE THEMSELVES

AND THEIR PROPERTY TO THE SAME. ................. 101

XXXIX. WHENEVER A BETROTHAL BECOMES OF No EFFECT ON ACCOUNT OF THE ENTRANCE OF ONE OF THE PARTIES INTO A MONASTERY, THE BETROTHAL GIFT SHALL BE RETURNED 101 XL. WHENEVER A HUSBAND OR A WIFE ENTERS A MONASTERY. .. 101 XLI. PARENTS SHALL NOT BE PERMITTED TO DISINHERIT THEIR CHILDREN ON THE GROUND OF INGRATITUDE WHEN THE LATTER ENTER MONASTERIES ....................... 102

XLII. CONCERNING A MONK WHO ABANDONS His MONASTERY ..... 102

XLIII. CONCERNING THE EAVISHERS OF NUNS .................... 103

XLIV. LAYMEN AND ACTORS SHALL NOT BE PERMITTED TO MAKE

USE OF A MONASTIC HABIT .......................... 103

TITLE VII.

LITIGANTS SHALL SWEAR AT THE BEGINNING OF AN ACTION THAT THEY HAVE NOT PROMISED TO GIVE ANYTHING TO THE JUDGES AND THAT THEY WILL GIVE NOTHING HEREAFTER. CONCERNING FEES. REFERENDARIES WILL Do WHAT THEY ARE ORDERED WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH THE JUDGMENTS RENDERED, WHICH THEY THEMSELVES MUST SEE ARE EXECUTED.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FOURTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............. 104

PREFACE ........................................................ 104

I. ............................................................. 104

II. WHERE A LITIGANT, REPENTING OF His ACT, MENTIONS THE NAME

OF PERSONS TO WHOM HE GAVE SOMETHING. ............... 105

III. CONCERNING THE PROHIBITION OF ILLEGAL FEES. ................ 105

IV. A JUDGE SHALL NOT COMPEL PERSONS TO EFFECT A COMPROMISE. .. 106

TITLE Vill.

JUDGES SHALL NOT WAIT FOR IMPERIAL ORDERS, BUT SHALL DECIDE IN WHATEVER MANNER THEY THINK BEST.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIFTH NEW CONSTITUTION. .............. 107

PREFACE ........................................................ 107

I- .............................................................. 107

TITLE IX.

A COPY OF THE IMPERIAL FORM HAVING REFERENCE TO APPEALS. ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SIXTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 108

PREFACE ........................................................ 108

I. ............................................................. 108

n. ............................................................. 108

HI. ............................................................. 109

TITLE X.

BROTHERS' CHILDREN SUCCEED JUST AS BROTHERS Do, EVEN WHEN THERE ARE ASCENDANTS LIVING. THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN ARE NOT PREJUDICED FROM THE FACT THAT THE ANTE-NUPTIAL DONATION WAS NOT RECORDED, BUT WHERE THE HUSBAND DOES NOT OBSERVE THIS FORMALITY HE WILL GAIN No PROFIT FROM THE MARRIAGE IF HE DEMANDS IT. WOMEN WHO Do NOT MARRY A SECOND TIME ARE ENTITLED TO THE OWNERSHIP OF A SHARE OF THE ANTE-NUPTIAL DONATION EQUAL TO THAT OF ONE OF THEIR CHILDREN. THE PENALTIES TO WHICH BOTH HUSBAND AND WIFE ARE LIABLE SHALL BE THE SAME WHEN NOTICE OF REPUDIATION is SERVED WITHOUT REASONABLE CAUSE. ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SEVENTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............ 110

PREFACE ........................................................ 110

I. THE CHILDREN OF BROTHERS SHALL BE CALLED TO THE SUCCESSION EVEN WHERE THERE ARE SURVIVING ASCENDANTS OF THE FIRST DEGREE ................................................. 110

II. WHEN A DONATION IN CONSIDERATION OF MARRIAGE SHOULD BE

RECORDED ............................................... Ill

III. A WOMAN WHO DOES NOT CONTRACT A SECOND MARRIAGE SHALL BE ENTITLED TO AS MUCH OF THE ANTE-NUPTIAL DONATION AS ONE OF HER CHILDREN ................................... Ill

IV. MARRIAGE SHALL NOT BE DISSOLVED WITHOUT CAUSE. ............ 112

TITLE XI.

