Bouvier's Law Dictionary
1856 Edition


IBIDEM. This word is used in references, when it is intended to say that a thing is to be found in the same place, or that the reference has for its object the same thing, case, or other matter. IOU, contracts. The memorandum IOU, (I owe you), given by merchants to each other, is a mere evidence of the debt, and does not amount to a promissory note. Esp. Cas. N. A. 426; 4 Carr. & Payne, 324; 19 Eng. Com. L. Rep. 405; 1 Man. & Gran. 46; 39 E. C. L. R. 346; 1 Campb. 499; 1 Esp. R. 426; 1 Man. Gr. & So. 543; Dowl. & R. N. P. Cas. 8.

ICTUS ORBIS, med. jurisp. A maim, a bruise, or swelling; any hurt without cutting the skin. When the skin is cut, the injury is called a wound. (q. v.) Bract. lib. 2, tr. 2, c. 5 and 24.

2. Ictus is often used by medical authors in the sense of percussus. It is applied to the pulsation of the arteries, to any external lesion of the body produced by violence also to the wound inflicted by a scorpion or venomous reptile. Orbis is used in the sense of circlo, circuit, rotundity. It is applied also to the eye balls. Oculi dicuntur orbes. Castelli Lexicon Medicum.

IDEM SONANS. Sounding the same.

2. In pleadings, when a name which it is material to state, is wrongly spelled, yet if it be idem sonans with that proved, it is sufficient, as Segrave for Seagrave, 2 Str. R. 889; Keen for Keene, Thach. Cr. Cas. 67; Deadema for Diadema, 2 Ired. 346; Hutson for Hudson, 7 Miss. R. 142; Coonrad for Conrad, 8 Miss. R. 291. See 5 Pike, 72; 6 Ala. R. 679; vide also Russ. & Ry. 412; 2 Taunt. R. 401, In the following cases the variances there mentioned were declared to be fatal. Russ. & Ry. 351; 10 East, R. 83; 5 Taunt. R. 14; 1 Baldw. R. 83; 2 Crom. & M. 189; 6 Price, R. 2; 1 Chit. R. 659; 13 E. C. L. R. 194. See, generally, 8 Chit. Pr. 231, 2; 4 T. R. 611; 3 B. & P. 559; 1 Stark. R. 47; 2 Stark. R. 29; 3 Camp. R. 29; 6 M. & S. 45; 2 N. H. Rep. 557; 7 S. & R. 479; 3 Caines, 219; 1 Wash. C. C. R. 285; 4 Cowen, 148 and the article Name.

IDENTITATE NOMINIS, Engl. law. The name of a writ which lies for a person taken upon a capias or exigent and committed to prison, for another man of the same name; this writ directs the sheriff to inquire whether he be the same person against whom the action was brought, and if not, then to discharge him. F. N. B. 267. In practice, a party in this condition would be relieved by habeas corpus.

IDENTITY, evidence. Sameness.

2. It is frequently necessary to identify persons and things. In criminal prosecutions, and in actions for torts and on contracts, it is required to be proved that the defendants have in criminal actions, and for injuries, been guilty of the crime or injury charged; and in an action on a contract, that the defendant was a party to it. Sometimes, too, a party who has been absent, and who appears to claim an inheritance, must prove his identity and, not unfrequently, the body of a person which has been found dead must be identified: cases occur when the body is much disfigured, and, at other times, there is nothing left but the skeleton. Cases of considerable difficulty arise, in consequence of the omission to take particular notice; 2 Stark. Car. 239 Ryan's Med. Jur. 301; and in consequence of the great resemblance of two persons. 1 Hall's Am. Law Journ. 70; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 509; 1 Paris, Med. Jur, 222; 3 Id. 143; Trail. Med. Jur. 33; Foderę, Med. Leg. ch. 2, tome 1, p. 78-139.

3. In cases of larceny, trover, replevin, and the like, the things in dispute must always be identified. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 396.

4. M. Briand, in his Manuel Complet de Mędicine Lęgale, 4eme partie, ch. 1, gives rules for the discovery of particular marks, which an individual may have had, and also the true color of the hair, although it may have been artificially colored. He also gives some rules for the purpose of discovering, from the appearance of a skeleton, the sex, the age, and the height of the person when living, which he illustrates by various examples. See, generally, 6 C. & P 677; 1 C. & M. 730; 3 Tyr. 806; Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 226; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 189; Best on Pres. Appx. case 4; Wills on Circums. Ev. 143, et seq.

IDES, NONES and CALENDS, civil law. This mode of computing time, formerly in use among the Romans, is yet used in several chanceries in, Europe, particularly in that of the pope. Many ancient instruments bear these dates; it is therefore proper to notice them here. These three words designate all the days of the month.

2. The calends were the first day of every month, and were known by adding the names of the months; as calendis januarii, calendis februarii, for the first days of the months of January and February. They designated the following days by those before the nones. The fifth day of each month, except those of March, May, July, and October; in those four months the nones indicated the seventh day; nonis martii, was therefore the seventh day of March, and so of the rest. In those months in which the nones indicated the fifth day, the second was called quarto nonas or 4 nonas, that is to say, quarto die ante nonas, the fourth day before the nones. The words die and ante, being understood, were usually suppressed. The third day of each of those eight months was called tertio, or 3 nonas. The fourth, was pridie or 2 nonas; and the fifth was nonas. In the months of March, May, July and October, the second day of the months was called sexto or 6 nonas; the third, quinto, or 5 nonas; the fourth, quarto, or 4 nonas; the fifth, tertio, or 3 nonas; the sixth, pridie, usually abridged prid. or pr. or 2 nonas; and the seventh, nones. The word nonae is so applied, it is said, because it indicates the ninth day before the ides of each month.

3. In the months of March, May, July and October, the fifteenth day of the months was the Ides. These are the four mouths, as above mentioned, in which the nones were on the seventh day. In the other eight months of the year the nones were the fifth of the month, and the ides the thirteenth in each of them the ides indicated the ninth day after the nones. The seven days between the nones and the ides, which we count 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, in March, May, July and October, the Romans counted octave, or 8 idus; septimo, or 7 idus; sexto, or 6 idus; quinto, or 5 idus; quarto, or 4 idus; tertio, or 3 idus; pridie, or 2, idus; the word ante being understood as mentioned above. As to the other eight mouths of the year, in which the nones indicated the fifth day of the month, instead of our 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, the Romans counted octavo idus, septimo, &c. The word is said to be derived from the Tuscan, iduare, in Latin dividere, to divide, because the day of ides divided the month into equal parts. The days from the ides to the end of the month were computed as follows; for example, the fourteenth day of January, which was the next day after the ides, was called decimo nono, or 19 kalendas, or ante kalendas febrarii; the fifteenth, decimo octavo, or 18 kalindas februarii, and so of the rest. Counting in a, retrograde manner to pridie or 2 kalendas februarii, which was the thirty-first day of January.

4. As in some months the ides indicate the thirteenth, and in some the fifteenth of the month, and as the months have not an equal number of days, it follows that the decimo nono or 19 kalendas did not always happen to be the next day after the Ides, this was the case only in the months of January, August and December. Decimo sexto or the 16th in Fedruary; decimo septimo or 17, March, May, July and October; decimo octave or 18, in April, June, September, and November. Merlin, Rępertoire de Jurisprudence, mots Ides, Nones et Calendes.

A Table of the Calends of the Nones and the Ides.

Jan., Aug., Dec. March, May, April, June, February 28,
31 days. July, Oct., Sept., Nov., bissextile,
31 days. 30 days. 29 days.
1 Calendis. Calendis. Calendis. Calendis.
2 Nonas. Nonas Nonas Nonas
3 Nonas. Nonas Nonas Nonas
4 Prid. Non. Nonas Prid. Non. Prid. Non.
5 Nonis Nonas Nonis Nonis
6 8 Idus Prid. Non. 8 Idus 8 Idus
7 7 Idus Nonis 7 Idus 7 Idus
8 6 Idus 8 Idus 6 Idus 6 Idus
9 5 Idus 7 Idus 5 Idus 5 Idus
10 4 Idus 6 Idus 4 Idus 4 Idus
11 3 Idus 5 Idus 3 Idus 3 Idus
12 Prid. Idus 4 Idus Prid. Idus Prid. Idus
13 Idibus 3 Idus Idibus Idibus
14 19 Cal. Prid. Idus 18 Cal. 16 Cal.
15 18 Cal. Idibus 17 Cal. 15 Cal.
16 17 Cal. 17 Cal. 16 Cal. 14 Cal.
17 16 Cal. 16 Cal. 15 Cal. 3 Cal.
18 15 Cal. 15 Cal. 14 Cal. 12 Cal.
19 14 Cal. 14 Cal. 13 Cal. 11 Cal.
20 18 Cal. 13 Cal. 12 Cal. 10 Cal.
21 12 Cal. 12 Cal. 11 Cal. 9 Cal.
22 11 Cal. 11 Cal. 10 Cal. 8 Cal.
23 10 Cal. 10 Cal. 9 Cal. 7 Cal.
24 9 Cal. 9 Cal. 8 Cal. 6 Cal.*
25 8 Cal. 9 Cal. 7 Cal. 5 Cal.
26 7 Cal. 7 Cal. 6 Cal. 4 Cal.
27 6 Cal. 6 Cal. 5 Cal. 3 Cal.
28 5 Cal. 5 Cal. 4 Cal. Prid. Cal.
29 4 Cal. 4 Cal. 3 Cal.
30 3 Cal. 3 Cal. Prid. Cal.
31 Prid. Cal. Prid. Cal.

* If February is bissextile, Sexto Calencas (6 Cal.) it is counted twice, viz: for the 24th and 25th of the month, Hence the word bis-sextile.

IDIOCY, med. jur. That condition of mind, in which the reflective, or all or a part of the affective powers, are either entirely wanting, or are manifested to the least possible extent.

2. Idiocy generally depends upon organic defects. The most striking physical trait, and one seldom wanting, is the diminutive size of the head, particularly of the anterior superior portions, indicating a deficiency of the anterior lobes of the brain. According to Gall, whose observations on this subject are entitled to great consideration, its circumference, measured immediately over the orbiter arch, and the most prominent part of the occipital bone, is between 11• and 14• inches. Gall, sur les Fonctions, p. 329. In the intelligent adult, it usually measures from 21 to 22 inches. Chit. Med. Jur. 248. See, ou this subject, the learned work of Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia*, entitled Crania Americana. The brain of an idiot equals that of a new born infant; that is, about one-fourth, one-fifth, or one-sixth of the cerebral mass of an adult's in the enjoyment of his faculties. The above is the only constant character. observed in the heads of idiots. In other respects their forms are as various as those of other persons. When idiocy supervenes in early infancy, the head is sometime remarkable for immense size. This unnatural enlargement arises from some kind of morbid action preventing the development of the cerebral mass, and producing serous cysts, dropsical effusions, and the like.

3. In idiocy the features are irregular; the forehead low, retreating, and narrowed to a point; the eyes are unsteady, and often squint the lips are. thick, and the mouth is generally open; the gums are spongy, and the teeth are defective; the limbs are crooked and feeble. The senses are usually entirely wanting; many are deaf and dumb, or blind and others are incapable of perceiving odors, and show little or no discrimination in their food for want of taste. Their movements are constrained and awkward, they walk badly, and easily fall, and are not less awkward with their hands, dropping generally what is given to them. They are seldom able to articulate beyond a few sounds. They are generally affected with rickets, epilepsy, scrofula, or paralysis. Its subjects seldom live beyond the twenty-fifth year, and are incurable, as there is natural deformity which cannot be remedied. Vide Chit. Med. Jur. 345; Ray's Med. Jur. c. 2; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 571 Shelf. on Lun. Index, h. t.; and Idiot.

IDIOT, Persons. A person who has been without understanding from his nativity, and whom the law, therefore, presumes never likely to attain any. Shelf. on Lun. 2.

2. It is an imbecility or sterility of mind, and not a perversion of the understanding. Chit. Med. Jur. 345, 327, note s; 1 Russ. on Cr. 6; Bac. Ab. h. t. A; Bro. Ab. h. t.; Co. Litt. 246, 247; 3 Mod. 44; 1 Vern. 16; 4 Rep. 126; 1 Bl. Com. 302. When a man cannot count or number twenty, nor tell his father's or mother's name, nor how old he is, having been frequently told of it, it is a fair presumption that, he is devoid of understanding. F. N. B. 233. Vide 1 Dow, P. C. now series, 392; S. C. 3 Bligh, R. new series, 1. Persons born deaf, dumb, and blind, are, presumed to be idiots, for the senses being the only inlets of knowledge, and these, the most important of them, being closed, all ideas and associations belonging to them are totally excluded from their minds. Co. Litt. 42 Shelf. on Lun. 3. But this is a mere presumption, which, like most others, may be rebutted; and doubtless a person born deaf, dumb, and blind, who could be taught to read and write, would not be considered an idiot. A remarkable instance of such an one may be found in the person of Laura Bridgman, who has been taught how to converse and even to write. This young woman was, in the year 1848, at school at South Boston. Vide Locke on Human Understanding, B. 2 c. 11, 12, 13; Ayliffe's Pand. 234; 4 Com. Dig. 610; 8 Com. Dig. 644.

3. Idiots are incapable of committing crimes, or entering into contracts. They cannot of course make a will; but they may acquire property by descent. Vide, generally, 1 Dow's Parl. Cas. new series, 392; 3 Bligh's R. 1; 19 Ves. 286, 352, 353; Stock ou the Law of Non Compotes Mentis; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

IDIOTA INQUIRENDO, WRIT DE. This is the name of an old writ which directs the sheriff to inquire whether a man be an idiot or not. The inquisition is to be made by a jury of twelve men. Fitz. N. B. 232.

IDLENESS. The refusal or neglect to engage in any lawful employment, in order to gain a livelihood.

2. The vagrant act of 17 G. II. c. 5, which, with some modifications, has been adopted, in perhaps most of the states, describes idle persons to be those who, not having wherewith to maintain themselves, live idle, without employment, and refuse to work for the usual and common, wages. These are punishable according to the difrerent police regulations, with fine and imprisonment. In Pennsylvania, vagrancy is punished, on a conviction before a magistrate, with imprisonment for one mouth.

IGNIS JUDICIUM, Eng. law. The name of the old judicial trial by fire.

IGNOMINY. Public disgrace, infamy, reproach, dishonor. Ignominy is the opposite of esteem. Wolff, 145. See Infamy.

IGNORAMUS, practice. We are ignorant. This word, which in law means we are uninformed, is written on a bill by a grand jury, when they find that there is not sufficient evidence to authorize their finding it a true bill. Sometimes, instead of using this word, the grand jury endorse on the bill, "Not found." 4 Bl. Com. 305. Vide Grand Jury.

IGNORANCE. The want of knowledge.

2. Ignorance is distinguishable from error. Ignorance is want of knowledge; error is the non-conformity or opposition of our ideas to the truth. Considered as a motive of our actions, ignorance differs but little from error. They are generally found together, and what is said of one is said of both.

3. Ignorance and error, are of several kinds. 1. When considered as to their object, they are of law and of fact. 2. When examined as to their origin, they are voluntary or involuntary, 3. When viewed with regard to their influence on the affairs of men, they are essential or non-essential.

4. - 1. Ignorance of law and fact. 1. Ignorance of law, consists in the want of knowledge of those laws which it is our duty to understand, and which every man is presumed to know. The law forbids any one to marry a woman whose hushand is living. If any man, then, imagined he could marry such a woman, he would be ignorant of the law; and, if he married her, he would commit an error as to a matter of law. How far a party is bound to fulfil a promise to pay, upon a supposed liability, and in ignorance of the law, see 12 East, R. 38; 2 Jac. & Walk. 263; 5 Taunt. R. 143; 3 B. & Cresw. R. 280; 1 John. Ch. R. 512, 516; 6 John. Ch. R. 166; 9 Cowen's R. 674; 4 Mass. R. 342; 7 Mass. R. 452; 7 Mass. R. 488; 9 Pick. R. 112; 1 Binn. R. 27. And whether he can be relieved from a contract entered into in ignorance or mistake of the law. 1 Atk. 591; 1 Ves. & Bea. 23, 30; 1 Chan. Cas. 84; 2 Vern. 243; 1 John. Ch. R. 512; 2 John. Ch. R. 51; 1 Pet. S. C. R. 1; 6 John. Ch. R. 169, 170; 8 Wheat. R. 174; 2 Mason, R. 244, 342.

5. - 2. Ignorance of fact, is the want of knowledge as to the fact in question. It would be an error resulting from ignorance of a fact, if a man believed a certain woman to be unmarried and free, when in fact, she was a married woman; and were he to marry her under that belief, he would not be criminally responsible. Ignorance of the laws of a foreign government, or of another state; is ignorance of a fact. 9 Pick. 112. Vide, for the difference between ignorance of law and ignorance of fact, 9 Pick. R. 112; Clef. des Lois Rom. mot Fait; Dig. 22, 6, 7.

6. - 2. Ignorance is either voluntary or involuntary. 1. It is voluntary when a party might, by taking reasonable pains, have acquired the necessary knowledge. For example, every man might acquire a knowledge of the laws which have been promulgated, a neglect to become acquainted with them is therefore voluntary ignorance. Doct. & St. 1, 46; Plowd. 343.

7. - 2. Involuntary ignorance is that which does not proceed from choice, and which cannot be overcome by the use of any means of knowledge known to him and within his power; as, the ignorance of a law which has not yet been promulgated.

8. - 3. Ignorance is either essential or non-essential. 1. By essential ignorance is understood that which has for its object some essential circumstance so intimately connected with the: matter in question, and which so influences the parties that it induces them to act in the business. For example, if A should sell his horse to B, and at the time of the sale the horse was dead, unknown to the parties, the fact of the death would render the sale void. Poth. Vente, n. 3 and 4; 2 Kent, Com. 367.

9. - 2. Non-essential or accidental ignorance is that which has not of itself any necessary connexion with the business in question, and which is not the true consideration for enteting into the contract; as, if a man should marry a woman whom he believed to be rich, and she proved to be poor, this fact would not be essential, and the marriage would therefore be good. Vide, generally, Ed. Inj. 7; 1 Johns. h. R. 512; 2 Johns. Ch. R. 41; S. C. 14 Johns. R 501; Dougl. 467; 2 East, R. 469; 1 Campb. 134: 5 Taunt. 379; 3 M. & S. 378; 12 East, R. 38; 1 Vern. 243; 3 P. Wms. 127, n.; 1 Bro. C. C. 92; 10 Ves. 406; 2 Madd. R. 163; 1 V. & B. 80; 2 Atk. 112, 591; 3 P. Wms. 315; Mos. 364; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, c. 26, p. 92; Id. Dial. 2, ch. 46, p. 303; 2 East, R. 469; 12 East, R. 38; 1 Fonbl. Eq. B. 1, ch. 2, 7, note v; 8 Wheat. R. 174; S. C. 1 Pet. S. C. R. 1; 1 Chan. Cas. 84; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 137, note 1; Dig. 22, 6; Code, 1, 16; Clef des Lois Rom. h. t.; Merl. Rępert. h. t.; 3 Sav. Dr. Rom. Appendice viii., pp. 337 to 444.

ILL FAME. This is a technical expression, that which means not only bad character as generally understood, but every person, whatever may be his conduct and character in life, who visits bawdy houses, gaming houses, and other places which are of ill fame, is a person of ill fame. 1 Rogers' Recorder, 67; Ayl. Par. 276; 2 Hill, 558; 17 Pick. 80; 1 Hagg. Eccl. R. 720; 2 Hagg. Cons. R. 24; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 302, 303; 1 Hagg. Eccl. R. 767; 2 Greenl. Ev. 44.

ILLEGAL. Contrary to law; unlawful.

2. It is a general rule, that the law will never give its aid to a party who has entered into an illegal contract, whether the same be in direct violation of a statute, against public policy, or opposed to public morals. .Nor to a contract which is fraudulent, which affects the defendant or a third person.

3. A contract in violation of a statute is absolutely void, and, however disguised, it will be set aside, for no form of expression can remove the substantial defect inherent in the nature of the transaction; the courts will investigate the real object of the contracting parties, and if that be repugnant to the law, it will vitiate the transaction.

4. Contracts against the public policy of the law, are equally void as if they were in violation of a public statute; a contract not to marry any one, is therefore illegal and void. See Void.

5. A contract against the purity of manners is also illegal; as, for example, a agreement to cohabit unlawfully with another, is therefore void; but a bond given for past cohabitation, being considered as remuneration for past injury, is binding. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3853.

6. All contracts which have for their object, or which may in their consequences, be injurious to third persons, altogether unconnected with them, are in general illegal and void. Of the first, an example may be found in the case where a sheriff's officer received a sum of money from a defendant for admitting to bail, and agreed to pay the bail, part of the money which was so exacted. 2 Burr. 924. The case of a wager between two persons, as to the character of a third, is an example of the second class. Cowp. 729; 4 Camp. 152; 1 Rawle, 42; 1 B. & A. 683. Vide lllicit; Unlawful.

ILLEGITIMATE. That which is contrary to law; it is usually applied to children born out of lawful wedlock. A bastard is sometimes called an illegitimate child.

ILLEVIABLE. A debt or duty that cannot or ought not to be levied. Nihil set upon a debt is a mark for illeviable.

ILLICIT. What is unlawful what is forbidden by the law. Vide Unlawful.

2. This word is frequently used in policies of insurance, where the assured warrants against illicit trade. By illicit trade is understood that "which is made unlawful by the laws of the country to which the object is bound." The assured having entered into this warranty, is required to do no act which will expose the vessel to be legally condemned. 2 L. R. 337, 338. Vide Insurance; Trade; Warranty.

ILLICITE. Unlawfully.

2. This word has a technical meaning, and is requisite in an indictment where the act charged is unlawful; as, in the case of a riot. 2 Hawk. P. C. 25, 96.

ILLINOIS. The name of one of the United States of America. This state was admitted into the Union by virtue of a "Resolution declaring the admission of the state of Illinois into the Union," passed December 3, 1818, in the following words: Resolved, &c.;That, whereas, in pursuance of an Act of Congress, passed on the eighteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, entitled "An act to enable the people of the Illinois territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union, on an equal footing with the original states," the people of said territory did, on the twenty-sixth day of August, in the present year, by a convention called for that purpose, form for themselves a constitution and state government, which constitution and state government, so formed, is republican, and in conformity to the principles of the articles of compact between the original states and the people and States in the territory northwest of the river Ohio, passed on the thirteenth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven: Resolved, &c.;That the state of Illinois shall be one, and is hereby declared to be one, of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatever.

