DE INDIS ET DE IVRE BELLI RELECTIONES
BEING PARTS OF
RELECTIONES THEOLOGICAE XII
BY FRANCISCUS DE VICTORIA
Primary Professor of Sacred Theology in the University of
BY JOHN PAWLEY BATE, LL.D.
Reader of Roman and International Law in the Inns of
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE ON CITATIONS.
1. Bible. — The references made in the original to the Vulgate
are given in the translation in terms of the English Authorized Version of the
reign of James I.
2. Canon law books. — The references in the translation are
given in the following abbreviated manner: (a) Decretum, pt. i, by
number of Canon and number of Distinctio, e. g., can. 6, Dist. 96: (b)
Decretum, pt. ii, by number of Canon, number of Causa, number of
Quaestio, e. g., can. 41, C. 7, qu. 1: (c) Decretales, by X (for
extra Decretum) then number of book, title and chapter, thus X,
5, 6, 6: (d) Liber Sextus, by the number of book, title and
chapter, followed by "in VI," thus 5, 2, 19 in VI.
3. Civil law books. — The references in the translation are to
Mommsen's edition of the Corpus Juris Civilis.
In addition to the above-named books the author cites or refers to the
writings of the following:
Adrian VI, Pope.
Altissiodorensis (i. e., of Auxerre), Gulielmus.
Anconitanus (i. e., of Ancona), Agosrino Trionfi.
Angelus of Chiavasso.
Antoninus, St., Archbishop of Florence.
Aquinas, St. Thomas.
Archbishop, the, see Antoninus
Armachanus (i. e., of Armagh), see Fitzralph, Richard.
Augustine, St. Baptista de Salis.
Cajetan, Cardinal (Thomas de Vio).
Fitzralph, Richard, Archbishop of Armagh.
Gandavensis (i. e., of Ghent), Henricus Gerson.
Hostiensis (Henry of Susa, Cardinal. Bishop of Ostia).
Hugo, see de Sancto Victore.
Panormitanus (i. e., of Palermo), Nicolo Tudeschi.
Parisiensis (i. e., of Paris), Gulielmus.
de Sancto Victore, Hugo.
Sylvester of Prierio Terence.
de Torquemada (Turrecremata), Juan.
Waldensis (i. e., of WaIden, Essex), Thomas Netter.
(The Title-Page of the Edition of 1696)
THE RELECTIONES IN MORAL THEOLOGY OF THE VERY CELEBRATED
SPANISH THEOLOGIAN, FRANCISCUS DE VICTORIA,
comprised in two volumes, in the order shown overleaf,
Formerly published at Ingolstadt, and now, because of the
lack of copies and the nobility of their contents, revised and furnished with a
twofold index by the toil of
JOHANN GEORG SIMON, J. U. D.,
Counsellor and Professor of Halle.
"A work of the utmost utility alike to jurisconsults and
to theologians." [Conring]
COLOGNE AND FRANKFORT,
At the cost of AUGUST BOETIUS. 1696.
(Overleaf of the Edition of 1696)
I. On the Power of the Church, part 1.
II. On the Power of the Church, part 2.
III. On Civil Power.
IV. On the Power of the Pope and Council.
V. Part 1, or on the Indians lately discovered.
VI. Part 2, or on the Law of War.
VII. On Marriage.
VIII. On the Increase of Charity.
IX. On Temperance.
X. On Homicide.
XI. On Simony.
XII. On the Magic Art.
XIII. On the Obligations of a man attaining the use of reason.
[Of the above, only Relectiones V and VI are pertinent to the objects of
this work and the others are therefore not included.]
TO THE CHRISTIAN READER, GREETING:
It having been decided to reprint here, at Ingolstadt, these thirteen
Relectiones of Franciscus de Victoria, who was by far the most learned
theologian of the highly flourishing University of Salamanca within the memory
of our fathers, I undertook the task of correcting them at the instance of
certain doctors, who, on account of the celebrity of his reputation, were
glowing with fervent admiration of so great a man. Now in this business so
entrusted to me, I see that there are a few items concerning which it is worth
while that you have an accurate account: these are, the amount of labor and
toil expended by me in correcting and preparing the publication; the character
and greatness of the man who composed these Relectiones; and the amount
of advantage and profit which the perusal of them will bring even to Germans,
who seem to be somewhat strange to the gymnastic and scholastic form of
discussion therein employed.
