Statement  of  Objects  and  Reasons    appended  to  the  Constitution
(Thirty-first  Amendment) Bill, 1972 (Bill No.  55 of 1972) which  was
   enacted as THE CONSTITUTION (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972


Article  314  of  the  Constitution guarantees  to  persons  who  were
appointed  by the Secretary of State or Secretary of State in  Council
to  a  civil service of the Crown in India and who continued to  serve
after  the  commencement of the Constitution under the  Government  of
India  or  of  a  State the same conditions  of  service   as  respects
remuneration,  leave  and  pension  and the same  rights  as   respects
disciplinary  matters  or  rights  as   similar   thereto  as   changed
circumstances may permit, as such persons were entitled to immediately
before  such  commencement.  The concept of a class of  officers   with
immutable  conditions  of  service is incompatible  with  the   changed
social  order.   It is, therefore, considered necessary to  amend   the
Constitution  to  provide for the deletion of article 314 and for  the
inclusion  of a new article 312A which confers powers on Parliament to
vary  or  revoke  by  law the conditions of service  of  the   officers
aforesaid  and  contains  appropriate   consequential  and   incidental

2.  The Bill seeks to give effect the above objects.


The 22nd May, 1972.


[27th August, 1972.]

An Act further to amend the Constitution of India.

BE  it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-third Year of the  Republic
of India as follows:-

1.   Short  title  and commencement.-(1) This Act may  be  called  the
Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972.

(2)  It  shall  come  into  force on  such  date_664  as  the  Central
Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

2.    Insertion  of  new   article   312A.-After  article  312  of  the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"312A.  Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of
officers of certain services (1) Parliament may by law-

(a)  vary  or  revoke, whether prospectively or  retrospectively,  the
conditions  of service as respects remuneration, leave and pension and
the  rights  as respects disciplinary matters of persons  who,  having
been  appointed  by  the Secretary of State or Secretary of  State   in
Council  to  a  civil  service  of  the  Crown  in   India  before  the
commencement  of  this  Constitution,  continue   on   and  after   the
commencement  of THE CONSTITUTION (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972,
to serve under the Government of India or of a State in any service or

(b)  vary  or  revoke, whether prospectively or  retrospectively,  the
conditions  of service as respects pension of persons who, having been
appointed  by the Secretary of State or Secretary of State in  Council
to  a  civil service of the Crown in India before the commencement  of
this Constitution, retired or otherwise ceased to be in service at any
time  before  the  commencement  of  the  Constitution   (Twenty-eighth
Amendment) Act, 1972:

Provided  that  in the case of any such person who is holding  or  has
held  the  office of the Chief Justice or other Judge of  the  Supreme
Court  or a High Court, the Comptroller and Auditor-General of  India,
the  Chairman  or other member of the Union or a State Public  Service
Commission  or the Chief Election Commissioner, nothing in  sub-clause
(a)  or sub-clause (b) shall be construed as empowering Parliament  to
vary  or revoke, after his appointment to such post, the conditions of
his service to his disadvantage except in so far as such conditions of
service  are  applicable  to  him  by reason of  his   being  a  person
appointed  by the Secretary of State or Secretary of State in  Council
to a civil service of the Crown in India.

(2)  Except to the extent provided for by Parliament by law under this
article,  nothing  in  this  article shall affect  the   power  of  any
legislature  or  other  authority under any other  provision  of   this
Constitution to regulate the conditions of service of persons referred
to in clause (1).

(3)  Neither  the  Supreme  Court   nor  any  other  court  shall  have
jurisdiction in-

(a)  any  dispute arising out of any provision of, or any  endorsement
on,  any  covenant,  agreement or other similar instrument  which   was
entered  into or executed by any person referred to in clause (1),  or
arising  out  of any letter issued to such person, in relation to  his
appointment  to  any  civil  service  of the Crown  in   India  or  his
continuance  in service under the Government of the Dominion of  India
or a Province thereof;

(b) any dispute in respect of any right, liability or obligation under
article 314 as originally enacted.

(4)  The provisions of this article shall have effect   notwithstanding
anything  in  article  314  as  originally enacted  or   in  any  other
provision of this Constitution.".

3.   Omission of article 314.-Article 314 of the Constitution shall be


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