2. A constitution for this state, was adopted in convention held at Kaskaskia, on the 26th day of August, 1818, which continued in force until the first day of April; 1848. A convention to revise the constitution assembled at Springfield, June 7, 1847, in pursuance of an act of the general assembly of the state of Illinois, entitled "An act to provide for the call of a convention: On the first day of August, 1848, this convention adopted a constitution of the state of Illinois, and by the 13th section of the schedule thereof it provided that this constitution shall be the supreme law of the land from and after the first day of April, A. D. 1848.

3. It will be proper to consider, 1. The rights of citizens to vote at elections. 2. The distribution of the powers of government.

4. - 1. The sixth article directs that, 1. In all elections, every white male citizen above the age of twenty-one years, having resided in the state one year next preceding any election, shall be entitled to vote at such election; and every white male inhabitant of the age aforesaid, who may be a resident of the state' at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall have the right of voting as aforesaid; but no such citizen or inhabitant shall be entititled to vote, except in the district or county in which he Shall actually reside lit the time of such election.

2. All votes shall be given by ballot.

5. No elector loses his residence in the state by reason of his absence on business of the United States, or this state.

6. No soldier, seaman or mariner of the United States, is deemed a resident of the state, in consequence of being stationed within the state.

5. The second article distributes the powers of the government as follows:

1. The powers of the government of the state of Illinois shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: Those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

2. No person, or collection of persons, being one of these departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of, the others, except as hereinafter expressly directed or permitted; and all acts in contravention of this section shall be void. These will be separately considered.

6. The legislative department will be considered by taking a view, 1. Of those parts of the constitution which relate to the general assembly. 2. Of the senate. 3. Of the house of representatives.

7. - 1st. Of the general assembly. The third article of the constitution provides as follows

1. The legislative authority of this state shall be vested in a general assembly; which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives, both to be elected by the people.

2. The first election for senators and representatives shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight; and thereafter, elections for members of the general assembly shall be held once in two years, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, in each and every county, at such places therein as may be provided by law.

7. No person elected to the general sembly shall receive any civil appointment within this state, or to the senate of the United States, from the governor, the governor and senate, or from the general assembly, during the term for which he shall have been elected; and all such appointments, and all votes given for any such member for any such office or appointment, shall be void; nor shall any member of the general assembly be interested, either directly or indirectly, in any contract with the state, or any county thereof, authorized by any law passed during the time for which he shall have been elected, or during one year after the expiration thereof.

12. The senate and house of representatives, when assembled, shall each choose a speaker and other officers, (the speaker of the senate excepted.) Each house shall judge of the qualifications and election of its own members, and sit upon its own adjournments. Two-thirds of each house shall constitute a quorum but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members.

13. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish them. The yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, at the desire of any two of them, be entered on the journals.

14. Any two members of either house shall have liberty to dissent and protest against any act or resolution which they may think injurious to the public, or to any individual, and have the reasons of their dissent entered on the journals.

15. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members elected, expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause; and the reason for such expulsion shall be entered upon the journal, with the names of the members voting on the question.

16. When vacancies shall happen in either house, the govenor, or the person exercising the powers of governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

17. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of the general assembly, and in going to and returning from the same and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

18. Each house may punish, by imprisonment during its session, any person, not a member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house, by any disorderly or contemptuous behaviour in their presence: Provided, such imprisonment shall not, at any one time, exceed twenty-four hours.

19. The doors of each house, and of committees of the whole, shall be kept open, except in such cases as in the opinion of the house require secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

8. - 2d Of the senate. The senate will be considered by taking a view of, 1. The qualification of senators. 2. Their election. 3. By whom elected. 4. When elected. 5. Number of senators. 6. The duration of their office.

9. First. Art. 3, s. 4, of the Constitution, directs that "No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years; who shall not be a citizen of the United States, five years an inhabitant of this state, and one year in the county or district in which he shall be chosen, immediately preceding his election, if such county or district shall have been so long erected; but if not, then within the Iimits of the county or counties, district or districts, out of which the same shall have been taken unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this state, and shall not, moreover, have paid a state or county tax."

10. Secondly. The senators at their first session herein provided for, shall be divided by lot, as near as can be, into two classes. The seats of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, and those of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year; so that one-half thereof, as near as possible, may be biennially chosen forever thereafter. Art. 31 s. 5.

11. Thirdly. The senators are elected by the people.

12. Fourthly. The first election shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1848; and thereafter the elections shall be on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, once in two years. Art. 3, s. 2.

13. Fifthly. The senate shall consist of twenty-five members, and the house of representatives shall consist of seventy-five members, until the population of the state shall amount to one million. of souls, when five members may be added to the house, and five additional members for every five hundred thousand inhabitants thereafter, until the whole number of representatives shall amount to one hundred; after which, the number shall neither be increased nor diminished; to be apportioned among the several counties according to the number of white inhabitants. In all future apportionments, where more than one county shall be thrown into a representative district, all the representatives to which said counties may be entitled shall be elected by the entire district. Art. 3, s. 6.

14. Sixthly. The senators at their first session herein provided for shall be divided by lot, as near as can be, into two classes. The seats of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, and those of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, so that one-half thereof, as near as possible, may be biennially chosen forever thereafter. Art. 3, s. 5.

15. - 3. The house of representatives. This will be considered in the same order which has been observed in relation to the senate.

16. First. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years; who shall not be a citizen of the United States, and three years an inhabitant of this state; who shall not have resided within the limits of the county or district in which he shall be chosen twelve months next preceding his election, if such county or district shall have been so long erected; but if not, then within the limits of the county or counties, district or districts, out of which the same shall have been taken, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this state; and who, moreover, shall not have paid a state or county tax. Art. 3, s. 3.

17. Secondly. They are elected biennially.

18. Thirdly. Representatives are elected by the people.

19. Fourthly. Representatives are elected at the same time that senators are elected.

20. Fifthly. The house of representatives shall consist of seventy-five members. See ante, No. 16.

21. Sixthly. Their office continues for two years.

22. - 2. The executive department. The executive power is vested in a governor. Art. 4, s. 1. It will be proper to consider, 1. His qualifications. 2. His election: 3. The duration of his office. 4. His authority and duty.

23. First. No person except a citizen of the United States shall be eligible to the office of governor, nor shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been ten years a resident of this state; and fourteen years a citizen of the United States. Art. 4 s. 4.

24. Secondly. His election is to be on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November. The first election in 1848, and every fourth year afterwards.

25. Thirdly. He remains in office for four years. The first governor is to be installed on the first Monday of January, 1849, and the others every fourth; year thereafter.

26. Fourthly. His authority and duty. He may give information and recommend measures to the legislature, grant reprieves, commutations and pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment, but in these cases he may suspend execution of the sentence until the meeting of the legislature - require information from the officers of the executive department, and take care that the laws be faithfully executed - on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly by proclamation be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the state, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States - nominate, and, by and with the consent and advice of the senate, appoint all officers whose offices are established by the constitution, or which may be created by law, and whose appointments - are not otherwise provided for - in case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, adjourn the general assembly to such time as he thinks proper, provided it be not to a period beyond a constitutional meeting of the same. Art. 4. He has also the veto power.

27. A lieutenant governor shall be chosen at every election of governor, in the same manner, continue in office for the same time, and possess the same qualifications. In voting for governor and lieutenant governor, the electors shall distinguish whom they vote for as governor, and whom as lieutenant-governor. Art. 4, s. 14. The following are his principal powers and duties

15. The lieutenant governor shall, by virtue of his office, be speaker of the senate, have a right, when in committee of the whole, to debate and vote on all subjects, and, whenever the senate are equally divided, to give the casting vote.

16. Whenever the government shall be administered by the lieutenant- governor, or he shall be unable to attend as speaker of the senate, the senators shall elect one of their own, number as speaker for that occasion; and if, during the vacancy of the office of governor, the lieutenant governor shall be impeached, removed from his office, refuse to qualify, or resign, or die, or be absent from the state, the speaker of the senate shall, in like manner, administer the government.

17. The lieutenant governor, while he acts as speaker of the senate, shall receive for his service the same compensation which, shall, for the same period, be allowed to the speaker of the house of representatives, and no more.

18. If the lieutenant governor shall be called upon to administer the government, and shall, while in such administration, resign, die, or be absent from the state, during the recess of the general assembly, it shall be the duty of the secretary of state, for the time being, to convene the senate for the purpose of choosing a speaker.

19. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his absence from the, state, or inability to discharge the duties of his office, the powers, duties, and emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the lieutenant governor and in case of his death, resignation, or removal, then upon the speaker of the senate for the time being, until the governor, absent or impeached, shall return or be acquitted; or until the disqualification or inability shall cease; or until a new governor shall be elected and qualified.

20. In case of a vacancy in the office of governor, for any other cause than those herein enumerated, or in case of the death of the governor elect before he is qualified, the powers, duties, and emoluments of the office devolve upon the lieutenant governor, or speaker of the senate, as above provided, until a new governor be elected and qualified.

28. - 3. The judiciary department. The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in county courts, and in justices of the peace; but inferior local courts, of civil and criminal jurisdiction, may be established by the general assembly in the cities of the state but such courts shall have a uniform organization and jurisdiction in such cities. Art. 5, s. 1. These will be separately considered.

29. - 1st. Of the supreme court, its organization and jurisdiction. 1. Of its organization. 1st. The judges must be citizens of the United States; have resided in the state five years previous to their respective elections; and two years next preceding their election in the division, circuit, or county in which they shall respectively be elected; and not be less than thirty-five years of age at the time of their election. 2d. The judges are elected each one in a particular district, by the people. But the legislature may change the mode of election. 3d. The supreme court consists of a chief justice and three associates, any two of whom form a quorum; and a concurrence of two of said judges is necessary to a decision. 4th. They hold their office for nine years. After the first election, the judges are to draw by lot, and one is to go out of office in three, one in six, and the other in nine years. And one judge is to be elected every third year. 2. Of thejurisdiction of the supreme court. This court has original jurisdiction in cases relative to the, revenue, in cases of mandamus, habeas corpus, and in such cases of impeachment as may be by law directed to be tried before it, and it has appellate jurisdiction in all other cases.

30. - 2d. Of the circuit courts, their organization and jurisdiction. 1st. Of their organization. The state is divided into nine judicial districts, in each of which a circuit judge, having the same qualifications as the supreme judges, except that he may be appointed at the age of thirty years, is elected by the qualified electors, who holds his office for six years and until his successor shall be commissioned and qualified; but the legislature may increase the number of circuits. 2d. Of their jurisdiction. The circuit courts have jurisdiction in all cases at law and equity, and in all cases of appeals from all inferior courts.

31. - 3d. Of the county courts. There is in each county a court to be called a county court. It is composed of one judge, elected by the people, who holds his office for four years. Its jurisdiction extends to all probate and such other jurisdiction as the general assembly may confer in civil cases, and in such criminal eases as may be prescribed by law, when the punishment is by fine only, not exeeeding one hundred dollars. The county judge, with such justices of the peace in each county as may be designated by law, shall hold terms for the transaction of county business, and shall perform such other duties as the general assembly shall prescribe; Provided, the general assembly may require that two justices, to be chosen by the qualified electors of each county, shall sit with the county judge in all cases; and there shall be elected, quadrennially, in each county, a clerk of the county court, who shall be ex officio recorder, whose compensation shall be fees; Provided, the general assembly may, by law, make the clerk of the circuit court ex officio recorder, in lieu of the county clerk.

32. - 4th. Of justices of the peace. There shall be elected in each county in this state, in such districts as the general assembly may direct, by the qualified electors thereof, a competent number of justices of the peace, who shall hold their offices for the term of four years, and until their successors shall have been elected and qualified, and who shall perform such duties, receive such compensation, and exercise such jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law.

ILLITERATE. This term is applied to one unacquainted with letters.

2. When an ignorant man, unable to read, signs a deed or agreement, or makes his mark instead of a signature, and he alleges, and can provide that it was falsely read to him, he is not bound by it, in consequence of the fraud. And the same effect would result, if the deed or agreement were falsely read to a blind man, who could have read before he lost his sight, or to a foreigner who did not understand the language. For a plea of "laymen and unlettered," see Bauer v. Roth, 4 Rawle, Rep. 85 and pp. 94, 95.

3. To induce an illiterate man, by false representations and false reading, to sign a note for a greater amount than that agreed on, is indictable as a cheat. 1 Yerg. 76. Vide, generally, 2 Nels. Ab. 946; 2 Co. 3; 11 Co. 28; Moor, 148.

ILLUSION. A species of mania in which the sensibility of the nervous system is altered, excited, weakened or perverted. The patient is deceived by the false appearance of things, and his reason is not sufficiently active and powerful to correct the error, and this last particular is what distinguishes the sane from the insane. Illusions are not unfrequent in a state of health, but reason corrects the errors and dissipates them. A square tower seen from a distance may appear round, but on approaching it, the error is corrected. A distant mountain may be taken for a cloud, but as we approach, we discover the truth. To a person in the cabin of a vessel under sail, the shore appears to move; but reflection and a closer examination soon destroy this illusion. An insane individual is mistaken on the qualities, connexions, and causes of the impressions he actually receives, and he forms wrong judgments as to his internal and external sensations; and his reason does not correct the error. 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 538; Esquirol, Maladies Mentales, pręm. partie, III., tome 1, p. 202. Dict. des Sciences Mędicales, Hallucination, tome 20, p. 64. See Hallucination.

ILLUSORY APPOINTMENT, chancery practice. Such an appointment or disposition of property under a power as is merely nominal and not substantial.

2. Illusory appointments are void in equity. Sugd. Pow. 489; 1 Vern. 67; 1 T. R. 438, note; 4 Ves. 785; 16 Ves. 26; 1 Taunt. 289; and the article Appointment.

TO IMAGINE, Eng. law. In cases of treason the law makes it a crime to imagine the death of the king. In order to complete the offence there must, however, be an overt act the terms compassing and imagining being synonymous. It. has been justly remarked that the words to compass and imagine are too vague for a statute whose penalty affects the life of a subject. Barr. on the Stat. 243, 4. Vide Fiction.

IMBECILITY, med. jur. A weakness of the mind, caused by the absence or obliteration of natural or acquired ideas; or it is described to be an abnormal deficiency either in those faculties which acquaint us with the qualities and ordinary relations of things, or in those which furnish us with the moral motives that regulate our relations and conduct towards our fellow men. It is frequently attended with excessive activity. of one or more of the animal propensities.

2. Imbecility differs from idiocy in this, that the subjects of the former possess some intellectual capacity, though inferior in degree to that possessed by the great mass of mankind; while those of the latter are utterly destitute of reason. Imbecility differs also from stupidity. (q. v.) The former consists in a defect of the mind, which renders it unable to examine the data presented to it by the senses, and therefrom to deduce the correct judgment; that is, a defect of intensity, or reflective power. The latter is occasioned by a want of intensity, or perceptive power.

3. There are various degrees of this disease. It has been attempted to classify the degrees of imbecility, but the careful observer of nature will perhaps be soon satisfied that the shades of difference between one species and another, are almost imperceptible. Ray, Med. Jur. ch. 3; 2 Beck, Med. Jur. 550, 542; 1 Hagg. Ecc. R. 384; 2 Philm. R. 449; 1 Litt. R. 252, 5 John. Ch. R. 161; 1 Litt. R. 101; Des Maladies mentales, consideręes dans leurs rapports avec la legislation civille et criminelle, 8; Georget, Discussion medico-lęgale sur la folie, 140.

IMMATERIAL. What is not essential; unimportant what is not requisite; what is informal; as, an immaterial averment, an immaterial issue.

2. When a witness deposes to something immaterial, which is false, although he is guilty of perjury in foro conscientiae, he cannot be punished for perjury. 2 Russ. on Cr. 521; 1 Hawk. b. 1, c. 69, s. 8; Bac. Ab. Perjury, A.

IMMATERIAL AVERMENT. One alleging with needless particularity or unnecessary circumstances, what is material and requisite, and which, properly, might have been stated more generally, or without such circumstances or particulars; or, in other words, it, is a statement of unnecessary particulars, in connexion with, and as descriptive of, what is material. Gould on Pl. c. 3, 186.

2. It is highly improper to introduce immaterial averments, because, when they are made, they must be proved; as, if, a plaintiff declare for rent on a demise which is described as reserving a certain annual rent, payable "by four even and equal quarterly payments," &c.; and on the trial it appears that there was no stipulation with regard to the time or times of payment of the rents, the plaintiff cannot recover. The averment as to the time, though it need not have been made, yet it must be proved, and the plaintiff having failed in this, he cannot recover; as there is a variance between the contract declared upon and the contract proved. Dougl. 665.

3. But when the immaterial averment is such that it may be struck out of the declaration, without striking out at the same time the cause of action, and when there is no variance between the contract as, laid in the declaration and that proved, immaterial averments then need not be proved. Gould on Pl. C. 3, 188.

lMMATERIAL ISSUE. One taken on a point not proper to decide the action; for example, if in an action of debt on bond, conditioned for the payment of ten dollars and fifty cents at a certain day, the defend ant pleads the payment of ten dollars according to the form of the condition, and the plaintiff, instead of demurring, tenders issue upon the payment, it is manifest that, whether this issue be found for the plaintiff or the defendant, it will remain equally uncertain whether the plaintiff is entitled to maintain his action, or not; for, in an action for the penalty of a bond, conditioned to pay a certain sum, the only material question is, whether the exact sum were paid or not, and the question of payment of a part is a question quite beside the legal merits. Hob. 113; 5 Taunt. 386.

IMMEDIATE. That which is produced directly by the act to which it is ascribed, without the intervention or agency of any distinct intermediate cause.

2. For immediate injuries the remedy is trespass; for those which are consequential, an action on the case. 11 Mass. R. 59, 137, 525; 1 & 2 Ohio R. 342; 6 S. & R. 348; 18 John. 257; 19 John. 381; 2 H. & M. 423; 1 Yeates, R. 586; 12 S & R. 210; Coxe, R. 339; Harper's R. 113; 6 Call's R . 44; 1 Marsh. R. 194.

3. When an immediate injury is caused by negligence, the injured party may elect to regard the negligence as the immediate cause of action, and declare in case; or to consider the act itself as the immediate injury, and sue in trespass. 14 John. 432; 6 Cowen, 342; 3 N. H. Rep. 465; sed vide 3 Conn. 64; 2 Bos. & Pull. New Rep. by Day, 448, note. See Cause.

IMMEMORIAL. That which commences beyond the time of memory. Vide Memory, time of. IMMEMORIAL POSSESSION. In Louisiana, by this term is understood that of which no man living has seen the beginning, and the existence of which he has learned from his elders. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 762; 2 M. R. 214; 7 L. R. 46; 3 Toull. p. 410; Poth. Contr. de Societę, n. 244; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3069, note.

IMMIGRATION. The removing into one place from another. It differs from emigration, which is the moving from one place into another. Vide Emigration.

IMMORAL CONSIDERATION. One contrary to good morals, and therefore invalid. See Moral obligation.

IMMORALITY. that which is contra bonos mores. In England, it is not punishable in some cases, at the common law, on, account of the ecclesiastical jurisdictions: e. g. adultery. But except in cases belonging to the ecclesiastical courts, the court of king's bench is the custom morum, and may punish delicto contra bonos mores. 3 Burr. Rep. 1438; 1 Bl. Rep. 94; 2 Strange, 788. In Pennsylvania, and most, if not all the United States, all such cases come under one and the same jurisdiction.

2. Immoral contracts are generally void; an agreement in consideration of future illicit cohabitation between the parties; 3 Burr. 1568; S. C. 1 Bl. Rep. 517; 1 Esp. R. 13; 1 B. & P. 340, 341; an agreement for the value of libelous and immoral pictures, 4 Esp. R. 97; or for printing a libel, 2 Stark. R. 107; or for an immoral wager, Chit. Contr. 156, cannot, therefore, be enforced. For whatever arises from an immoral or illegal consideration, is void: quid turpi ex causa promissum est non valet. Inst. 3, 20, 24.

3. It is a general rule, that whenever an agreement appears to be illegal, immoral, or against public policy, a court of justice leaves the parties where it finds them; when the agreement has been executed, the court will not rescind it; when executory, the count will not help the execution. 4 Ohio R. 419; 4 John. R. 419; 11 John. R. 388; 12 John. R. 306; 19 John. R. 341; 3 Cowen's R. 213; 2 Wils. R. 341.

IMMOVABLES, civil law. Things are movable or immovable. Immovables, res immobiles, are things in general, such as cannot move themselves or be removed from one place to another. But this definition, strictly speaking, is applicable only to such things as are immovable by their own nature, and not to such as are so only by the destination of the law.

>2. There are things immovable by their nature, others by their destination, and others by the objects to which they are applied.

3. - 1. Lands and buildings or other constructions, whether they have their foundations in the soil or not, are immovable by their nature. By the common law, buildings erected on the land are not considered real estate, unless they have been let into, or united to the land, or to substances previously connected therewith. Ferard on Fixt. 2.

4. - 2. Things, which the owner of the land has placed upon it for its service and improvement, are immovables by destination, as seeds, plants, fodder, manure, pigeons in a pigeon-house, bee-hives, and the like. By the common. law, erections with or without a foundation, when made for the purpose of trade, are considered personal estate. 2 Pet. S. C. Rep. 137; 3 Atk. 13; Ambl. 113

5. - 3. A servitude established on real estate, is an instance of an immovable, which is so considered in consequence of the object to which it is applied. Vide Civil Code of Louis. B. 2, t. 1, c. 2, art. 453-463; Poth. Des Choses, 1; Poth. de la Communante, n. 25, et seq; Clef des Lois Romaines, mot Immeubles.

IMMUNITY. An exemption from serving in an office, or performing duties which the law generally requires other citizens to perform. Vide Dig. lib. 50, t. 6; 1 Chit. Cr. L. 821; 4 Har. & M'Hen. 341.

IMMUTABLE. What cannot be removed, what is unchangeable. The laws of God being perfect, are immutable, but no human law can be so considered.

IMPAIRING THE OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS. The Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 9, cl. 1, declares that no state shall "pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts."

2. Contracts, when considered in relation to their effects, are executed, that is, by transfer of the possession of the thing contracted for; or they are executory, which gives only a right of action for the subject of the contract. Contracts are also express or implied. The constitution makes no distinction between one class of contracts and the other. 6 Cranch, 135; 7 Cranch, 164. 3. The obligation of a contract here spoken of is a legal, not a mere moral obligation; it is the law which binds the party to perform his undertaking. The obligation does not inhere or subsist in the contract itself, proprio vigore, but in the law appli- cable to the contract. 4 Wheat. R. 197; 12 Wheat. R. 318; and. this law is not the universal law of nations, but it is the law of the state where the contract is made. 12 Wheat. R. 213. Any law which enlarges, abridges, or in any manner changes the intention of the parties, resulting from the stipulations in the contract, necessarily impairs it. 12 Wheat. 256; Id. 327; 3 Wash. C. C. Rep. 319; 8 Wheat. 84; 4 Wheat. 197.