CONCERNING TAXPAYERS AND OTHER MATTERS.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-EIGHTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............. 112

I ........ .............................................. 112

II. ........................................'.................. 113

III. .......................................................... 113

IV. .......................................................... H3

V. .......................................................... 114

VI. .......................................................... H4

VII. .......................................................... 114

Vill. .......................................................... 114

IX. .......................................................... H5

X. .......................................................... 115

XI. .......................................................... 115

XII. .......................................................... 115

xiii. ...........................................:.............. us

XIV. .......................................................... 116

XV. .......................................................... H6

XVI. .......................................................... 116

XVII. .......................................................... 117

. XVIII. .......................................................... H7

XIX. ........................................................... 117

XX. .......................................................... H8

XXI. .......................................................... 118

XXII. .......................................................... 118

XXIII. .......................................................... 118

XXIV. .......................................................... 119

XXV. .......................................................... 119

TITLE XII.

CONCERNING THE SAMARITES.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-NINTH NEW CONSTITUTION. ............. 120

PREFACE ........................................................ 120

I. ............................................................. 120

II. ............................................................. 121

III. ............................................................. 121

IV. ............................................................. 121

TITLE XIII. IN WHAT WAY SOLDIERS MUST ENTER AND PASS THROUGH CITIES.

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTIETH NEW CONSTITUTION ................... 122

PREFACE ........................................................ 122

I. ........................................................... 122

II. ........................................................... 123

III. ........................................................... 123

IV. ........................................................... 123

V. ........................................................... 123

VI. ........................................................... 124

VII. ........................................................... 124

Vill. ........................................................... 124

IX. ........................................................... 124

TITLE XIV.

CONCERNING ECCLESIASTICAL TITLES AND PRIVILEGES, AND VARIOUS

OTHER MATTERS.

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-FIRST NEW CONSTITUTION. ............... 125

PREFACE ........................................................ 125

I. CONCERNING FOUR HOLY COUNCILS ............................ 125

II. CONCERNING THE PRECEDENCE OF PATRIARCHS. ................. 125

III. CONCERNING THE ARCHBISHOP OF THE FIRST JUSTINIANIAN ...... 125

IV. CONCERNING THE JUSTINIANIAN BISHOP OF CARTHAGE ........... 126

V. CONCERNING THE PRIVILEGES OF ECCLESIASTICAL POSSESSIONS. ... 126

VI. CONCERNING THE PRESCRIPTION OF FORTY YEARS CONCEDED TO RELIGIOUS ESTABLISHMENTS ............................... 126

VII. CONCERNING THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHURCHES. ................ 126

Vill. THE SACRED KITES OF THE CHURCH SHALL NOT BE CELEBRATED IN THE SUBURBS OF TOWNS, OR IN HOUSES, FIELDS, OR PRIVATE PLACES ............................................... 127

IX. LEGACIES BEQUEATHED TO GOD SHALL PASS TO THE CHURCH OF

THE DIOCESE IN WHICH THE TESTATOR HAD His DOMICILE ... 127

X. WHERE ANYONE ORDERS AN ORATORY TO BE BUILT .............. 127

XI. LEGACIES BEQUEATHED FOR THE RANSOM OF CAPTIVES SHALL BE

EMPLOYED BY BISHOPS, ETC .............................. 128

XII. THE FALCIDIAN LAW DOES NOT APPLY TO LEGACIES LEFT FOR

Pious USES ........................................... 129

XIII. BISHOPS SHALL NOT, BY WILL, DISPOSE OF ANY PROPERTY WHICH

THEY MAY HAVE ACQUIRED DURING THEIR EPISCOPATE ...... 129

XIV. HERETICS SHALL NOT ACQUIRE IMMOVABLE PROPERTY, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, FROM CHURCHES OR PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS, NOR ERECT BUILDINGS FOR THE CELEBRATION OF THE RITES OF THEIR FAITH .......................................... 130

XV. SUPERINTENDENTS OF ORPHAN ASYLUMS RESEMBLE GUARDIANS,

AND MUST DRAW UP INVENTORIES JUST AS THEY Do........ 131

TITLE XV.

CONCERNING THE PROHIBITION OF HERETICAL ASSEMBLIES. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SECOND NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 131

PREFACE ........................................................ 132

TITLE XVI.

IN WHAT MANNER MONKS SHOULD LIVE. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-THIRD NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 132

PREFACE ........................................................ 132

I. ............................................................. 133

II. ............................................................. 134

III. ............................................................. 134

IV. ............................................................. 135

V. ............................................................. 136

VI. ............................................................. 137

TITLE XVII.

