19. Admission into, and emigration and expulsion from, India;
passports and visas.
20. Pilgrimages to places outside India.
21. Piracies and crimes committed on the high seas or in the air;
offences against the law of nations committed on land or the high seas
or in the air.
23. Highways declared by or under law made by Parliament to be
24. Shipping and navigation on inland waterways, declared by
Parliament by law to be national waterways, as regards mechanically
propelled vessels; the rule of the road on such waterways.
25. Maritime shipping and navigation, including shipping and
navigation on tidal waters; provision of education and training for
the mercantile marine and regulation of such education and training
provided by States and other agencies.
26. Lighthouses, including lightships, beacons and other provision
for the safety of shipping and aircraft.
27. Ports declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law
to be major ports, including their delimitation, and the constitution
and powers of port authorities therein.
28. Port quarantine, including hospitals connected therewith;
seamen's and marine hospitals.
29. Airways; aircraft and air navigation; provision of aerodromes;
regulation and organisation of air traffic and of aerodromes;
provision for aeronautical education and training and regulation of
such education and training provided by States and other agencies.
30. Carriage of passengers and goods by railway, sea or air, or by
national waterways in mechanically propelled vessels.
31. Posts and telegraphs; telephones, wireless, broadcasting and
other like forms of communication.
32. Property of the Union and the revenue therefrom, but as regards
property situated in a State _525*** subject to legislation by the
State, save in so far as Parliament by law otherwise provides.
_526* * * * *
34. Courts of wards for the estates of Rulers of Indian States.
35. Public debt of the Union.
36. Currency, coinage and legal tender; foreign exchange.
37. Foreign loans.
38. Reserve Bank of India.
39. Post Office Savings Bank.
40. Lotteries organised by the Government of India or the Government
of a State.
41. Trade and commerce with foreign countries; import and export
across customs frontiers; definition of customs frontiers.
42. Inter-State trade and commerce.
43. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of trading corporations,
including banking, insurance and financial corporations but not
including co-operative societies.
44. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, whether
trading or not, with objects not confined to one State, but not
46. Bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes and other like
48. Stock exchanges and futures markets.
49. Patents, inventions and designs; copyright; trade-marks and
50. Establishment of standards of weight and measure.
51. Establishment of standards of quality for goods to be exported
out of India or transported from one State to another.
52. Industries, the control of which by the Union is declared by
Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest.
53. Regulation and development of oilfields and mineral oil
resources; petroleum and petroleum products; other liquids and
substances declared by Parliament by law to be dangerously
54. Regulation of mines and mineral development to the extent to
which such regulation and development under the control of the Union
is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public
55. Regulation of labour and safety in mines and oilfields.
56. Regulation and development of inter-State rivers and river
valleys to the extent to which such regulation and development under
the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be
expedient in the public interest.
57. Fishing and fisheries beyond territorial waters.
58. Manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by Union agencies;
regulation and control of manufacture, supply and distribution of salt
by other agencies.
59. Cultivation, manufacture, and sale for export, of opium.
60. Sanctioning of cinematograph films for exhibition.
61. Industrial disputes concerning Union employees.
62. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution
as the National Library, the Indian Museum, the Imperial War Museum,
the Victoria Memorial and the Indian War Memorial, and any other like
institution financed by the Government of India wholly or in a part
and declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national
63. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution
as the Benares Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim University and the
_527[Delhi University; the University established in pursuance of
article 371E;] any other institution declared by Parliament by law to
be an institution of national importance.
64. Institutions for scientific or technical education financed by
the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by Parliament
by law to be institutions of national importance.
65. Union agencies and institutions for-
(a) professional, vocational or technical training, including the
training of police officers; or
(b) the promotion of special studies or research; or
(c) scientific or technical assistance in the investigation or
detection of crime.
66. Co-ordination and determination of standards in institutions for
higher education or research and scientific and technical
67. Ancient and historical monuments and records, and archaeological
sites and remains _528[declared by or under law made by Parliament] to
be of national importance.
68. The Survey of India, the Geological, Botanical, Zoological and
Anthropological Surveys of India; Meteorological organisations.
70. Union Public Service; All-India Services; Union Public Service
71. Union pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the
Government of India or out of the Consolidated Fund of India.
72. Elections to Parliament, to the Legislatures of States and to the
offices of President and Vice-President; the Election Commission.
73. Salaries and allowances of members of Parliament, the Chairman
and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and
Deputy Speaker of the House of the People.
74. Powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament and
of the members and the Committees of each House; enforcement of
attendance of persons for giving evidence or producing documents
before committees of Parliament or commissions appointed by
75. Emoluments, allowances, privileges, and rights in respect of
leave of absence, of the President and Governors; salaries and
allowances of the Ministers for the Union; the salaries, allowances,
and rights in respect of leave of absence and other conditions of
service of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
76. Audit of the accounts of the Union and of the States.
77. Constitution, organisation, jurisdiction and powers of the
Supreme Court (including contempt of such Court), and the fees taken
therein; persons entitled to practise before the Supreme Court.
78. Constitution and organisation _529[(including vacations)] of the
High Courts except provisions as to officers and servants of High
Courts; persons entitled to practise before the High Courts.
_530[79. Extension of the jurisdiction of a High Court to, and
exclusion of the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any Union
80. Extension of the powers and jurisdiction of members of a police
force belonging to any State to any area outside that State, but not
so as to enable the police of one State to exercise powers and
jurisdiction in any area outside that State without the consent of the
Government of the State in which such area is situated; extension of
the powers and jurisdiction of members of a police force belonging to
any State to railway areas outside that State.
81. Inter-State migration; inter-State quarantine.
82. Taxes on income other than agricultural income.
83. Duties of customs including export duties.
84. Duties of excise on tobacco and other goods manufactured or
produced in India except-
(a) alcoholic liquors for human consumption.
(b) opium, Indian hemp and other narcotic drugs and narcotics,
but including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or
any substance included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry.
85. Corporation tax.
86. Taxes on the capital value of the assets, exclusive of
agricultural land, of individuals and companies; taxes on the capital
87. Estate duty in respect of property other than agricultural land.
88. Duties in respect of succession to property other than
89. Terminal taxes on goods or passengers, carried by railway, sea or
air; taxes on railway fares and freights.
90. Taxes other than stamp duties on transactions in stock exchanges
and futures markets.
91. Rates of stamp duty in respect of bills of exchange, cheques,
promissory notes, bills of lading, letters of credit, policies of
insurance, transfer of shares, debentures, proxies and receipts.
92. Taxes on the sale or purchase of newspapers and on advertisements
_531[92A. Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than
newspapers, where such sale or purchase takes place in the course of
inter-State trade or commerce.]
_532[92B. Taxes on the consignment of goods (whether the consignment
is to the person making it or to any other person), where such
consignment takes place in the course of inter-State trade or
93. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this
94. Inquiries, surveys and statistics for the purpose of any of the
matters in this List.
95. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court,
with respect to any of the matters in this List; admiralty
96. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not
including fees taken in any court.
97. Any other matter not enumerated in List II or List III including
any tax not mentioned in either of those Lists.