4. The constitution forbids the states to pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts, but there is nothing in that instrument which prohibits Congress from passing such a law. Pet. C. C. R. 322. Vide, generally, Story on the Const. 1368 to 1891 Serg. Const. Law, 356; Rawle on the Const. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 10 Am. Jur. 273-297.

TO IMPANEL, practice. The writing the names of a jury on a schedule, by the sheriff or other officer lawfully authorized.

IMPARLANCE, pleading and practice. Imparlance, from the French, parler, to speak, or licentia loquendi, in its most general signification, means time given by the court to either party to answer the pleading of his opponent, as either, to plead, reply, rejoin, &c., and is said to be nothing else but the continuance of the cause till a further day. Bac. Abr. Pleas, C. But the more common signification of the term is time to plead. 2 Saund. 1, n. 2; 2 Show. 3 10; Barnes, 346; Lawes, Civ. Pl. 93, 94.

2. Imparlances are of three descriptions: First. A common or general imparlance. Secondly. A special imparlance. Thirdly. A general special imparlance.

3. - 1. A general imparlance is the entry of a general prayer. and allowance of time to plead till the next term, without reserving to the defendant the benefit of any exception; so that, after such an imparlance, the defendant cannot object to the jurisdiction of the court, or plead any matter in abatement. This kind of imparlance is always from one term to another.

4.-2. A special imparlance reserves to the defendant all exception to the writ, bill, or count; and, therefore, after it, the defendant may plead in abatement, though not to the jurisdiction of the court.

5. - 3. A general special imparlance contains a saving of all exceptions whatsoever, so that the defendant, after this, may plead, not only in abatement, but he may also plead a plea which affects the jurisdiction of the court, as privilege. He cannot, however, plead a tender, and that he was always ready to pay, because, by craving time, he admits he is not ready, and so falsifies his plea. Tidd's Pr. 418, 419. The last two kinds of imparlances are, it seems, sometimes from one day to another in the same term. See, in general, Com. Dig Abatement, I 19, 20, 21; 1 Chit. Pl. 420; Bac. Abr. Pleas, C; 14 Vin. Abr. 335; Com. Dig. Pleader, D; 1 Sell. Pr. 265; Doct. Pl. 291; Encycl. de M. D'Alembert, art. Delai (Jurisp.)

IMPEACHMENT, const. law, punishments. Under the constitution and laws of the United States, an impeachment may be described to be a written accusation, by the house of representatives of the United States, to the senate of the United States, against an officer. The presentment, written accusation, is called articles of impeachment.

2. The constitution declares that the house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment art. 1, s. 2, cl. 5 and that the senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. Art. 1, s. 3, cl. 6.

3. The persons liable to impeachment are the president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States. Art. 2, s. 4. A question arose upon an impeachment before the senate, in 1799, whether a senator was a civil officer of the United States, within the purview of this section of the constitution, and it was decided by the senate, by a vote of fourteen against eleven, that he was not. Senate Journ., January 10th, 1799; Story on Const. 791; Rawle on Const. 213, 214 Serg. Const. Law, 376.

4. The offences for which a guilty officer may be impeached are, treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors. Art. 2, s. 4. The constitution defines the crime of treason. Art. 3, s. 3. Recourse must be had to the common law for a definition of bribery. Not having particularly mentioned what is to be understood by "other high crimes and misdemeanors," resort, it is presumed, must be had to parliamentary practice, and the common law, in order to ascertain what they are. Story, 795.

5. The mode of proceeding, in the institution and trial of impeachments, is as follows: When a person who may be legally impeached has been guilty, or is supposed to have been guilty, of some malversation in office, a resolution is generally brought forward by a member of the house of representatives, either to accuse the party, or for a committee of inquiry. If the committee report adversely to the party accused, they give a statement of the charges, and recommend that he be impeached; when the resolution is adopted by the house, a committee is appointed to impeach the party at the bar of the senate, and to state that the articles of impeachment against him will be exhibited in due time, and made good before the senate, and to demand that the senate take order for the appearance of the party to answer to the impeachment. The house then agree upon the articles of impeachment, and they are presented to the senate by a committee appointed by the house to prosecute the impeachment; the senate then issues process, summoning the party to appear at a given day before them, to answer to the articles. The process is served by the sergeant-at-arms of the senate, and a return is made of it to the senate, under oath. On the return-day of the process, the senate resolves itself into a court of impeacmment, and the senators are sworn to do justice, according to the constitution and laws. The person impeached is called to answer, and either appears or does not appear. If he does not appear, his default is recorded, and the senate may proceed ex parte. If he does appear, either by himself or attorney, the parties are required to form an issue, and a time is then assigned for the trial. The proceedings on the trial are conducted substantially as they are upon common judicial trials. If any debates arise among the senators, they are conducted in secret, and the final decision is given by yeas and nays; but no person can be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Const. art. 1, s. 2, cl. 6.

6. When the president is tried, the chief justice shall preside. The judgment, in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States. Proceedings on impeachments under the state constitutions are somewhat similar. Vide Courts of the United States.

IMPEACHMENT, evidence. An allegation, supported by proof, that a witness who has been examined is unworthy of credit.

2. Every witness is liable to be impeached as to his character for truth; and, if his general character is good, he is presumed, at all times, to be ready to support it. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3224, et seq.

IMPEACHMENT OF WASTE. It signifies a restraint from committing waste upon lands or tenements; or a demand of compensation for waste done by a tenant who has but a particular estate in the land granted, and, therefore, no right to commit waste.

2. All tenants for life, or any less estate, are liable to be impeached for waste, unless they hold without impeachment of waste; in the latter case, they may commit waste without being questioned, or any demand for compensation for the waste done. 11 Co. 82.

IMPEDIMENTS, contracts. Legal objections to the making of a contract. Impediments which relate to the person are those of minority, want of reason, coverture, and the like; they are sometimes called disabilities. Vide Incapacity.

2. In the civil law, this term is used to signify bars to a marriage. These impediments are classed, as they are applied to particular persons, into absolute and relative; as they relate to the contract and its validity, they are dirimant (q. v.) and prohibitive. (q. v.) 1. The absolute impediments are those which prevent the person subject to them from marrying at, all, without either the nullity of marriage, or, its being punishable. 2. The relative impediments are those which regard only certain persons with regard to each other; as, the marriage of a brother to a sister. 3. The dirimant impediments are those which render a marriage void; as, where one of the contracting parties is already married to another person. 4. Prohibitive impediments are those which do not render the marriage null, but subject the parties to a punishment. Bowy. Mod. Civ. Law, 44, 45.

IMPERFECT. That which is incomplete.

2. This term is applied to rights and obligations. A man has a right to be relieved by his fellow-creatures, when in distress; but this right he cannot enforce by law; hence it is called an imperfect right. On the other hand, we are bound to be grateful for favors received, but we cannot be compelled to perform such imperfect obligations. Vide Poth. Ob. arc. Pręliminaire; Vattel, Dr. des Gens, Prel. notes, 17; and Obligations.

IMPERIUM. The right to command, which includes the right to employ the force of the state to enforce the laws; this is one of the principal attributes of the power of the executive. 1 Toull. n. 58.

IMPERTINENT, practice, pleading. What does not appertain, or belong to; id est, qui ad rem non pertinet.

2. Evidence of facts which do not belong to the matter in question, is impertinent and inadmissible. In general, what is immaterial is impertinent, and what is material is, in general, not impertinent. 1 McC. & Y. 337. See Gresl. Ev. Ch. 3, s. 1, p. 229. Impertinent matter, in a declaration or other pleading is that which does not belong to the subject; in such case it is considered as mere surplusage, (q. v.) and is rejected. Ham. N. P. 25. Vide 2 Ves. 24; 5 Madd. R. 450; Newl. Pr. 38; 2 Ves. 631; 5 Ves. 656; 18 Eng. Com. Law R. 201; Eden on Inj. 71.

3. There is a difference between matter merely impertinent and that which is scandalous; matter may be impertinent, without being scandalous; but if it is scandalous, it must be impertinent.

4. In equity a bill cannot, according to the general practice, be referred for impertinence after the defendant has answered or submitted to answer, but it may be referred for scandal at any time, and even upon the application of a stranger to the suit. Coop. Eq. Pl. 19; 2 Ves. 631; 6 Ves. 514; Story, Eq. Pl. 270. Vide Gresl. Eq. Ev. p. 2, c. 3, s, 1; 1 John. Ch. R. 103; 1 Paige's R. 555; I Edw. R. 350; 11 Price, R. 111; 5 Paige's R. 522; 1 Russ. & My. 28; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Scandal.

IMPETRATION. The obtaining anything by prayer or petition. In the ancient English statutes, it signifies a pre-obtaining of church benefices in England from the church of Rome, which belonged to the gift of the king, or other lay patrons. TO IMPLEAD, practice. To sue or prosecute by due course of law. 9 Watts, 47.

IMPLEMENTS. Such things as are used or employed for a trade, or furniture of a house.

IMIPLICATA, mar. law. In order to avoid the risk of making fruitless voyages, merchants have been in the habit of receiving small adventures on freight at so much per cent, to which they are entitled at all events, even if the adventure be lost. This is what the Italians call implicata. Targa, chap. 34 Emer. Mar. Loans, s. 5.

IMPLICATION. An inference of something not directly declared, but arising from what is admitted or expressed.

2. It is a rule that when the law gives anything to a man, it gives him by implication all that is necessary for its enjoyment. It is also a rule that when a man accepts an office, he undertakes by implication to use it according to law, and by non-user he may forfeit it. 2 B1. Com. 152.

3. An estate in fee simple will pass by implication; 6 John.. R. 185; IS John. R. 31; 2 Binn. R. 464, 532; such implication must not only be a possible or probable one, but it must be plain and necessary that is, so strong a probability of intention that an intention contrary to that imputed to the testator cannot be supposed. 1 Ves. & B. 466; Willes, 141; 1 Ves. jr. 564; 14 John. R. 198. Vide, generally, Com. Dig. Estates by Devise, N 12, 13; 2 Rop. Leg. 342; 14 Vin. Ab. 341; 5 Ves. 805; 5 Ves. 582; 3 Ves. 676.

IMPORTATION, comm. law. The act of bringing goods and merchandise into the United States from a foreign country. 9 Cranch, 104, 120; 5 Cranch, 368; 2 Mann. & Gr. 155, note a.

2. To prevent the mischievous interference of the several states with the national commerce, the constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 10, provides as follows: "No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the congress."

3. This apparently plain provision has received a judicial construction. In the year 1821, the legislature of Maryland passed an act requiring that all importers of foreign articles, commodities, &c., by the bale or package, of wine, rum, &c., and other persons selling the same by wholesale, bale or package, hogshead, barrel or tierce, should, before they were authorized to sell, take out a license for which they were to pay fifty dollars, under certain penalties. A question arose whether this act was or was not a violation of the constitution of the United States, and particularly of the above clause, and the supreme court decided against the constitutionality of the law. 12 Wheat. 419.

4. The act of congress of March 1, 1817, 3 Story, L. U. S. 1622, provides:

5. - 1. That, after the 30th day of September next, no goods, wares, or merchandise, shall be imported into the United States from any foreign port or place, except in vessels of the United States, or in such foreign vessels as truly or wholly belong to the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth, production or manufacture; or from which such goods, wares or merchandise, can only be or most usually are, first shipped for transportation: Provided, nevertheless, That this regulation shall not extend to the vessels of any foreign nation which has not adopted, and which shall not adopt a similar regulation.

6. - 2. That all goods, wares or merchandise, imported into the United States contrary to the true intent and meaning of this act, and the ship or vessel wherein the same shall be imported, together with her cargo, tackle, apparel, and furniture, shall be forfeited to the United States and such goods, wares, or merchandise, ship, or vessel, and cargo, shall be liable to be seized, prosecuted, and condemned, in like manner, and under the same regulations, restrictions, and provisions, as have been heretofore established for the recovery, collection, distribution, and remission, of forfeitures to the United States by the several revenue laws.

7. - 4. That no goods, wares, or merchandise, shall, be imported, under penalty of forfeiture thereof, from one port of the United States to another port of the United States, in a vessel belonging wholly or in part to a subject of any foreign power; but this clause shall not be construed to prohibit the sailing of any foreign vessel from one to another port of the United States, provided no goods, wares, or mere other than those imported in such vessel from some foreign port, and which shall not have been unladen, shall be carried from one port or place to another in the United States.

8. - 6. That after the 30th day of September next, there shall be paid upon every ship or vessel of the United States, which shall be entered in the United States from any foreign port or place, unless the officers, and at least two-thirds of the crew thereof, shall be proved citizens of the United States, or persons not the Subjects of any foreign prince or state, to the satisfaction of the collector, fifty cents per ton: And provided also, that this section shall not extend to ships or vessels of the United States, which are now on foreign voyages, or which may depart from the United States prior to the first day of May next, until after their return to some port of the United States.

9.- 7. That the several bounties and remissions, or abatements of duty, allowed by this act, in the case of vessels having a certain proportion of seamen who are American citizens, or persons not the subjects of any foreign power, shall be allowed only, in the case of vessels having such proportion of American seamen during their whole voyage, unless in case of sickness, death or desertion, or where the whole or part of the crew shall have been taken prisoners in the voyage. Vide article Entry of goods at the Custom-house.

IMPORTS. Importations; as no state shall lay any duties on imports or exports. Const. U. S. Art. 1, s. 10; 7 How. U. S. Rep. 477.

IMPORTUNITY. Urgent solicitation, with troublesome frequency and pertinacity.

2. Wills and devises are sometimes set aside in consequence of the importunity of those who have procured them. Whenever the importunity is such as to deprive the devisor of the freedom, of his will, the devise becomes fraudulent and void. Dane's Ab. ch. 127, a. 14, s. 5, 6, 7; 2 Phillim. R. 551, 2.

IMPOSITIONS. Imposts, taxes, or contributions.

IMPOSSIBILITY. The character of that which. cannot be done agreeably to the accustomed order of nature.

2. It is a maxim that no one is bound to perform an impossibility. A l'impossible nul n'est tenu. 1 Swift's Dig. 93; 6 Toull. n. 121, 481.

3. As to impossible conditions in contracts, see Bac. Ab. Conditions, M; Co. Litt. 206; Roll. Ab. 420; 6 Toull. n. 486, 686; Dig. 2, 14, 39; Id. 44, 7, 31; Id. 50, 17, 185; Id. 45, 1, 69. On the subject of impossible conditions in wills, vide 1 Rop. Leg. 505; Swinb. pt. 4, s. 6; 6 Toull. 614. Vide, generally, Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Clef des Lois Rom. par Fieffę Lacroix, h. t.; Com. Dig. Conditions, D 1 & 2; Vin. Ab. Conditions, C a, D a, E a.

IMPOSTS. This word is sometimes used to signify taxes, or duties, or impositions; and, sometimes, in the more restrained sense of a duty on imported goods and merchandise . The Federalist, No. 30; 3 Elliott's Debates, 289; Story, Const. 949.

>2. The Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 8, n. 1, gives power to congress "to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises." And art. 1, s. 10, n. 2, directs that "no state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any imposts, or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws." See Bac. Ab. Smuggling, B; 2 Inst. 62; Dy. 165 n.; Sir John Davis on Imposition.

IMPOTENCE, med. jur. The incapacity for copulation or propagating the species. It has also been used synonymously with sterility.

2. Impotence may be considered as incurable, ourable, accidental or temporary. Absolute or incurable impotence, is that for which there is no known relief, principally originating in some malformation or defect of the genital organs. Where this defect existed at the time of the marriage, and was incurable, by the ecclesiastical law and the law of several of the American states, the marriage may be declared void ab initio. Com. Dig. Baron and Feme, C 3; Bac. Ab. Marriage, &c., E 3; 1 Bl. Com. 440; Beck's Med. Jur. 67; Code, lib. 5, t. 17, l. 10; Poynt. on Marr. and Div. ch. 8; 5 Paige, 554; Merl. Ręp. mot Impuissance. But it seems the party naturally impotent cannot allege that fact for the purpose of obtaining a divorce. 3 Phillim. R. 147; S. C. 1 Eng. Eccl. R. 384. See 3 Phillim. R. 325; S. C. 1 Eng. Eccl. R. 408; 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 877; 1 Par. & Fonbl. 172, 173. note d; Ryan's Med. Jur. 95. to 111; 1 Bl. Com. 440; 2 Phillm. R. 10; 1 Hagg. R. 725. See, as to the signs of impotence, 1 Briand, Męd. Lęg. c. 2, art. 2, 2, n. 1; Dictionnaire des Sciences Mędicales, art. Impuissance; and, generally, Trebuchet, Jur. de la. Med. 100, 101, 102; 1 State Tr. 315; 8 State Tr. App. No. 1, p. 23; 3 Phillm. R. 147; 1 Hagg. Eccl. R. 523; Foderę, Męd. Lęg. 237.

IMPRESCRIPTIBILITY. The state of being incapable of prescription.

2. A property which is held in trust is imprescriptible; that is the trustee cannot acquire a title to it by prescription; nor can the borrower of a thing get a right to it by any lapse of time, unless he claims an adverse right to it during the time required by law.

IMPRIMATUR. A license or allowance to one to print.

2. At one time, before a book could be printed in England, it was requisite that a permission should be obtained that permission was called an imprimatur. In some countries where the press is liable to censure, an imprimatur is required.

IMPRIMERY. In some of the ancient English statutes this word is used to signify a printing-office, the art of printing, a print or impression.

IMPRIMIS. In the first place; as, imprimis, I direct my just debts to be paid. See Item.

IMPRISONMENT. The restraint of a person contrary to his will. 2 Inst. 589; Baldw. Rep. 239, 600. Imprisonment is either lawful or unlawful; lawful imprisonment is used either for crimes or for the appearance of a party in a civil suit, or on arrest in execution.

2. Imprisonment for crimes is either for the appearance of a person accused, as when he cannot give bail; or it is the effect of a sentence, and then it is a part of the punishnient.

3. Imprisonment in civil cases takes place when a defendant on being sued on bailable process refuses or cannot give the bail legally demanded, or is under a capias ad satisfaciendum, when he is taken in execution under a judgment. An unlawful imprisonment, commonly called false imprisonment, (q. v.) meaus any illegal imprisonment whatever, either with or without process, or under color of process wholly illegal, without regard to any question whether any crime has been committed or a debt due.

4. As to what will amount to an imprisonment, the most obvious modes are confinement in a prison or a private house, but a forcible detention in the street, or the touching of a person by a peace officer by way of arrest, are also imprisonments. Bac. Ab. Trespass, D 3; 1 Esp. R. 431, 526. It has been decided that lifting up a person in his chair, and carrying him out of the room in which he was sitting with others, and excluding him from the room, was not an imprisonment; 1 Chit. Pr. 48; and the merely giving charge of a person to a peace officer, not followed by any actual apprehension of the person, does not amount to an imprisonment, though the party to avoid it, next day attend at a police; 1 Esp. R. 431; New Rep. 211; 1 Carr. & Pavn. 153; S. C. II Eng. Com. Law, R. 351; and if, in consequence of a message from a sheriff's officer holding a writ, the defendant execute and send him a bail bond, such submission to the process will not constitute an arrest. 6 Bar. & Cres. 528; S. C. 13 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 245; Dowl. & R. 233. Vide, generally, 14 Vin. Ab. 342; 4 Com. Dig. 618; 1 Chit. Pr. 47; Merl. Rępert. mot Emprisonment; 17 Eng. Com. L. R. 246, n.

IMPROBATION. The act by which perjury or falsehood is proved. Techn. Dict. h. t.

IMPROPRIATION, eccl. law. The act, of employing the revenues of a church living to one's own use; it is also a parsonage or ecclesiastical living in the hands of a layman, or which descends by inheritance. Techn. Dict. h. t.

IMPROVEMENT, estates. This term is of doubtful meaning It would seem to apply principally to buildings, though generally it extends to amelioration of every description of property, whether real or personal; it is generally explained by other words.

2. Where, by the terms of a lease, the covenant was to 1eave at the end of the term a water-mill with all the fixtures, fastenings, and improvements, during the demise fixed, fastened, or set up on or upon the premises, in good plight and condition, it was held to include a pair of new millstones set up by the lessee during the term, although the custom of the country in general authorized the tenant to remove them. 9 Bing. 24; 3 Sim. 450; 2 Ves. & Bea. 349. Vide 3 Yeates, 71; Addis. R. 335; 4 Binn. R. 418; 5 Binn. R. 77; 5 S. & R. 266; 1 Binn. R. 495; 1 John. Ch. R. 450; 15 Pick. R. 471. Vide Profits. 2 Man. & Gra. 729, 757; S. C. 40 Eng. C. L. R. 598, 612.

3. Tenants in common are not bound to pay for permanent improvements, made on the common property, by one of the tenants in common without their consent. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1881.

IMPROVEMENT, rights. An addition of some useful thing to a machine, manufacture or composition of matter.

2. The patent law of July 4, 1836, authorizes the granting of a patent for any new and useful improvement on any art, machine manufacture or composition of matter. Sect. 6. It is often very difficult to say what is a new and useful improvement, the cases often approach very near to each other. In the present improved state of machinery, it is almost impracticable not to employ the same elements of motion, and in some particulars, the same manner of operation, to produce any new effect. 1 Gallis. 478; 2 Gallis. 51. See 4 B. & Ald. 540; 2 Kent, Com. 370.

IMPUBER, civil law. One who is more than seven years old, or out of infancy, and who has not attained the age of an adult, (q. v.) and who is not yet in his puberty that is, if a boy, till he has attained his full age of fourteen years, and, if a girl, her full age of twelve years. Domat, Liv. Prel. t. 2, s. 2, n. 8.

IMPUNITY. Not being punished for a crime or misdemeanor committed. The impunity of crimes is one of the most prolific sources whence they arise. lmpunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. 4 Co. 45, a; 5 Co. 109, a.

IMPUTATION. The judgment by which we declare that an agent is the cause of his free action, or of the result of it, whether good or ill. Wolff, 3.

IMPUTATION OF PAYMENT. This term is used in Louisiana to signify the appropriation which is made of a payment, when the debtor owes two debts to the creditor. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2159 to 2262. See 3 N. S. 483; 6 N. S. 28; Id. 113: Poth. Ob. n. 539, 565, 570; Durant. Des Contr. Liv. 3, t. 3, 3, n. 191; 10 L. R. 232, 352; 7 Toull. n. 173, p. 246.

IN ALIO LOCO. In another place. Vide Cepit in alio loco.

IN ARTICULO MORTIS. In the article of death; at the point of death. As to the effect of this condition on wills, see Nuncupative; as to the testimony of such person, see Dying declarations.