No JUDGE SHALL BE PERMITTED TO HAVE A DEPUTY IN His STEAD, UNLESS FOR CERTAIN REASONS AN IMPERIAL ORDER ISJSSUED FOR THAT PURPOSE.

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-FOURTH NEW CONSTITUTION. CONCERNING DEPUTIES ................................................... 138

PREFACE ........................................................ 138

I. No MAGISTRATE SHALL BE PERMITTED TO APPOINT A DEPUTY .... 138

II. ..:........................................................ 139

III. ........................................................... 140

IV. ........................................................... 140*

V. PERSONS GUILTY OF CRIME SHALL BE SUMMONED BY MEANS OF

LAWFUL EDICTS ....................................... 141

VI. A JUDGE SHALL CARRY INTO EFFECT WHAT HAS BEEN ORDERED

BY His PREDECESSOR ................................... 141

VII. No CREDITOR SHALL PRESUME TO RETAIN THE CHILD OF His

DEBTOR AS SECURITY FOR THE DEBT. ...................... 142

Vill. CONCERNING WOMEN WHO ACT AS SURETIES. .................. 142

IX. WOMEN SHALL NOT BE CONFINED IN PRISON ................... 142

X. WHAT PENALTY is INCURRED BY AN ADULTERESS ............... 143

XI. PENALTIES FOR UNJUST REPUDIATION ......................... 144

XII. ........................................................... 145

XIII. CONCERNING THE MITIGATION OF ALL PENALTIES ............... 145

TITLE XVIII. No ONE SHALL BE COMPELLED TO MAKE AN ASSIGNMENT OF

His PROPERTY. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-FIFTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................ 146

PREFACE ........................................................ 146

I. ............................................................... 147

i

TITLE XIX. PAGE CONCERNING THE CONTRACTS OF BANKERS. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SIXTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 148

PREFACE ........................................................ 148

I. ............................................................. 148

II. ............................................................. 149

III. ............................................................. 149

IV. ............................................................. 150

V. ............................................................. 150

VI. ............................................................. 151

TITLE XX.

CONCERNING THE ORDINATION OF BISHOPS AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY.

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SEVENTH NEW CONSTITUTION. ............ 152

PREFACE ........................................................ 152

I. ............................................................. 152

II. ............................................................. 154

III. ............................................................. 155

IV. ............................................................. 155

V. ............................................................. 155

VI. ............................................................. 156

TITLE XXI. INTEREST SHALL NOT BE CALCULATED FOR AN AMOUNT MORE THAN

DOUBLE THE PRINCIPAL. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-EIGHTH NEW CONSTITUTION. ............. 157

TITLE XXII.

CONCERNING THE INDULGENCE GRANTED WHEN MARRIAGES ARE ILLEGALLY CONTRACTED.

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-NINTH NEW CONSTITUTION. .............. 157

PREFACE ........................................................ 157

I. .............................................................. 158

TITLE XXIII.

MARRIAGE CAN BE DISSOLVED BY COMMON CONSENT. ONE HUNDRED AND FORTIETH NEW CONSTITUTION .................... 158

PREFACE ........................................................ 158

I. .............................................................. 159

TITLE XXIV. EDICT CONCERNING THOSE WHO COMMIT THE CRIME

AGAINST NATURE. ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FIRST NEW CONSTITUTION. ................ 160

PREFACE ........................................................ 160

I. .................................._......;..................... 160

TITLE XXV. PAGE CONCERNING THOSE WHO MAKE EUNUCHS. ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-SECOND NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 161

PREFACE ........................................................ 161

I. .............................................................. 162

II. .............................................................. 162

TITLE XXVI.

CONCERNING A WOMAN WHO SUFFERS HERSELF TO BE CARRIED AWAY. ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-THIRD NEW CONSTITUTION. ............... 164

PREFACE ........................................................ 164

TITLE XXVII.

CONCERNING THE SAMARITANS.

ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FOURTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 166

PREFACE ........................................................ 166

I. .............................................................. 166

II. .............................................................. 166

TITLE XXVIII.

NEITHER THE DUKE NOR THE BIOCOLYTE OF LYDIA AND LYCAONIA SHALL HEREAFTER BE PERMITTED TO INTERFERE IN THE AFFAIRS OF EITHER THE PROVINCES OF BOTH PHRYGIAS AND PISIDIA. ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FIFTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 168

PREFACE ........................................................ 168

I. .............................................................. 168

TITLE XXIX.

