Chap. V. Animadversions on Some of the Writers Who Have
Rendered Women Objects of Pity, Bordering on Contempt.
THE opinions speciously
supported,in some modern publications on the female character and education,
which have given the tone to most of the observations made, in a more cursory
manner, on the sex, remain now to be examined.
I SHALL begin with Rousseau,
and give a sketch of the character of women, in his own words, interspersing
comments and reflections. My comments, it is true, will all spring from a few
simple principles, and might have been deduced from what I have already said;
but the artificial structure has been raised with so much ingenuity, that it
seems necessary to attack it in a more circumstantial manner, and make the
Sophia, says Rousseau, should be as perfect a woman as Emilius is a man, and
to render her so, it is necessary to examine the character which nature has
given to the sex.
He then proceeds to prove that woman ought to be weak and passive, because
she has less bodily strength than man; and, hence infers, that she was formed
to please and to be subject to him; and that it is her duty to render herself
agreeable to her master — this being the grand end of her
existence.1 Still, however, to give a
little mock dignity to sensual desire, he insists that man should not exert his
strength, but depend on the will of the woman, when he seeks for pleasure with
'Hence we deduce a third consequence from the different constitutions of the
sexes; which is, that the strongest should be masters in appearance, and be
dependent in fact on the weakest; and that not from any frivolous practice of
gallantry or vanity of protectorship, but from an invariable law of nature,
which, furnishing woman with a greater facility to excite desires than she has
given man to satisfy them, makes the latter dependent on the good pleasure of
the former, and compels him to endeavour to please in his turn, in order to
obtain her consent that he should be strongest.2 On these occasions, the most delightful circumstance
a man finds in his victory is, to doubt whether it was the woman's weakness
that yielded to his superiour strength, or whether her inclinations spoke in
his favour: the females are also generally artful enough to leave this matter
in doubt. The understanding of women answers in this respect perfectly to their
constitution: so far from being ashamed of their weakness, they glory in it;
their tender muscles make no resistance; they affect to be incapable of lifting
the smallest burthens, and would blush to be thought robust and strong. To what
purpose is all this? Not merely for the sake of appearing delicate, but through
an artful precaution: it is thus they provide an excuse beforehand, and a right
to be feeble when they think it expedient.'3
I have quoted this passage, lest my readers should suspect that I warped the
author's reasoning to support my own arguments. I have already asserted that in
educating women these fundamental principles lead to a system of cunning and
Supposing woman to have been formed only to please, and be subject to man,
the conclusion is just, she ought to sacrifice every other consideration to
render herself agreeable to him: and let this brutal desire of
self-preservation be the grand spring of all her actions, when it is proved to
be the iron bed of fate, to fit which her character should be stretched or
contracted, regardless of all moral or physical distinctions. But, if, as I
think, may be demonstrated, the purposes, of even this life, viewing the whole,
are subverted by practical rules built upon this ignoble base, I may be allowed
to doubt whether woman was created for man: and, though the cry of irreligion,
or even atheism, be raised against me, I will simply declare, that were an
angel from heaven to tell me that Moses's beautiful, poetical cosmogony, and
the account of the fall of man, were literally true, I could not believe what
my reason told me was derogatory to the character of the Supreme Being: and,
having no fear of the devil before mine eyes, I venture to call this a
suggestion of reason, instead of resting my weakness on the broad shoulders of
the first seducer of my frail sex.
'It being once demonstrated,' continues Rousseau, 'that man and woman are
not, nor ought to be, constituted alike in temperament and character, it
follows of course that they should not be educated in the same manner. In
pursuing the directions of nature, they ought indeed to act in concert, but
they should not be engaged in the same employments: the end of their pursuits
should be the same, but the means they should take to accomplish them, and of
consequence their tastes and inclinations, should be different.'4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'Whether I consider the peculiar destination of the sex, observe their
inclinations, or remark their duties, all things equally concur to point out
the peculiar method of education best adapted to them. Woman and man were made
for each other, but their mutual dependence is not the same. The men depend on
the women only on account of their desires; the women on the men both on
account of their desires and their necessities: we could subsist better without
them than they without us.'5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'For this reason, the education of the women should be always relative to
the men. To please, to be useful to us, to make us love and esteem them, to
educate us when young, and take care of us when grown up, to advise, to console
us, to render our lives easy and agreeable: these are the duties of women at
all times, and what they should be taught in their infancy. So long as we fail
to recur to this principle, we run wide of the mark, and all the precepts which
are given them contribute neither to their happiness nor our own.'6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'Girls are from their earliest infancy fond of dress. Not content with being
pretty, they are desirous of being thought so; we see, by all their little
airs, that this thought engages their attention; and they are hardly capable of
understanding what is said to them, before they are to be governed by talking
to them of what people will think of their behaviour. The same motive, however,
indiscreetly made use of with boys, has not the same effect: provided they are
let to pursue their amusements at pleasure, they care very little what people
think of them. Time and pains are necessary to subject boys to this motive.
'Whencesoever girls derive this first lesson, it is a very good one. As the
body is born, in a manner before the soul, our first concern should be to
cultivate the former; this order is common to both sexes, but the object of
that cultivation is different. In the one sex it is the developement of
corporeal powers; in the other, that of personal charms: not that either the
quality of strength or beauty ought to be confined exclusively to one sex; but
only that the order of the cultivation of both is in that respect reversed.
Women certainly require as much strength as to enable them to move and act
gracefully, and men as much address as to qualify them to act with ease.'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'Children of both sexes have a great many amusements in common; and so they
ought; have they not also many such when they are grown up? Each sex has also
its peculiar taste to distinguish in this particular. Boys love sports of noise
and activity; to beat the drum, to whip the top, and to drag about their little
carts: girls, on the other hand, are fonder of things of show and ornament;
such as mirrours, trinkets, and dolls: the doll is the peculiar amusement of
the females; from whence we see their taste plainly adapted to their
destination. The physical part of the art of pleasing lies in dress; and this
is all which children are capacitated to cultivate of that art.'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'Here then we see a primary propensity firmly established, which you need
only to pursue and regulate. The little creature will doubtless be very
desirous to know how to dress up her doll, to make its sleeve-knots, its
flounces, its head-dress, &c. she is obliged to have so much recourse to
the people about her, for their assistance in these articles, that it would be
much more agreeable to her to owe them all to her own industry. Hence we have a
good reason for the first lessons that are usually taught these young females:
in which we do not appear to be setting them a task, but obliging them, by
instructing them in what is immediately useful to themselves. And, in fact,
almost all of them learn with reluctance to read and write; but very readily
apply themselves to the use of their needles. They imagine themselves already
grown up, and think with pleasure that such qualifications will enable them to
This is certainly only an education of the body; but Rousseau is not the
only man who has indirectly said that merely the person of a young woman,
without any mind, unless animal spirits come under that description, is very
pleasing. To render it weak, and what some may call beautiful, the
understanding is neglected, and girls forced to sit still, play with dolls and
listen to foolish conversations; — the effect of habit is insisted upon as
an undoubted indication of nature. I know it was Rousseau's opinion that the
first years of youth should be employed to form the body, though in educating
Emilius he deviates from this plan; yet, the difference between strengthening
the body, on which strength of mind in a great measure depends, and only giving
it an easy motion, is very wide.
Rousseau's observations, it is proper to remark, were made in a country
where the art of pleasing was refined only to extract the grossness of vice. He
did not go back to nature, or his ruling appetite disturbed the operations of
reason, else he would not have drawn these crude inferences.
In France boys and girls, particularly the latter, are only educated to
please, to manage their persons, and regulate the exterior behaviour; and their
minds are corrupted, at a very early age, by the worldly and pious cautions
they receive to guard them against immodesty. I speak of past times. The very
confessions which mere children were obliged to make, and the questions asked
by the holy men, I assert these facts on good authority, were sufficient to
impress a sexual character; and the education of society was a school of
coquetry and art. At the age of ten or eleven; nay, often much sooner, girls
began to coquet, and talked, unreproved, of establishing themselves in the
world by marriage.
In short, they were made like women, almost from their very birth, and
compliments were listened to instead of instruction. These, weakening the mind,
Nature was supposed to have acted like a step-mother, when she formed this
after-thought of creation.
Not allowing them understanding, however, it was but consistent to subject
them to authority independent of reason; and to prepare them for this
subjection, he gives the following advice:
'Girls ought to be active and diligent; nor is that all; they should also be
early subjected to restraint. This misfortune, if it really be one, is
inseparable from their sex; nor do they ever throw it off but to suffer more
cruel evils. They must be subject, all their lives, to the most constant and
severe restraint, which is that of decorum: it is, therefore, necessary to
accustom them early to such confinement, that it may not afterwards cost them
too dear; and to the suppression of their caprices, that they may the more
readily submit to the will of others. If, indeed, they are fond of being always
at work, they should be sometimes compelled to lay it aside. Dissipation,
levity, and inconstancy, are faults that readily spring up from their first
propensities, when corrupted or perverted by too much indulgence. To prevent
this abuse, we should learn them, above all things, to lay a due restraint on
themselves. The life of a modest woman is reduced, by our absurd institutions,
to a perpetual conflict with herself: not but it is just that this sex should
partake of the sufferings which arise from those evils it hath caused us.'
And why is the life of a modest woman a perpetual conflict? I should answer,
that this very system of education makes it so. Modesty, temperance, and
self-denial, are the sober offspring of reason; but when sensibility is
nurtured at the expense of the understanding, such weak beings must be
restrained by arbitrary means, and be subjected to continual conflicts; but
give their activity of mind a wider range, and nobler passions and motives will
govern their appetites and sentiments.