IN AUTRE DROIT. In another's right. An executor, administrator or trustee, is said to have the property confided to him in such character, in autre droit.

IN BLANK. This is generally applied to indorsements, as, indorsements in blank, which is one not restricted, made by the indorser simply writing his name. See Indorsement.

IN CHIEF. Evidence is said to be in chief when it is given in support of the case opened by the leading counsel. Vide To Open - Opening. The term is used to distinguish evidence of this nature from evidence obtained on a cross-examination. (q. v.) 3 Chit. 890. By evidence in chief is sometimes meant that evidence, which is given in contradistinction to evidence which is obtained on the witness voir dire.

2. Evidence in chief should be confined to such matters as the pleadings and the opening warrant, and a departure from this rule, will be sometimes highly inconvenient, if not fatal. Suppose, for example, that two assaults have been committed, one in January and the other. in February, and the plaintiff prove his cause of action to have been the assault in January, he cannot abandon that, and afterwards prove another committed in February unless the pleadings and openings extend to both. 1 Campb R. 473. See also, 6 Carr. & P. 73; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 288; 1 Mood. & R. 282.

IN COMMENDAM. The state or condition of a church living, which is void or vacant, and it is commended to the care of some one. In, Louisiana, there is a species of partnership called a partnership in commendam. Vide Commendam.

IN CUSTODIA LEGIS. In the custody of the law. In general, when things are in custodia legis, they cannot be distrained, nor otherwise interfered with by a private person.

IN ESSE. In being. A thing in existence. It is used in opposition to enposse. A child in ventre sa mere is a thing in posse; after he is born, he is in esse. Vide 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 466; 2 Suppl. to Ves. jr. 155, 191. Vide Posse.

IN EXTREMIS. This phrase is used to denote the end of life; as, a marriage in extremis, is one made at the end of life. Vide Extremis.

IN FACIENDO. In doing, or in feasance. 2 Story, Eq. Jurisp. 1308.

IN FAVOREM LIBERTATIS. In favor of liberty.

IN FAVOREM VITAE. In favor of life.

IN FIERI. In the course of execution; a thing commenced but not completed. A record is said to be in fieri during the term of the court, and, during that time, it may be amended or altered at the sound discretion of the court. See 2 B. & Adol. 971.

IN FORMA PAUPERIS. In the character or form of a pauper. In England, in some cases, when a poor person cannot afford to pay the costs of a suit as it proceeds, he is exempted from such payment, having obtained leave to sue in forma pauperis.

IN FORO CONSCIENTIAE. Before the tribunal of conscience; conscientiously. This term is applied in opposition, to the obligations which the law enforces.

2. In the sale of property, for example, the concealment of facts by the vendee which may enhance the price, is wrong in foro conscientiae, but there is no legal obligation on the part of the vendee to disclose them, and the contract will be good if not vitiated by fraud. Poth. Vent. part 2, c. 2, n. 233; 2 Wheat. 185, note c. 20

IN FRAUDEM LEGIS. In fraud of the law. Every thing done in fraudem legis is void in law. 2 Ves. sen. 155, 156 Bouv. Inst. n. 585, 3834.

IN GREMIO LEGIS. In the bosom of the law. This is a figurative expression, by which is meant, that the subject is under the protection of the law; as, where land is in abeyance.

IN GROSS. At large; not appurtenant or appendant, but annexed to a man's per son: e. g. Common granted to a man and his heirs by deed, is common in gross; or common in gross may be claimed by prescriptive right. 2 Bl. Com. 34.

IN INVITUM. Against an unwilling party; against one who has not given his consent. See Invito domino.

IN JUDICIO. In the course of trial; a course of legal proceedings.

IN JURE. In law; according to law, rightfully. Bract. fol. 169, b.

IN LIMINE. In or at the beginning. This phrase is frequently used; as, the courts are anxious to check crimes in limine.

IN LITEM, ad litem. For a suit; to the suit. Greenl. Ev. 348.

IN LOCO PARENTIS. In the place of a parent; as, the master stands towards his apprentice in loco parentis.

IN MITIORI SENSU, construction. Formerly in actions of slander it was a rule to take the expression used in mitiori sensu, in the mildest acceptation; and ingenuity was, upon these occasions, continually exercised to devise or discover a meaning which by some remote possibility the speaker might have intended; and some ludicrous examples of this ingenuity may be found. To say of a man who was making his livelihood by buying and selling merchandise, he is a base, broken rascal, he has broken twice, and I'll make him break a third time, was gravely asserted not to be actionable - "ne poet dar porter action, car poet estre intend de burstness de belly," Latch, 114. And to call a man a thief was declared to be no slander for this reason, "perhaps the speaker might mean he had stolen a lady's heart."

2. The rule now is to construe words agreeably to the meaning usually attached to them. 1 Nott & McCord, 217; 2 Nott & McCord, 511; 8 Mass. R. 248; 1 Wash. R. 152; Kirby, R. 12; 7 Serg. & Rawle, 451; 2 Binn. 34; 3 Binn. 515.

IN MORA. In default. Vide mora, in.

IN NUBIBUS. In the clouds. This is a figurative expression to signify a state of suspension or abeyance. 1 Co. 137.

IN NULLO EST ERRATUM, pleading. A plea to errors assigned on proceedings in error, by which the defendant in error affirms there is no error in the record. As to the effect of, such plea, see 1 Vent. 252; 1 Str. 684; 9 Mass. R. 532; 1 Burr. 410; T. Ray. 231. It is a general rule that the plea in nullo est erratum confesses the fact assigned for error; Yelv. 57; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; but not a matter assigned contrary to the record. 7 Wend. 55; Bac. Ab. Error; G.

IN ODIUM SPOLIATORIS. In hatred of a despoiler. All things are presumed against a despoiler or wrong doer in odium spoliatoris omnia praesumuntur.

IN PARI CAUSA. In an equal cause. It is a rule that when two persons have equal rights in relation to a particular thing, the party in possession is considered as having the better right: in pari causa possessor potior est. Dig. 50; 17, 128; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 952.

IN PARI DELICTO. In equal fault; equal in guilt. Neither courts of law nor equity will interpose to grant relief to the parties, when an illegal agreement has been made, and both parties stand in pari delicto. The law leaves them where it finds them, according to the maxim, in pari delicto potior est conditio defendentis et possidendis. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 769.

IN PARI MATERIA. Upon the same matter or subject. Statutes in pari materia are to be construed together.

IN PERPETUAM REI MEMORIAM. For the perpetual memory or remembrance of a thing. Gilb. For. Rom. 118.

IN PERSONAM, remedies. A remedy in personam, is one where the proceedings are against the person, in contradistinction to those which are against specific things, or in rem. (q. v.) 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2646.

IN POSSE. In possibility; not in actual existence; used in contradistinction to in esse.

IN PRAESENTI. At the present time; used in opposition to in futuro. A marriage contracted in words de praesenti is good; as, I take Paul to be my hushand, is a good marriage, but words de futuro would not be sufficient, unless the ceremony was followed by consummation. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 258.

IN PRINCIPIO. At the beginning this is frequently used in citations; as Bac. Ab. Legacies, in pr.

IN PROPRIA PERSONA. In his own person; himself; as the defendant appeared in propria persona; the plaintiff argued the cause in propria persona.

IN RE. In the matter; as in re A B, in the matter of A B.

IN REBUS. In things, cases or matters.

IN REM, remedies. This technical term is used to designate proceedings or actions instituted against the thing, in contradistinction to personal actions which are said to be in personam. Proceedings in rem include not only judgments of property as forfeited, or as prize in the admiralty, or the English exchequer, but also the decisions of other courts upon the personal status, or relations of the party, such as marriage, divorce, bastardy, settlement, or the like. 1 Greenl. Ev. 525, 541.

2. Courts of admiralty enforce the performance of a contract by seizing into their custody the very subject of hypothecation; for in these case's the parties are not personally bound, and the proceedings are confined to the thing in specie. Bro. Civ. and Adm. Law, 98; and see 2 Gall. R. 200; 3 T. R. 269, 270.

3. There are cases, however, where the remedy is either in personam or in rem. Seamen, for example, may proceed against the ship or cargo for their wages, and this is the most expeditious mode; or they may proceed against the master or owners. 4 Burr. 1944; 2 Bro. C. & A. Law, 396. Vide, generally, 1 Phil. Ev. 254; 1 Stark. Ev. 228; Dane's Ab. h. t.; Serg. Const. Law, 202, 203, 212.

IN RERUM NATURA. In the nature of things; in existence.

IN SOLIDO. A term used in the civil law, to signify that a contract is joint.

2. Obligations are in solido, first, between several creditors; secondly, between several debters. 1. When a person contracts the obligation of one and the same thing, in favor of several others, each of these is only creditor for his own share, but he may contract with each of them for the whole when such is the intention of the parties, so that each of the persons in whose favor the obligation is contracted, is creditor for the whole, but that a payment made to any one liberates the debtor against them all. This is called solidity of obligation. Poth. Obl. pt. 2, c. 3, art. 7. The common law is exactly the reverse of this, for a general obligation in favor of several persons, is a joint obligation to them all, unless the nature of the subject, or the particularity of the expression lead to a different conclusion. Evans' Poth. vol. 2, p. 56. See tit. Joint and Several; Parties to action.

3. - 2. An obligation is contracted in solido on the part of the debtors, when each of them is obliged for the whole, but so that a payment made by one liberates them all. Poth. Obli. pt. 2, c. 3, art. 7, s 1. See 9 M. R. 322; 5 L. R. 287; 2 N. S. 140; 3 L. R. 352; 4 N. S. 317; 5 L. R. 122; 12 M. R. 216; Burge on Sur. 398-420.

IN STATU QUO. In the same situation; in the same place; as, between the time of the submission and the time when the award was rendered, things remained in statu quo.

IN TERROREM. By way of threat, terror, or warning. For example, when a legacy is given to a person upo condition not to dispute the validity or the dispositions in wills and testaments, the conditions are not in general obligatory, but only in terrorem; if, therefore, there exist probabilis causa litigandi, the non-observance of the conditions will not be a forfeiture. 2 Vern. 90; 1 Hill. Ab. 253; 3 P. Wms. 344; 1 Atk. 404. But when the acquiescence of the legatee appears to be a material ingredient in the gift, the bequest is only quousque the legatee shall refrain from disturbing the will. 2 P. Wms. 52; 2 Ventr. 352. For cases of legacies given to a wife while she shall continue unmarried, see 1 Madd. R. 590; 1 Rop. Leg. 558.

IN TERROREM POPULI. To the terror of the people. An indictment for a riot is bad, unless it conclude in terrorem populi. 4 Carr. & Payne, 373.

IN TOTIDEM VERhis. In just so many words; as, the legislature has declared this to be a crime in totidem verhis.

IN TOTO. In the whole; wholly; completely; as, the award is void in toto. In the whole the part is contained: in toto et pars continetur. Dig. 50, 17, 123.

IN TRANSITU. During the transit, or removal from one place to another.

2. The transit continues until the goods have arrived at their place of destination, and nothing remains to be done to complete the delivery; or until the goods have been delivered, before reaching their place of destination, and the person entitled takes an actual or symbolical possession. Vide Stoppage in transitu; Transitus.

IN VADIO. In pledge; in gage.

IN VENTRE SA MERE. In his mother's womb.

2. - 1. In law a child is for all beneficial purposes considered as born while in ventre sa mere. 5 T. R. 49; Co. Litt. 36; 1 P. Wms. 329; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 948. But a stranger can acquire no title by descent through a child in ventre sa mere, who is not subsequently born alive. See Birth; Dead Born.

3. - 2. Such a child is enabled to have an estate limited to his use. 1. Bl. Com. 130.

4. - 3. May have a distributive share of intestate property. 1 Ves. 81.

5. - 4. Is capable of taking a devise of lands. 2 Atk. 117; 1 Freem. 224, 298.

6. - 5. Takes under a marriage settlement a provision made for children living at the death of the father. 1 Ves. 85.

7. - 6. Is capable of taking a legacy, and is entitled to a share in a fund bequeathed to children under a general description, of "children," or of "children living at the testator's death." 2 H. Bl. 399; 2 Bro. C. C. 320; S. C. 2 Ves. jr. 673; 1 Sim. & Stu. 181; 1 B. & P. 243; 5 T. R. 49. See, also, 1 Ves. sr. 85; Id. 111; 1 P. Wms. 244, 341; 2 Bro. C. C. 63; Amb. 708, 711; 1 Salk. 229; 2 P. Wms. 446; 2 Atk. 114; Pre. Ch. 50; 2 Vern. 710; 3 Ves. 486; 7 T. R. 100; 4 Ves. 322; Bac. Ab. Legacies, &c., A; 1 Rop. Leg. 52, 3; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 40.

8. - 7. May be appointed executor. Bac. Ab. Infancy, B.

9. - 8. A bill may be brought in its behalf, and the court will grant an injunction to stay waste. 2 Vern. 710 Pr. Ch. 50.

10. - 9. The mother, of a child in ventre sa mere may detain writings on its behalf. 2 Vern. 710.

11. - 10. May have a guardian assigned to it. 1 Bl. Com. 130.

12. - 11. The destruction of such a child is a high misdemeanor. 1 Bl. Com. 129, 130.

13. - 12. And the birth of a posthumous child amounts, in Pennsylvania, to the revocation of a will previously executed, so far as regards such child. 3 Binn. 498. See Coop. Just. 496. See, as to the law of Virginia on this subject, 3 Munf. 20. Vide Foetus.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF. These words, which, when conveyancing was in the Latin language, were in cujus rei testimonium, are the initial words of the concluding clause in deeds. " In witness whereof the said parties have hereunto set their hands," &c.

INADEQUATE PRICE. This term is applied to indicate the want of a sufficient consideration for a thing sold,or such a price as, under ordinary circumstances, would be considered insufficient.

2. Inadequacy of price is frequently connected with fraud, gross misrepresentations, or an intentional concealment of the defects in the thing sold. In these cases it is clear the. vendor cannot compel the buyer to fulfil the contract. 1 Lev. 111; 1 Bro. P. C. 187; 6 John. R. 110; 3 Cranch, 270; 4 Dall. R. 250; 3 Atk. 283; 1 Bro. C. C. 440.

3. In general, however, inadequacy of price is not sufficient ground to avoid a contract, particularly' when the property has been sold by auction. 7 Ves. jr. 30; 3 Bro. C. C. 228; 7 Ves. jr. 35, note. But if an uncertain consideration, as a life annuity, be given for an estate, and the contract be executory, equity, it seems, will enter into the adequacy of the consideration. 7 Bro. P. C. 184; 1 Bro. C. C. 156. Vide. 1 Yeates, R. 312; Sugd. Vend. 189 to 199; 1 B. & B. 165; 1 M'Cord's Ch. R. 383, 389, 390; 4 Desaus. R. 651. Vide Price.

INADMIISSIBLE. What cannot be received. Parol evidence, for example, is inadmissible to contradict a written agreement.

INALIENABLE. This word is applied to those things, the property of which cannot be lawfully transferred from one person to another. Public highways and rivers are of this kind; there are also many rights which are inalienable, as the rights of liberty, or of speech.

INAUGURATION. This word was applied by the Romans to the ceremony of dedicating some temple, or raising some man to the priesthood, after the augurs had been consulted. It was afterwards applied to the installation (q. v.) of the emperors, kings, and prelates, in imitation of the ceremonies of the Romans when they entered into the temple of the augurs. It is applied in the United States to the installation of the chief magistrate of the republic, and of the governors of the several states.

INCAPACITY. The want of a quality legally to do, give, transmit, or receive something.

2. It arises from nature, from the law, or from both. From nature, when the party has not his senses, as, in the case of an idiot; from the law, as, in the case of a bastard who cannot inherit from nature and the law; as, in the case of a married woman, who cannot make contracts or a will.

3. In general, the incapacity ceases with the cause which produces it. If the idiot should obtain his senses, or the married woman's hushand die, their incapacity would be at an end.

4. When a cause of action arises during the incapacity of a person having the right to sue, the act of limitation does not, in general, commence to run till the incapacity has been removed. But two incapacities cannot be joined in order to come within the statute.

INCENDIARY, crim. law. One who maliciously and wilfully sets another person's house on fire; one guilty of the crime of arson.

2. This offence is punished by the statute laws of the different states according to their several provisions. The civil law punished it with death, Dig. 47, 9, 12, 1, by the offender being cast into the fire. Id. 48, 19, 28, 12; Code, 9, 1, 11. Vide Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.

INCEPTION. The commencement; the beginning. In making a will, for example, the writing is its inception. 3 Co. 31 b; Plowd. 343. Vide Consummation; Progression.

INCEST. The carnal copulation of a man and a woman related to each other in any of the degrees within which marriage is prohibited by law. Vide Marriage. It is punished by fine and imprisonment, under the laws of the respective states., Vide 1 Smith's Laws of Pennsylv. 26; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Dig. 23, 2, 68; 6 Conn. R. 446; Penal Laws of China, B. 1, s. 2, 10; Sw. part 2 17, p. 103.

INCH. From the Latin uncia. A measure of length, containing one-twelfth part of a foot.

INCHOATE. That which is not yet completed or finished. Contracts are considered inchoate until they are executed by all the parties who ought to have executed them. For example, a covenant which purports to be tripartite, and is executed by only two of the parties, is incomplete, and no one is bound by it. 2 Halst. 142. Vide Locus paenitentiae.

INCIDENT. A thing depending upon, appertaining to, or following another, called the princinal.

2. The power of punishing for contempt is incident to a court of record; rent is incident to a reversion; distress to rent; estovers of woods to a tenancy for a life or years. 1 Inst. 151; Noy's Max. n. 13; Vin. Ab. h.. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t., and the references there; Bro. Ab. h. t.; Roll's Ab. 75.

INCIPITUR, practice. This word, which means "it is begun," signifies the commencement of the entry on the roll. on signing judgment, &c.

INCLUSIVE. Comprehended in computation. In computing time, as ten days from a particular time, one day is generally to be included and one excluded. Vide article Exclusive, and the authorities there cited.

INCOME. The gain which proceeds from property, labor, or business; it is applied particularly to individuals; the income of the government is usually called revenue.

2. It has been holden that a devise of the income of land, is in effect the same as a devise of the land itself. 9 Mass. 372; 1 Ashm. 136.

INCOMPATIBILITY. offices, rights. This term is used to show that two or more things ought not to exist at the same time in the same person; for example, a man cannot at the same time be landlord and tenant of the same land; heir and devise of the same thing; trustee and cestui que trust of the same property.

2. There are offices which are incompatible with each other by constitutional provision; the vice-president of tho United States cannot act as such when filling the office of president; Const. art. 1, s. 3, n. 5; and by the same instrument, art . 1, s. 6, n. 2, it is directed that "no senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house, during his continuance in office."

3. Provisions rendering offices incompatible are to be found in most of the, constitutions of the states, and in some of their laws. In Pennsylvania, the acts of the 12th of February, 1802, 3 Smith's Laws of Pa. 485; and 6th of March, 1812, 5 Sm. L. Pa. 309, contain various provisions, making certain offices incompatible, with each other. At common law, offices subordinate and interfering with each other have been considered incompatible; for example, a man cannot be at once a judge and prothonotary or clerk of the same court. 4 Inst. 100. Vide 4 S. & R. 277; 17 S. & R. 219; and the article Office.

INCOMPETENCY, French law. The state of a judge who cannot take cognizance of a dispute brought before him; it implies a want of jurisdiction.

2. Incompetency is material, ratione materia, or personal, ratione personae. The first takes place when a judge takes cognizance of a matter over which another judge has the sole jurisdiction, and this cannot be cured by the appearance or agreement of the parties.

3. The second is, when the matter in dispute is within the jurisdiction of the judge, but the parties in the case are not; in which case they make the judge competent, unless they make their objection before they. take defence. See Peck, 374; 17 John. 13; 12 Conn. 88; 3 Cowen, Rep. 724; 1 Penn. 195; 4 Yeates, 446. When a party has a privilege which exempts him from the jurisdiction, he may waive the privilege. 4 McCord, 79; Wright, 484; 4 Mass. 593; Pet. C. C. R. 489; 5 Cranch, 288; 1 Pet. R. 449; 4 W. C. C. R. 84; 8 Wheat. 699; Merl. Ręp. mot Incompetęnce.

4. It is a maxim in the common law, aliquis non debet esse judex in propriŠ causa. Co. Litt. 141, a; see 14 Vin. Abr. 573; 4 Com. Dig. 6. The greatest delicacy, is constantly observed on the part of judges, so that they never act when there could be the possibility of doubt whether they could be free from bias, and even a distant degree of relationship has induced a judge to decline interfering. 1 Knapp's Rep. 376. The slightest degree of pecuniary interest is considered as an insuperable objection. But at common law, interest forms the only ground for challenging a judge. It is not a ground of challenge that he has given his opinion before. 4 Bin. 349; 2 Bin. 454. See 4 Mod. 226; Comb. 218; Hard. 44; Hob. 87; 2 Binn. R. 454; 13 Mass. R. 340; 5 Mass. R. 92; 6 Pick. 109; Peck, R. 374; Coxe, Rep. 190; 3 Ham. R. 289; 17 John. Rep. 133; 12 Conn. R. 88; 1 Penning R. 185; 4 Yeates, R. 466; 3 Cowen, R. 725; Salk. 396; Bac. Ab. Courts, B; and the articles Competency; Credibility; Interest; Judge; Witness.

INCOMPETENCY, evidence. The want of legal fitness, or ability in a witness to be heard as such on the trial of a cause.

2. The objections to the competency (q. v.) of a witness are four-fold. The first ground is the want of understanding; a second is defect of religious principles; a third arises from the conviction of certain crimes, or infamy of character; the fourth is on account of interest. (q. v.) 1 Phil. Ev. 15.

INCONCLUSIVE. What does not put an end to a thing. Inconclusive presumptions are those which may be overcome by opposing proof; for example, the law presumes that he who possesses personal property is the owner of it, but evidence is allowed to contradict this presumption, and show who is the true owner. 3 Bouv. Inst. in. 3063.

INCONTINENCE Impudicity, the indulgence in unlawful carnal connexions. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. 862.

INCORPORATION. This term is frequently confounded, particularly in the old books, with corporation. The distinction between them is this, that by incorporation is understood the act by which a corporation is created; by corporation is meant the body thus created. Vide Corporation.

INCORPORATION, civil law. The union of one domain to another.

INCORPOREAL. Not consisting of matter.

2. Things incorporeal. are those which are not the object of sense, which cannot be seen or felt, but which we can easily, conceive in the understanding, as rights, actions, successions, easements, and the like. Dig. lib. 6, t. 1; Id. lib. 41, t. 1, l. 43, 1; Poth. Traite des Choses, 2.