HEBREWS SHALL BE PERMITTED TO READ THE SACRED SCRIPTURES ACCORDING TO THEIR LAW IN LATIN, GREEK, OR ANY OTHER LANGUAGE. PERSONS WHO Do NOT BELIEVE IN THE LAST JUDGMENT OR THE RESURRECTION, AND WHO SAY THAT THE ANGELS ARE CREATURES OF GOD, SHALL BE EXPELLED FROM THEIR COUNTRY.

ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-SIXTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 169

PREFACE ........................................................ 169

I. ............................................................. 170

II. ............................................................. 171

III. ............................................................. 172

TITLE XXX.

CONCERNING THE REMISSION OF BALANCES DUE ON PUBLIC TAXES, AND THE ABOLITION OF CERTAIN ACTIONS.

ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-SEVENTH NEW CONSTITUTION .............. 172

PREFACE ........................................................ 172

I. .............................................................. 172

II. .............................................................. 173

TITLE XXXI.

CONCERNING THE RELEASE FROM THE PAYMENT OF PUBLIC TAXES IN ARREARS.

ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-EIGHTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 174

PREFACE ........................................................ 174

I. .............................................................. 174

II. .............................................................. 174

TITLE XXXII.

BISHOPS, ALONG WITH THE NATIVES AND EESIDENTS OF PROVINCES, SHALL NOTIFY THE EMPEROR WHOM THEY DESIRE TO HAVE AS GOVERNORS. THE SAID GOVERNORS SHALL BE GRATUITOUSLY APPOINTED, BUT WILL BE REQUIRED TO FURNISH A BOND TO THE TREASURY ; AND WHERE THE BISHOPS AND INHABITANTS OF PROVINCES NEGLECT TO ASK FOR A GOVERNOR, THEY CANNOT COMPLAIN OF HIM WHO is SENT TO THEM IN THIS CAPACITY, No MATTER WHAT HE MAY Do WITH REFERENCE TO THE COLLECTION OF PUBLIC TAXES. ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-NINTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 175

PREFACE ........................................................ 175

I. ............................................................ 176

II. ............................................................ 176

III. ............................................................ 177

TITLE XXXIII.

CONCERNING A WOMAN WHO MARRIES HER RAVISHER. ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH NEW CONSTITUTION .................... 178

TITLE XXXIV.

No DECURION OR COHORTAL SHALL BE BROUGHT INTO COURT OR COMPELLED TO OBEY A JUDICIAL DECISION WITHOUT AN ORDER OF THE EMPEROR COMMUNICATED TO THE PREFECTS. ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FIRST NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 178

PREFACE ........................................................ 178

I. .............................................................. 178

TITLE XXXV.

IMPERIAL ORDERS RELATING TO PUBLIC MATTERS WILL BE OF No FORCE OR EFFECT, UNLESS THEY HAVE PREVIOUSLY BEEN COMMUNICATED TO THE MOST GLORIOUS PRAETORIAN PREFECT, FOR THEN ONLY CAN THEY BE EXECUTED.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SECOND NEW CONSTITUTION. ............... 179

PREFACE ........................................................ 179

I. .............................................................. 179

TITLE XXXVI.

CONCERNING CHILDREN WHO ARE EXPOSED. ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-THIRD NEW CONSTITUTION. ................ 180

PREFACE ........................................................ 180

I. .............................................................. 180

TITLE XXXVII.

CONCERNING THOSE WHO CONTRACT UNLAWFUL MARRIAGES IN OSDRCENA.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FOURTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................ 181

PREFACE ......................................................... 181

I. ........................................................'.!!.!. 181

TITLE XXXVIII.

MOTHERS SHALL BE REQUIRED TO RENDER ACCOUNTS OF THEIR GUARDIANSHIP.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FIFTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 182

I. .............................................................. 183

TITLE XXXIX.

CONCERNING THE DIVISION OF CHILDREN AMONG PARENTS WHO ARE SERFS.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SIXTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 184

PREFACE ........................................................ 184

I. .............................................................. 184

TITLE XL.

CONCERNING SERFS WHO CONTRACT MARRIAGES ON THE PREMISES OF OTHERS.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SEVENTH NEW CONSTITUTION .............. 185

PREFACE ........................................................ 185

I. .............................................................. 185

TITLE XLI.

THE RIGHT OF DELIBERATION SHALL BE TRANSMITTED TO CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF PUBERTY.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-EIGHTH NEW CONSTITUTION. .............. 186

PREFACE ........................................................ 186

I. .............................................................. 187

TITLE XLII.