'The common attachment and regard of a mother, nay, mere habit, will make
her beloved by her children, if she does nothing to incur their hate. Even the
constraint she lays them under, if well directed, will increase their
affection, instead of lessening it; because a state of dependence being natural
to the sex, they perceive themselves formed for obedience.'
This is begging the question; for servitude not only debases the individual,
but its effects seem to be transmitted to posterity.
Considering the length of time that women have been dependent, is it
surprising that some of them hug their chains, and fawn like the spaniel?
'These dogs,' observes a naturalist, 'at first kept their ears erect; but
custom has superseded nature, and a token of fear is become a beauty.'
'For the same reason,' adds Rousseau, 'women have, or ought to have, but
little liberty; they are apt to indulge themselves excessively in what is
allowed them. Addicted in every thing to extremes, they are even more
transported at their diversions than boys.'
The answer to this is very simple. Slaves and mobs have always indulged
themselves in the same excesses, when once they broke loose from authority.
— The bent bow recoils with violence, when the hand is suddenly relaxed
that forcibly held it; and sensibility, the play-thing of outward
circumstances, must be subjected to authority, or moderated by reason.
'There results,' he continues, 'from this habitual restraint a tractableness
which the women have occasion for during their whole lives, as they constantly
remain either under subjection to the men, or to the opinions of mankind; and
are never permitted to set themselves above those opinions. The first and most
important qualification in a woman is good-nature or sweetness of temper:
formed to obey a being so imperfect as man, often full of vices, and always
full of faults, she ought to learn betimes even to suffer injustice, and to
bear the insults of a husband without complaint; it is not for his sake, but
her own, that she should be of a mild disposition. The perverseness and
ill-nature of the women only serve to aggravate their own misfortunes, and the
misconduct of their husbands; they might plainly perceive that such are not the
arms by which they gain the superiority.'
Formed to live with such an imperfect being as man, they ought to learn from
the exercise of their faculties the necessity of forbearance; but all the
sacred rights of humanity are violated by insisting on blind obedience; or, the
most sacred rights belong only to man.
The being who patiently endures injustice, and silently bears insults, will
soon become unjust, or unable to discern right from wrong. Besides, I deny the
fact, this is not the true way to form or meliorate the temper; for, as a sex,
men have better tempers than women, because they are occupied by pursuits that
interest the head as well as the heart; and the steadiness of the head gives a
healthy temperature to the heart. People of sensibility have seldom good
tempers. The formation of the temper is the cool work of reason, when, as life
advances, she mixes with happy art, jarring elements. I never knew a weak or
ignorant person who had a good temper, though that constitutional good humour,
and that docility, which fear stamps on the behaviour, often obtains the name.
I say behaviour, for genuine meekness never reached the heart or mind, unless
as the effect of reflection; and that simple restraint produces a number of
peccant humours in domestic life, many sensible men will allow, who find some
of these gentle irritable creatures, very troublesome companions.
'Each sex,' he further argues, 'should preserve its peculiar tone and
manner; a meek husband may make a wife impertinent; but mildness of disposition
on the woman's side will always bring a man back to reason, at least if he be
not absolutely a brute, and will sooner or later triumph over him.' True, the
mildness of reason; but abject fear always inspires contempt; and tears are
only eloquent when they flow down fair cheeks.
Of what materials can that heart be composed, which can melt when insulted,
and instead of revolting at injustice, kiss the rod? It is unfair to infer that
her virtue is built on narrow views and selfishness, who can caress a man, with
true feminine softness, the very moment when he treats her tyrannically? Nature
never dictated such insincerity; — and, though prudence of this sort be
termed a virtue, morality becomes vague when any part is supposed to rest on
falsehood. These are mere expedients, and expedients are only useful for the
Let the husband beware of trusting too implicitly to this servile obedience;
for if his wife can with winning sweetness caress him when angry, and when she
ought to be angry, unless contempt has stifled a natural effervescence, she may
do the same after parting with a lover. These are all preparations for
adultery; or, should the fear of the world, or of hell, restrain her desire of
pleasing other men, when she can no longer please her husband, what substitute
can be found by a being who was only formed, by nature and art, to please man?
what can make her amends for this privation, or where is she to seek for a
fresh employment? where find sufficient strength of mind to determine to begin
the search, when her habits are fixed, and vanity has long ruled her chaotic
But this partial moralist recommends cunning systematically and plausibly.
'Daughters should be always submissive; their mothers, however, should not
be inexorable. To make a young person tractable, she ought not to be made
unhappy; to make her modest she ought not to be rendered stupid. on the
contrary, I should not be displeased at her being permitted to use some art,
not to elude punishment in case of disobedience, but to exempt herself from the
necessity of obeying. It is not necessary to make her dependence burdensome,
but only to let her feel it. Subtilty is a talent natural to the sex; and, as I
am persuaded, all our natural inclinations are right and good in themselves, I
am of opinion this should be cultivated as well as the others: it is requisite
for us only to prevent its abuse.'
'Whatever is, is right,' he then proceeds triumphantly to infer. Granted;
— yet, perhaps, no aphorism ever contained a more paradoxical assertion.
It is a solemn truth with respect to God. He, reverentially I speak, sees the
whole at once, and saw its just proportions in the womb of time; but man, who
can only inspect disjointed parts, finds many things wrong; and it is a part of
the system, and therefore, right, that he should endeavour to alter what
appears to him to be so, even while he bows to the Wisdom of his Creator, and
respects the darkness he labours to disperse.
The inference that follows is just, supposing the principle to be sound.
'The superiority of address, peculiar to the female sex, is a very equitable
indemnification for their inferiority in point of strength: without this, woman
would not be the companion of man; but his slave: it is by her superiour art
and ingenuity that she preserves her equality, and governs him while she
affects to obey. Woman has every thing against her, as well our faults, as her
own timidity and weakness; she has nothing in her favour, but her subtilty and
her beauty. Is it not very reasonable, therefore, she should cultivate both?'
Greatness of mind can never dwell with cunning, or address, for I shall not
differ about words, when their direct signification is insincerity and
falsehood; but content myself with observing, that if any class of mankind are
to be educated by rules not strictly deducible from truth, virtue is an affair
of convention. How could Rousseau dare to assert, after giving this advice,
that in the grand end of existence the object of both sexes should be the same,
when he well knew that the mind, formed by its pursuits, is expanded by great
views swallowing up little ones, or that it becomes itself little?
Men have superiour strength of body; but were it not for mistaken notions of
beauty, women would acquire sufficient to enable them to earn their own
subsistence, the true definition of independence; and to bear those bodily
inconveniences and exertions that are requisite to strengthen the mind.
Let us then, by being allowed to take the same exercise as boys, not only
during infancy, but youth, arrive at perfection of body, that we may know how
far the natural superiority of man extends. For what reason or virtue can be
expected from a creature when the seed-time of life is neglected? None —
did not the winds of heaven casually scatter many useful seeds in the fallow
'Beauty cannot be acquired by dress, and coquetry is an art not so early and
speedily attained. While girls are yet young, however, they are in a capacity
to study agreeable gesture, a pleasing modulation of voice, an easy carriage
and behaviour; as well as to take the advantage of gracefully adapting their
looks and attitudes to time, place, and occasion. Their application, therefore,
should not be solely confined to the arts of industry and the needle, when they
come to display other talents, whose utility is already apparent.'
'For my part, I would have a young English-woman cultivate her agreeable
talents, in order to please her future husband, with as much care and assiduity
as a young Circassian cultivates her's, to fit her for the haram of an eastern
To render women completely insignificant, he adds — 'The tongues of
women are very voluble; they speak earlier, more readily, and more agreeably,
than the men; they are accused also of speaking much more: but so it ought to
be, and I should be very ready to convert this reproach into a compliment;
their lips and eyes have the same activity, and for the same reason. A man
speaks of what he knows, a woman of what pleases her; the one requires
knowledge, the other taste; the principal object of a man's discourse should be
what is useful, that of a woman's what is agreeable. There ought to be nothing
in common between their different conversation but truth.'
'We ought not, therefore, to restrain the prattle of girls, in the same
manner as we should that of boys, with that severe question; To what purpose
are you talking? but by another, which is no less difficult to answer,
How will your discourse be received? In infancy, while they are as yet
incapable to discern good from evil, they ought to observe it, as a law, never
to say any thing disagreeable to those whom they are speaking to: what will
render the practice of this rule also the more difficult, is, that it must ever
be subordinate to the former, of never speaking falsely or telling an untruth.'
To govern the tongue in this manner must require great address indeed; and it
is too much practised both by men and women. — Out of the abundance of the
heart how few speak! So few, that I, who love simplicity, would gladly give up
politeness for a quarter of the virtue that has been sacrificed to an equivocal
quality which at best should only be the polish of virtue.
But, to complete the sketch. 'It is easy to be conceived, that if male
children be not in a capacity to form any true notions of religion, those ideas
must be greatly above the conception of the females: it is for this very
reason, I would begin to speak to them the earlier on this subject; for if we
were to wait till they were in a capacity to discuss methodically such profound
questions, we should run a risk of never speaking to them on this subject as
long as they lived. Reason in women is a practical reason, capacitating them
artfully to discover the means of attaining a known end, but which would never
enable them to discover that end itself. The social relations of the sexes are
indeed truly admirable: from their union there results a moral person, of which
woman may be termed the eyes, and man the hand, with this dependence on each
other, that it is from the man that the woman is to learn what she is to see,
and it is of the woman that man is to learn what he ought to do. If woman could
recur to the first principles of things as well as man, and man was capacitated
to enter into their minutiŠ as well as woman, always independent
of each other, they would live in perpetual discord, and their union could not
subsist. But in the present harmony which naturally subsists between them,
their different faculties tend to one common end; it is difficult to say which
of them conduces the most to it: each follows the impulse of the other; each is
obedient, and both are masters.'