Well, reader, you will scarcely believe how much labor we have expended on
this business, unless either you make a careful comparison of this edition of
ours with the Lyons and Salamanca editions or realize in some fashion by our
description the character of each of these editions. For I had at first the use
of the Lyons edition only, in clearing the blunders from a good part of the
first volume, and the printer had already finished striking off the first five
sheets of it, when, beyond my hope and belief (for I did not think such a thing
existed here), a copy of the much more correct Salamanca edition came into my
hands in the manner following: The Reverend Father Gregorius Rosephius, a
preacher of Augsburg, when on a visit to
us, had perceived the extremely wearisome nature of the task, which I had
undertaken in correcting the Lyons copy (I seemed indeed to be cleansing the
Augean stable), and had noticed that some of the passages pointed out by me
were hopelessly corrupt, and by his courteous intervention with the well-born
gentleman, Marcus Fugger (on whom the desire of the public welfare had such a
hold), he procured me the loan, from the well-known library of the Fugger
family, of a copy of the Salamanca edition. How faulty and corrupt the Lyons
copy was, I would rather that you, my reader, should learn from the Letter to
the Reader, which Brother Alonso Muņoz placed at the beginning of the
Salamanca copy, than from me. A part of that Letter it has seemed advisable to
insert in this, because it, too, contains the praises of the author, and
because some of the disciples of that most erudite man are mentioned by name
"When, honest reader, I was busy at Salamanca, trying to help Brother
Domingo Soto with the correction of the proof of the fourth volume of the
Sententiae, then in the press, there appeared a little book with a most
imposing title, but containing countless horrible misprints, absurdities which
were disgraceful and insulting to the author as well as to the whole
theological school. It made one aghast to behold in the tiny body of so small a
book so unbelievable an off-scouring of close-packed blunders, and ashamed and
sorrowful that rascals should seem to have such license towards the
master-pieces of most distinguished men, and with impunity, too. This was the
title of the book: "The Relectiones of the Reverend Father, Brother
Franciscus de Victoria, of the Order of Preachers, formerly Primary Professor
of Sacred Theology in the University of Salamanca." You observe how fair
and full of promise the inscription is; and indeed for this, in Pliny's words,
its bail could be forfeited.
"When, then, at Salamanca I came across this very book, newly issued
from the press, I began to read it with the utmost avidity, and I had barely
cast my eyes upon the first page that presented itself, when, lo, there lighted
on my very eyes some impious error on the topic of Simony, which stirred my
spleen marvellously. I made no tarrying, however, the matter being one which
could easily be detected by anyone of even moderate learning; I go on, and the
farther I went, the more mistakes I kept finding, and even some mutilations.
Perceiving that the thing was by no means to be borne, I laid it before the
very Reverend Fathers, Brother Domingo Soto and Brother Melchior Cano, who
prompted me to take on myself my present charge, namely, the correction of that
book according to the most exact copies. Master Franciscus Sanctius, Canon of
the Cathedral of Salamanca and Moderator of the chair of Moral Philosophy in
the gymnasium likewise of Salamanca and therefore administer of the Holy
Inquisition in the business of examining books for admission or rejection,
learnt of this. He came to Brother Domingo Soto to discuss the matter with him,
and at the suggestion of the same Franciscus I was summoned and received afresh
from the twain the injunction "to adorn this Sparta."
"Now, although I was aware how unpleasant a business it was, how hard
and wearisome the affair, how inglorious the labor of correcting and restoring
the monuments of others, especially those so ulcerous, so altogether deranged,
so piteously (I had almost said) and hostilely regarded, as these were, yet,
moved by the authority of my preceptors as well as induced by love of a very
fine work and of its author, Victoria, who was also my dearest of teachers, I
put my shoulders under a burden which I have loved."