FIDUCIARY RESTITUTIONS SHALL BE LIMITED TO AN ESTABLISHED DEGREE.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-NINTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................ 187

PREFACE ........................................................ 187

I. . . ..... ................................................... 190

II. ............................................................. 190

III. ............................................................. 191

TITLE XLIII.

COPY OF THE IMPERIAL PRAGMATIC SANCTION CONCERNING INTEREST. ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTIETH NEW CONSTITUTION .................... 192

PREFACE ........................................................ 192

I. ............................................................... 192

TITLE XLIV.

CONCERNING THE GOVERNORS OF PROVINCES. ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FIRST NEW CONSTITUTION .................. 193

PREFACE ........................................................ 193

I ........................................................ 193

II. ............................................................. 194

TITLE XLV.

PRAGMATIC SANCTION CONCERNING DIVERS MATTERS ADDRESSED TO DOMINICK, MOST GLORIOUS PREFECT.

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SECOND NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 195

I. CONCERNING DONATIONS ...................................... 195

II. ............................................................. 196

III. ............................................................. 197

TITLE XLVI.

CONCERNING THE RELEASE FROM PUBLIC TRIBUTE. ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-THIRD NEW CONSTITUTION. ................ 197

PREFACE ........................................................ 197

I. ............................................................. 198

II. ............................................................. 198

TITLE XLVII. CONCERNING HEIRS.

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FOURTH NEW CONSTITUTION ............... 199

PREFACE ........................................................ 199

I. .............................................................. 200

TITLE XLVIII.

GENERAL LAW HAVING REFERENCE TO THE VIEW OF THE SEA, ADDRESSED TO DOMINICK, MOST GLORIOUS PRAETORIAN PREFECT.

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FIFTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 201

TITLE XLIX.

CONCERNING ADDITIONS, THAT is TO SAY, CONCERNING THE TRANSFER OF TAXES FROM STERILE LANDS TO THOSE THAT ARE FERTILE.

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SIXTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................. 201

TITLE L.

GENERAL LAW OF Bissus RELATING TO POSSESSION, AND IN WHAT WAY IT MUST BE ACQUIRED.

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SEVENTH NEW CONSTITUTION .............. 202

TITLE LI.

CONCERNING PERSONS WHO ARE IN POSSESSION OF DIFFERENT LANDS FORMERLY BELONGING TO THE SAME OWNER.

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-EIGHTH NEW CONSTITUTION ................ 202

THE NEW CONSTITUTIONS OF THE EMPEROR LEO.

CONSTITUTION I. INTRODUCTION ................................................... 204

EVERYONE WHO EXERCISES THE PREROGATIVE OF JUDGING SHALL DECIDE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS WHICH WE HAVE COMPILED, AND SHALL NEVER HAVE RECOURSE TO THOSE WHICH WE HAVE ANNULLED, IN ORDER THAT No AMBIGUITY MAY ARISE UNDER SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES ............................................. 205

CONSTITUTION II.

WHERE ANYONE is WORTHY OF A HIGH SACERDOTAL DIGNITY, HE SHALL NOT BE EXCLUDED FROM IT, MERELY BECAUSE HE HAS LEGITIMATE CHILDREN ................................................... 206

CONSTITUTION III. ONE CAN ONLY MARRY BEFORE ENTERING THE PRIESTHOOD. .......... 207

CONSTITUTION IV.

NOT ONLY PRIESTS BELONGING TO THE CHURCH IN GENERAL BUT ALSO THOSE ATTACHED TO ANY PARTICULAR EDIFICE DEDICATED TO CHRISTIAN WORSHIP CAN LAWFULLY CELEBRATE THE SACRED MYSTERIES, AND PERFORM ALL THE RITES OF DIVINE SERVICE IN A PRIVATE CHAPEL WHEN THEY ARE SUMMONED FOR THAT PURPOSE. ....... 208

CONSTITUTION V.

A MONK CAN, BY WILL, DISPOSE OF THE PROPERTY WHICH HE HAS ACQUIRED ................................................... 210

CONSTITUTION VI.

A BOY OF TEN YEARS OF AGE CAN BE ADMITTED INTO THE MONASTIC ORDER ...................................................... 212

CONSTITUTION VII. No CLERK CAN AFTERWARDS BECOME A LAYMAN. .................... 213

CONSTITUTION Vill.