'As the conduct of a woman is subservient to the public opinion, her faith
in matters of religion should, for that very reason, be subject to authority.
Every daughter ought to be of the same religion as her mother, and every
wife to be of the same religion as her husband: for, though such religion
should be false, that docility which induces the mother and daughter to submit
to the order of nature, takes away, in the sight of God, the criminality of
their error.'7 As 'they are not in a
capacity to judge for themselves, they ought to abide by the decision of their
fathers and husbands as confidently as by that of the church.'
'As authority ought to regulate the religion of the women, it is not so
needful to explain to them the reasons for their belief, as to lay down
precisely the tenets they are to believe: for the creed, which presents only
obscure ideas to the mind, is the source of fanaticism; and that which presents
absurdities, leads to infidelity.'
Absolute, uncontroverted authority, it seems, must subsist somewhere: but is
not this a direct and exclusive appropriation of reason? The rights of
humanity have been thus confined to the male line from Adam downwards. Rousseau
would carry his male aristocracy still further, for he insinuates, that he
should not blame those, who contend for leaving woman in a state of the most
profound ignorance, if it were not necessary in order to preserve her chastity
and justify the man's choice, in the eyes of the world, to give her a little
knowledge of men, and the customs produced by human passions; else she might
propagate at home without being rendered less voluptuous and innocent by the
exercise of her understanding: excepting, indeed, during the first year of
marriage, when she might employ it to dress like Sophia. 'Her dress is
extremely modest in appearance, and yet very coquettish in fact: she does not
make a display of her charms, she conceals them; but in concealing them, she
knows how to affect your imagination. Every one who sees her, will say, There
is a modest and discreet girl; but while you are near her, your eyes and
affections wander all over her person, so that you cannot withdraw them; and
you would conclude, that every part of her dress, simple as it seems, was only
put in its proper order to be taken to pieces by the imagination.' Is this
modesty? Is this a preparation for immortality? Again. — What opinion are
we to form of a system of education, when the author says of his heroine, 'that
with her, doing things well, is but 'a secondary concern; her principal
concern is to do them neatly.'
Secondary, in fact, are all her virtues and qualities, for, respecting
religion, he makes her parents thus address her, accustomed to submission
— 'Your husband will instruct you in good time.'
After thus cramping a woman's mind, if, in order to keep it fair, he has not
made it quite a blank, he advises her to reflect, that a reflecting man may not
yawn in her company, when he is tired of caressing her. — What has she to
reflect about who must obey? and would it not be a refinement on cruelty only
to open her mind to make the darkness and misery of her fate visible?
Yet, these are his sensible remarks; how consistent with what I have already
been obliged to quote, to give a fair view of the subject, the reader may
'They who pass their whole lives in working for their daily bread, have no
ideas beyond their business or their interest, and all their understanding
seems to lie in their fingers' ends. This ignorance is neither prejudicial to
their integrity nor their morals; it is often of service to them. Sometimes, by
means of reflection, we are led to compound with our duty, and we conclude by
substituting a jargon of words, in the room of things. Our own conscience is
the most enlightened philosopher. There is no need to be acquainted with
Tully's offices, to make a man of probity: and perhaps the most virtuous woman
in the world, is the least acquainted with the definition of virtue. But it is
no less true, that an improved understanding can only render society agreeable;
and it is a melancholy thing for a father of a family, who is fond of home, to
be obliged to be always wrapped up in himself, and to have nobody about him to
whom he can impart his sentiments.
'Besides, how should a woman void of reflection be capable of educating her
children? How should she discern what is proper for them? How should she
incline them to those virtues she is unacquainted with, or to that merit of
which she has no idea? She can only soothe or chide them; render them insolent
or timid; she will make them formal coxcombs, or ignorant blockheads; but will
never make these sensible or amiable.' How indeed should she, when her husband
is not always at hand to lend her his reason? — when they both together
make but one moral being. A blind will, 'eyes without hands,' would go a very
little way; and perchance his abstract reason, that should concentrate the
scattered beams of her practical reason, may be employed in judging of the
flavour of wine, descanting on the sauces most proper for turtle; or, more
profoundly intent at a card-table, he may be generalizing his ideas as he bets
away his fortune, leaving all the minutiŠ of education to his
help-mate or to chance.
But, granting that woman ought to be beautiful, innocent, and silly, to
render her a more alluring and indulgent companion; — what is her
understanding sacrificed for? And why is all this preparation necessary only,
according to Rousseau's own account, to make her the mistress of her husband, a
very short time? For no man ever insisted more on the transient nature of love.
Thus speaks the philosopher. 'Sensual pleasures are transient. The habitual
state of the affections always lose by their gratification. The imagination,
which decks the object of our desires, is lost in fruition. Excepting the
Supreme Being, who is self-existent, there is nothing beautiful but what is
But he returns to his unintelligible paradoxes again, when he thus addresses
Sophia. 'Emilius, in becoming your husband, is become your master; and claims
your obedience. Such is the order of nature. When a man is married, however, to
such a wife as Sophia, it is proper he should be directed by her; this is also
agreeable to the order of nature: it is, therefore, to give you as much
authority over his heart as his sex gives him over your person, that I have
made you the arbiter of his pleasures. It may cost you, perhaps, some
disagreeable self-denial; but you will be certain of maintaining your empire
over him, if you can preserve it over yourself — what I have already
observed, also, shows me, that this difficult attempt does not surpass your
'Would you have your husband constantly at your feet? keep him at some
distance from your person. You will long maintain the authority in love, if you
know but how to render your favours rare and valuable. It is thus you may
employ even the arts of coquetry in the service of virtue, and those of love in
that of reason.'
I shall close my extracts with a just description of a comfortable couple.
'And yet you must not imagine, that even such management will always suffice.
Whatever precaution be taken, enjoyment will, by degrees, take off the edge of
passion. But when love hath lasted as long as possible, a pleasing habitude
supplies its place, and the attachment of a mutual confidence succeeds to the
transports of passion. Children often form a more agreeable and permanent
connection between married people than even love itself. When you cease to be
the mistress of Emilius, you will continue to be his wife and friend, you will
be the mother of his children.'8
Children, he truly observes, form a much more permanent connection between
married people than love. Beauty, he declares, will not be valued, or even
seen, after a couple have lived six months together; artificial graces and
coquetry will likewise pall on the senses: why then does he say that a girl
should be educated for her husband with the same care as for an eastern haram?
I now appeal from the reveries of fancy and refined licentiousness to the
good sense of mankind, whether, if the object of education be to prepare women
to become chaste wives and sensible mothers, the methods so plausibly
recommended in the foregoing sketch, be the one best calculated to produce
those ends? Will it be allowed that the surest way to make a wife chaste, is to
teach her to practise the wanton arts of a mistress, termed virtuous coquetry,
by the sensualist, who can no longer relish the artless charms of sincerity, or
taste the pleasure arising from a tender intimacy, when confidence is unchecked
by suspicion, and rendered interesting by sense?
The man who can be contented to live with a pretty, useful companion,
without a mind, has lost in voluptuous gratifications a taste for more refined
enjoyments; he has never felt the calm satisfaction, that refreshes the parched
heart, like the silent dew of heaven, — of being beloved by one who could
understand him. — In the society of his wife he is still alone, unless
when the man is sunk in the brute. 'The charm of life,' says a grave
philosophical reasoner, is 'sympathy; nothing pleases us more than to observe
in other men a fellow-feeling with all the emotions of our own breast.'
But, according to the tenour of reasoning, by which women are kept from the
tree of knowledge, the important years of youth, the usefulness of age, and the
rational hopes of futurity, are all to be sacrificed to render women an object
of desire for a short time. Besides, how could Rousseau expect them to
be virtuous and constant when reason is neither allowed to be the foundation of
their virtue, nor truth the object of their inquiries?
But all Rousseau's errors in reasoning arose from sensibility, and
sensibility to their charms women are very ready to forgive! When he should
have reasoned he became impassioned, and reflection inflamed his imagination
instead of enlightening his understanding. Even his virtues also led him
farther astray; for, born with a warm constitution and lively fancy, nature
carried him toward the other sex with such eager fondness, that he soon became
lascivious. Had he given way to these desires, the fire would have extinguished
itself in a natural manner; but virtue, and a romantic kind of delicacy, made
him practise self-denial; yet, when fear, delicacy, or virtue, restrained him,
he debauched his imagination, and reflecting on the sensations to which fancy
gave force, he traced them in the most glowing colours, and sunk them deep into
He then sought for solitude, not to sleep with the man of nature; or calmly
investigate the causes of things under the shade where Sir Isaac Newton
indulged contemplation, but merely to indulge his feelings. And so warmly has
he painted, what he forcibly felt, that, interesting the heart and inflaming
the imagination of his readers; in proportion to the strength of their fancy,
they imagine that their understanding is convinced when they only sympathize
with a poetic writer, who skilfully exhibits the objects of sense, most
voluptuously shadowed or gracefully veiled — And thus making us feel
whilst dreaming that we reason, erroneous conclusions are left in the mind.
Why was Rousseau's life divided between ecstasy and misery? Can any other
answer be given than this, that the effervescence of his imagination produced
both; but, had his fancy been allowed to cool, it is possible that he might
have acquired more strength of mind. Still, if the purpose of life be to
educate the intellectual part of man, all with respect to him was right; yet,
had not death led to a nobler scene of action, it is probable that he would
have enjoyed more equal happiness on earth, and have felt the calm sensations
of the man of nature instead of being prepared for another stage of existence
by nourishing the passions which agitate the civilized man.
But peace to his manes! I war not with his ashes, but his opinions. I war
only with the sensibility that led him to degrade woman by making her the slave
——— 'Cursed vassalage,
First idoliz'd till love's hot fire be o'er,
Then slaves to those who courted us before.'