INCORPOREAL HEREDITAMENT, title, estates. A right issuing out of, or annexed unto a thing corporeal.

2. Their existence is merely in idea and abstracted contemplation, though their effects and profits may be frequently the objects of our bodily senses. Co Litt. 9 a; Poth. Traite des Choses, 2. According to Sir William Blackstone, there are ten kinds of incorporeal hereditamenta; namely, 1. Advowsons. 2. Tithes. 3. Commons. 4. Ways. 5. Offices. 6. Dignities. 7. Franchises. 8. Corodies. 9. Annuities. 10. Rents. 2 Bl. Com. 20.

3. But, in the United States, there, are no advowsons, tithes, dignities, nor corodies. The other's have no necessary connexion with real estate, and are not hereditary, and, with the exception of annuities, in some cases, cannot be transferred, and do not descend.

INCORPOREAL PROPERTY, civil law. That which consists in legal right merely; or, as the term is, in the common law, of choses in actions. Vide Corporeal property.

TO INCULPATE. To accuse one of a crime or misdemeanor.

INCUMBENT, eccles. law. A clerk resident on his benefice with cure; he is so called because he does, or ought to, bend the whole of his studies to his duties. In common parlance, it signifies one who is in the possession of an office, as, the present incumbent.

INCUMBRANCE. Whatever is a lien upon an estate.

2. The right of a third person in the land in question to the diminution of the value of the land, though consistent with the passing of the fee by the deed of conveyance, is an incumbrance; as, a public highway over the land. 1 Appl. R. 313; 2 Mass. 97; 10 Conn. 431. A private right of way. 15 Pick. 68; 5 Conn. 497. A claim of dower. 22 Pick. 477; 2 Greenl. 22. Alien by judgment or mortgage. 5 Greenl. 94; 15 Verm. 683. Or any outstanding, elder, and better title, will be considered as incumbrances, although in strictness some of them are rather estates than incumbrances. 4 Mass. 630; 2 Greenl. 22; 22 Pick. 447; 5 Conn. 497; 8 Pick. 346; 15 Pick. 68; 13 John. 105; 5 Greenl. 94; 2 N. H. Rep. 458; 11 S. & R. 109; 4 Halst. 139; 7 Halst. 261; Verm. 676; 2 Greenl. Ev. 242.

3. In cases of sales of real estate, the vendor is required to disclose the incumbrances, and to deliver to the purchaser the instruments by which they were created, or on which the defects arise; and the neglect of this will be considered as a fraud. Sugd. Vend, 6; 1 Ves. 96; and see 6 Ves. jr. 193; 10 Ves. jr. 470; 1 Sch. & Lef. 227; 7 Serg. & Rawle, 73.

4. Whether the tenant for life, or the remainder-man, is to keep. down the interest on incumbrances, see Turn. R. 174; 3 Mer. R. 566; 6 Ves. 99; 4 Ves. 24. See, generally, 14 Vin. Ab. 352; Com. Dig. Chancery, 4 A 10, 4 I. 3; 9 Watts, R. 162.

INDEBITATUS ASSUMPSIT, remedies, pleadings. That species of action of assumpsit, in which the plaintiff alleges in his declaration, first a debt, and then a promise in consideration of the debt, that the defendant, being indebted, he promised the plaintiff to pay him. The promise so laid is, generally, an implied one only. Vide 1 Chit. Pl. 334; Steph. Pl. 318; Yelv. 21; 4 Co. 92 b. For the history of this form of action, see 3 Reeves' Hist. Com. Law; 2 Comyn on Contr. 549 to 556; 1 H. Bl. 550, 551; 3 Black Com. 154; Yelv. 70. Vide Pactum Constituae Pecuniae.

INDEBITI SOLUTIO, civil law. The payment to one of what is not due to him. If the payment was made by mistake, the civilians recovered it back by an action called condictio indebiti; with us, such money may be recovered by an action of assumpsit.

INDEBTEDNESS. The state, of being in debt, without regard to the ability or inability of the party to pay the same. See 1 Story, Eq. 343; 2 Hill. Ab. 421.

2. But in order to create an indebtedness, there must be an actual liability at the time, either to pay then or at a future time. If, for example, a person were to enter and become surety for another, who enters into a rule of reference, he does not thereby become a debtor to the opposite party until the rendition of the judgment on the award. 1 Mass. 134. See Creditor; Debt; Debtor.

INDECENCY. An act against good behaviour and a just delicacy. 2 Serg. & R. 91.

2. The law, in general, will repress indecency as being contrary to good morals, but, when the public good requires it, the mere indecency of disclosures does not suffice to exclude them from being given in evidence. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3216.

3. The following are examples of indecency: the exposure by a man of his naked person on a balcony, to public view, or bathing in public; 2 Campb. 89; or the exhibition of bawdy pictures. 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 42; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 91. This indecency is punishable by indictment. Vide 1 Sid. 168; S. C. 1 Keb. 620; 2 Yerg. R. 482, 589; 1 Mass. Rep. 8; 2 Chan. Cas. 110; 1 Russ. Cr. 302; 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 5, s. 4; 4 Bl. Com. 65, n.; 1 East, P. C. c. 1, s. 1; Burn's Just. Lewdness.

INDEFEASIBLE. That which cannot be defeated or undone. This epithet is usually applied to an estate or right which cannot be defeated.

INDEFENSUS. One sued or impleaded, who refuses or has nothing to answer.

INDEFINITE. That which is undefined; uncertain.

INDEFINITE FAILURE OF ISSUE, executory devise. A general failure of issue, whenever it may happen, without fixing a time, or certain or definite period, within which it must take place. The issue of the first taker must be extinct, and the issue of the issue ad infinitum, without regard to the time or any particular event. 2. Bouv. Inst. n. 1849.

INDEFINITE, NUMBER. A number which may be increased or diminished at pleasure.

2. When a corporation is composed of an indefinite number of persons, any number of them consisting of a majority of those present may do any act unless it be otherwise regulated by the charter or by-laws. See Definite number.

INDEFINITE PAYMENT, contracts. That which a debtor who owes several debts to a creditor, makes without making an appropriation; (q. v.) in that case the creditor has a right to make such appropriation.

INDEMNITY. That which is given to a person to prevent his suffering damage. 2 McCord, 279. Sometimes it signifies diminution; a tenant who has been interrupted in the enjoyment of his lease may require an indemnity from the lessor, that is, a reduction of his rent.

2. It is a rule established in all just governments that, when private property is required for public, use, indemnity shall be given by the public to the owner. This is the case in the United States. See Code Civil, art. 545. See Damnification.

3. Contracts made for the purpose of indemnifying a person for doing an act for which he could be indicted, or an agreement to, compensate a public officer for doing an act which is forbidden by law, or omitting to do one which the law commands, are absolutely void. But when the agreement with an officer was not to induce him to neglect his duty, but to test a legal right, as to indemnify him for not executing an execution, it was held to be good. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 780.

INDENTURE, conveyancing. An instrument of writing containing a conveyance or contract between two or more persons, usually indented or cut unevenly, or in and out, on the top or, side.

2. Formerly it was common to make two instruments exactly alike, and it was then usual to write both on the same parchment, with some words or letters written between them, through which the parchment was cut, either in a straight or indented line, in such a manner as to leave one-half of the word on one part, and half on the other. The instrument usually commences with these words, "This indenture," which were not formerly sufficient, unless the parchment or paper was actually indented to make an indenture 5 Co. 20; but now, if the form of indenting the parchment be wanting, it may be supplied by being done in court, this being mere form. Besides, it would be exceedingly difficult with even the most perfect instruments, to out parchment or paper without indenting it. Vide Bac. Ab. Leases, &c. E 2; Com. Dig. Fait, C, and note d; Litt. sec. 370; Co. Litt. 143 b, 229 a; Cruise, Dig t. 32, c. 1, s. 24; 2 Bl. Com. 294; 1 Sess. Cas. 222.

INDEPENDENCE. A state of perfect irresponsibility to any superior; the United States are free and independent of all earthly power.

2. Independence may be divided into political and natural independence. By the former is to be understood that we have contracted no tie except those which flow from the three great natural rights of safety, liberty and property. The latter consists in the power of being able to enjoy a permanent well-being, whatever may be the disposition of those from whom we call ourselves independent. In that sense a nation may be independent with regard to most people, but not independent of the whole world. Vide on of Independence.

INDEPENDENT CONTRACT. One in which the mutual acts or promises have no relation to each other, either as equivalents or considerations. Civil Code of Lo. art. 1762; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 699.

INDETERMINATE. That which is uncertain or not particularly designated; as, if I sell you one hundred bushels of wheat, without stating what wheat. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 950.

INDIAN TRIBE. A separate and distinct community or body of the aboriginal Indian race of men found in the United States.

2. Such a tribe, situated within the boundaries of a state, and exercising the powers of government and, sovereignty, under the national government, is deemed politically a state; that is, a distinct political society, capable of self-government; but it is not deemed a foreign state, in the sense of the constitution. It is rather a domestic dependent nation. Such a tribe may properly be deemed in a state of pupilage and its relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to a guardian. 5 Pet. R. 1, 16, 17; 20 John. R. 193; 3 Kent, Com. 308 to 318; Story on Const. 1096; 4 How. U. S. 567; 1 McLean, 254; 6 Hill, 546; 8 Ala. R. 48.

INDIANS. The aborigines of this country are so called.

2. In general, Indians have no political rights in the United States; they cannot vote at the general elections for officers, nor hold office. In New York they are considered as citizens and not as aliens, owing allegiance to the government and entitled to its protection. 20 John. 188, 633. But it was ruled that the Cherokee nation in Georgia was a distinct community. 6 Pet. 515. See 8 Cowen, 189; 9 Wheat. 673; 14 John. 181, 332 18 John. 506.

INDIANA. The name of one of the new states of the United States. This state was admitted into the Union by virtue of the "Resolution for admitting the state of Indiana into the Union," approved December 11, 1816, in the following words: Whereas, in pursuance of an act of congress, passed on the nineteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and sixteen, entitled "An act to enable the people of the Indiana territory to from a constitution and state government, and for the admission of that state into the Union," the people of the said territory did, on the twenty-ninth day of June, in the present year, by a convention called for that purpose, form for themselves a constitution and state government, which constitution and state government, so formed, is republican, and in conformity with the principles of the articles of compact between the original states and the people and states in the territory north-west of the river Ohio, passed on the thirteenth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven.

2. Resolved, That the state of Indiana shall be one, and is hereby declared to be one of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatever.

3. The first constitution of the state was adopted in the -year eighteen hundred and sixteen, and has since been superseded by the present constitution, which was adopted in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-one. The powers of the government are divided into three distinct departments, and each of them is confided to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, including the administrative, to another; and those which are judicial to a third. Art. III.

4. - 1st. The legislative authority of the state is vested in a general assembly, which consists of a senate and house of representatives, both elected by the people.

5. The senate is composed of a number of persons who shall not exceed fifty. Art. 2. The number shall be fixed by law. Art. IV. 6. A senator shall 1. Have attained the age of twenty-five years. 2. Be a citizen of the United States. 3. Have resided, next preceding his election, two years in this state, the last twelve months of which must have been in the county or district in which he may be elected. Senators shall be elected for the term of four years, and one-half as nearly as possible shall be elected every two years.

6. - 2. The number of representatives is to be fixed by law. It shall never exceed one hundred members. Art. IV. s. 2, 5.

7. To be qualified for a representative, a person must, 1. Have attained the age of twenty-one year's. 2. Be a Citizen, of the United States. 3. Have been for two years next preceding his election an inhabitant of this state, and for one year next proceding his election, an inhabiant of the county or district whence he may be chosen. Art. IV. s. 7. Representatives are elected for the term of two years from the day next after their general election. Art. IV. s. 3. And they shall be chosen by the respective electors of the counties. Art. IV. s. 2. .

8. - 2d, The exeutive power of this state is vested in a governor. And, under certain circumstances, this power is exercised by the lieutenant-governor.

9. - 1. The governor is elected at the time and place of choosing members of the general assembly. Art. V. s. 3. The person having the highest number of votes for governor shall be elected; but, in case to or more persons shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for the office, the general assembly shall, by joint vote, forthwith proceed to elect one of the said persons governor. He shall hold his office during four years, and is not eligible more than four years in any period of eight years. The official term of the governor shall commence on the second Monday of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three, and on the same day every fourth year thereafter. His requisite quali- fications are, that he shall, 1. Have been a citizen of the United States for five years. 2. Be at least thirty years of age. 3. Have resided in the state five years next preceding his election. 4. Not hold any office under the United States, or this state. He is commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the state, when not in the service of the United States, and may call out such forces, to execute the laws, to suppress insurrection, or to repel invasion. He shall have the power to remit fines and forfeitures; grant reprieves and pardons, except treason and cases of impeachments; and to require information from executive officers. When, during a recess of the general assembly, a vacancy shall happen in any office, the appointment of which is vested in the general assembly, or when at any time a vacancy shall have happened in any other state office, or in the office of judge of any court, the governor shall fill such vacancy by appointment, which shall expire when a successor shall have been elected and qualifled. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. Should the seat of government become dangerous, from disease or at common enemy, he may convene the general assembly at any other place. He is also invsted with the veto power. Art. V.

10. - 2. The lieutenant-governor shall be chosen at every election for a governor, in the same manner, continue in office for the same time, and possess the same qualifications. In voting for governor and lieutenant-governor, the electors shall distinguish whom they vote for as governor, and whom as lieutenant-governor. He shall, by virtue of his office, be president of the senate; have a right, when in committee of the whole, to debate and vote on all subjects, and when the senate are equally divided, to give the casting vote. In case of the removal of the governor from office, death, resignation, or inability to discharge the duties of the office, the lieutenant-governor shall exercise all the powers and authority appertaining to the office of governor. Whenever the government shall be administered by the lieutenant-governor, or he shall be unable to attend as president of the senate, the senate shall elect one of their own members as president for that occasion. And the general assembly shall, by law, provide for the case of removal from office, death, resignation, or inability, both of the governor and lieutenant-governor, declaring what office r shall then act as governor; and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a governor be elected. The lieutenant-governor, while he acts as president of the senate, shall receive for his services the same compensation as the speaker of the house of representatives. The lieutenant-governor shall not be eligible to any other office during the term for which he shall have been elected.

11. - 3. The judicial power of the state is vested by article VII of the Constitution as follows:

1. The judicial power of this state shall be vested in a supreme court, in circuit courts, and in such other inferior courts as the general assembly may direct and establish.

12. - 2. The supreme court shall consist of not less than three nor more than five judges, a majority of whom form a quorum, which shall have jurisdiction co-extensive with the limits of the state, in appeals and writs of error, under such regulations and restrictions as may be prescribed by law, shall also have such original jurisdiction as the general assembly may confer. And upon the decision of every case, shall give a statement, in writing, of each question arising in the record of such case, and the decision of the court thereon.

13. - 3. The circuit courts shall each consist of one judge. The state shall, from time to time, be divided into judicial circuits. They shall have such civil and criminal jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law. The general assembly may provide by law, that the judge of one circuit may hold the court of another circuit in case of necessity or convenience; and in case of temporary inability of any judge, from sickness or other cause, to hold the courts in his circuit, provision shall be made by law for holding such courts.

14. - 4. Tribunals of conciliation may be established with such powers and duties as shall be prescribed by law; or the powers and duties of the same may be conferred on other courts of justice; but such tribunals or other courts when sitting as such, shall have no power to render judgment to be obligatory on the parties, unless they voluntarily submit their matters of difference, and agree to abide the judgment of such tribunal or court.

15. - 5. The judges of the supreme court, the circuit and other inferior courts, shall hold their offices during the term of six years, if they shall so long behave well, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

16. - 6. All judicial officers shall be conservators of the peace in their respective jurisdiction.

17. - 7. The state shall be divided into as many districts as there ate judges of the supreme court; and such districts shall be formed of contiguous territory, as nearly equal in population, as without dividing a county the same can be made. One of said judges shall be elected from each district, and reside therein; but said judges shall be elected by the electors of the state at large.

18. - 8. There shall be elected by the voters of the state, a clerk of the supreme court, who shall hold his office four years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law.

19. - 9. There shall be elected in each judicial circuit by the voters thereof, a prosecuting attorney, who shall hold his office for two years.

20. - 10. A competent number of justices of the peace shall be elected by the qualified electors in each township in the several counties, and shall continue in office four years, and their powers and duties shall be prescribed by law.

21. - 11. Every person of good moral character, being a voter, shall be entitled to admission to practice law in all courts of justice.

INDICIA, civil law. Signs, marks. Example: in replevin, the chattel must possess indicia, or earmarks, by which it can be distinguished from all others of the same description. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3556. This term is very nearly synonymous with the common law phrase, "circumstantial evidence." It was used to designate the facts giving rise to the indirect inference, rather than the inference itself; as, for example, the possession of goods recently stolen, vicinity to the scene of the crime, sudden change in circumstances or conduct, &c. Mascardus, de Prob. lib. 1, quaest. 15; Dall. Dict. Competęnce Criminelle, 92, 415; Morin, Dict. du Droit Criminal, mots Accusation, Chambre du Conseil.

2. Indicia may be defined to be conjectures, which result from circumstances not absolutely necessary and certain, but merely probable, and which may turn out not to be true, though they have the appearance of truth. Denisart, mot Indices. See Best on Pres. 13, note f.

3. However numerous indicia may be, they only show that a thing may be, not that it has been. An indicium, can have effect only when a connexion is essentially necessary with the principal. Effects are known by their causes, but only when the effects can arise only from the causes to which they. are attributed. When several causes may have produced one and the same effect, it is, therefore, unreasonable to attribute it to any one of such causes. A combination of circumstances sometimes conspire against an innocent person, and, like mute witnesses, depose against him. There is danger in such cases, that a jury may be misled; their minds prejudiced, their indignation unduly excited, or their zeal seduced. Under impressions thus produced, they may forget their true relation to the accused, and condemn a man whom they would have acquitted had they required that proof and certainty which the law demands. See D'Aguesseau, Oeuvres, vol. xiii. p. 243. See Circumstances.

INDICTED, practice. When a man is accused by a bill of indictment preferred by a grand jury, he is said to be indicted.

INDICTION, computation of time. An indiction contained a space of fifteen years.

2. It was used in dating at Rome and in England. It began at the dismission of the Nicene council, A. D. 312. The first year was reckoned the first of the first indiction, the second, the third, &c., till fifteen years afterwards. The sixteenth year was the first year of the second indiction, the thirty-first year was the first ar of the third indiction, &c.

INDICTMENT, crim. law, practice. A written accusation of one or more persons of a crime or misdemeanor, presented to, and preferred upon oath or affirmation, by a grand jury legally convoked. 4 Bl. Com. 299; Co. Litt. 126; 2 Hale, 152; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t. A; 1 Chit. Cr. L. 168.

2. This word, indictment, is said to be derived from the old French word inditer, which signifies to indicate; to show, or point out. Its object is to indicate the offence charged against the accused. Rey, des Inst. l'Angl. tome 2, p. 347.

3. To render an indictment valid, there are certain essential and formal requisites. The essential requisites are, 1st. That the indictment be presented to some court having jurisdiction. of the offence stated therein. 2d. That it appear to have been found by the grand jury of the proper county or district. 3d. That the indictment be found a true bill, and signed by the foreman of the grand jury. 4th. That it be framed with sufficient certainty; for this purpose the charge must contain a certain description of the crime or misdemeanor, of which the defendant is accused, and a statement of the facts by which it is constituted, so as to identify the accusation. Cowp. 682, 3; 2 Hale, 167; 1 Binn. R. 201; 3 Binn. R; 533; 1 P. A. Bro. R. 360; 6 S. & R. 398 4 Serg. & Rawle, 194; 4 Bl. Com. 301; Yeates, R. 407; 4 Cranch, R. 167. 5th. The indictment must be in the English language. But if any document in a foreign language, as a libel, be necessarily introduced, it should be set out in the original tongue, and then translated, showing its application. 6 T. R. 162.

4. Secondly, formal requisites are, 1st. The venue, which, at common law should always be laid in the county where the offence has been committed, although the charge is in its nature transitory, as a battery. Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s. 35. The venue is stated in the margin thus, "City and county of _____ to wit." 2d. The presentment, which must be in the present tense, and is usually expressed by the following formula, "the grand inquest of the commonwealth of ______ inquiring for the city and county aforesaid, upon their oaths and affirmations present." See, as to the venue, 1 Pike, R. 171; 9 Yerg. 357. 3d. The name and addition of the defendant; but in case an error has been made in this respect, it is cured by the plea of the defendant. Bac. Ab. Misnomer, B; Indictment, G 2; 2 Hale, 175; 1 Chit. Pr. 202. 4th. The names of third persons, when they must be necessarily mentioned in the indictment, should be stated with certainty to a common intent, so as sufficiently to inform the defendant who are his accusers. When, however, the names of third persons cannot be ascertained, it is sufficient, in some cases, to state " a certain person or persons to the jurors aforesaid unknown." Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s. 71; 2 East, P. C. 651, 781; 2 Hale, 181; Plowd. 85; Dyer, 97, 286; 8 C. & P. 773. See Unknown. 5th. The time when the offence was committed, should in general be stated to be on a specific year and day. In some offences, as in perjury, the day must be precisely stated; 2 Wash. C. C. Rep. 328; but although it is necessary that a day certain should be laid in the indictment, yet, in general, the prosecutor may give evidence of an offence committed on any other day previous to the finding of the, indictment. 5 Serg. & Rawle, 316. Vide 11 Serg. & Rawle, 177; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 217, 224; 1 Ch. Pl. Index, tit. Time. See 17 Wend. 475; 2 Dev. 567; 5 How. Mis. 14; 4 Dana. 496; C. & N. 369; 1 Hawks, 460. 6th. The offence should be properly described. This is done by stating the substantial circumstances necessary to show the natue of the crime and, next, the formal allegations and terms of art required by law. 1. As to the substantial circumstances. The whole of the facts of the case necessary to make it appear judicially to the court that the indictors have gone upon sufficient premises, should be set forth; but there should be no unnecessary matter or any thing which on its face makes the indictment repugnant, inconsistent, or absurd. Hale, 183; Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s. 57; Ab. h. t. G 1; Com. Dig. h. t. G 3; 2 Leach, 660; 2 Str. 1226. All indictments ought to charge a man with a particular offence, and not with being an offender in general: to this rule there are some exceptions, as indictments against a common barrator, a common scold, and the keeper of a common bawdy house; such persons may be indicted by these general words. 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 230, and the authorities there cited. The offence must not be stated in the disjunctive, so as to leave it uncertain on what it is intended to rely as an accusation; as, that the defendant erected or caused to be. erected a nuisance. 2 Str. 900; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 236.