CONCERNING MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY WHO ABANDON A MONASTIC LIFE AND ARE ENROLLED AMONG THE ATTENDANTS OF GOVERNORS OF PROVINCES .................................................. 213

CONSTITUTION IX.

CONCERNING SLAVES WHO BECOME MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF THEIR MASTERS ............................ 214

CONSTITUTION X.

CONCERNING SLAVES WHO ADOPT A MONASTIC LIFE WITH THE KNOWLEDGE OF THEIR MASTERS ...................................... 214

CONSTITUTION XL

CONCERNING A SLAVE PROMOTED TO THE EPISCOPATE WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF His MASTER .................................... 215

CONSTITUTION XII. CONCERNING THE USE OF THE SHOPS OF THE GREAT CHURCH .......... 215

CONSTITUTION XIII. CONCERNING PERPETUAL EMPHYTEUSIS ............................. 216

CONSTITUTION XIV. CONCERNING THOSE WHO LEAVE A MONASTERY UNFINISHED, .......... 216

CONSTITUTION XV.

IT SHALL BE LAWFUL TO CONFER THE SALUTARY RITE OF BAPTISM IN ANY PRIVATE CHAPEL WHATSOEVER. ........................... 218

CONSTITUTION XVI.

ANYONE CAN BE CREATED A SUBDEACON WHO HAS REACHED His TWENTIETH YEAR ................................................. 218

CONSTITUTION XVII.

WOMEN IN CHILDBED CANNOT TAKE PART IN THE CELEBRATION OF DIVINE MYSTERIES, AND THEIR INFANTS CANNOT BE BAPTIZED UNTIL AFTER FORTY DAYS, UNLESS SOME URGENT NECESSITY REQUIRES THIS TO BE DONE ........................................... 219

CONSTITUTION XVIII.

THE PENALTY INCLUDED IN THE CONTRACT OF BETROTHAL SHALL BE EXACTED .................................................... 220

CONSTITUTION XIX.

CONCERNING THE CONTRACT OF A FATHER BY WHICH A SON BECOMES ENTITLED TO A SHARE OF His ESTATE EQUAL TO THAT OF THE OTHER HEIRS ...................................................... 221

CONSTITUTION XX.

NEITHER HUSBAND NOR WIFE SHALL, IN CASE OF THE DEATH OF ONE OF THEM, BE ENTITLED TO ANYTHING EXCEPT THE DONATION GIVEN IN CONSIDERATION OF MARRIAGE ............................... 222

CONSTITUTION XXI.

THE PROMISE OF A DOWRY SHALL BE FULFILLED BY THE DELIVERY OF PROPERTY BELONGING TO THE FATHER'S OR MOTHER'S ESTATE. ..... 224

CONSTITUTION XXII.

A WOMAN WHO DOES NOT MARRY A SECOND TIME SHALL BE ENTITLED TO THE SHARE OF A SINGLE CHILD OUT OF HER HUSBAND'S ESTATE, AND WHERE THE FATHER SURVIVES HE SHALL ENJOY THE SAME PRIVILEGE ................................................... 225

CONSTITUTION XXIII.

GOVERNORS SHALL NOT CONTRACT MARRIAGES WITH FEMALE MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS WHILE IN THEIR PROVINCES. ............. 226

CONSTITUTION XXIV.

NATURAL CHILDREN CANNOT CONTRACT MARRIAGE WITH OTHERS WHO ARE ADOPTIVE ............................................... 227

CONSTITUTION XXV. CONCERNING EMANCIPATION AND THE RESTITUTION OF THE DOWRY. .... 227

CONSTITUTION XXVI. EUNUCHS CAN ADOPT............................................. 229

CONSTITUTION XXVII. ALL PERSONS ARE EQUALLY PERMITTED TO ADOPT. ................... 230

CONSTITUTION XXVIII.

AT WHAT AGE AND TO WHOM THE ADMINISTRATION OF THEIR PROPERTY SHOULD BE GRANTED TO MINORS. ............................... 231

CONSTITUTION XXIX.

THE CHILDREN OF FEMALE SLAVES BORN UPON THE LAND OF ANOTHER BELONG TO THEIR MASTERS .................................... 232

CONSTITUTION XXX.

CONCERNING A WOMAN WHO CONTRACTS ANOTHER MARRIAGE DURING THE LIFETIME OF HER HUSBAND. ............................... 233

CONSTITUTION XXXI.