The pernicious tendency of those books, in which the writers insidiously
degrade the sex whilst they are prostrate before their personal charms, cannot
be too often or too severely exposed.
Let us, my dear contemporaries, arise above such narrow prejudices! If
wisdom be desirable on its own account, if virtue, to deserve the name, must be
founded on knowledge; let us endeavour to strengthen our minds by reflection,
till our heads become a balance for our hearts; let us not confine all our
thoughts to the petty occurrences of the day, nor our knowledge to an
acquaintance with our lovers' or husbands' hearts; but let the practice of
every duty be subordinate to the grand one of improving our minds, and
preparing our affections for a more exalted state!
Beware then, my friends, of suffering the heart to be moved by every trivial
incident: the reed is shaken by a breeze, and annually dies, but the oak stands
firm, and for ages braves the storm!
Were we, indeed, only created to flutter our hour out and die — why let
us then indulge sensibility, and laugh at the severity of reason — Yet,
alas! even then we should want strength of body and mind, and life would be
lost in feverish pleasures or wearisome languor.
But the system of education, which I earnestly wish to see exploded, seems
to presuppose what ought never to be taken for granted, that virtue shields us
from the casualties of life; and that fortune, slipping off her bandage, will
smile on a well-educated female, and bring in her hand an Emilius or a
Telemachus. Whilst, on the contrary, the reward which virtue promises to her
votaries is confined, it is clear, to their own bosoms; and often must they
contend with the most vexatious worldly cares, and bear with the vices and
humours of relations for whom they can never feel a friendship.
There have been many women in the world who, instead of being supported by
the reason and virtue of their fathers and brothers, have strengthened their
own minds by struggling with their vices and follies; yet have never met with a
hero, in the shape of a husband; who, paying the debt that mankind owed them,
might chance to bring back their reason to its natural dependent state, and
restore the usurped prerogative, of rising above opinion, to man.
DR. FORDYCE'S sermons have
long made a part of a young woman's library; nay, girls at school are allowed
to read them; but I should instantly dismiss them from my pupil's, if I wished
to strengthen her understanding, by leading her to form sound principles on a
broad basis; or, were I only anxious to cultivate her taste; though they must
be allowed to contain many sensible observations.
Dr. Fordyce may have had a very laudable end in view; but these discourses
are written in such an affected style, that were it only on that account, and
had I nothing to object against his mellifluous precepts, I should not
allow girls to peruse them, unless I designed to hunt every spark of nature out
of their composition, melting every human quality into female meekness and
artificial grace. I say artificial, for true grace arises from some kind of
independence of mind.
Children, careless of pleasing, and only anxious to amuse themselves, are
often very graceful; and the nobility who have mostly lived with inferiours,
and always had the command of money, acquire a graceful ease of deportment,
which should rather be termed habitual grace of body, than that superiour
gracefulness which is truly the expression of the mind. This mental grace, not
noticed by vulgar eyes, often flashes across a rough countenance, and
irradiating every feature, shows simplicity and independence of mind. — It
is then we read characters of immortality in the eye, and see the soul in every
gesture, though when at rest, neither the face nor limbs may have much beauty
to recommend them; or the behaviour, any thing peculiar to attract universal
attention. The mass of mankind, however, look for more tangible beauty;
yet simplicity is, in general, admired, when people do not consider what they
admire; and can there be simplicity without sincerity? But, to have done with
remarks that are in some measure desultory, though naturally excited by the
In declamatory periods Dr. Fordyce spins out Rousseau's eloquence; and in
most sentimental rant, details his opinions respecting the female character,
and the behaviour which woman ought to assume to render her lovely.
He shall speak for himself, for thus he makes Nature address man. 'Behold
these smiling innocents, whom I have graced with my fairest gifts, and
committed to your protection; behold them with love and respect; treat them
with tenderness and honour. They are timid and want to be defended. They are
frail; O do not take advantage of their weakness! Let their fears and blushes
endear them. Let their confidence in you never be abused. — But is it
possible, than any of you can be such barbarians, so supremely wicked, as to
abuse it? Can you find in your hearts9 to
despoil the gentle, trusting creatures of their treasure, or do any thing to
strip them of their native robe of virtue? Curst be the impious hand that would
dare to violate the unblemished form of Chastity! Thou wretch! thou ruffian!
forbear; nor venture to provoke heaven's fiercest vengeance.' I know not any
comment that can be made seriously on this curious passage, and I could produce
many similar ones; and some, so very sentimental, that I have heard rational
men use the word indecent, when they mentioned them with disgust.
Throughout there is a display of cold artificial feelings, and that parade
of sensibility which boys and girls should be taught to despise as the sure
mark of a little vain mind. Florid appeals are made to heaven, and to the
beauteous innocents, the fairest images of heaven here below, whilst
sober sense is left far behind. — This is not the language of the heart,
nor will it ever reach it, though the ear may be tickled.
I shall be told, perhaps, that the public have been pleased with these
volumes. — True — and Hervey's Meditations are still read,
though he equally sinned against sense and taste.
I particularly object to the love-like phrases of pumped up passion, which
are every where interspersed. If women be ever allowed to walk without
leading-strings, why must they be cajoled into virtue by artful flattery and
sexual compliments? — Speak to them the language of truth and soberness,
and away with the lullaby strains of condescending endearment! Let them be
taught to respect themselves as rational creatures, and not led to have a
passion for their own insipid persons. It moves my gall to hear a preacher
descanting on dress and needle-work; and still more, to hear him address the
British fair, the fairest of the fair, as if they had only feelings.
Even recommending piety he uses the following argument. 'Never, perhaps,
does a fine woman strike more deeply, than when, composed into pious
recollection, and possessed with the noblest considerations, she assumes,
without knowing it, superiour dignity and new graces; so that the beauties of
holiness seem to radiate about her, and the by-standers are almost induced to
fancy her already worshipping amongst her kindred angels!' Why are women to be
thus bred up with a desire of conquest? the very epithet, used in this sense,
gives me a sickly qualm! Does religion and virtue offer no stronger motives, no
brighter reward? Must they always be debased by being made to consider the sex
of their companions? Must they be taught always to be pleasing? And when
levelling their small artillery at the heart of man, is it necessary to tell
them that a little sense is sufficient to render their attention incredibly
soothing? 'As a small degree of knowledge entertains in a woman, so from a
woman, though for a different reason, a small expression of kindness delights,
particularly if she have beauty!' I should have supposed for the same reason.
Why are girls to be told that they resemble angels; but to sink them below
women? Or, that a gentle innocent female is an object that comes nearer to the
idea which we have formed of angels than any other. Yet they are told, at the
same time, that they are only like angels when they are young and beautiful;
consequently, it is their persons, not their virtues, that procure them this
Idle empty words! What can such delusive flattery lead to, but vanity and
folly? The lover, it is true, has a poetic licence to exalt his mistress; his
reason is the bubble of his passion, and he does not utter a falsehood when he
borrows the language of adoration. His imagination may raise the idol of his
heart, unblamed, above humanity; and happy would it be for women, if they were
only flattered by the men who loved them; I mean who loved the individual, not
the sex; but should a grave preacher interlard his discourses with such
In sermons or novels, however, voluptuousness is always true to its text.
Men are allowed by moralists to cultivate, as Nature directs, different
qualities, and assume the different characters, that the same passions,
modified almost to infinity, give to each individual. A virtuous man may have a
choleric or a sanguine constitution, be gay or grave, unreproved; be firm till
he is almost overbearing, or, weakly submissive, have no will or opinion of his
own; but all women are to be levelled, by meekness and docility, into one
character of yielding softness and gentle compliance.
I will use the preacher's own words. 'Let it be observed, that in your sex
manly exercises are never graceful; that in them a tone and figure, as well as
an air and deportment, of the masculine kind, are always forbidding; and that
men of sensibility desire in every woman soft features, and a flowing voice, a
form, not robust, and demeanour delicate and gentle.'
Is not the following portrait — the portrait of a house slave? 'I am
astonished at the folly of many women, who are still reproaching their husbands
for leaving them alone, for preferring this or that company to theirs, for
treating them with this and the other mark of disregard or indifference; when,
to speak the truth, they have themselves in a great measure to blame. Not that
I would justify the men in any thing wrong on their part. But had you behaved
to them with more respectful observance, and a more equal tenderness;
studying their humours, overlooking their mistakes, submitting to their
opinions in matters indifferent, passing by little instances of unevenness,
caprice, or passion, giving soft answers to hasty words, complaining as seldom
as possible, and making it your daily care to relieve their anxieties and
prevent their wishes, to enliven the hour of dullness, and call up the ideas of
felicity: had you pursued this conduct, I doubt not but you would have
maintained and even increased their esteem, so far as to have secured every
degree of influence that could conduce to their virtue, or your mutual
satisfaction; and your house might at this day have been the abode of domestic
bliss.' Such a woman ought to be an angel — or she is an ass — for I
discern not a trace of the human character, neither reason nor passion in this
domestic drudge, whose being is absorbed in that of a tyrant's.
Still Dr. Fordyce must have very little acquaintance with the human heart,
if he really supposed that such conduct would bring back wandering love,
instead of exciting contempt. No, beauty, gentleness, &c. &c. may gain
a heart; but esteem, the only lasting affection, can alone be obtained by
virtue supported by reason. It is respect for the understanding that keeps
alive tenderness for the person.
As these volumes are so frequently put into the hands of young people, I
have taken more notice of them than, strictly speaking, they deserve; but as
they have contributed to vitiate the taste, and enervate the understanding of
many of my fellow-creatures, I could not pass them silently over.
SUCH paternal solicitute
pervades Dr. Gregory's Legacy to his Daughters, that I enter on the task of
criticism with affectionate respect; but as this little volume has many
attractions to recommend it to the notice of the most respectable part of my
sex, I cannot silently pass over arguments that so speciously support opinions
which, I think, have had the most baneful effect on the morals and manners of
the female world.