And then at the dose of the same letter Muņoz adds this paragraph:
"Enjoy, then, in your good fortune the fruits of our vigils and toil,
whereby it has come to pass (without boasting) that instead of the muddy work,
not to say the mud, of yore, you have something clean and clear, and gilded and
resplendent all over, as you will easily discover by experiment, if, wherever
the book be opened, you will make a comparison and will consider the difference
between this book, which we are handing to you, and the book which we have
corrected, namely, the one which Jacques Boyer struck off at Lyons in the year
of our Lord 1557. Before it none was printed, and after it no other printers
have ventured to reprint it, fearing (howsoever small it is) this our
diligence, of which they are not unaware."
From this, my leader, you will perceive, without any words of ours, how
faulty and corrupt was the Lyons edition, and how much more correct is that of
Salamanca (of the year 1565, to wit). But I do not know by what ill-chance it
has happened that into this Salamanca edition, so clean, so clear, so gilded,
have crept blunders and faults neither few nor trivial. It labors at times
under the same faults as the Lyons edition; sometimes under faults of its own,
which needs must be corrected either by reference to the Lyons edition or in
some other way. What, then, my reader, was I to do, there being so many faults
even in the Salamanca copy, in which I had placed my hopes of correcting the
other copy? Was I to make a transcript of the whole of the Salamanca copy (for
the well-born man who had loaned it to us had stipulated that it was not to be
entrusted to any printer or have any marks made on it) and send the transcript
to the printer to be printed? But I had no leisure for that, and if I had had,
it would not have helped towards a correct edition of the work because of the
faults and blunders, which, we have said, had crept into the edition in
question. Was I to correct the whole of the Lyons text, just as I had corrected
it in part, before I had that of Salamanca, and so corrected give it to the
printer? That, too, was impracticable, because the former was blemished by many
more and graver faults than the latter, and because, unless we corrected the
former by the Salamanca text, we should seem to have borrowed the last-named to
Accordingly I settled the matter as follows. From the place where the
printer had stopped printing (he happened to have stopped after the fifth
sheet, usually marked by the letter E) I and a wise colleague, whom I had
joined with me, made a very careful collation of the two texts, and to the best
of our ability, corrected that of Lyons, which was to be sent to the printer,
by that of Salamanca, wherever the latter had no obvious error. But wherever a
serious and manifest fault occurred in the Salamanca text (for I thought that I
could rely on my own judgment in the removal of the more trifling blunders) I
took counsel with the most skilful theologians and philosophers, in order that
the fault might be corrected by the common judgment of many, after considering
in the two copies all the words and opinions of the author, which seemed to
conduce to an understanding of his mind. It happened sometimes that all of us
together could hardly find a principle or method for the restoration of some
corrupt passage. Let any incredulous person take the two editions and read just
one passage in the "Relectio on the Increase of Charity," about No.
10, and if he can extract therefrom the sure meaning of the author while
retaining the identical words, then he may indeed charge us with falsehood or
When, then, on this principle we had collated the two editions right to the
end, we carefully corrected by the Salamanca text the five sheets also, which,
we have said, had been struck off, in order that nothing might be wanting for
the absolute and complete expurgation of the entire work. As we could not
remove from these sheets themselves the errors which occurred in them, we noted
them at the end among the rest of the Errata.
This indeed was a big and tedious task, but bigger and more tedious was that
which we undertook, in regard of the whole work now emended according to the
Salamanca text, of simply correcting, repurging, and illustrating it with
scholia throughout. This was the more toilsome and difficult in proportion as
the two editions were more corrupt and as the author — owing to the
strength of his very acute intelligence, which, according to the wont of highly
learned men, he directs upon the matters before him — seems less careful
of his words, less mindful of order or of the things initially propounded for
discussion. Hence it happens that sometimes he might appear to use an
overconcise and scholastic mode of discourse; sometimes, to omit answering
arguments which have been propounded; sometimes, to give one answer to many
things at the same time; sometimes, when discussing a mooted question or
refuting an argument, to insert questions and doubts which he meets upon his
way; sometimes, to omit altogether some of the questions to be discussed, which
he has propounded at the beginning of the relectio (as is evident in the
"Relectio on Marriage" and the "Relectio on Temperance").