A WOMAN WHO THROUGH HATRED TO HER HUSBAND PRODUCES AN ABORTION UPON HERSELF MAY BE REPUDIATED BY HIM ........... 234

CONSTITUTION XXXII. CONCERNING PERSONS TAKEN IN ADULTERY. ........................ 235

CONSTITUTION XXXIII.

THE WIVES OF CAPTIVES SHALL NOT BE PERMITTED TO MARRY OTHER MEN ....................................................... 236

CONSTITUTION XXXIV. CONCERNING A GUARDIAN WHO CORRUPTS His FEMALE WARD. ......... 237

CONSTITUTION XXXV.

CONCERNING THE PUNISHMENT OF THE RAVISHER OF A VIRGIN AND His ACCOMPLICES ................................................ 238

CONSTITUTION XXXVI. THE SON OF A CAPTIVE SHALL BE His HEIR. ........................ 239

CONSTITUTION XXXVII.

A SLAVE WHO is MANUMITTED BY THE WILL OF His MASTER HAS TESTAMENTARY CAPACITY, EVEN IF HE DOES NOT KNOW THAT His MASTER is DEAD AND THAT His ESTATE HAS BEEN ENTERED UPON ........ 240

CONSTITUTION XXXVIII.

THE SLAVES OF THE EMPEROR CAN DISPOSE OF ANY PROPERTY BELONGING TO THEM IN ANY WAY THAT THEY MAY DESIRE ............. 241

CONSTITUTION XXXIX. A SPENDTHRIFT CAN DISPOSE OF His OWN PROPERTY. ................ 241

CONSTITUTION XL. CAPTIVES HAVE TESTAMENTARY CAPACITY. .......................... 242

CONSTITUTION XLI.

IN CITIES FIVE WITNESSES, AND ON A JOURNEY AND IN THE COUNTRY THREE, SHALL BE SUFFICIENT TO ESTABLISH THE VALIDITY OF A WILL ....................................................... 244

CONSTITUTION XLII.

WHERE THERE is A SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF WITNESSES THE WILL SHALL BE VALID, EVEN THOUGH THEY MAY NOT HAVE ATTACHED THEIR SIGNATURES OR SEALS TO THE INSTRUMENT ...................... 245

CONSTITUTION XLIII.

WILLS CAN BE WITNESSED BY PERSONS WHO Do NOT KNOW How TO WRITE ...................................................... 247

CONSTITUTION XLIV. BY WHOM WILLS OUGHT TO BE SIGNED ............................. 247

CONSTITUTION XLV.

JUDGES MUST COMMIT THEIR DECISIONS TO WRITING AND SIGN THEM WITH THEIR OWN HANDS. .................................... 248

CONSTITUTION XLVI.

ABROGATION OF CERTAIN LAWS ENACTED WITH REFERENCE TO CURIAS AND DECURIONS ............................................. 248

CONSTITUTION XLVII.

ABROGATION OF THE LAW AUTHORIZING THE SENATE TO APPOINT PR^E-TORS, AND DECURIONS TO APPOINT PREFECTS ..................... 249

CONSTITUTION XLVIII. WOMEN SHALL NOT ACT AS WITNESSES IN THE EXECUTION OF CONTRACTS 249

CONSTITUTION XLIX. SLAVES SHALL NOT BE PERMITTED TO GIVE TESTIMONY. ............... 250

CONSTITUTION L.

DONATIONS WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN REDUCED TO WRITING SHALL ONLY BE VALID WHERE SUMS UP TO FIVE HUNDRED AUREI ARE INVOLVED 251

CONSTITUTION LI. To WHOM TREASURE TROVE SHOULD BELONG. ....................... 251

CONSTITUTION LII.

MONEY COINED BY ANCIENT AS WELL AS MODERN SOVEREIGNS SHALL BE CURRENT, PROVIDED IT Is OF LEGAL WEIGHT AND OF PROPER MATERIAL ...................................................... 252

CONSTITUTION LIII.

ANYONE SHALL BE PERMITTED TO BURY THE DEAD WITHIN CITIES AS WELL AS OUTSIDE THE SAME .................................. 253

CONSTITUTION LIV. ALL PERSONS SHALL ABSTAIN FROM LABOR ON SUNDAY. ............. 254

CONSTITUTION LV. JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY .. 255

CONSTITUTION LVI. CONCERNING THE SHORES OF THE SEA ............................... 256

CONSTITUTION LVII. How FAR FROM ONE ANOTHER SHOULD FISHING NETS BE PLACED?. .... 256

CONSTITUTION LVIII. FOOD SHALL NOT BE COMPOSED OF BLOOD. ...................."....... 257

CONSTITUTION LIX. REPEAL OF THE LAW WHICH PERMITS A FREEMAN TO SELL HIMSELF. ... 257

CONSTITUTION LX. IN WHAT WAY PERSONS WHO CASTRATE OTHERS SHOULD BE PUNISHED. . 258

CONSTITUTION LXI.