His easy familiar style is particularly suited to the tenor of his advice,
and the melancholy tenderness which his respect for the memory of a beloved
wife, diffuses through the whole work, renders it very interesting; yet there
is a degree of concise elegance conspicuous in many passages that disturbs this
sympathy; and we pop on the author, when we only expected to meet the —
Besides, having two objects in view, he seldom adhered steadily to either;
for wishing to make his daughters amiable, and fearing lest unhappiness should
only be the consequence, of instilling sentiments that might draw them out of
the track of common life without enabling them to act with consonant
independence and dignity, he checks the natural flow of his thoughts, and
neither advises one thing nor the other.
In the preface he tells them a mournful truth, 'that they will hear, at
least once in their lives, the genuine sentiments of a man who has no interest
in deceiving them.'
Hapless woman! what can be expected from thee when the beings on whom thou
art said naturally to depend for reason and support, have all an interest in
deceiving thee! This is the root of the evil that has shed a corroding mildew
on all thy virtues; and blighting in the bud thy opening faculties, has
rendered thee the weak thing thou art! It is this separate interest — this
insidious state of warfare, that undermines morality, and divides mankind!
If love have made some women wretched — how many more has the cold
unmeaning intercourse of gallantry rendered vain and useless! yet this
heartless attention to the sex is reckoned so manly, so polite, that till
society is very differently organized, I fear, this vestige of gothic manners
will not be done away by a more reasonable and affectionate mode of conduct.
Besides, to strip it of its imaginary dignity, I must observe, that in the most
uncivilized European states this lip-service prevails in a very great degree,
accompanied with extreme dissoluteness of morals. In Portugal, the country that
I particularly allude to, it takes place of the most serious moral obligations;
for a man is seldom assassinated when in the company of a woman. The savage
hand of rapine is unnerved by this chivalrous spirit; and, if the stroke of
vengeance cannot be stayed — the lady is entreated to pardon the rudeness
and depart in peace, though sprinkled, perhaps, with her husband's or brother's
I shall pass over his strictures on religion, because I mean to discuss that
subject in a separate chapter.
The remarks relative to behaviour, though many of them very sensible, I
entirely disapprove of, because it appears to me to be beginning, as it were,
at the wrong end. A cultivated understanding, and an affectionate heart, will
never want starched rules of decorum — something more substantial than
seemliness will be the result; and, without understanding the behaviour here
recommended, would be rank affectation. Decorum, indeed, is the one thing
needful! — decorum is to supplant nature, and banish all simplicity and
variety of character out of the female world. Yet what good end can all this
superficial counsel produce? It is, however, much easier to point out this or
that mode of behaviour, than to set the reason to work; but, when the mind has
been stored with useful knowledge, and strengthened by being employed, the
regulation of the behaviour may safely be left to its guidance.
Why, for instance, should the following caution be given when art of every
kind must contaminate the mind; and why entangle the grand motives of action,
which reason and religion equally combine to enforce, with pitiful worldly
shifts and slight of hand tricks to gain the applause of gaping tasteless
fools? 'Be even cautious in displaying your good sense.10 It will be thought you assume a superiority over
the rest of the company — But if you happen to have any learning, keep it
a profound secret, especially from the men, who generally look with a jealous
and malignant eye on a woman of great parts, and a cultivated understanding.'
If men of real merit, as he afterwards observes, are superiour to this
meanness, where is the necessity that the behaviour of the whole sex should be
modulated to please fools, or men, who having little claim to respect as
individuals, choose to keep close in their phalanx. Men, indeed, who insist on
their common superiority, having only this sexual superiority, are certainly
There would be no end to rules for behaviour, if it be proper always to
adopt the tone of the company; for thus, for ever varying the key, a
flat would often pass for a natural note.
Surely it would have been wiser to have advised women to improve themselves
till they rose above the fumes of vanity; and then to let the public opinion
come round — for where are rules of accommodation to stop? The narrow path
of truth and virtue inclines neither to the right nor left — it is a
straight-forward business, and they who are earnestly pursuing their road, may
bound over many decorous prejudices, without leaving modesty behind. Make the
heart clean, and give the head employment, and I will venture to predict that
there will be nothing offensive in the behaviour.
The air of fashion, which many young people are so eager to attain, always
strikes me like the studied attitudes of some modern prints, copied with
tasteless servility after the antiques; — the soul is left out, and none
of the parts are tied together by what may properly be termed character. This
varnish of fashion, which seldom sticks very close to sense, may dazzle the
weak; but leave nature to itself, and it will seldom disgust the wise. Besides,
when a woman has sufficient sense not to pretend to any thing which she does
not understand in some degree, there is no need of determining to hide her
talents under a bushel. Let things take their natural course, and all will be
It is this system of dissimulation, throughout the volume, that I despise.
Women are always to seem to be this and that — yet virtue might
apostrophize them, in the words of Hamlet — Seems! I know not seems! Have
that within that passeth show! —
Still the same tone occurs; for in another place, after recommending,
without sufficiently discriminating delicacy, he adds, 'The men will complain
of your reserve. They will assure you that a franker behaviour would make you
more amiable. But, trust me, they are not sincere when they tell you so. —
I acknowledge, that on some occasions it might render you more agreeable as
companions, but it would make you less amiable as women: an important
distinction, which many of your sex are not aware of.'
This desire of being always women, is the very consciousness that degrades
the sex. Excepting with a lover, I must repeat with emphasis, a former
observation, — it would be well if they were only agreeable or rational
companions. — But in this respect his advice is even inconsistent with a
passage which I mean to quote with the most marked approbation.
'The sentiment that a woman may allow all innocent freedoms, provided her
virtue is secure, is both grossly indelicate and dangerous, and has proved
fatal to many of your sex.' With this opinion I perfectly coincide. A man, or a
woman, of any feeling, must always wish to convince a beloved object that it is
the caresses of the individual, not the sex, that are received and returned
with pleasure; and that the heart, rather than the senses, is moved. Without
this natural delicacy, love becomes a selfish personal gratification that soon
degrades the character.
I carry this sentiment still further. Affection, when love is out of the
question, authorises many personal endearments, that naturally flowing from an
innocent heart, give life to the behaviour; but the personal intercourse of
appetite, gallantry, or vanity, is despicable. When a man squeezes the hand of
a pretty woman, handing her to a carriage, whom he has never seen before, she
will consider such an impertinent freedom in the light of an insult, if she
have any true delicacy, instead of being flattered by this unmeaning homage to
beauty. These are the privileges of friendship, or the momentary homage which
the heart pays to virtue, when it flashes suddenly on the notice — mere
animal spirits have no claim to the kindnesses of affection.
Wishing to feed the affections with what is now the food of vanity, I would
fain persuade my sex to act from simpler principles. Let them merit love, and
they will obtain it, though they may never be told that — 'The power of a
fine woman over the hearts of men, of men of the finest parts, is even beyond
what she conceives.'
I have already noticed the narrow cautions with respect to duplicity, female
softness, delicacy of constitution; for these are the changes which he rings
round without ceasing — in a more decorous manner, it is true, than
Rousseau; but it all comes home to the same point, and whoever is at the
trouble to analyze these sentiments, will find the first principles not quite
so delicate as the superstructure.
The subject of amusements is treated in too cursory a manner; but with the
When I treat of friendship, love, and marriage, it will be found that we
materially differ in opinion; I shall not then forestall what I have to observe
on these important subjects; but confine my remarks to the general tenor of
them, to that cautious family prudence, to those confined views of partial
unenlightened affection, which exclude pleasure and improvement, by vainly
wishing to ward off sorrow and error — and by thus guarding the heart and
mind, destroy also all their energy. It is far better to be often deceived than
never to trust; to be disappointed in love than never to love; to lose a
husband's fondness than forfeit his esteem.
Happy would it be for the world, and for individuals, of course, if all this
unavailing solicitude to attain worldly happiness, on a confined plan, were
turned into an anxious desire to improve the understanding. — 'Wisdom is
the principal thing: therefore get wisdom; and with all thy gettings get
understanding.' — 'How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity, and
hate knowledge?' saith Wisdom to the daughters of men!
I DO not mean to allude to all
the writers who have written on the subject of female manners — it would,
in fact, be only beating over the old ground, for they have in general, written
in the same strain; but attacking the boasted prerogative of man — the
prerogative that may emphatically be called the iron sceptre of tyranny, the
original sin of tyrants, I declare against all power built on prejudices,
If the submission demanded be founded on justice — there is no
appealing to a higher power — for God is justice itself. Let us then, as
children of the same parent, if not bastardized by being the younger born,
reason together, and learn to submit to the authority of reason — when her
voice is distinctly heard. But, if it proved, that this throne of prerogative
only rests on a chaotic mass of prejudices, that have no inherent principle of
order to keep them together, or on an elephant, tortoise, or even the mighty
shoulders of a son of the earth, they may escape, who dare to brave the
consequence, without any breach of duty, without sinning against the order of
Whilst reason raises man above the brutal herd, and death is big with
promises, they alone are subject to blind authority who have no reliance on
their own strength. 'They are free — who will be free!' — 11
The being who can govern itself has nothing to fear in life; but if any
thing be dearer than its own respect, the price must be paid to the last
farthing. Virtue, like every thing valuable, must be loved for herself alone;
or she will not take up her abode with us. She will not impart that peace,
'which passeth understanding,' when she is merely made the stilts of
reputation; and respected, with pharisaical exactness, because 'honesty is the
That the plan of life which enables us to carry some knowledge and virtue
into another world, is the one best calculated to ensure content in this,
cannot be denied; yet few people act according to this principle, though it be
universally allowed that it admits not of dispute. Present pleasure, or present
power, carry before it these sober convictions; and it is for the day, not for
life, that man bargains with happiness. How few! — how very few! have
sufficient foresight, or resolution, to endure a small evil at the moment, to
avoid a greater hereafter.
