This is a document from Muhammad
the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), governing relations
between the Believers i.e. Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib and those who
followed them and worked hard with them. They form one nation -- Ummah.
The Quraysh Mohajireen will
continue to pay blood money, according to their present custom.
In case of war with any body
they will redeem their prisoners with kindness and justice common among
Believers. (Not according to pre-Islamic nations where the rich and the
poor were treated differently).
The Bani Awf will decide the
blood money, within themselves, according to their existing custom.
In case of war with anybody
all parties other than Muslims will redeem their prisoners with kindness
and justice according to practice among Believers and not in accordance
with pre-Islamic notions.
The Bani Saeeda, the Bani Harith,
the Bani Jusham and the Bani Najjar will be governed on the lines of the
The Bani Amr, Bani Awf, Bani
Al-Nabeet, and Bani Al-Aws will be governed in the same manner.
Believers will not fail to
redeem their prisoners they will pay blood money on their behalf. It will
be a common responsibility of the Ummat and not of the family of the prisoners
to pay blood money.
A Believer will not make the
freedman of another Believer as his ally against the wishes of the other
The Believers, who fear Allah,
will oppose the rebellious elements and those that encourage injustice
or sin, or enmity or corruption among Believers.
If anyone is guilty of any
such act all the Believers will oppose him even if he be the son of any
one of them.
A Believer will not kill another
Believer, for the sake of an un-Believer. (i.e. even though the un-Believer
is his close relative).
No Believer will help an un-Believer
against a Believer.
Protection (when given) in
the Name of Allah will be common. The weakest among Believers may give
protection (In the Name of Allah) and it will be binding on all Believers.
Believers are all friends
to each other to the exclusion of all others.
Those Jews who follow the
Believers will be helped and will be treated with equality. (Social, legal
and economic equality is promised to all loyal citizens of the State).
No Jew will be wronged for
being a Jew.
The enemies of the Jews who
follow us will not be helped.
The peace of the Believers
(of the State of Madinah) cannot be divided. (it is either peace or war
for all. It cannot be that a part of the population is at war with the
outsiders and a part is at peace).
No separate peace will be
made by anyone in Madinah when Believers are fighting in the Path of Allah.
Conditions of peace and war
and the accompanying ease or hardships must be fair and equitable to all
When going out on expeditions
a rider must take his fellow member of the Army-share his ride.
The Believers must avenge
the blood of one another when fighting in the Path of Allah (This clause
was to remind those in front of whom there may be less severe fighting
that the cause was common to all. This also meant that although each battle
appeared a separate entity it was in fact a part of the War, which affected
all Muslims equally).
The Believers (because they
fear Allah) are better in showing steadfastness and as a result receive
guidance from Allah in this respect. Others must also aspire to come up
to the same standard of steadfastness.
No un-Believer will be permitted
to take the property of the Quraysh (the enemy) under his protection. Enemy
property must be surrendered to the State.
No un-Believer will intervene
in favour of a Quraysh, (because the Quraysh having declared war are the
If any un-believer kills a
Believer, without good cause, he shall be killed in return, unless the
next of kin are satisfied (as it creates law and order problems and weakens
the defence of the State). All Believers shall be against such a wrong-doer.
No Believer will be allowed to shelter such a man.
When you differ on anything
(regarding this Document) the matter shall be referred to Allah and Muhammad
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace).
The Jews will contribute towards
the war when fighting alongside the Believers.
The Jews of Bani Awf will
be treated as one community with the Believers. The Jews have their religion.
This will also apply to their freedmen. The exception will be those who
act unjustly and sinfully. By so doing they wrong themselves and their
The same applies to Jews of
Bani Al-Najjar, Bani Al Harith, Bani Saeeda, Bani Jusham, Bani Al Aws,
Thaalba, and the Jaffna, (a clan of the Bani Thaalba) and the Bani Al Shutayba.
Loyalty gives protection against
treachery. (loyal people are protected by their friends against treachery.
As long as a person remains loyal to the State he is not likely to succumb
to the ideas of being treacherous. He protects himself against weakness).
The freedmen of Thaalba will
be afforded the same status as Thaalba themselves. This status is for fair
dealings and full justice as a right and equal responsibility for military
Those in alliance with the
Jews will be given the same treatment as the Jews.
No one (no tribe which is
party to the Pact) shall go to war except with the permission of Muhammed
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace). If any wrong has been done to
any person or party it may be avenged.
Any one who kills another
without warning (there being no just cause for it) amounts to his slaying
himself and his household, unless the killing was done due to a wrong being
done to him.
The Jews must bear their own
expenses (in War) and the Muslims bear their expenses.
If anyone attacks anyone who
is a party to this Pact the other must come to his help.
They (parties to this Pact)
must seek mutual advice and consultation.
Loyalty gives protection against
treachery. Those who avoid mutual consultation do so because of lack of
sincerity and loyalty.
A man will not be made liable
for misdeeds of his ally.
Anyone (any individual or
party) who is wronged must be helped.
The Jews must pay (for war)
with the Muslims. (this clause appears to be for occasions when Jews are
not taking part in the war. Clause 37 deals with occasions when they are
taking part in war).
Yathrib will be Sanctuary
for the people of this Pact.
A stranger (individual) who
has been given protection (by anyone party to this Pact) will be treated
as his host (who has given him protection) while (he is) doing no harm
and is not committing any crime. Those given protection but indulging in
anti-state activities will be liable to punishment.
A woman will be given protection
only with the consent of her family (Guardian). (a good precaution to avoid
In case of any dispute or
controversy, which may result in trouble the matter must be referred to
Allah and Muhammed (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), The Prophet
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) of Allah will accept anything
in this document, which is for (bringing about) piety and goodness.
Quraysh and their allies will
not be given protection.
The parties to this Pact are
bound to help each other in the event of an attack on Yathrib.
If they (the parties to the
Pact other than the Muslims) are called upon to make and maintain peace
(within the State) they must do so. If a similar demand (of making and
maintaining peace) is made on the Muslims, it must be carried out, except
when the Muslims are already engaged in a war in the Path of Allah. (so
that no secret ally of the enemy can aid the enemy by calling upon Muslims
to end hostilities under this clause).
Everyone (individual) will
have his share (of treatment) in accordance with what party he belongs
to. Individuals must benefit or suffer for the good or bad deed of the
group they belong to. Without such a rule party affiliations and discipline
cannot be maintained.
The Jews of al-Aws, including
their freedmen, have the same standing, as other parties to the Pact, as
long as they are loyal to the Pact. Loyalty is a protection against treachery.
Anyone who acts loyally or
otherwise does it for his own good (or loss).
Allah approves this Document.
This document will not (be
employed to) protect one who is unjust or commits a crime (against other
parties of the Pact).
Whether an individual goes
out to fight (in accordance with the terms of this Pact) or remains in
his home, he will be safe unless he has committed a crime or is a sinner.
(i.e. No one will be punished in his individual capacity for not having
gone out to fight in accordance with the terms of this Pact).
Allah is the Protector of
the good people and those who fear Allah, and Muhammad (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace) is the Messenger of Allah (He guarantees protection
for those who are good and fear Allah).