WHAT PENALTY SHALL BE INFLICTED UPON THE COLLECTORS OF TAXES WHERE THEY DEMAND MORE THAN is DUE. .................... 259

CONSTITUTION LXII.

CONCERNING THE PENALTY INCURRED BY ONE WHO SELLS ANY PUBLIC PROPERTY WHATSOEVER ....................................... 260

CONSTITUTION LXIII.

CONCERNING THE PENALTY TO WHICH THOSE ARE LIABLE WHO TRANSFER FORBIDDEN THINGS TO THE ENEMY. ............................ 260

CONSTITUTION LXIV.

CONCERNING THE PENALTY TO BE IMPOSED UPON THOSE WHO SUPPRESS INFORMATION OF A SHIPWRECK ................................ 261

CONSTITUTION LXV. CONCERNING THE PENALTY TO WHICH ENCHANTERS ARE LIABLE ....... 262

CONSTITUTION LXVI. CONCERNING THE THEFT OF SLAVES. ............................... 263

CONSTITUTION LXVII.

CONCERNING THOSE WHO Go OVER TO THE ENEMY AND VOLUNTARILY RETURN .................................................... 263

CONSTITUTION LXVIII.

MONKS AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLERGY CAN BE APPOINTED GUARDIANS, BUT THEY SHALL BE DEPRIVED OF THE CONTROL OF THEIR WARDS AS WELL AS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THEIR PROPERTY. .. 264

CONSTITUTION LXIX. BLIND MEN CAN MAKE WILLS SECRETLY. ........................... 265

CONSTITUTION LXX. CONCERNING ROBBERY ............................................ 266

CONSTITUTION LXXI.

CONCERNING THOSE WHO INTEND TO BUILD UPON TILLABLE LAND OR IN VINEYARDS ............................................... 267

CONSTITUTION LXXII.

CONTRACTS SHALL BE VALID EVEN WHERE No PENALTY is ATTACHED TO THEIR VIOLATION ............................................ 268

CONSTITUTION LXXIII. No ONE SHALL LIVE WITH WOMEN IN HOUSES ATTACHED TO CHURCHES 268

CONSTITUTION LXXIV.

No NUPTIAL BENEDICTION SHALL BE CONFERRED UPON PERSONS WHO ARE BETROTHED BEFORE THE TIME WHEN THEY CAN BE MARRIED. . 269

CONSTITUTION LXXV.

A PERSON WHO HAS REACHED THE AGE OF TWENTY YEARS CAN BE CREATED A SUBDEACON ....................................... 269

CONSTITUTION LXXVI.

CONCERNING THE PENALTY IMPOSED UPON PRIESTS WHO COMMIT PERJURY ....................................................... 270

CONSTITUTION LXXVII. CONCERNING THE PENALTY FOR FORGERY. ........................... 270

CONSTITUTION LXXVIII. No DECREE OF THE SENATE SHALL BE ENACTED HEREAFTER. .......... 271

CONSTITUTION LXXIX.

CONCERNING THE PENALTY TO BE IMPOSED UPON PRIESTS, DEACONS, AND SUBDEACONS WHO MARRY AFTER HAVING BECOME MEMBERS OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL ORDER ....................................... 271

CONSTITUTION LXXX. CUTTINGS AND PIECES OF PURPLE CLOTH CAN PUBLICLY BE SOLD. ...... 271

CONSTITUTION LXXXI.

THE MANUFACTURE OF ANY ARTICLE OUT OF GOLD OR PRECIOUS STONES Is, IN GENERAL, PROHIBITED. .................................. 272

CONSTITUTION LXXXII. CONCERNING OPENED WILLS. ...................................... 272

CONSTITUTION LXXXIII.

A LOAN OF MONEY BEARING INTEREST AT FOUR PER CENT CAN LEGALLY BE MADE .................................................... 273

CONSTITUTION LXXXIV.

MAGISTRATES OF CITIES SHALL BE PERMITTED TO TRANSACT BUSINESS, TO CONSTRUCT BUILDINGS, AND TO ACCEPT DONATIONS ............ 274

CONSTITUTION LXXXV.