Woman in particular, whose virtue12 is
built on mutual prejudices, seldom attains to this greatness of mind; so that,
becoming the slave of her own feelings, she is easily subjugated by those of
others. Thus degraded, her reason, her misty reason! is employed rather to
burnish than to snap her chains.
Indignantly have I heard women argue in the same track as men, and adopt the
sentiments that brutalize them, with all the pertinacity of ignorance.
I must illustrate my assertion by a few examples. Mrs. Piozzi, who often
repeated by rote, what she did not understand, comes forward with Johnsonian
'Seek not for happiness in singularity; and dread a refinement of wisdom as
a deviation into folly.' Thus she dogmatically addresses a new married man; and
to elucidate this pompous exordium, she adds, 'I said that the person of your
lady would not grow more pleasing to you, but pray let her never suspect that
it grows less so: that a woman will pardon an affront to her understanding much
sooner than one to her person, is well known; nor will any of us contradict the
assertion. All our attainments, all our arts, are employed to gain and keep the
heart of man; and what mortification can exceed the disappointment, if the end
be not obtained? There is no reproof however pointed, no punishment however
severe, that a woman of spirit will not prefer to neglect; and if she can
endure it without complaint, it only proves that she means to make herself
amends by the attention of others for the slights of her husband!'
These are truly masculine sentiments. — 'All our arts are
employed to gain and keep the heart of man:' — and what is the inference?
— if her person, and was there ever a person, though formed with Medicisan
symmetry, that was not slighted? be neglected, she will make herself amends by
endeavouring to please other men. Noble morality! But thus is the understanding
of the whole sex affronted, and their virtue deprived of the common basis of
virtue. A woman must know, that her person cannot be as pleasing to her husband
as it was to her lover, and if she be offended with him for being a human
creature, she may as well whine about the loss of his heart as about any other
foolish thing. — And this very want of discernment or unreasonable anger,
proves that he could not change his fondness for her person into affection for
her virtues or respect for her understanding.
Whilst women avow, and act up to such opinions, their understandings, at
least, deserve the contempt and obloquy that men, who never insult their
persons, have pointedly levelled at the female mind. And it is the sentiments
of these polite men, who do not wish to be encumbered with mind, that vain
women thoughtlessly adopt. Yet they should know, that insulted reason alone can
spread that sacred reserve about the person, which renders human
affections, for human affections have always some base alloy, as permanent as
is consistent with the grand end of existence — the attainment of virtue.
The Baroness de Stael speaks the same language as the lady just cited, with
more enthusiasm. Her eulogium on Rousseau was accidentally put into my hands,
and her sentiments, the sentiments of too many of my sex, may serve as the text
for a few comments. 'Though Rousseau,' she observes, 'has endeavoured to
prevent women from interfering in public affairs, and acting a brilliant part
in the theatre of politics; yet in speaking of them, how much has he done it to
their satisfaction! If he wished to deprive them of some rights foreign to
their sex, how has he for ever restored to them all those to which it has a
claim? And in attempting to diminish their influence over the deliberations of
men, how sacredly has he established the empire they have over their happiness!
In aiding them to descend from an usurped throne, he has firmly seated them
upon that to which they were destined by nature; and though he be full of
indignation against them when they endeavour to resemble men, yet when they
come before him with all the charms, weaknesses, virtues and
errors, of their sex, his respect for their persons amounts
almost to adoration. True! — For never was there a sensualist who paid
more fervent adoration at the shrine of beauty. So devout, indeed, was his
respect for the person, that excepting the virtue of chastity, for obvious
reasons, he only wished to see it embellished by charms, weaknesses, and
errors. He was afraid lest the austerity of reason should disturb the soft
playfulness of love. The master wished to have a meretricious slave to fondle,
entirely dependent on his reason and bounty; he did not want a companion, whom
he should be compelled to esteem, or a friend to whom he could confide the care
of his children's education, should death deprive them of their father, before
he had fulfilled the sacred task. He denies woman reason, shuts her out from
knowledge, and turns her aside from truth; yet his pardon is granted, because
'he admits the passion of love.' It would require some ingenuity to shew why
women were to be under such an obligation to him for thus admitting love; when
it is clear that he admits it only for the relaxation of men, and to perpetuate
the species; but he talked with passion, and that powerful spell worked on the
sensibility of a young encomiast. 'What signifies it,' pursues this rhapsodist,
'to women, that his reason disputes with them the empire, when his heart is
devotedly theirs.' It is not empire, — but equality, that they should
contend for. Yet, if they only wished to lengthen out their sway, they should
not entirely trust to their persons, for though beauty may gain a heart, it
cannot keep it, even while the beauty is in full bloom, unless the mind lend,
at least, some graces.
When women are once sufficiently enlightened to discover their real
interest, on a grand scale, they will, I am persuaded, be very ready to resign
all the prerogatives of love, that are not mutual, speaking of them as lasting
prerogatives, for the calm satisfaction of friendship, and the tender
confidence of habitual esteem. Before marriage they will not assume any
insolent airs, nor afterwards abjectly submit; but endeavouring to act like
reasonable creatures, in both situations, they will not be tumbled from a
throne to a stool.
Madame Genlis has written several entertaining books for children; and her
Letters on Education afford many useful hints, that sensible parents will
certainly avail themselves of; but her views are narrow, and her prejudices as
unreasonable as strong.
I shall pass over her vehement argument in favour of the eternity of future
punishments, because I blush to think that a human being should ever argue
vehemently in such a cause, and only make a few remarks on her absurd manner of
making the parental authority supplant reason. For every where does she
inculcate not only blind submission to parents; but to the opinion of
She tells a story of a young man engaged by his father's express desire to a
girl of fortune. Before the marriage could take place, she is deprived of her
fortune, and thrown friendless on the world. The father practises the most
infamous arts to separate his son from her, and when the son detects his
villany, and, following the dictates of honour, marries the girl, nothing but
misery ensues, because forsooth he married without his father's consent.
On what ground can religion or morality rest when justice is thus set at
defiance? In the same style she represents an accomplished young woman, as
ready to marry any body that her mamma pleased to recommend; and, as
actually marrying the young man of her own choice, without feeling any emotions
of passions, because that a well educated girl had not time to be in love. Is
it possible to have much respect for a system of education that thus insults
reason and nature?
Many similar opinions occur in her writings, mixed with sentiments that do
honour to her head and heart. Yet so much superstition is mixed with her
religion, and so much worldly wisdom with her morality, that I should not let a
young person read her works, unless I could afterwards converse on the
subjects, and point out the contradictions.
Mrs. Chapone's Letters are written with such good sense, and unaffected
humility, and contain so many useful observations, that I only mention them to
pay the worthy writer this tribute of respect. I cannot, it is true, always
coincide in opinion with her; but I always respect her.
The very word respect brings Mrs. Macaulay to my remembrance. The woman of
the greatest abilities, undoubtedly, that this country has ever produced.
— And yet this woman has been suffered to die without sufficient respect
being paid to her memory.
Posterity, however, will be more just; and remember that Catharine Macaulay
was an example of intellectual acquirements supposed to be incompatible with
the weakness of her sex. In her style of writing, indeed, no sex appears, for
it is like the sense it conveys, strong and clear.
I will not call her's a masculine understanding, because I admit not of such
an arrogant assumption of reason; but I contend that it was a sound one, and
that her judgment, the matured fruit of profound thinking, was a proof that a
woman can acquire judgment, in the full extent of the word. Possessing more
penetration than sagacity, more understanding than fancy, she writes with sober
energy and argumentative closeness; yet sympathy and benevolence give an
interest to her sentiments, and that vital heat to arguments, which forces the
reader to weigh them.14
When I first thought of writing these strictures I anticipated Mrs.
Macaulay's approbation, with a little of that sanguine ardour, which it has
been the business of my life to depress; but soon heard with the sickly qualm
of disappointed hope; and the still seriousness of regret — that she was
TAKING a view of the different
works which have been written on education, Lord Chesterfield's Letters must
not be silently passed over. Not that I mean to analyze his unmanly, immoral
system, or even to cull any of the useful, shrewd remarks which occur in his
frivolous correspondence — No, I only mean to make a few reflections on
the avowed tendency of them — the art of acquiring an early knowledge of
the world. An art, I will venture to assert, that preys secretly, like the worm
in the bud, on the expanding powers, and turns to poison the generous juices
which should mount with vigour in the youthful frame, inspiring warm affections
and great resolves.15
For every thing, saith the wise man, there is a season; — and who would
look for the fruits of autumn during the genial months of spring? But this is
mere declamation, and I mean to reason with those worldly-wise instructors,
who, instead of cultivating the judgment instil prejudices, and render hard the
heart that gradual experience would only have cooled. An early acquaintance
with human infirmities; or, what is termed knowledge of the world, is the
surest way, in my opinion, to contract the heart and damp the natural youthful
ardour which produces not only great talents, but great virtues. For the vain
attempt to bring forth the fruit of experience, before the sapling has thrown
out its leaves, only exhausts its strength, and prevents its assuming a natural
form, just as the form and strength of subsiding metals are injured when the
attraction of cohesion is disturbed.
Tell me, ye who have studied the human mind, is it not a strange way to fix
principles by showing young people that they are seldom stable? And how can
they be fortified by habits when they are proved to be fallacious by example?