Nor did our labor stop here, but in the third place we had to go over the
whole work after it was in type, both to make a complete alphabetical index and
to correct the misprints. While attempting to accomplish this latter task, we
bestowed equal diligence upon the former, so that we have left in this edition
of ours a text much more correct than had previously been published, by the
removal of a large number of faults and blunders, which either had come in
afterwards or had not previously presented themselves. Of these, a few indeed,
but the more important, however, we have noted down among the Errata at the end
of the book. From this, my reader, you will understand that not all the errors
noted at the end of the book are due to either the carelessness or ignorance of
the printer, but they may have crept in (especially in the first five sheets,
because we did not have the Salamanca copy) either because of the corrupt state
of both the editions which we used or even because of our own inability to make
an exhaustive scrutiny and examination. We have, however, left untouched not a
few passages, which seemed susceptible of emendation, had we labored on them,
because they ran in that way in both editions or at any rate in the Salamanca
edition and in order that no one might charge us with excessive freedom in the
correction of another's work.
About the author of these Relectiones, I have ascertained this much:
that he lived in the reign of the Emperor Charles V, King of Spain; that he
belonged to the Order of St. Dominic; that he was a shining light and ornament
of that Order; that he flourished especially in the praise accorded to a very
acute intelligence, to judgment, and to sound doctrine, and in the number and
glory of his most learned disciples (some of whom are very well-known because
of their published books, such as Melchior Cano and Domingo Soto); further,
that his universal authority was so great and his name so outstanding that he
seemed to his hearers a second Pythagoras: that he was reckoned by the most
learned theologians and philosophers to be the alpha and prince of the
theologians and philosophers of his day, and that (I) *the Catholic Sovereigns of Spain brought to him cases
affecting their conscience (such as (a) that of the conquered provinces
of the New World, and (b) that of the divorced wife of the King of
England, both of which are discussed in this book), desiring instruction on
these matters from him especially, with the result that he himself, relying on
this very authority, of which he was not unaware, gave the freest judgment,
just as the principles of his conscience demanded, in the causes of Sovereigns
and even (II) of the Supreme Pontiff. When I carefully consider this, I am wont
to doubt which of the two is the more praiseworthy: in this man, a certain
freedom of speech, buttressed by his authority and surpassing erudition, or, in
the Sovereigns of Spain and even in the Supreme Pontiff, a singular moderation
of mind and a desire to learn and uphold justice and truth. Hence it comes
about that with equanimity, aye, pleasure, they silently allow themselves to be
chided by this learned man and to be rebuked (when the principle of the
doctrines which he had to deliver so requires).* For those extremely wise Sovereigns bear in mind what
another Sovereign has left in writing: "The righteous shall rebuke me in
compassion and shall upbraid me; but the oil of the sinner shall not fatten my
Wherefore it is an injustice for the heretics of our day to ridicule the
monastic orders everywhere on the ground that they are rude and unlearned and
flatterers alike of Popes and princes. Surely, if these heretics be compared
with our Franciscus de Victoria, they will neither be worthy of the name of
theologian nor found to say or write aught in conformity with truth, but in
everything to fawn on princes. Now how great a debt the University of
Salamanca, and therefore Spain, owes to this man, the aforenamed Alonso
Muņoz, in a Letter to the Most Serene King Charles of Spain. testifies
in the following words:
"The whole of Spain owes much to this excellent man, for, while he has
deserved well of it on many grounds, he has especially done so in respect of
this. that whereas Theology among the Spaniards lay in confusion and covered
with dust, or rather with mud, tattered and torn, dumb and almost tongueless,
it was restored by his exertions alone to clarity, splendor, and its native
beauty, to purity and dignity, comeliness, grace, and soundness, as if in
virtue of a tardy postliminy. In witness of the truth of this are not merely
the centuriae, but also the
Iliads of his disciples, whom his
school has poured out in all directions."