2. There are certain terms of art used, so appropriated by the law to express the precise idea which it entertains of the offence, that no other terms, however synonymous they may seem, are capable of filling the same office: such, for example, as traitorously, (q. v.) in treason; feloniously, (q. v.) in felony; burglariously, (q. v.) in burglary; maim, (q. v.) in mayhem, &c. 7th. The conclusion of the indictment should conform to the provision of the constitution of the state on the subject, where there is such provision; as in Pennsylvania, Const. art. V., s. 11, which provides, that " all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and conclude against the peace and dignity of the same." As to the necessity and propriety of having several counts in an indictment, vide 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 248; as to. joinder of several offences in the same indictment, vide 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 253; Arch. Cr. Pl. 60; several defendants may in some cases be joined in the same indictment. Id. 255; Arch. Cr. Pl. 59. When an indictment may be amended, see Id. 297 .Stark. Cr. Pl. 286; or quashed, Id. 298 Stark. Cr. Pl. 831; Arch. Cr. 66. Vide; generally, Arch. Cr. Pl. B. 1, part 1, c. 1; p. 1 to 68; Stark. Cr. Pl. 1 to 336; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 168 to 304; Com. Dig. h. t.: Vin. Ab. h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; Nels. Ab. h. t.; Burn's Just. h. t.; Russ. on Cr. Index, h. t.,

5. By the Constitution of the United States, Amendm. art. 5, no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war, or public danger.

INDICTOR. He who causes another to be indicted. The latter is sometimes called the indictee.

INDIFFERENT. To have no bias nor partiality. 7 Conn. 229. A juror, an arbitrator, and a witness, ought to be indifferent, and when they are not so, they may be challenged. See 9 Conn. 42.

INDIRECT EVIDENCE. That proof which does not prove the fact in question, but proves another, the certainty of which may lead to the discovery of the truth of the one sought.

INDIVISIBLE. That which cannot be separated.

2. It is important to ascertain when a consideration or a contract, is or is not indivisible. When a consideration is entire and indivisible, and it is against law, the contract is void in toto. 11 Verm. 592; 2 W. & S. 235. When the consideration is divisible, and part of it is illegal, the contract is void only pro tanto.

3. - To ascertain whether a contract is divisible or indivisible, id to ascertain whether it may or may not be enforced, in part, or paid in part, without the consent of the other party. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 694, and articles Divisible; Entire.

INDIVISUM. That which two or more persons hold in common without partition; undivided. (q. v.)

TO INDORSE. To write on the back. Bills of exchange and promissory notes are indorsed by the party writing his name on the back; writing one's name on the back of a writ, is to indorse such writ. 7 Pick. 117. See 13 Mass. 396.

INDORSEE, contracts. The person in whose favor an indorsement is made,

2. He is entitled to all the rights of the indorser, and, if the bill or note have been indorsed over to him before it became due, he may be entitled to greater rights than the payee and indorser would have had, had he retained it till it became due, as none of the parties can make a set-off, or inquire into the consideration of the bill which he then holds. If he continues to be the holder (q. v.) when the bill becomes due, he ought to make a legal demand, and give notice in case of non-acceptance or non-payment. Chitty on Bills, passim.

INDORSEMENT, crin. law, practice. When a warrant for the arrest of a person charged with a crime has been issued by a justice of the peace of one county, which is to be executed in another county, it is necessary in some states, as in Pennsylvania, that it should be indorsed by a justice of the county where it is to be executed: this indorsement is called backing. (q. v.) INDORSEMENT, contracts. In its most general acceptation, it is what is written on the back of an instrument of writing, and which has relation to it; as, for example, a receipt or acquittance on a bond; an assignment on a promissory note.

2. Writing one's name on the back of a bill of exchange, or a promissory note payable to order, is what is usually called, an indorsement. It will be convenient to consider, 1. The form of an indorsement; and, 2. Its effect.

3. - 1. An indorsement is in full, or in blank. In full, when mention is made of the name of the indorsee; and in blank, when the name of the indorsee is not mentioned. Chitty on Bills, 170; 13 Serg. & Rawle, 315. A blank indorsement is made by writing the name of the indorser on the back; a writing or assignment on the face of the note or bill would, however, be considered to have the force and effect of an indorsement. 16 East, R. 12. when an indorsement has been made in blank any after attempt to restrain the negotiability of the bill will be unavailing. 1 E.N. P. C. 180; 1 Bl. Rep. 295; Ham. on Parties 104.

4. Indorsements may also be restrictive conditional, or qualified. A restrictive indorsement may restrain the negotiability of a bill, by using express words to that effect, as by indorsing it "payable to J. S. only," or by using other words clearly demonstrating his intention to do so. Dougl. 637. The indorser may also make his indorsement conditional, and if the condition be not performed, it will be invalid. 4 Taunt. Rep. 30. A qualified indorsement is one which passes the property in the bill to the indorsee, but is made without responsibility to the indorser; 7 Taunt. R. 160; the words commonly used are, sans recours, without recourse. Chit. on Bills, 179; 3 Mass. 225; 12 Mass. 14, 15.

5. - 2. The effects of a regular indorsement may be considered, 1. As between the indorser and the indorsee. 2. Between the indorser and the acceptor. And, 3. Between the indorser and future parties to the bill.

6. - 1. An indorsment is sometimes an original engagement;as, when a man draws a bill payable to his own order, and indorses it; mostly, however, it operates as an assignment, as when the bill is perfect, and the payee indorses it over to a third person. As an assignment, it carries with it all the rights which the indorsee had, with a guaranty of the solvency of the debtor. This guaranty is, nevertheless, upon condition that the holder will use due diligence in making a demand of payment from the acceptor, and give notice of non-acceptance or non-payment. 13 Serg. Rawle, 311.

7.-2. As between the indorsee and the acceptor, the indorsement has the effect of giving to the former all the rights which the indorser had against the acceptor, and all other parties liable on the bill, and it is unnecessary that the acceptor or other party should signify his consent or knowledge of the indorsement; and if made before the bill is paid, it conveys all these rights without any set-off, as between the antecedent parties. Being thus fully invested with all the rights in the bill, the indorsee may himself indorse it to another when he becomes responsible to all future patties as an indorser, as the others were to him.

8. - 3. The indorser becomes responsible by that act to all persons who may afterwards become party to the bill. Vide Chitty on Bills, ch. 4; 3 Kent, Com. 58; Vin. Abr. Indorsement; Com. Dig. Fait, E 2; 13 Serg. & Rawle, 311; Merl. Rępert. mot Endossement Pard. Droit Com. 344-357; 7 Verm. 356; 2 Dana, R. 90; 3 Dana, R. 407; 8 Wend. 600; 4 Verm. 11; 5 Harr. & John. 115; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

INDORSER, contracts. The person who makes an indorsement.

2. The indorser of a bill of exchange, or other negotiable paper, by his indorsement undertakes to be responsible to the holder for the amount of the bill or note, if the latter shall make a legal demand from the payer, and, in default of payment, give proper notice thereof to the indorser. But the indorser may make his indorsement conditional, which will operate as a transfer of the bill, if the condition be performed; or he may make it qualified, so that he shall not be responsible on non-payment by the payer. Chitty on Bills, 179,180.

3. To make an indorser liable on his indorsement, the instrument must be commercial paper, for the indorsement of a bond or single bill.will not, per se, create a responsibility. 13 Serg. & Rawle, 311. But see Treval v. Fitch, 5 Whart. 325; Hopkins v. Cumberland Valley R. R. Co., 3 Watts & Serg. 410.

4. When there are several indorsers, the. first in point of time is generally, but not always, first-responsible; there may be circumstances which may cast the responsibility, in the first place, as between them, on a subsequent indorsee. 5 Munf. R. 252.

INDUCEMENT, pleading. The statement of matter which is introductory to the principal subject of the declaration or plea, &c., but which is necessary to explain and elucidate it; such matter as is not introductory to or necessary to elucidate the substance or gist of the declaration or plea, &c. nor is collaterally applicable to it, not being inducement but surplusage. Inducement or conveyance, which. are synonymous terms, is in the nature of a preamble to an act of assembly, and leads to the Principal subject of the declaration or plea, &c. the same as that does to the purview or providing clause of the act. For instance, in an action for a nuisance to property in the possession of the plaintiff, the circumstance of his being possessed of the property should be stated as inducement, or byway of introduction to the mention of the nuisance. Lawes, Pl. 66, 67; 1 Chit. Pl. 292; Steph. Pl. 257; 14 Vin. Ab. 405; 20 Id. 845; Bac. Ab. Pleas. &c. I 2.

INDUCEMENT, contracts, evidence. The moving cause of an action.

2. In contracts, the benefit.which the obligor is to receive is the inducement to making them. Vide Cause; Consideration.

3. When a person is charged with a crime, he is sometimes induced to make confessions by the flattery of hope, or the torture of fear. When such confessions are made in consequence of promises or threats by a person in authority, they cannot be received in evidence. In England a distinction has been made between temporal and spiritual inducements; confessions made under the former are not receivable in evidence, while the latter may be admitted. Joy on Conf. ss. 1 and 4.

INDUCLAE LEGALES, Scotch law. The days between the citation of the defendant, and the day of appearance. Bell's Scotch Law Dict. h. t. The days between the test and the return day of the writ.

INDUCTION, eccles. law. The giving a clerk, instituted to a benefice, the actual possession of its temporalties, in the nature of livery of seisin. Ayl. Parerg. 299.

INDUTLGENCE. A favor granted.

2. It is a general rule that where a creditor gives .indulgence, by entering into a binding contract with a principal debtor, by which the surety is or may be damnified, such surety is discharged, because the creditor has put it out of his power to enforce immediate payment; when the surety would have a right to require him to do so. 6 Dow, P. C. 238; 3 Meriv. 272; Bac. Ab. Oblig. D; and see Giving Time.

3. But mere inaction by the creditor, if he do not deprive himself of the right to sue the principal, does not in general discharge the surety. See Forbearance.

INELIGIBILITY. The incapacity to be lawfully elected.

2. This incapacity arises from various, causes, and a person may be incapable of being elected to one office who may, be elected to another; the incapacity may also be perpetual or temporary.

3. - 1. Among perpetual inabilities may be reckoned, 1. The inability of women to be elected to a public office. 2. Of citizens born in a foreign country to be elected president of the United States.

4. - 2. Among the temporary inabilities may be mentioned, 1. The holding of an office declared by law to be incompatible with the one sought. 2. The non-payment of the taxes required by law. 3. The want of certain property qualifications required by the constitution. 4. The want of age, or being over the age required. Vide Eligibility. Incompatibility.

INEVITABLE ACCIDENT. A term used in the civil law, nearly synonymous with fortuitous. event. (q. v.) 2 Sm. & Marsh. 572. In the common law commonly called the ad of God. (q. v.) 2 Smed. & Marsh. Err. & App. 572.

INFAMIS. Among the Romans was of a general rule, and not by virtue of an arbitrary decision of the censors, lost his political rights, but preserved his civil rights. Sav. Dr. Rom 79.

INFAMY, crim. law, evidence. That state which is produced by the conviction of crime and the loss of honor, which renders the infamous person incompetent as a witness.

2. It is to be considered, 1st. What crimes or punishment incapacitate a witness. 2d. How the guilt is to be proved. 3d. How the objection answered. 4th. The effect of infamy.

3. - 1. When a man is convicted of an offence which is inconsistent with the common principles of honesty and humanity, the law considers his oath to be of no weight, and excludes his testimony as of too doubtful and suspicious a nature to be admitted in a court of justice to deprive another of life, liberty or property. Gilb. L. E. 256; 2 Bulst. 154; 1 Phil. 23; Bull. N. P. 291. The crimes which render a person incompetent, are treason; 5 Mod. 16, 74; felony; 2 Bulst. 154; Co. Litt. 6; T. Raym. 369; all offences founded in fraud, and which come within the general. notion of the crimen falsi of the Roman law; Leach, 496; as perjury and forgery; Co. Litt. 6; Fort. 209; piracy 2 Roll. Ab. 886; swindling, cheating; Fort. 209; barratry; 2 Salk. 690; and the bribing a witness to absent himself from a trial, in order to get rid of his evidence. Fort. 208. It is the crime and not the punisshment which renders the offender unworthy of belief. 1 Phill. Ev. 25.

4. - 2. In order to incapacitate the party, the judgment must be proved as pronounced by a court possessing competent jurisdiction. 1 Sid. 51; 2 Stark. C. 183; Stark. Ev. part 2, p. 144, note 1; Id. part 4, p. 716. But it has been held that a conviction of an infamous crime in another country, or another of the United States, does not render the witness incompetent on the ground of infamy. 17 Mass. 515. Though this doctrine appears to be at variance with the opinions entertained by foreign jurists, who maintain that the state or condition of a person in the place of his domicil accompanies him everywhere. Story, Confl. 620, and the authorities there cited; Foelix, Traitę De Droit Intern. Privę, 31; Merl. Rępert, mot Loi, 6, n. 6.

5. - 3. The objection to competency may be answered, 1st. By proof of pardon. See Pardon. And, 2d. By proof of a reversal by writ of error, which must be proved by the production of the record.

6. - 4. The judgment for an infamous crime, even for perjury, does not preclude the party from making an affidavit with a view to his own defence. 2 Salk. 461 2 Str. 1148; Martin's Rep. 45. He may, for instance, make an affidavit in relation to the irregularity of a judgment in a cause in which he, is a party, for otherwise he would be without a remedy. But the rule is confined to defence, and he cannot be heard upon oath as complainant. 2 Salk. 461 2 Str. 1148. When the witness becomes incompetent from infamy of character, the effect is the same as if he were dead and if he has attested any instrument as a witness, previous to his conviction, evidence may be given of his handwriting. 2 Str. 833; Stark. Ev. part. 2, sect. 193; Id. part 4, p. 723.

7. By infamy is also understood the expressed opinion of men generally as to the vices of another. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. et des Gens, 148.

INFANCY. The state or condition of a person under tho age of twenty-one years. Vide Infant.

INFANT, persons. One under the age of twenty-one years. Co. Litt. 171.

2. But he is reputed to be twenty-one years old, or of full age, the first instant of the last day of the twenty-first year next before the anniversary of his birth; because, according to the civil computation of time, which differs from the natural computation, the last day having commenced, it is considered as ended. Savig. Dr. Rom. 182. If, for example, a person were born at any hour of the first day of January, 1810, (even a few minutes before twelve o'clock of the night of that day,) he would be of full age at the first instant of the thirty-first of December, 1831, although nearly forty-eight hours before he had actually attained the full age of twenty-one years, according to years, days, hours and minutes, because there is, in this case, no fraction of a day. 1 Sid. 162; S. C. 1 Keb. 589; 1 Salk. 44; Raym. 84; 1 Bl. Com. 463, 464, note 13, by Chitty; 1 Lilly's, Reg. 57; Com. Dig. Enfant, A; Savig. Dr. Rom. 383, 384.

3. A curious case occurred in England of a young lady who was born after the house clock had struck, while the parish clock was striking, and before St. Paul's had begun to strike twelve on the night of the fourth and fifth of January, 1805, and the question was whether she was born on the fourth or fifth of January. Mr. Coventry gives it as his opinion that she was born on the fourth, because the house clock does not regulate anything but domestic affairs, that the parochial clock is much better evidence, and that a metropolitan clock ought to be received with "implicit acquiescence." Cov. on Conv. Ev. 182-3. It is conceived that this can only be prima facie, because, if the fact were otherwise, and the parochial and metropolitan clocks should both have been wrong, they would undoubtedly have had no effect in ascertaining the age of the child.

4. The sex makes no difference, a woman is therefore an infant until she has attained her age of twenty-one years. Co. Litt. 171. Before arriving at full infant may do many acts. A male at fourteen is of discretion, and may consent to marry; and at that age he may disagree to and annul a marriage he may before that time have contracted he may then choose a guardian and, if his discretion be proved, may, at common law, make a will of his personal estate; and may act as executor at the age of seventeen years. A female at seven may be betrothed or given in marriage; at nine she is entitled to dower; at twelve may consent or disagree to marriage; and, at common law, at seventeen may act as executrix.

5. Considerable changes of the common law have probably taken place in many of the states. In Pennsylvania, to act as an executor, the party must be of full age. In general, an infant is not bound by his contracts, unless to supply him for necessaries. Selw. N. P. 137; Chit. Contr. 31; Bac. Ab. Infancy, &c. I 3; 9 Vin. Ab. 391; 1 Com. Contr. 150,.151; 3 Rawle's R. 351; 8 T. R. 335; 1 Keb. 905, 913; S. C. 1 Sid. 258; 1 Lev. 168; 1 Sid. 129; 1 Southard's R. 87. Sed vide 6 Cranch, 226; 3 Pick. 492; 1 Nott & M'Cord, 197. Or, unless he is empowered to enter into a contract, by some legislative provision; as, with the consent of his parent or guardian to put himself apprentice, or to enlist in the service of the United States. 4 Binn. 487; 5 Binn. 423.

6. Contracts made with him, may be enforced or avoided by him on his coming of age. See Parties to contracts; Voidable. But to this general rule there is an exception; he cannot avoid contracts for necessaries, because these are for his benefit. See Necessaries. The privilege of avoiding a contract on account of infancy, is strictly personal to the infant, and no one can take advantage of it but himself. 3 Green, 343; 2 Brev. 438. When the contract has been performed, and it is such as he would be compellable by law to perform, it will be good and bind him. Co. Litt. 172 a. And all the acts of an infant, which do not touch his interest, but take effect from an authority which he has been trusted to execute, are binding. 3 Burr. 1794; Fonbl. Eq., b. 1, c. 2, 5, note c.

7. The protection which the law gives an infant is to operate as a shield to him, to protect him from improvident contracts, but not as a sword to do injury to others. An infant is therefore responsible for his torts, as, for slander, trespass, and the like; but he cannot be made responsible in an action ex delicto, where the cause arose on a contract. 3 Rawle's R. 351; 6 Watts' R. 9; 25 Wend. 399; 3 Shep. 233; 9 N. H. Rep. 441; 10 Verm. 71; 5 Hill, 391. But see contra, 6 Cranch, 226; 15 Mass. 359; 4 M'Cord, 387.

8. He is also punishable for a crime, if of sufficient discretion, or doli capax. 1 Russ. on Cr. 2, 3. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Bingh. on Infancy; 1 Hare & Wall. Sel. Dec. 103, 122; the various Abridgments and Digests, tit. Enfant, Infancy; and articles Age; Birth; Capax Doli; Dead born; Faetus; In ventre sa mere.

INFANTICIDE, med. juris. The murder of a new born infant, Dalloz, Dict. Homicide, 4; Code Penal, 300. There is a difference between this offence and those known by the name of prolicide, (q. V.) and foeticide. (q. v.)

2. To commit infanticide the child must be wholly born; it is not. Sufficient that it was born so far as the head and breathed, if it died before it was wholly born. 5 Carr. & Payn. 329; 24 Eng. C. L. Rep. 344; S. C. 6 Carr: & Payn. 349; S. C. 25 Eng. C. L. Rep. 433.

3. When this crime is to be proved from circumstances, it is proper to consider whether the child had attained that size and maturity by which it would have been enabled to maintain an independent existence; whether it was born alive; and, if born alive, by what means it came to its death. 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 331 to 428, where these several questions are learnedly considered. See also 1 Briand, Męd Lęg. pręm. part. c. 8 Cooper's Med. Jur. h. t. Vide Ryan's Med. Jur. 137; Med. Jur. 145, 194; Dr. Cummin's Proof of Infanticide considered Lęcieux, Considerations Mędico-lęgales sur l'Infanticide; Duvergie, Mędicine Lęgale, art. Infanticide.

INFEOFFMENT, estates. The act or instrument of feoffment. (q. v.) In Scotland it is synonymous with saisine, meaning the instrument of possession; formerly it was synonymous with investiture, Bell's Sc. L. Dict. h. t.

INFERENCE. A conclusion drawn by reason from premises established by proof.

2. It is the province of the judge who is to decide upon the facts to draw the inference. When the facts are submitted to the court, the judges draw the inference; when they are to be ascertained by a jury, it is their duty to do so. The witness is not permitted as a general rule to draw an inference, and testify that to the court or jury. It is his duty to state the facts simply as they occurred. Inferences differ from presumptions. (q. v.)

INFERI0R. One who in relation to another has less power and is below him; one who is bound to obey another. He who makes the law is the superior; he who is bound to obey it, the inferior. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 8.

INFERIOR COURTS. By this term are understood all courts except the supreme courts. An inferior court is a court of limited jurisdiction, and it must appear on the face of its proceedings tliat it has jurisdiction, or its proceedings. will be void. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2529.

INFIDEL, persons, evidence. One who does not believe in the existence of a God, who will reward or punish in this world or that which is to come. Willes' R. 550. This term has been very indefinitely applied. Under the name of infidel, Lord Coke comprises Jews and heathens; 2 Inst 506; 3 Inst. 165; and Hawkins includes among infidels, such as do not believe either in the Old or New Testament. Hawk. P. C. b 2, c. 46, s. 148.

2. It is now settled that when the witness believes in a God who will reward or punish him even in this world he is competent. See willes, R. 550. His belief may be proved from his previous declarations and avowed opinions; and when he has avowed himself to be an infidel, he may show a reform of his conduct, and change of his opinion since the declarations proved when the declarations have been made for a very considerable space of time, slight proof will suffice to show he has changed his opinion. There is some conflict in the cases on this subject, some of theni are here referred to: 18 John. R. 98; 1 Harper, R. 62; 4 N. Hamp. R. 444; 4 Day's Cas. 51; 2 Cowen, R. 431, 433 n., 572; 7 Conn. R. 66; 2 Tenn. R. 96; 4 Law Report, 268; Alis. Pr. Cr. Law, 438; 5 Mason, 16; 15 mass. 184; 1 Wright, 345; So. Car. Law Journ. 202. Vide Atheist; Future state.

INFIRM. Weak, feeble.

2. When a witness is infirm to an extent likely to destroy his life, or to prevent his attendauce at the trial, his testimony de bene esge may be taken at any age. 1 P. Will. 117; see Aged witness.; Going witness.

INFLUENCE. Authority, credit, ascendance.

2. Influence is proper or improper. Proper influence is that which one person gains over another by acts of kindness and, attention, and by correct conduct. 3 Serg. & Rawle, 269. Improper influence is that dominion acquired by any person over a mind of sanity for general purposes, and of sufficient soundness and discretion to regulate his affairs in general, which prevents the exercise of his di scretion, and destroys his free will. 1 Cox's Cas. 355. When the former is used to induce a testator to make a will, it will not vitiate it; but when the latter is the moving cause, the will cannot stand. 1 Hagg. R. 581; 2 Hagg. 142; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 207; 13 Serg. & Rawle, 323; 4 Greenl. R. 220; 1 Paige, R. 171; 1 Dow. & Cl. 440; 1 Speers, 93.