Why is the ardour of youth thus to be damped, and the luxuriancy of fancy cut
to the quick? This dry caution may, it is true, guard a character from worldly
mischances; but will infallibly preclude excellence in either virtue or
knowledge.16 The stumbling-block thrown
across every path by suspicion, will prevent any vigorous exertions of genius
or benevolence, and life will be stripped of its most alluring charm long
before its calm evening, when man should retire to contemplation for comfort
A young man who has been bred up with domestic friends, and led to store his
mind with as much speculative knowledge as can be acquired by reading and the
natural reflections which youthful ebullitions of animal spirits and
instinctive feelings inspire, will enter the world with warm and erroneous
expectations. But this appears to be the course of nature; and in morals, as
well as in works of taste, we should be observant of her sacred indications,
and not presume to lead when we ought obsequiously to follow.
In the world few people act from principle; present feelings, and early
habits, are the grand springs: but how would the former be deadened, and the
latter rendered iron corroding fetters, if the world were shewn to young people
just as it is; when no knowledge of mankind or their own hearts, slowly
obtained by experience, rendered them forbearing? Their fellow creatures would
not then be viewed as frail beings; like themselves condemned to struggle with
human infirmities, and sometimes displaying the light, and sometimes the dark
side of their character; extorting alternate feelings of love and disgust; but
guarded against as beasts of prey, till every enlarged social feeling, in a
word, — humanity, was eradicated.
In life, on the contrary, as we gradually discover the imperfections of our
nature, we discover virtues, and various circumstances attach us to our fellow
creatures, when we mix with them, and view the same objects, that are never
thought of in acquiring a hasty unnatural knowledge of the world. We see a
folly swell into a vice, by almost imperceptible degrees, and pity while we
blame; but, if the hideous monster burst suddenly on our sight, fear and
disgust, rendering us more severe than man ought to be, might lead us with
blind zeal to usurp the character of omnipotence, and denounce damnation on our
fellow mortals, forgetting that we cannot read the heart, and that we have
seeds of the same vices lurking in our own.
I have already remarked that we expect more from instruction, than mere
instruction can produce: for, instead of preparing young people to encounter
the evils of life with dignity, and to acquire wisdom and virtue by the
exercise of their own faculties, precepts are heaped upon precepts, and blind
obedience required, when conviction should be brought home to reason.
Suppose, for instance, that a young person in the first ardour of friendship
deifies the beloved object — what harm can arise from this mistaken
enthusiastic attachment? Perhaps it is necessary for virtue first to appear in
a human form to impress youthful hearts; the ideal model, which a more matured
and exalted mind looks up to, and shapes for itself, would elude their sight.
He who loves not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God? asked the
wisest of men.
It is natural for youth to adorn the first object of its affection with
every good quality, and the emulation produced by ignorance, or, to speak with
more propriety, by inexperience, brings forward the mind capable of forming
such an affection, and when, in the lapse of time, perfection is found not to
be within the reach of mortals, virtue, abstractedly, is thought beautiful, and
wisdom sublime. Admiration then gives place to friendship, properly so called,
because it is cemented by esteem; and the being walks alone only dependent on
heaven for that emulous panting after perfection which ever glows in a noble
mind. But this knowledge a man must gain by the exertion of his own faculties;
and this is surely the blessed fruit of disappointed hope! for He who
delighteth to diffuse happiness and shew mercy to the weak creatures, who are
learning to know him, never implanted a good propensity to be a tormenting
Our trees are now allowed to spread with wild luxuriance, nor do we expect
by force to combine the majestic marks of time with useful graces; but wait
patiently till they have struck deep their root, and braved many a storm.
— Is the mind then, which, in proportion to its dignity, advances more
slowly towards perfection, to be treated with less respect? To argue from
analogy, every thing around us is in a progressive state; and when an unwelcome
knowledge of life produces almost a satiety of life, and we discover by the
natural course of things that all that is done under the sun is vanity, we are
drawing near the awful close of the drama. The days of activity and hope are
over, and the opportunities which the first stage of existence has afforded of
advancing in the scale of intelligence, must soon be summed up. — A
knowledge at this period of the futility of life, or earlier, if obtained by
experience, is very useful, because it is natural; but when a frail being is
shewn the follies and vices of man, that he may be taught prudently to guard
against the common casualties of life by sacrificing his heart — surely it
is not speaking harshly to call it the wisdom of this world, contrasted with
the nobler fruit of piety and experience.
I will venture a paradox, and deliver my opinion without reserve; if men
were only born to form a circle of life and death, it would be wise to take
every step that foresight could suggest to render life happy. Moderation in
every pursuit would then be supreme wisdom; and the prudent voluptuary might
enjoy a degree of content, though he neither cultivated his understanding nor
kept his heart pure. Prudence, supposing we were mortal, would be true wisdom,
or, to be more explicit, would procure the greatest portion of happiness,
considering the whole of life, but knowledge beyond the conveniences of life
would be a curse.
Why should we injure our health by close study? The exalted pleasure which
intellectual pursuits afford would scarcely be equivalent to the hours of
languor that follow; especially, if it be necessary to take into the reckoning
the doubts and disappointments that cloud our researches. Vanity and vexation
close every inquiry: for the cause which we particularly wished to discover
flies like the horizen before us as we advance. The ignorant, on the contrary,
resemble children, and suppose, that if they could walk straight forward they
should at last arrive where the earth and clouds meet. Yet, disappointed as we
are in our researches, the mind gains strength by the exercise, sufficient,
perhaps, to comprehend the answers which, in another step of existence, it may
receive to the anxious questions it asked, when the understanding with feeble
wing was fluttering round the visible effects to dive into the hidden cause.
The passions also, the winds of life, would be useless, if not injurious,
did the substance which composes our thinking being, after we have thought in
vain, only become the support of vegetable life, and invigorate a cabbage, or
blush in a rose. The appetites would answer every earthly purpose, and produce
more moderate and permanent happiness. But the powers of the soul that are of
little use here, and, probably, disturb our animal enjoyments, even while
conscious dignity makes us glory in possessing them, prove that life is merely
an education, a state of infancy, to which the only hopes worth cherishing
should not be sacrificed. I mean, therefore, to infer, that we ought to have a
precise idea of what we wish to attain by education, for the immortality of the
soul is contradicted by the actions of many people who firmly profess the
If you mean to secure ease and prosperity on earth as the first
consideration, and leave futurity to provide for itself; you act prudently in
giving your child an early insight into the weaknesses of his nature. You may
not, it is true, make an Inkle of him; but do not imagine that he will stick to
more than the letter of the law, who has very early imbibed a mean opinion of
human nature; nor will he think it necessary to rise much above the common
standard. He may avoid gross vices, because honesty is the best policy; but he
will never aim at attaining great virtues. The example of writers and artists
will illustrate this remark.
I must therefore venture to doubt whether what has been thought an axiom in
morals may not have been a dogmatical assertion made by men who have coolly
seen mankind through the medium of books, and say, in direct contradiction to
them, that the regulation of the passions is not, always, wisdom. On the
contrary, it should seem, that one reason why men have superiour judgment, and
more fortitude than women, is undoubtedly this, that they give a freer scope to
the grand passions, and by more frequently going astray enlarge their minds. If
then by the exercise of their own17 reason
they fix on some stable principle, they have probably to thank the force of
their passions, nourished by false views of life, and permitted to
overleap the boundary that secures content. But if, in the dawn of life, we
could soberly survey the scenes before as in perspective, and see every thing
in its true colours, how could the passions gain sufficient strength to unfold
Let me now as from an eminence survey the world stripped of all its false
delusive charms. The clear atmosphere enables me to see each object in its true
point of view, while my heart is still. I am calm as the prospect in a morning
when the mists, slowly dispersing, silently unveil the beauties of nature,
refreshed by rest.
In what light will the world now appear? — I rub my eyes and think,
perchance, that I am just awaking from a lively dream.
I see the sons and daughters of men pursuing shadows, and anxiously wasting
their powers to feed passions which have no adequate object — if the very
excess of these blind impulses, pampered by that lying, yet constantly trusted
guide, the imagination, did not, by preparing them for some other state, render
short-sighted mortals wiser without their own concurrence; or, what comes to
the same thing, when they were pursuing some imaginary present good.
After viewing objects in this light, it would not be very fanciful to
imagine that this world was a stage on which a pantomime is daily performed for
the amusement of superiour beings. How would they be diverted to see the
ambitious man consuming himself by running after a phantom, and, 'pursuing the
bubble fame in the cannon's mouth' that was to blow him to nothing: for when
consciousness is lost, it matters not whether we mount in a whirlwind or
descend in rain. And should they compassionately invigorate his sight and shew
him the thorny path which led to eminence, that like a quicksand sinks as he
ascends, disappointing his hopes when almost within his grasp, would he not
leave to others the honour of amusing them, and labour to secure the present
moment, though from the constitution of his nature he would not find it very
easy to catch the flying stream? Such slaves are we to hope and fear!
But, vain as the ambitious man's pursuits would be, he is often striving for
something more substantial than fame — that indeed would be the veriest
meteor, the wildest fire that could lure a man to ruin. — What! renounce
the most trifling gratification to be applauded when he should be no more!
Wherefore this struggle, whether man be mortal or immortal, if that noble
passion did not really raise the being above his fellows? —
And love! What diverting scenes would it produce — Pantaloon's tricks
must yield to more egregious folly. To see a mortal adorn an object with
imaginary charms, and then fall down and worship the idol which he had himself
set up — how ridiculous! But what serious consequences ensue to rob man of
that portion of happiness, which the Deity by calling into him existence has
(or, on what can his attributes rest?) indubitably promised: would not all the
purposes of life have been much better fulfilled if he had only felt what has
been termed physical love? And, would not the sight of the object, not seen
through the medium of the imagination, soon reduce the passion to an appetite,
if reflection, the noble distinction of man, did not give it force, and make it
an instrument to raise him above this earthy dross, by teaching him to love the
centre of all perfection; whose wisdom appears clearer and clearer in the works
of nature, in proportion as reason is illuminated and exalted by contemplation,
and by acquiring that love of order which the struggles of passion produce?