Now, my reader, lest the word relectio be unfamiliar to you, you
should realize that at Salamanca it meant a kind of theological exercise not
very unlike those disputations which are known to have been in vogue in the
days of our ancestors in the most celebrated universities under the name of
quodlibeticae quaestiones. The seemingly more difficult of those
quaestiones, which had been discussed in the daily prelections of a
whole year, were also reconsidered in these relectiones in a public
assembly of the most learned, and by the same doctor, so that they might be
much more accurately decided than theretofore and receive as it were the
finishing touches. And since our author was, beyond controversy, the prince of
theologians of that time, especially among the Spaniards, you will perceive
that whatever conclusions have been arrived at after discussion in these
Relectiones have all been tested and weighed by the judgment of the most
learned theologian, as if in the scales of the most skilful goldsmith, and
that, therefore, they ought to adjudged much more solid and firm than the
things superficially discussed by the heretics of today, men, forsooth, devoid
of learning and judgment.
Now, although these Relectiones may seem suited to the bent of
Spaniards rather than of Germans, seeing that the former prefer to cultivate a
gymnastic and concise manner of theologizing and the latter a sedate and
rhetorical manner, yet if we look at both the manner of disputation and the
fruits of the learning handed on in these Relectiones, it seems that
they will bring much advantage and profit to Germans. For if we attentively
consider that from the time when the waves of false opinions and heresies began
here to buffet the ship of the Church, Theology has been denuded by almost
everyone (fearing, perhaps, the insults directed by heretics against the
philosophers and theologians of the School) of the protection and arms of the
philosophical and theological school and been called back into a rhetorical, or
rather, a grammatical mode of reasoning, and that for this reason either those
who have thus approached sacred literature with unwashed hands have made no
further advance in that pursuit than has been made by a clever grammarian or
rhetorician or that, because they are ignorant and unaccustomed to the
exercises of disputation and judgment, wrong opinions have either been begotten
or defended, we shall, above all, be led into that opinion (into which Cicero
testifies that he was led in a similar case) and come to think that theological
doctrine is not of much good to the Christian Republic without eloquence, but
that eloquence without doctrine brings very often over much hurt, never any
good. And so if anyone (to use the words of that same Cicero with little
alteration) omits those most befitting and unerring studies of theology and
divine doctrine and spends all his energy upon the exercise of speech and
writing, he is being bred to be useless to himself, a dangerous citizen of his
country and a parricide of his Mother Church. He, however, who so arms himself
with eloquence as to be incapable of fighting against the good of his country
and the doctrine of the Church, but able to fight in their behalf, will in our
view be a man of the highest usefulness alike to his own and his country's
interests, the best-affected citizen, and the dearest son of his Mother Church.
I have mentioned these matters, my reader, not because I think that, in
their mode of transmitting theology, either this Franciscus de Victoria and the
other Spaniards are deficient in grace or in faculty of speech or the Germans
are devoid and destitute of solid doctrine (for I know both that this Victoria
in his Relectiones is eloquent to the limit of his theme and that other
Spaniards, especially when they are pleased to drop the scholastic habit of
speech, can both speak and write with polish, and also that no small number of
Germans have been perfectly trained in the doctrines of philosophy and
theology, but because I think that German theologians will best consult their
own country's interests, if they studiously conjoin the solid and scholastic
kind of theologizing, such as is that of this Victoria and of the Spaniards in
common, with that sedate and rhetorical kind, which they themselves generally
Further, the fruits of these Relectiones are both abundant and
manifold, and both they who are teachers of others and all other persons will
be able to gather them. This indeed we can make plain by reference to the
Relectiones one by one.
In the first relectio it is shown that there are in the Church two
distinct powers, the ecclesiastical and the civil, and that the former is
stronger than the latter; accordingly, the false doctrine of the Lutherans and
of those who equate the two powers or subordinate the ecclesiastical to the
civil is overthrown.
In the second relectio, which also bears the title "On the Power
of the Church," two dogmas of the heretics are refuted; the one, that the
strictly ecclesiastical and spiritual power is initially and of itself existent
in the whole of the Church universal in the same way as the civil power is in
the civil State; and the other, that all Christians are priests, and all equal,
and that there is no order and are no certain grades in ecclesiastical power.
In the third the necessity, origin, and force of the civil power and its
authority are so established and confirmed that the pernicious dogma of Luther,
which has brought destruction to an almost innumerable number of simple folk,
falls to the ground of itself.