3. A contract to use a party's influeuce to induce a person in authority to exercise his power in a particular way, is void, as being against public policy. 5 Watts & Serg. 315; 5 Penn. St. Rep. 452; 7 Watts, 152.

INFORMALITY. The waut of those forms required by law. Informality is a good ground for a plea in abatement. Com. Dig. Abatement, H 1, 6; Lawes, Pl. 106; Gould, Pl. c. 5, part 1, 132.

INFORMATION. An accusation or complaint made in writing to a court of competent jurisdiction, charging some person with a specific violation of some public law. It differs in nothing from an indictment in its form and substance, except that it is filed at the discretion of the proper law officer of the government, ex officio, without the intervention or approval of a grand jury. 4 Bl. Com. 308, 9.

2. In the French law, the term information is used to signify the act or instrument which contains the depositions of witnesses against the accused. Poth. Proc. Cr. sect. 2, art. 5 .

3. Informations have for their object either to punish a crime or misdemeanor, and these have,.perhaps, never been resorted to in the United States or to recover penalties or forfeitures, which are quite common. For the form and requisites of an information for a penalty, see 2 Chit. Pr. 155 to 171. Vide Blake's Ch. 49; 14 Vin. Ab. 407; 3 Story, Constitution, 1780 3 Bl. Com. 261.

4. In summary proceedings before justices of the peace, the complaint or accusation, at least when the proceedings relate to a penalty, is called an information, and it is then taken down in writing and sworn to. As the object is to limit the informer to a certain charge, in order that the defendant may know what he has to defend, and the justice may limit the evidence and his subsequent adjudication to the allegations in the information, it follows that the substance of the particular complaint must be stated and it must be sufficiently formal to contain all material averments. 8 T. R. 286; 5 Barn. & Cres. 251; 11 E. C. L. R. 217; 2 Chit. Pr. 156. See 1 Wheat. R. 9.

INFORMATION IN THE NATURE OF A WRIT OF QUO WARRANTO, remedies. The name of a proceeding against any one who usurps a franchise or office.

2. Informations of this kind are filed in the highest courts of ordinary jurisdiction in the several states, either by the attorney-general, of his own authority, or by the prosecutor, who is entitled, pro forma, to use his name, as the case may be. 6 Cowen, R. 102, n.; 10 Mass. 290; 2 Dall. 112; 2 Halst. R. 101; 1 Rep Const. Ct. So. Car. 86; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 52; 15 Serg. & Rawle, 127: Though, in form, these informations are criminal, they are, in their nature, but civil proceedings. 3 T. R. 484; Kyd on Corp. 439. They are used to try a civil right, or to oust a wrongful possessor of an office. 3 Dall. 490; 1 Serg. & Rawle. 385, For a full and satisfactory statement of the law on this subject, the reader is referred to Angell on Corp. ch. 20. p. 469. And see Quo Warranto.

INFORMATUS NON SUM, pleading, practice. I am not informed; a formal answer made in court, or put upon record by an attorney when he has nothing to say in defence of his client. Styles Reg. 372.

INFORMER. A person who informs or prefers an accusation against another, whom he suspects of the violation of some penal statute.

2. When the informer is entitled to the penalty or part of the penalty, upon the conviction of an offender, he is or is not a competent witness, accordingly as the statute creating the penalty has or has not made him so. 1 Phil. Ev. 97; Rosc. Cr. Ev. 107; 5 Mass. R. 57; 1 Dall. 68; 1 Saund. 262, c. Vide articles Prosecutor; Rewards.

INFORTIATUM, civil law. The second part of the Digest or Pandects of Justinian, is called infortiatum: see Digest. This part, which commences with the third title of the twenty-fourth book, and ends with the thirty-eighth book, was thus called because it was the middle part, which, it was said, was supported and fortified by the two others. Some have supposed that this name was given to it, because it treats of successions, substitutions, and other important matters, and being, more used than the others, produced greater fees to the lawyers.

INFRA, Latin. Below, under, beneath, underneath. The opposite of supra, above. Thus we say primo gradu est supra, pater, mater; infra, filius, filia. In the first degree of kindred in the ascending line; above, is the father and the mother; below, in the descending line, the son and daughter. Inst. 3, 6, l.

2. In another, sense, this word signifies within; as, infra corpus comitatus, within the body of the county; infra proesidia, within the guards.

3. It also signifies during; as infra furorem during the madness.

INFRA ATATEM. Under age that is, during infancy, or before arriving at the full age of twenty-one years.

INFRA CORPUS COMITATUS. Within the body of the countt.

2. The common law courts have jurisdiction infra corpus comitatus; the admiralty, on the contrary, has no such jurisdiction, unless, indeed, the tide water may extend within such county. 5 Howard's U. S. Rep. 441, 451.

INFRA DIGNITATEM CURAE. Below the dignity of the court. Example, in equity a demurrer will lie to a bill on the ground of the triviality of the matter in dispute, as being below the dignity of the court. See 4 John. Ch. 183; 4 Paige, 364; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4237.

INFRA HOSPITIUM. Within the inn when once a traveller's baggage comes infra hospitium, that is, in the care and under the charge of the innkeeper, it is at his risk. See Guest; Innkeeper.

INFRA PRAESIDIA. This term is used in relation to prizes, to signify that they have been brought completely in the power of the captors, that is, within the towns, camps, ports or fleet of the captors. Formerly, the rule was, and perhaps still in some countries is, that the act of bringing a prize infra praesidia, changed the property but the rule now established is, that there must be a sentence of condemnation to effect this purpose. 1 Rob. Adm. R. 134; 1 Kent's Com. 104; Chit. Law of Nat. 98; Abb. Sh. 14; Hugo, Droit Romain, 90.

INFRACTION. The breach of a law or agreement; the violation of a compact. In the French law this is the generic expression to designate all actions which are punishable by the code of France.

INFUSION, med. jur. A pharmaceutical operation, which consists in pouring a hot or cold fluid upon a substance, whose medical properties it is desired to extract. Infusion is also used for the product of this operation. Although infusion differs from decoction, (q. v.) they are said to be ejusdem generis; and in the case of an indictment which charged the prisoner with giving a decoction, and the evidence was that he had given an infusion, the difference was held to be immaterial. 8 Camp. R. 74.

INGENUI, civ. law. Those freemen who were born free. Vicat, vocab.

2. They were a class of freemen, distinguished from those who, born slaves, had afterwards legally obtained their freedom the latter were called at various periods, sometimes liberti, sometimes libertini. An unjust or illegal servitude did not prevent a man from being ingenuus.

INGRATITUDE. The forgetfulness of a kindness or benefit.

2. In the civil law, ingratitude on the part of a legatee, was sufficient to defeat a legacy in his favour. In Louisiana, donations inter vivos are liable to be revoked or dissolved on account of the ingratitude of the donee; but the revocation on this account can, take place only, in the three following cases: 1. if the donee has attempted to take the life of the donor. 2. If he has been guilty towards him of cruel treatmeut, crimes or grievous injuries. 3. If he has refused him food when in distress. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1546, 1547; Poth. Donations Entrevifs, s. 3, art. 1, 1. There are no such rules in the common law. Ingratitude is not punishable by law.

INGRESS, EGRESS AND REGRESS. These words are frequently used in leases to express the right of the lessee to enter, go upon, and return from the lands in question.

INGRESSU. An ancient writ of entry, by which the plaintiff or complainant sought an entry into his lands. Techn. Dict. h. t.

INGROSSING, practice. The act of copying from a rough draft a writing in order that it may be executed; as, ingrossing a deed.

INHABITANT. One who has his domicil in a place is an inhabitant of that place; one who has an actual fixed residence in a place.

2. A mere intention to remove to a place will not make a man an inhabitant of such place, although as a sign of such intention he may have sent his wife and children to reside there. 1 Ashm. R. 126. Nor will his intention to quit his residence, unless consummated, deprive him of his right as an inhabitant. 1 Dall. 480. Vide 10 Ves. 339; 14 Vin. Ab. 420; 1 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; Const. of Mass., part 2, c. 1, s. 2, a. 1; Kyd on Corp. 321; Anal. des Pand. de Poth. mot Habitans; Poth. Pand. lib. 50, t. 1, s. 2; 6 Adolph. & Ell. 153; 33 Eng. Common Law Rep. 31.

3. The inhabitants of the United States may be classed into, 1. Those born within the country; and, 2. Those born out of it.

4. - 1. The natives consist, 1st. Of white persons, and these are all citizens of the United States, unless they have lost that right. 2d. Of the aborigines, and these are not in general, citizens of the United States nor do they possess any political power. 3d. Of negroes, or descendants of the African race, and these generally possess no political authority whatever, not being able to vote, nor to hold any office. 4th. Of the children of foreign ambassadors, who are citizens or subjects as their fathers are or were at the time of their birth.

5. - 2. Persons born out of the jurisdiction of the United States, are, 1st. children of citizens of the United States, or of persons who have been such; they are citizens of the United States, provided the father of such children shall have resided within the same. Act of Congress of April 14, 1802, 4. 2d. Persons who were in the country at the time of the adoption of the constitution; these have all the rights of citizens. 3d. Persons who have become naturalized under the laws of any state before the passage of any law on the subject of naturalization by Congress, or who have become naturalized under the acts of congress, are citizens of the United States, and entitled to vote for all officers who are elected by citizens, and to hold any office except those of president and vice-president of the United States. 4th. Children of naturalized citizens, who were under the age of twenty-one years, at the time of their parent's being so naturalized or admitted to the rights of citizen-ship, are, if then dwelling in the United States, considered as citizens of the United States, and entitled to the same rights as their respective fathers. 5th. Persons who resided in a territory which was annexed to the United States by treaty, and the territory became a state; as, for example, a person who, born in France, moved to Louisiana in 1806, and settled there, and remained in the territory until it was admitted as a state, it was held, that although not naturalized under the acts of congress, he was a citizen of the United States. Deshois' Case, 2 Mart. Lo. R. 185. 6th. Aliens or foreigners, who have never been naturalized, and these are not citizens of the United States, nor entitled to any political rights whatever. See Alien; Body politic; Citizen; Domicil; Naturalization.

INHERENT POWER. An authority possessed without its being derived from another. It is a right, ability or faculty of doing a thing, without receiving that right, ability or faculty from another.

INHERITANCE, estates. A perpetuity in lands to a man and his heirs; or it is the right to succeed to the estate of a person who died intestate. Dig. 50, 16, 24. The term is applied to lands.

2. The property which is inherited is called an inheritance.

3. The term inheritance includes not only lands and tenements which have been acquired by descent, but also every fee simple or fee tail, which a person has acquired by purchase, may be said to be an inheritance, because the purchaser's heirs may inherit it. Litt. s. 9.

4. Estates of inheritance are divided into inheritance absolute, or fee simple; and inheritance limited, one species of which is called fee tail. They are also divided into corporeal, as houses and lands and incorporeal, commonly called incorporeal hereditaments. (q. v.) 1 Cruise, Dig. 68; Sw. 163; Poth. des Retraits, n. 2 8.

5. Among the civilians, by inheritance is understood the succession to all the rights of the deceased. It is of two kinds, 1 . That which arises by testament, when the testator gives his succession to a particular person; and, 2. That which arises by operation of law, which is called succession ab intestat. Hein. Lec. El. 484, 485.

INHIBITION, Scotch law,. A personal prohibition which passes by letters under the signet, prohibiting the party inhibited to contract any debt, or do . any deed, by which any part of the lands may be aliened or carried off, in prejudice of the creditor inhibiting. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. B. 2, t. 11, s. 2. See Diligences.

2. In the civil law, the probibition which the law makes, or a judge ordains to an individual, is called inhibition.

INHIBITION, Eng. law. The name of a writ which forbids a judge from further proceeding in a cause depending before him; it is in the nature of a prohibition. T. de la Ley; F. N. B. 39.

INIQUITY. Vice; contrary to equity; injustice.

2. Where, in a doubtful matter, the judge is required to pronounce, it is his duty to decide in such a manner as is the least against equity.

INITIAL. Placed at the beginning. The initials of a man's name are the first letters of his Dame; as, G. W. for George Washington. When in a will the legatee is described by the initials of his name only, parol evidence may be given to prove his identity. 3 Ves. 148. And a signature made simply with initials is binding. 1 Denio, R. 471. But see Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 2, n. 8.

INITIALIA TESTIMONII, Scotch law. Before a witness can be examined in chief, he may be examined with regard to his disposition, whether he bear good or ill will towards either of the parties whether he has been prompted what to say whether he has received a bribe, and the like. This previous examination, which somewhat resembles our voir dire, is called initialia testimonii.

INITIATE. A right which is incomplete. By the birth of a child, the hushand becomes tenant by the curtesy initiate, but his estate is not consummate until the death of the wife. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1725.

INITIATIVE, French law. The name given to the important prerogative given by the charte constitutionelle, art. 16, to the late king to propose through his ministers projects of laws. 1 Toull. n. 39. See Veto.

INJUNCTION, remedies, chancery, practice. An injunction is a prohibitory writ, specially prayed for by a bill, in which the plaintiff's title is set forth, restraining a person from committing or doing an act (other than criminal acts) which appear to be against equity and conscience. Mitf. Pl. 124; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 126.

2. Injunctions are of two kinds, the one called the writ remedial, and the other the judicial writ.

3. - 1st. The former kind of injunction, or remedial writ, is in the nature of a prohibition, directed to, and controlling, not the inferior court, but the party. It is granted, when a party is doing or is about to do an act against equity or good conscience, or litigious or vexatious; in these cases, the court will not leave the party to feel the mischief or inconvenience of the wrong, and look to the courts of common law for redress, but will interpose its authority to restrain such unjustifiable proceedings.

4. Remedial injunctions are of two kinds common or special. 1. It is common when it prays to stay proceedings at law, and will be granted, of course; as, upon an attachment for want of an appearance, or of an answer; or upon a dedimus obtained by the defendant to take his answer in the country; or upon his praying for time to answer, &c. Newl. Pr. 92; 13 Ves, 323. 2. A special injunction is obtained only on motion or petition, with notice to the other party, and is applied for, sometimes on affidavit before answer, but more frequently upon the merits disclosed in the defendant's answer. Injunctions before answer are granted in cases of waste and other injuries of so urgent a nature, that mischief would ensue if the plaintiff were to wait until the answer were put in; but the court will not grant an injunction during the pen-dency of a plea or demurrer to the bill, for until that be argued, it does not appear whether or not the court has jurisdiction of the cause. The injunction granted in this stage of the suit, is to continue till answer or further order; the injunction obtained upon the merits confessed in the answer, continues generally till the hearing of the cause.

5. An injunction is generally granted for the purpose of preventing a wrong, or preserving property in dispute pending a suit. Its effect, in general, is only in personam, that is, to attach and punish the party if disobedient in violating the injunction. Ed. Inj. 363; Harr. Ch. Pr. 552.

6. The principal injuries which may be prevented by injunction, relate to the person, to personal property, or to real property. These will be separately considered.

7. - 1. With respect to the person, the chancellor may prevent a breach of the peace, by requiring sureties of the peace. A court of chancery has also summary and extensive jurisdiction for the protection of the relative rights of persons, as between hushand and wife, parent and child, and guardian and ward; and in these cases, on a proper state of facts, an injunction will be granted. For example, an injunction may be obtained by a parent to prevent the marriage of his infant son. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 348; Ed. Inj. 297; 14 Ves. 206; 19 Ves. 282; 1 Chitt. Pr. 702.

8. - 2. Injunctions respecting personal property, are usually granted, 1st. To restrain a partner or agent from making or negotiating bills, notes or contracts, or doing other acts injurious to the partner or principal. 3 Ves. jr. 74; 3 Bro. C. C. 15; 2 Campb. 619; 1 Price, R. 503; 1 Mont. on Part. 93; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 160; Chit. Bills, 58, 61; 1 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. *335; Woodd. Lect. 416.

9. - 2d. To restrain the negotiation of bills or notes obtained by fraud, or without consideration. 8 Price, R. 631; Chit. Bills, 31 to 41; Ed. Inj. 210; Blake's Ch. Pr. 838; 2 Anst. 519; 3 Anst. 851; 2 Ves. jr. 493; 1 Fonb. Eq. 43; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 154. 3d. To deliver up void or satisfied deeds. 1 V. & B. 244; 11 Ves. 535; 17 Ves. 111. 4th. To enter into and deliver a proper security. 1 Anst, 49. 5th. To prevent breaches of covenant or contract, and enjoin the performance of others. Ed. Inj. 308. 6th. To prevent a breach of confidence or good faith, or to prevent other loss as, for example, to restrain the disclosure of secrets, which came to the defendant's knowledge in the course of any confidential employment. 1 Sim. R. 483 and see 1 Jac. & W. 394. An injunction will be granted to prevent the publication of private letters without the authors consent. Curt. on Copyr. 90; 2 Atk. 342; Ambl. 137; 2 Swanst. 402, 427; 1 Ball & Beat. 207; 2 Ves. & B. 19; 1 Mart. Lo. R. 297; Bac. Ab. Injunction A. But the publication will be allowed when necessary to the defence of the character of the party who received them. 2 Ves. & B. 19. 7th. To prevent improper sales, payments, or conveyances. Chit. Eq. Dig. tit. Practice, xlvii. 8th. To prevent loss or inconvenience; this can be obtained on filing a bill quia timet. (q. v.) 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 218 to 225. 9th. To prevent waste of property by an executor or administrator. Ed. Inj. 300; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr.; 160, 224. 10th. To restrain the infringement of patents; Ed. Inj. ch. 12; 14 Ves. 130; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 137; or of copyrights; Ed. Inj. c. 13; 8 Ares. 225; 17 Ves. 424. 11th. To stay proceedings in a court of law. These proceedings will be stayed when justice cannot be done in consequence of accident; 1 John. Cas. 417: 4 John. Ch. R. 287,194; Latch, 24, 146, 148; 1 Vern. 180, 247; 1 Ch. C. 77, 120; 1 Eq. Cas. Ab. 92; or mistake; 1 John. Ch. R. 119, 607; 2 John. Ch. R. 585; 4 John. Ch. R. 85; Id. 144; 2 Munf. 187; 1 Day's Cas. Err. 139; 3 Ch. R. 55; Finch., 413; 2 Freem. 16; Fitzg. 18; or fraud. 1 John. Ch. R. 402; 2 John. Ch. R. 512; 4 John. Ch. R. 65. But no injunction will be granted to stay proceedings in a criminal case. 2 John. Ch. R. 387; 6 Mod. 12; 2 Ves. 396.

9. - 3. Injunctions respecting real property, may be obtained, 1st. To prevent wasteful trespasses or irreparable damages, although the owner may be entitled to retake possession, if he can do so, without a breach of the peace. 1 Chit. Pr. 722. 2d. To compel the performance of lawful works in the least, injurious manner. 1 Turn. & Myl. 181. 3d. To prevent waste. 3 Tho. Co. Litt. 241, M; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 138; Ed. Inj. ch. 8, 9, and 10; 1 John. Ch. R. 11; 2 Atk. 183. 4th. To prevent the creation of a nuisance, either private or public. 1. Private nuisance; for example, to restrain the owner of a house from making any erections or improvements, so as materially to darken or obstruct the ancient lights and windows of an adjoining house. 2 Russ. R. 121. 2. Public nuisances. Though usual to prosecute the parties who create nuisances, by indictment, yet, in some cases, an injunction may be had to prevent the creating of such nuisance. 5 Ves. 129; 1 Mad. Ch. 156; Ed. Inj. ch. 11. 10. - 2d An injunction of the second kind, called the judicial writ, issues subsequently to a decree. It is a direction to yield up, to quit, or to continue possession of lands, and is properly described as being in the nature of an execution. Ed. Inj. 2. 11. Injunctions are also divided into temporary and perpetual. 1. A temporary injunction is one which is granted until some stage of the suit shall be reached; as, until the defendant shall file his answer; until the bearing; and the like. 2. A perpetual injunction is one which is issued when, in the opinion of the court, at the hearing the plaintiff has established a case, which entitles him to an injunction; or when a bill, praying for an injunction, is taken pro confesso; in such cases a perpetual injunction will be decreed. Ed. Inj. 253.

12. The interdict (q. v.) of the Roman law resembles, in many respects, our injunction. It was used in three distinct, but cognate senses. 1. It was applied to signify the edicts made by the proctor, declaratory of his intention to give a remedy in certain cases, chiefly to preserve or to restore possession; this interdict was called edictal; edictale, quod praetoriis edictis proponitur, ut sciant omnes ea forma posse implorari. 2. It was used to signify his order or decree, applying the remedy in the given case before him, and then was called decretal; decretale, quod praetor re nata implorantibus decrevit. It is this which bears a strong resemblance to the injunction of a court of equity. 3. It was used, in the last place, to signify the very remedy sought in the suit commenced under the proctor's edict; and thus it became the denomination of the action itself. Livingston on the Batture case, 5, Am. Law Jour. 271; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 865; Analyse des Pandectes de Pothier, h.t.; Dict. du Dig. h.t.; Clef des Lois Rom. h. t.; Heineccii, Elem. Pand. Ps. 6, 285, 28 Vide, generally, Eden on Injunctions; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 125 to 165; Blake's Ch. Pr. 330 to 344; 1 Chit. Pr. 701 to 731; Coop. Eq. Pl. Index, h. t.; Redesd. Pl. Index, h. t.; Smith's Ch. Pr. h. t.; 14 Vin. Ab. 442; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 173, 434, 442; Com. Dig. Chancery, D 8; Newl. Pr. o. 4, s. 7; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

INJURIA ABSQUE DAMNO. Injury without damage. Injury without damage or loss will not bear an action. The following, cases illustrate this principle. 6 Mod. Rep. 46, 47, 49; 1 Shower, 64; Willes, Rep. 74, note; 1 Lord Ray. 940, 948; 2 Bos. & Pull. 86; 9 Rep. 113; 5 Rep. B. N. P. 120. 72

INJURIOUS WORDS. This phrase is used, in Louisiana, to signify slander, or libelous words. Code, art. 3501.

INJURY. A wrong or tort. Injuries are divided into public and private; and they affect the. person, personal property, or real property.

3. - 1. They affect the person absolutely or relatively. The absolute injuries are, threats and menaces, assaults, batteries, wounding, mayhems; injuries to health, by nuisances or medical malpractices. Those affecting reputation are, verbal slander, libels, and malicious prosecutions; and those affecting personal liberty are, false imprisonment and malicious prosecutions. The relative injuries are those which affect the rights of a hushand; these are, abduction of the wife, or harboring her, adultery and battery those which affect the rights of a parent, as, abduction, seduction, or battery of a child; and of a master, seduction, harboring and battery of his apprentice or servant. Those which conflict with the rights of the inferior relation, namely, the wife, child, apprentice, or servant, are, withholding conjugal rights, maintenance, wages, &c.

