(A) Meeting with Knights of the Shire at Windsor (1261)

The king to the sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, greeting. Whereas, on the part of the bishop of Worcester, the earl of Leicester, the earl of Gloucester, and certain other nobles of our realm, three knights have been summoned from each of our counties to be at St. Albans on the approaching feast of St. Matthew the Apostle, in order with them to deliberate on the common affairs of our kingdom; and [whereas] we and our nobles aforesaid shall come together on the same day at Windsor to treat concerning peace between us and them: we command you on our part to give strict orders to those knights from your bailiwick, who have been summoned before those [nobles] on the aforesaid day, that, avoiding all excuse, they come to us at Windsor on the aforesaid day; and you are also strictly to prohibit them from going elsewhere on the said day, by all means causing them to come before us on the aforesaid day to have a conference with us on the aforesaid matters, so that, as a consequence of this business, they may see and understand that we propose no undertaking but what we know to be for the honour and common benefit of our realm. By witness of the king at Windsor, September 11.

(Latin) Ibid., pp. 394 f.

(B) First Parliament of Simon de Montfort (1264)

The king to Adam of Newmarket, greeting. Whereas the disturbance recently experienced in our kingdom has now subsided and, by the grace of divine co-operation, peace has now been ordained and established between us and our barons; and [whereas], in order that this peace may be inviolably observed throughout our entire kingdom, it has been provided by the counsel and assent of our barons that in each of our counties throughout England keepers of our peace shall be appointed for the defence and security of those parts, until other provision for the state of our kingdom may be made by us and our barons; and whereas, relying on your fidelity as well as your industry, we, by the counsel of our said barons, have assigned you as our keeper in the county of Lincoln during our pleasure: we command and firmly enjoin that, in the fealty by which you are bound to us, you there diligently see to the keeping of our peace and to those matters which pertain to it, as aforesaid....[1] And whereas in our approaching parliament, it is necessary for us to deliberate with our prelates, magnates, and other faithful men concerning our affairs and those of our kingdom: we command you to send to us on behalf of the entire county aforesaid four of the more lawful and discreet knights of the same county elected for that purpose by the assent of that county; so that they shall be with us at London on the octave of the approaching feast of the Holy Trinity at the latest, in order to deliberate with us on the aforesaid affairs.... By witness of the king at St. Paul's in London, June 4.

(Latin) Ibid., pp. 399 f.

(C) Second Parliament of Simon de Montfort (1265)

Henry, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine, to the venerable father in Christ, R[obert], by the same grace bishop of Durham. Whereas, after the grave peril of the disorders recently experienced in our kingdom, Edward, our dearest first-born son, was delivered as a hostage to assure and strengthen the peace of our kingdom; and whereas, now that the aforesaid disorders have — thank God! — been quieted, we must hold a deliberation with our prelates and magnates to make salutary provision for his release, and to establish and consolidate full assurance of peace and tranquillity for the honour of God and the advantage of our whole kingdom, and to consider certain other affairs of our kingdom which we are unwilling to settle without your counsel and that of our other prelates and magnates: [therefore] we command and urge you, in the faith and love by which you are bound to us, that, avoiding all excuse and putting aside all other concerns, you come to us at London on the octave of St. Hilary next, together with us and with our aforesaid prelates and magnates whom we have summoned to the same place, to consider the matters set forth above and to give your counsel [regarding them]. And by no means fail to do this, as you cherish us, our honour, and your own, as well as the common tranquillity of our kingdom. By witness of the king, at Worcester, December 14 [1264]....[2]

Similar mandates to the sheriffs throughout England, that by the same form they should cause two of the more lawful, upright, and discreet knights from every county to come to the king at London on the octave aforesaid.

Letters in the same form also to the citizens of York, to the citizens of Lincoln, and to the other boroughs of England, that in the same way they should send two of the more discreet, lawful, and upright citizens or burgesses.

A mandate in the same form to the barons and good men of the Cinque Ports, as is contained in the writ enrolled below.... [3]

(Latin) Reports Touching the Dignity of a Peer, III, 33 f.

(D) Council of 1268[4]

Those same men who were not at Windsor have been ordered to be at Westminster on Wednesday before the quinzime of Easter....[5]

Writs are to be issued for certain persons of the Cinque Ports, whom the lord R[ichard] of Lyburne[6] ought to name, and for certain persons of the cities and boroughs: namely, that the bailiffs and six others of the more discreet, better, and wealthier men in the same — that is to say, the nearer of the cities and boroughs — are to be at London on the quinzime of Easter, to treat and consult with regard to the affairs of the lord king and of the kingdom, which also concern [those men] themselves; and that they should bring with them letters patent of credence addressed to all persons and [respectively] sealed with the communal seals of the same cities and boroughs....

The king to his beloved and faithful his mayor and citizens of York, greeting. Whereas, with regard to arduous affairs concerning us and the estate and community of our kingdom, and especially in the council summoned by the legate[7] at London on the approaching quinzime of Easter, we wish to have a special deliberation and conference with you and the other faithful men of our said kingdom, whom we have caused to be summoned for this purpose, and without whom we are unable to settle those affairs: [therefore] we command and firmly enjoin that in the fealty, homage,[8] and love by which you are bound to us, immediately on sight of these letters and setting aside all other concerns, you cause the said mayor, together with the bailiffs and six of the better and more discreet and more substantial men [of the said city] to come with all haste to us at Westminster, [bringing with them] your letters patent signed with the seal of your community according to the form sent to you enclosed in the present letters; so that they shall be there on the approaching quinzime of Easter at the latest, there in the matters aforesaid to do whatever we shall see fit to provide by the common counsel of our kingdom. And by no means fail to do this. Witness.

[Such letters to] York, Lincoln, Northampton, Stafford, Norwich, Cambridge, Lynn, Oxford, Worcester, Gloucester, Shrewsbury, Hereford, Bristol, Winchester, Southampton, Canterbury, Chichester, Rochester, Bath, Coventry, Lichfield, Exeter, Ely, Bury St. Edmunds, Yarmouth, Ipswich, Dunwich....

To all faithful in Christ before whom these present letters shall come, the mayor, bailiffs, and entire community of the city of York, greeting in the Lord. For the sake of the affairs concerning our lord King H[enry], illustrious king of England, his kingdom, the community of England, and us, [to be considered] in the council called by the legate at London on the approaching quinzime of Easter, we have seen fit to send thither ———— , our mayor, and ———— , our bailiffs, and ————— our citizens or fellow burgesses, so that full faith may be given to them in everything which, with regard to the aforesaid matters, they shall see fit on our behalf to set forth in the council or on the occasion of the council. And we shall hold as established and accepted whatever on our behalf those men do in the aforesaid matters. In testimony whereof, etc. Given, etc.

(Latin) English Historical Review, XL, 583 f.

[1] The writ here includes details regarding the prevention of crimes and disorders.

[2] Here follow in the roll the names of the prelates and lay barons summoned by the same form.

[3 ]This writ is in substance much the same as the one quoted; each of the Cinque Ports is to send four representatives.

[4] See the article by G. O. Sayles in the review cited below. The following extracts are from a carelessly written memorandum of March, 1268, to which are appended the form of the summons to the boroughs and the form of the letters patent to be returned with the deputies.

[5] Various persons are named as having received the writ.

[6] Constable of Dover Castle and warden of the Cinque Ports.

[7] Ottobono, papal legate.

[8] The wrong form seems inadvertently to have been used by the clerk, for the burgesses owed no homage.