The fourth relectio contains a very fine discussion "On the
Power of the Pope and Council," which, though it may seem of less use to
those engaged in strife with heretics or tainted with heretical practices, is
nevertheless useful and fruitful even for them. For, while the scope of the
general power alike of the Pope and of the Council is explained, at the same
time the sovereignty of the power and authority of each, but in its own
measure, is asserted. Now, if the authority of the Supreme Pontiff and Councils
were established and were in the ascendency among the Germans, it would
obviously result both that no sects would be propagated among them and that all
heresies would be dispelled, not otherwise than darkness before the rays of the
The fifth relectio is entitled "Of the Indians" (that is,
of the barbarians of the New World commonly called Indians). Now, although this
appears to be the answer given by the author to the Catholic Sovereigns of
Spain, it nevertheless contains many things useful and wholesome for everyone
who is in a case the same as or like to that in which those Sovereigns were.
Among these things are: how a person in doubt on any matter of conscience ought
to take the advice of those who are learned and wise in that kind of matter;
how he ought to follow what they have laid down, even if, as may happen, they
are in error; and how many unlawful, how many lawful, titles there may be, by
which those Sovereigns might claim to reduce foreign provinces and populations
into their power. After a careful discussion and settlement of these points,
the conscience of those concerned is openly taught what to abstain from doing
in this business and what to do.
In the sixth, "A Further Relectio on the Indians, or on the Law of
War," much, and this useful, instruction is delivered, which ought to be
observed by kings and princes, in order that they may make or wage war in a
lawful manner, and by all other persons, in order that they may in lawful
manner serve as soldiers under their own or a foreign prince. Meanwhile a
refutation is given of that dogma of the heretics, that it is not lawful for
Christian princes to fight either with other Christians or with the Turks.
In the seventh, which seems to be the author's answer in the cause of the
Queen of England who had been divorced by the King, her husband, a strenuous
attack is made upon that false dogma of the Lutherans that all the degrees
forbidden in Leviticus 18 and 20 are still forbidden by divine law. The
heretics, further, get a shrewd knock, when it is convincingly shown in this
relectio that matrimonial causes are rightly and properly brought before
The eighth, in which the topic is "The Increase and Decrease of
Charity," contains a discussion pertaining indeed rather to the school of
theologians than to a public assembly or to other folk, yet one very helpful to
these same theologians, both in the sharpening of their wits and in its harvest
of very beautiful and genuinely theological matter. We may also add that here
there is a condemnation of that conjecture of the heretics that all righteous
persons are equals in charity and grace before God and that, as Luther asserts,
the ever Blessed Virgin, the Mother of Christ, in no respect surpasses any
woman from the midst of the people.
The ninth contains a varied and interesting disputation "On
Temperance," which will probably be pleasing to most folk here because of
the controversy about the pleasures of the table. Those barbarians, the
cannibals, are here condemned, and those who sacrifice men to God. There is
also a defense or the Carthusians, who perpetually abstain from flesh, and of
other religious, who seem to shorten their days by other forms of abstinence.
We should have had in this relectio more numerous defenses against
heretics, had not the author absolutely passed over one or another of the
quaestiones propounded at the beginning.
The tenth, in which there is a discussion "On Homicide," is of use
in many ways; but more conclusions are arrived at in it than we can set out in
The eleventh, containing a discussion "On Simony and the Punishment of
Simoniacs," may seem to be not only useful, but even necessary here, where
this stain is so inveterate and so wide-spread as scarcely to be reckoned a
vice. Nor are the heretics free from this vice, though cut off from the body of
Not less useful and necessary is the twelfth, in which there is a
disputation "On Magic," seeing that we have often heard by sure
report, nay, we assuredly know, that, after the new Gospel had been introduced
by Martin Luther, it obtained such a hold especially in the regions of the
North that, in proportion as the doctrine of Christ was gradually failing and
dying away in the minds of men, so Magic was gradually gaining in strength,
with the result that, when the former was quite extinct, the latter seemed to
reign alone with her partner. Heresy. Nor are the Anabaptists and Calvinists
altogether destitute and devoid of this Magic and of the Pythoness' breath, nay
rather they breathe that breath in their words, writings, manners, face and
In the last relectio a topic is treated which is most worthy of a
Christian, namely, what are the obligations of everyone on first arriving at
the use of reason. For what more befitting can be taught or learnt by a man,
and especially by a Christian, than the condition or manner, in which he should
turn himself to God as his ultimate end and highest good, for the enjoyment of
which he has been created?