The habit of reflection, and the knowledge attained by fostering any
passion, might be shewn to be equally useful, though the object be proved
equally fallacious; for they would all appear in the same light, if they were
not magnified by the governing passion implanted in us by the Author of all
good, to call forth and strengthen the faculties of each individual, and enable
it to attain all the experience that an infant can obtain, who does certain
things, it cannot tell why.
I descend from my height, and mixing with my fellow-creatures, feel myself
hurried along the common stream; ambition, love, hope and fear, exert their
wonted power, though we be convinced by reason that their present and most
attractive promises are only lying dreams; but had the cold hand of
circumspection damped each generous feeling before it had left any permanent
character, or fixed some habit, what could be expected, but selfish prudence
and reason just rising above instinct? Who that has read Dean Swift's
disgusting description of the Yahoos, and insipid one of Houyhnhnm with a
philosophical eye, can avoid seeing the futility of degrading the passions, or
making man rest in contentment?
The youth should act; for had he the experience of a grey head he
would be fitter for death than life, though his virtues, rather residing in his
head than his heart, could produce nothing great, and his understanding,
prepared for this world, would not, by its noble flights, prove that it had a
title to a better.
Besides, it is not possible to give a young person a just view of life; he
must have struggled with his own passions before he can estimate the force of
the temptation which betrayed his brother into vice. Those who are entering
life, and those who are departing, see the world from such very different
points of view, that they can seldom think alike, unless the unfledged reason
of the former never attempted a solitary flight.
When we hear of some daring crime, it comes full on us in the deepest shade
of turpitude, and raises indignation; but the eye that gradually saw the
darkness thicken, must observe it with more compassionate forbearance. The
world cannot be seen by an unmoved spectator; we must mix in the throng, and
feel as men feel before we can judge of their feelings. If we mean, in short,
to live in the world, to grow wiser and better, and not merely to enjoy the
good things of life, we must attain a knowledge of others at the same time that
we become acquainted with ourselves — knowledge acquired any other way
only hardens the heart and perplexes the understanding.
I may be told, that the knowledge thus acquired, is sometimes purchased at
too dear a rate. I can only answer that I very much doubt whether any knowledge
can be attained without labour and sorrow; and those who wish to spare their
children both, should not complain, if they are neither wise nor virtuous. They
only aimed at making them prudent; and prudence, early in life, is but the
cautious craft of ignorant self-love.
I have observed that young people, to whose education particular attention
has been paid, have, in general, been very superficial and conceited, and far
from pleasing in any respect, because they had neither the unsuspecting warmth
of youth, nor the cool depth of age. I cannot help imputing this unnatural
appearance principally to that hasty premature instruction, which leads them
presumptuously to repeat all the crude notions they have taken upon trust, so
that the careful education which they received, makes them all their lives, the
slaves of prejudices.
Mental as well as bodily exertion is, at first, irksome; so much so, that
the many would fain let others both work and think for them. An observation
which I have often made will illustrate my meaning. When in a circle of
strangers, or acquaintances, a person of moderate abilities asserts an opinion
with heat, I will venture to affirm, for I have traced this fact home, very
often, that it is a prejudice. These echoes have a high respect for the
understanding of some relation or friend, and without fully comprehending the
opinions, which they are so eager to retail, they maintain them with a degree
of obstinacy, that would surprise even the person who concocted them.
I know that a kind of fashion now prevails of respecting prejudices; and
when any one dares to face them, though actuated by humanity and armed by
reason, he is superciliously asked whether his ancestors were fools. No, I
should reply; opinions, at first, of every description, were all, probably,
considered, and therefore were founded on some reason; yet not unfrequently, of
course, it was rather a local expedient than a fundamental principle, that
would be reasonable at all times. But, moss-covered opinions assume the
disproportioned form of prejudices, when they are indolently adopted only
because age has given them a venerable aspect, though the reason on which they
were built ceases to be a reason, or cannot be traced. Why are we to love
prejudices, merely because they are prejudices?18 A prejudice is a fond obstinate persuasion for
which we can give no reason; for the moment a reason can be given for an
opinion, it ceases to be a prejudice, though it may be an error in judgment:
and are we then advised to cherish opinions only to set reason at defiance?
This mode of arguing, if arguing it may be called, reminds me of what is
vulgarly termed a woman's reason. For women sometimes declare that they love,
or believe, certain things, because they love, or believe them.
It is impossible to converse with people to any purpose, who, in this style
only use affirmatives and negatives. Before you can bring them to a point, to
start fairly from, you must go back to the simple principles that were
antecedent to the prejudices broached by power; and it is ten to one but you
are stopped by the philosophical assertion, that certain principles are as
practically false as they are abstractly true.19 Nay, it may be inferred, that reason has whispered
some doubts, for it generally happens that people assert their opinions with
the greatest heat when they begin to waver; striving to drive out their own
doubts by convincing their opponent, they grow angry when those gnawing doubts
are thrown back to prey on themselves.
The fact is, that men expect from education, what education cannot give. A
sagacious parent or tutor may strengthen the body and sharpen the instruments
by which the child is to gather knowledge; but the honey must be the reward of
the individual's own industry. It is almost as absurd to attempt to make a
youth wise by the experience of another, as to expect the body to grow strong
by the exercise which is only talked of, or seen.20 Many of those children whose conduct has been most
narrowly watched, become the weakest men, because their instructors only instil
certain notions into their minds, that have no other foundation than their
authority; and if they be loved or respected, the mind is cramped in its
exertions and wavering in its advances. The business of education in this case,
is only to conduct the shooting tendrils to a proper pole; yet after laying
precept upon precept, without allowing a child to acquire judgment itself,
parents expect them to act in the same manner by this borrowed fallacious
light, as if they had illuminated it themselves; and be, when they enter life,
what their parents are at the close. They do not consider that the tree, and
even the human body does not strengthen its fibres till it has reached its full
There appears to be something analogous in the mind. The senses and the
imagination give a form to the character, during childhood and youth; and the
understanding, as life advances, gives firmness to the first fair purposes of
sensibility — till virtue, arising rather from the clear conviction of
reason than the impulse of the heart, morality is made to rest on a rock
against which the storms of passion vainly beat.
I hope I shall not be misunderstood when I say, that religion will not have
this condensing energy, unless it be founded on reason. If it be merely the
refuge of weakness or wild fanaticism, and not a governing principle of
conduct, drawn from self-knowledge, and a rational opinion respecting the
attributes of God, what can it be expected to produce? The religion which
consists in warming the affections, and exalting the imagination, is only the
poetical part, and may afford the individual pleasure without rendering it a
more moral being. It may be a substitute for worldly pursuits; yet narrow,
instead of enlarging the heart: but virtue must be loved as in itself sublime
and excellent, and not for the advantages it procures or the evils it averts,
if any great degree of excellence be expected. Men will not become moral when
they only build airy castles in a future world to compensate for the
disappointments which they meet with in this; if they turn their thoughts from
relative duties to religious reveries.
Most prospects in life are marred by the shuffling worldly wisdom of men,
who, forgetting that they cannot serve God and mammon, endeavour to blend
contradictory things. — If you wish to make your son rich, pursue one
course — if you are only anxious to make him virtuous, you must take
another; but do not imagine that you can bound from one road to the other
without losing your way.21
1. I have already inserted the passage,
Chap. III, Note 4.
2. What nonsense!
3. Rousseau's Emilius, Vol. III. p.
4. Rousseau's Emilius, Vol. III. p.
5. Rousseau's Emilius, Vol. III. p.
6. Rousseau's Emilius, Vol. III. p.
7. What is to be the consequence, if the
mother's and husband's opinion should chance not to agree? An ignorant
person cannot be reasoned out of an error — and when persuaded to
give up one prejudice for another the mind is unsettled. Indeed, the husband
may not have any religion to teach her, though in such a situation she will be
in great want of a support to her virtue, independent of worldly
8. Rousseau's Emilius.
9. Can you? — Can you? would be the
most emphatical comment, were it drawled out in a whining voice.
10. Let women once acquire good sense
— and if it deserve the name, it will teach them; or, of what use will it
be? how to employ it.
11. 'He is the free man, whom the
truth makes free!' — Cowper.
12. I mean to use a word that comprehends
more than chastity the sexual virtue.
13. A person is not to act in this or that
way, though convinced they are right in so doing, because some equivocal
circumstances may lead the world to suspect that they acted from
different motives. — This is sacrificing the substance for a shadow. Let
people but watch their own hearts, and act rightly, as far as they can judge,
and they may patiently wait till the opinion of the world comes round. It is
best to be directed by a simple motive — for justice has too often been
sacrificed to propriety; — another word for convenience.
14. Coinciding in opinion with Mrs.
Macaulay relative to many branches of education, I refer to her valuable work,
instead of quoting her sentiments to support my own.
15. That children ought to be constantly
guarded against the vices and follies of the world, appears, to me, a very
mistaken opinion; for in the course of my experience, and my eyes have looked
abroad, I never knew a youth educated in this manner, who had early imbibed
these chilling suspicions, and repeated by rote the hesitating if of
age, that did not prove a selfish character.
16. I have already observed that an early
knowledge of the world, obtained in a natural way, by mixing in the world, has
the same effect: instancing officers and women.
17. 'I find that all is but lip-wisdom
which wants experience,' says Sidney.
18. Vide Mr. Burke.
'Convince a man against his will.
He's of the same opinion still.'
20. 'One sees nothing when one is content
to contemplate only; it is necessary to act oneself to be able to see how
others act.' — Rousseau.
21. See an excellent essay on this subject
by Mrs. Barbauld, in Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose.
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