It is now your part, Christian reader, to receive with gratitude and
pleasure this work — on the correction of which we have bestowed so much
toil and time, which has been lucubrated by such and so great a man, and which
contains doctrine so sure and solid, so useful and necessary — and by
reading it and meditating on it rouse your zeal for the knowledge of the
highest things. It will be an abundant recompense to us, if by reading it you
become both wiser and better. Farewell.
At Ingolstadt, on the day of St. Lawrence, Martyr, in the year 1580.
A POEM TO THE READER IN PRAISE OF THE WORK BY AN UNKNOWN AUTHOR.
What a number of things, O reader, this book, small as it is, contains
— laws, Popes, and sacred theologians.
ANOTHER EXTEMPORANEOUS POEM COMPRISING AS BRIEFLY AS POSSIBLE
THE SUBJECTS OF BOTH VOLUMES.
What are the powers of Holy Mother Church and of the Popes this book
teaches; what is the power of the Fathers when duly assembled in their Great
Council; at the same time, too, the civil laws and the laws of war (for even
Mars is not lawless); and it treats of the lawful bed and marriage of men.
This, Franciscus de Victoria, is the first part of thy work, and that is so
far, too, the cost of our gratitude for thy deed.
What a delight of piety and how fair a virtue it is to have abstained from
good things and to impose a law on luxury, but how great an impiety to pollute
the hand with human blood, and to take away a life, which, once lost, is
irrecoverable either with gold or prayers or an abundant price! Alas, he must
carry a hard flint in his breast, who goes against his own entrails with the
dread sword. Nor does the pious Church sell for a price its prebends, but gives
them free to well-deserving persons, and she drives off evil spirits, nor may
any of her affairs prosper by magic arts, arts summoned from the one dungeon of the abyss. In the last threshold of the
book, too, Victoria, worthy of eternal life, teaches the conduct which befits
those who come to the true use of reason.
Nor are slight thanks thine for so great a work, who art so ready to bring
forth both from darkness and from rust the writings of so great a man, because,
if God is propitious to the daring, thou shalt live eternally, and after paying
the debt of death thou shalt live, and God will place thy soul, when freed from
the body, in the ethereal heaven, and thou shalt appear among the gods. Only go
on in thy well-deserving and spare not thy hard toil.
1. This preface, which Simon prefixes to his edition, is a
copy of the preface to the edition which appeared at Ingolstadt in 1580, and is
in the form of a letter "To the Christian Reader" from the editor,
who describes himself as "one of the Doctors of Sacred Theology at
Ingolstadt." The black figures in the inside margin of pages 115-187
indicate the corresponding pages of the Photographic Reproduction included in
this edition. The pages of the Photographic Reproduction corresponding to pages
105-114 are unnumbered in the original.
2. Or some other "Augusta." —
* The part between these asterisks is marked as a quotation
in the original. — TRANSL.
3. Ps. 140 (Vulgate).
4. Such as were compiled by people like the Magdeburg
centuriators (whom the writer would naturally dislike). — TRANSL.
5. Reading Iliades for Yliades. 'IliaV has a way of being used in Greek as equivalent to a
vast string of things, e.g.; 'IliaV kakvn.
6. This is a literal prose translation of a laudatory poem,
which Simon reproduces after the preface. It probably appeared in the
Ingolstadt edition (1580), which Simon professes to reproduce. It also appears
in the edition of Muņoz (1565) and it may be that Muņoz was its
7. This is a literal prose translation of a laudatory poem,
which Simon reproduces after the first laudatory poem. It probably appeared in
the Ingolstadt edition (1580), which Simon professes to reproduce.
8. Reading uno for uni; but the latter may be
an extemporized genitive, "the dungeon of the one abyss. —
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