4. - 2. Injuries to personal property, are, the unlawful taking and detention thereof from the owner; and other injuries are, some damage affecting the same while in the claimant's possession, or that of a third person, or injuries to his reversionary interests.

5. - 3. Injuries to real property are, ousters, trespasses nuisances, waste, subtraction of rent, disturbance of right of way, and the like.

6. Injuries arise in three ways. 1. By nonfeasance, or the not doing what was a legal obligation, or. duty, or contract, to perform. 2. Misfeasance, or the performance, in an improper manner, of an act which it was either the party's duty, or his contract, to perform. 3. Malfeasance, or the unjust performance of some act which the party had no right, or which he had contracted not to do.

7. The remedies are different, as the injury affects private individuals, or the public. 1. When the injuries affect a private right and a private individual, although often also affecting the public, there are three descriptions of remedies: 1st. The preveative, such as defence, resistance, recaption, abatement of nuisance, surety of the peace, injunction, &c. 2d. Remedies for compensation, which may be by arbitration, suit, action, or summary proceedings before a justice of the peace. 3d. Proceedings for punishment, as by indictment, or summary Proceedings before a justice. 2. When the injury is such as to affect the public, it becomes a crime, misdemeanor, or offence, and the party may be punished by indictment or summary conviction, for the public injury; and by civil action at the suit of the party, for the private wrong. But in cases of felony, the remedy by action for the private injury is generally suspendid until the party particularly injured has fulfilled his duty to the public by prosecuting the offender for the public crime; and in cases of homicide the remedy is merged in the felony. 1 Chit. Pr. 10; Ayl. Pand. 592. See 1 Miles' Rep. 316, 17; and article Civil Remedy.

8. There are many injuries for which the law affords no remedy. In general, it interferes only when there has been a visible bodily injury inflicted by force or poison, while it leaves almost totally unprotected the whole class of the most malignant mental injuries and sufferings unless in a few cases, where, by descending to a fiction, it sordidly supposes some pecuniary loss, and sometimes, under a mask, and contrary to its own legal principles, affords compensation to wounded feelings. A parent, for example, cannot sue, in that character, for an injury inflicted on his child and when his own domestic happiness has been destroyed, unless the fact will sustain the allegation that the daughter was the servant of her father, and that, by, reason of such seduction, he lost the benefit of her services. Another instance may be mentioned: A party cannot recover damages for verbal slander in many cases; as, when the facts published are true, for the defendant would justify and the party injured must fail. A case of this kind, remarkably bard, occurred in England. A young nobleman had seduced a young woman, who, after living with him some time, became sensible of the impropriety of her conduct. She left him secretly, and removed to an obscure place in the kingdom, where she obtained a situation, and became highly respected in consequence of her good conduct she was even promoted to a better and more public employment when she was unfortunately discovered by her seducer. He made proposals to her to renew their illicit intercourse, which were rejected; in order to, force her to accept them, he published the history of her early life, and she was discharged from her employment, and lost the good opinion of those on whom she depended for her livelihood. For this outrage the culprit could not be made answerable, civilly or criminally. Nor will the law punish criminally the author of verbal slander, imputing even the most infamous crimes, unless done with intent to extort a chattel, money, or valuable thing. The law presume, perhaps unnaturally enough, that a man is incapable of being alarmed or affected by such injuries to his feelings. Vide 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 320. See, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

INJURY, civil law, In the technical sense of the term it is a delict committed in contempt, or outrage of any one, whereby his body, his dignity, or his reputation, is. maliciously injured. Voet, Com. ad Pand. lib. 47, t. 10, n. 1.

2. Injuries may be divided into two classes, With reference to the means used by the wrong doer, namely, by words and by acts. The first are called verbal injuries, the latter real.

3. A verbal injury, when directed against a private person, consists in the uttering contumelious words, which tend to expose his character, by making him little or ridiculous. Where the offensive words are uttered in the beat of a dispute, and spoken to the person's face, the law does not presume any malicious intention in the utterer, whose resentment generally subsides with his passion;, and yet, even in that case, the truth of the injurious words seldom absolves entirely from punishment. Where the injurious expressions have a tendency to blacken one's moral character, or fix some particular guilt upon him, and are deliberately repeated in different companies, or banded about in whispers to confidants, it then grows up to the crime of slander, agreeably to the distinction of the Roman law, 1. 15, 12, de injur.

4. A reat injury is inflicted by any fact by which a person's honor or dignity is affected; as striking one with a cane, or even aiming a blow without striking; spitting in one's face; assuming a coat of arms, or any other mark of distinction proper to another, &c. The composing and publish in defamatory libels maybe reckoned of this kind. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 4, 45.

INJUSTICE. That which is opposed to justice.

2. It is either natural or civil. 1. Natural injustice is the act of doing harm to mankind, by violating natural rights. 2. Civil injustice, is the unlawful violation of civil rights.

INLAGARE. To admit or restore to the benefit of law.

INLAGATION. The restitution of one outlawed to the protection of the law. Bract. lib. 2, c. 14.

INLAND. Within the same country.

2. It seems not to be agreed whether the term inland applies to all the United States or only to one state. It has been holden in Now York that a bill of exchange by one person in one state, on another person in another, is an inland bill of exchange; 5 John. Rep. 375; but a contrary opinion seems to have been held in the circuit court of the United States for Pennsylvania. Whart. Dig. tit. Bills of Exchange, E, pl. 78. Vide 2 Phil. Ev. 36, and Bills of Exchange.

INMATE. One who dwells in a part of another's house, the latter dwelling, at the same time, in the said house. Kitch. 45, b; Com. Dig. Justices of the Peace, B 85; 1 B. & Cr. 578; 8 E. C. L. R. 153; 2 Dowl. & Ryl. 743; 8 B. & Cr. 71; 15 E. C. L. R. 154; 2 Mann. & Ryl. 227; 9 B. & Cr. 176; 17 E. C. L. R. 385; 4 Mann. & Ryl. 151; 2 Russ. on Cr. 937; 1 Deac. Cr. L. 185; 2 East, P. Cr. 499, 505; 1 Leach's Cr. L. 90, 237, 427; Alcock's Registration Cases, 21; 1 Mann. & Gran. 83; 39 E. C. L. R. 365. Vide Lodger.

INN. A house where a traveller is furnished with every thing he has occasion for while on his way. Bac. Ab. Inns. B; 12 Mod. 255; 3 B. & A. 283; 4 Campb. 77; 2 Chit. Rep. 484; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 365, n. 6.

2. All travellers have a lawful right to enter an inn for the purpose of being accommodated. It has been held that an innkeeper in a town'through which lines of stages pass, has no right to, exclude the driver of one of these lines from his yard and the common public rooms, where travellers are usually placed, who comes there at proper hours, and in a proper manner, to solicit passengers for his coach, and without doing any injury to the innkeeper. 8 N. H. R. 523; Hamm. N. P. 170. Vide Entry; Guest.

INNAVIGABLE. Not capable of being navigated.

INNINGS, estates. Lands gained from the sea by draining. Cunn. L. Dict. h. t.; Law of Sewers, 31.

INNKEEPER. He is defined to be the keeper of a common inn for the lodging and entertainment of travellers and passengers, their horses and attendants, for a reasonable compensation. Bac. Ab. Inns, &c.; Story, Bailm. 475. But one who entertains strangers occasionally, although he may receive compensation for it, is not an innkeeper. 2 Dev. & Bat. 424.

2. His duties will be first considered and, secondly, his rights.

3. - 1. He is bound to take in and receive all travellers and wayfaring persons, and to entertain them, if he can accommodate them, for a reasonable compensation; and he must guard their goods with proper diligence. He is liable only for the goods which are brought within the inn. 8 Co. 32; Jones' Bailm. 91. A delivery of the goods into the custody of the innkeeper is not, however, necessary, in order to make him responsible; for although he may not know anything of such goods, he is bound to pay for them if they are stolen or carried away, even by an unknown person; 8 Co. 32; Hayw. N. C. R. 41; 14 John. R. 175; 1 Bell's Com. 469; and if he receive the guest, the custody of the goods may be considered as an* accessory to the principal contract; and the money paid for the apartments as extending to the care of the box and portmanteau. Jones' Bailm. 94; Story, Bailm. 470; 1 Bl. Com. 430; 2 Kent, Com. 458 to 463. The degree of care which the innkeeper is bound to take is uncommon care, and he will be liable for a slight negligence. He is responsible for the acts of his domestics and servants, as well as for the acts of his other guests, if the goods are stolen or lost; but he is not responsible for any tort or injury done by his servants or others, to the, person of his guest, without his own cooperation or consent. 8 Co. 32. The innkeeper will be excused whenever the loss has occurred through the fault of the guest. Story, Bailm. 483: 4 M. & S. 306; S. C. 1 Stark. R. 251, note 2 Kent, Com. 461; 1 Yeates' R. 34.

4. - 2. The innkeeper is entitled to a just compensation for his care and trouble in taking care of his guest and his property; and to enable him to obtain this, the law invests him with some peculiar privileges, giving him alien upon the goods, of the guest, brought into the inn, and, it is said, upon the person of his guest, for his compensation. 3 B. & Ald. 287; 8 Mod. 172; 1 Shower, Rep. 270; Bac. Ab. Inns, &c., D. But the horse of the guest can be detained only for his own keeping, and not for the boarding and personal expenses of the guest. Bac. Ab. h. t. The landlord may also bring an action for the recovery of his compensation. Vide, generally, 1 Vin. Ab. 224; 14 Vin. Ab. 436; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Yelv. 67, a, 162, a; 2 Kent, Com. 458; Ayl. Pand. 266; 9 Pick. 280; 21 Wend. 285; 1 Yeates, 35: Oliph. on the Law of Horses, 125; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

INNOCENCE, The absence of guilt.

2. The law presumes in favor of innocence, even against another presumption of law: for example, when a woman marries a second hushand within the space of twelve months after her hushand had left the country, the presumption of innocence preponderates over the presumption of the continuance of life. 2 B. & A. 386 3 Stark. Ev. 1249. An exception to this rule respecting the presumption of innocence has been made in the case of the publication of a libel, the principal being presumed to have authorized the sale, when a libel is sold by his agent in his usual place of doing business. 1 Russ. on Cr. 341; 10 Johns. R. 443; Bull. N. P. 6; Greenl. Ev. 36. See 4 Nev. & M. 341; 2 Ad. & Ell. 540; 5 Barn. & Ad. 86; 1 Stark. N. P. C. 21; 2 Nov. & M. 219.

INNOCENT CONVEYANCES. This term is used in England, technically, to signify those conveyances made by a tenant of his leasehold, which do not occasion a forfeiture these are conveyances by lease and release, bargain and sale, and a covenant to stand seised by a tenant for life. 1 Chit. Pr. 243, 244.

2. In this country forfeitures for alienation of a greater right than the tenant possesses, are almost unknown. The more just principle prevails that the conveyance by the tenant, whatever be its form, operates only on his interest. Vide Forfeiture,

INNOMINATE CONTRACTS, civil law. Contracts which have no particular names, as permutation and transaction, are so called. Inst. 2, 10, 13. There are many innominate contracts, but the Roman lawyers reduced thein to four classes, namely, do ut des, do ut facias, facio ut des, and facio ut facias. (q. v.) Dig. 2, 14, 7, 2.

INNOTESCIMUS, English law. An epithet used for letters-patent, which are always of a charter of feoffment, or some other instrument not of record, concluding with the words Innotescimus per praesentes, &c. Tech. Dict. h. t.

INNOVATION. Change of a thing established for something new.

2. Innovations are said to be dangerous, as likely to unsettle the common law. Co. Litt. 370, b; Id. 282, b. Certainly no innovations ought to be made by the courts, but as every thing human, is mutable, no legislation can be, or ought to be immutable; changes are required by the alteration of circumstances; amendments, by the imperfections of all human institutions but laws ought never to be changed without great deliberation, and a due consideration of the reasons on which they were founded, as of the circumstances under which they were enacted. Many innovations have been made. in the common law, which philosophy, philanthropy and common sense approve. The destruction of the benefit of clergy; of appeal, in felony; of trial by battle and ordeal; of the right of sanctuary; of the privilege to abjure the realm; of approvement, by which any criminal who could, in a judicial combat, by skill, force or fraud kill his accomplice, secured his own pardon of corruption of blood; of constructive treason; will be sanctioned; by all wise men, and none will desire a return to these barbarisms. The reader is referred to the case of James v. the Commo wealth, 12 Serg. & R. 220, and 225 to 2 Duncan, J., exposes the absurdity of some ancient laws, with much sarcasm.

INNOVATION, Scotch law. The exchange of one obligation for another, so that the second shall come in the place of the first. Bell's Scotch Law Dict. h. t. The same as Novation. (q. v.)

INNS OF COURT, Engl. law. The name given to the colleges of the English professors and students of the common law. 2. The four principal Inns of Court are the Inner Temple and Middle Temple, (formerly belonging to the Knights Templars) Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn, (ancient belonging to the earls of Lincoln and ray.) The other inns are the two Sergeants' Inns. The Inns of Chancery were probably so called because they were once inhabited by such clerks, as chiefly studied the forming of writs, which regularly belonged to the cursitors, who are officers of chancery. These are Thavie's Inn, the New Inn, Symond's Inn, Clement's Inn, Clifford's Inn,' Staple's Inn, Lion's Inn, Furnival's Inn and Barnard's Inn. Before being called to the bar, it is necessary to be admitted to one of the Inns of Court.

INNUENDO, pleading. An averment which explains the defendoant's meaning by reference to antecedent matter. Salk. 513; 1 Ld. Raym. 256; 12 Mod. 139; 1 Saund. 243. The innuendo is mostly used in actions for slander. An innuendo, as, "he the said plaintiff meaning," is only explanatory of some matter expressed; it serves to apply the slander to the precedent matter, but cannot add or enlarge, extend, or change the sense of the previous words, and the matter to which it alludes must always appear from the antecedent parts of the declaration or indictment. 1 Chit. Pl. 383; 3 Caines' Rep. 76; 7 Johns. R. 271; 5 Johns. R. 211; 8 Johns. R. 109; 8 N. H. Rep. 256.

3. It is necessary only when the intent may be mistaken, or when it cannot be collected from the libel or slander itself. Cowp. 679; 5 East, 463.

4. If the innuendo materially enlarge the sense of the words it will vitiate the declaration or indictment. 6 T. R. 691; 5 Binn. 218; 5 Johns. R. 220; 6 Johns. R. 83; 7 Johns. Rep. 271. But when the new matter stated in an innuendo is not necessary to support the action, it may be rejected as surplusage. 9 East, R. 95; 7 Johns. R. 272. Vide, generally, Stark. on Slan. 293; 1 Chit. Pl. 383; 3 Chit. Cr. Law, 873; Bac. Ab. Slander, R; 1 Saund. 243, n. 4; 4 Com. Dig. 712; 14 Vin. Ab. 442; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 4 Co. 17.

INOFFICIOUS, civil law. This word is frequently used with others; as, inofficious testament, inofficiosum testamentum; inofficious gift, donatio inofficiosa. An inofficious testament is one not made according to the rules of piety; that is, one made by which the testator has unlawfully omitted or disinherited one of his heirs. Such a disposition is void by the Roman civil law. Dig. 5, 2, 5; see Code, 3, 29; Nov. 115; Ayl. Pand. 405; Civil Code of Lo. art. 3522, n. 21.

INOPS CONSILII. Destitute or without counsel. In the construction of wills a greater latitude is given, because the testator is supposed to have been inops consilii.

INQUEST. A body of men appointed by law to inquire into certain matters; as, the inquest examined into the facts connected with the alleged murder; the grand jury, is sometimes called the grand inquest. The judicial inquiry itself is also called an inquest. The finding of such men, upon an investigation, is also called an inquest or an inquisition.

2. An inquest of office was bound to find for the king upon the direction of the court. The reason given is that the inquest coucluded no man of his right, but only gave the king an opportunity to enter so that he could have his right tried. Moore, 730; Vaughan, 135; 3 H. VII. 10; 2 H. IV. 5; 3 Leon. 196.

INQUIRY, WRIT OF. A writ of inquiry is one issued where a judgment has been entered in a case sounding in damages, without any particular amount being ascertained; this writ is for the purpose of ascertaining the amount to which the plaintiff is entitled. Vide Writ Of Inquiry.

INQUISITION, practice. An examination of certain facts by a jury impannelled by the sheriff for the purpose; the instrument of writing on which their decision is made is also called an inquisition. The sheriff or coroner and the jury who make the inquisition, are called the inquest.

2. An inquisition on an untimely death, if omitted by the coroner, may be taken by justices of gaol delivery and oyer and terminer. or of the peace, but it must be done publicly and openly, otherwise it will be quashed. Inquisitions either of the coroner, or of the other jurisdictions, are traversable. 1 Burr. 18, 19.

INQUISITOR. A designation of sheriffs, coroners, super visum corporis, and the like, who have power to inquire into certain matters.

2. The name, of an officer, among ecclesiastics, who is authorized to inquire into heresies, and the like, and to punish them. An ecclesiastical judge.

INROLLMENT. The act of putting upon a roll. Formerly, the record of a suit was kept on skins of parchment, which, best to preserve them, were kept upon a roll or in the form of a roll; what was written upon them was called the inrollment. After, when such records came to be kept in books, the making up of the record retained the old name of inrollment.

INSANE. One deprived of the use of reason, after he has arrived at the age when he ought to have it, either by a natural defect or by accident. Domat, Lois Civ. Lib. prel. tit. 2, s. 1, n. ll.

INSANITY, med. jur. A continued impetuositv of thought, which, for the time being, totally unfitsga man for judging and acting in relation to the matter in question, with the composure requisite for the maintenance of the social relations of life. Various other definitions of this state have been given, but perhaps the subject is not susceptible of any satisfactory definition, which shall, with, precision, include all cases of insanity, and exclude all others. Ray, Med. Jur. 24, p. 50.

2. It may be considered in a threefold point of view: 1. A chronic disease, manifested by deviations from the healthy and natural state of the mind, such deviations consisting in a morbid perversion of the feelings, affections and habits. 2. Disturbances of the intellectual faculties, under the influence of which the understanding becomes susceptible of hallucinations or erroneous. impressions of a particular kind. 3. A state of mental incoherence or constant hurry and confusion of thought. Cyclo. Practical Medicine, h. t.; Brewster's Encyclopaedia, h. t.; Observations on the Deranged Manifestations of the Mind, or Insanity, 71, 72; Merl. Rępert. mots Demenoe, Folie, Imbecilite; 6 Watts & Serg. 451.

3. The diseases included under the name of insanity have been arranged under two divisions, founded on two very different conditions of the brain. Ray, Med. Jur. ch. 1, 33.

4. - 1. The want of, or a defective development of the faculties. 1st. Idiocy, resulting from, 1. Congenital defect. 2. An obstacle to the development of the faculties, supervening in infancy. 2d. Imbecility, resulting from, 1. Congenital defects. 2. An obstacle to the development of the faculties, supervening in infancy.

5. - 2. The lesion of the faculties subsequent to their development. In this division may be classed, 1st. Mania, which is, 1. Intellectual, and is general or partial. 2. Affective and is general or, partial. 2d. Dementia, which is, 1. Consecutive to mania, or injuries of the brain. 2. Senile, or peculiar to old age.

6. - There is also a disease which has acquired the name of Moral insanity. (q. v.)

7. Insanity is an excuse for the commission of acts which in others would be crimes, because the insane man has no intention; it deprives a man also from entering into any valid contract. Vide Lunacy; Non compos mentis, and Stock on the Law of Non Compotes Mentis; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 417; 3 Addams, R. 90, 91, 180, 181; 3 Hagg. Eccl. R. 545, 598, 600; 2 Greenl. Ev. 369, 374; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

INSCRIPTION, civil law. An engagerment which a person, who makes a solemn accusation of a crime against another, enters into, that he will suffer the same punishment, if he has accused, the other falsely, which would have been inflicted upon him had he been guilty. Code, 9, 1, 10; Id. 9, 2, 16 and 17.

INSCRIPTION, evidence. Something written or engraved.

2. Inscriptions upon tombstones and other proper places, as rings, and the like, are held to be evidence of pedigree. Bull. N. P. 233 Cowp. 591; 10 East, R. 120 13 Ves. 145 Vin. Ab. Ev. T. b. 87: 3 Stark. Ev. 116.

INSCRIPTIONES. The name given by the old English law to any written instrument by which anything was granted. Blount.

INSENSIBLE. In the language of pleading, that which is unintelligible is said to be insensible. Stepb. Pl. 378.

INSIDIATORES VIARUM. Persons who lie in wait, in order to commi some felony or other misdemeanor.

INSMUL. Together; jointly. This word is used in composition; as, insimulcomputassent; non tenent insimul.

INSIMUL COMPUTASSENT, practice, actions. They accounted together.

2. When an account has been stated, and a balance ascertained between the parties, they are said to have computed together, and the amouut due may be recovered in an action of assumpsit, which could not have been done, if the defendant had been the mere bailiff or partner of the plaintiff, and there had been no settlement made; for in that case, the remedy would be an action of account render, or a bill in chancery. It is usual in actions of assumpsit, to add a count commonly called insimul computassent, or an account stated. (q. v.) Lawes on Pl. in Ass. 488.

INSINUATION, civil law. The transcription of an act on the public registers, like our recording of deeds. It was not necessary in any other alienation, but that appropriated to the purpose of donation. Inst. 2, 7, 2; Poth. Traite des Donations, entre vifs, sect. 2, art. 3, 3; Encyclopedie; 8 Toull. n. 198.

INSOLVENCY. The state or condition of a person who is insolvent. (q. v.) .

2. Insolvency may be simple or notorious. Simple insolvency is the debtor's inability to pay his debts; and is attended by no legal badge of notoriety, or promulgation. Notorious insolvency is that which is designated by some public act, by which it becomes notorious and irretrievable, as applying for the benefit of the insolvent laws, and being discharged under the same.

3. Insolvency is a term of more extensive signification than bankruptcy, and includes all kinds of inability to pay a just debt. 2 Bell's Commentaries, 162, 6th ed.

INSOLVENT. This word has several meanings. It signifies a person whose estate is not sufficient to pay his debts. Civ. Code of Louisiana, art. 1980.. A person is also said to be insolvent, who is under a present inability to answer, in the ordinary course of business, the responsibility which his creditors may enforce, by recourse to legal measures, without reference to his estate proving sufficient to pay all his debts, when ultimately wound up. 3 Dowl. & Ryl. Rep. 218; 1 M aule & Selw. 338; 1 Campb. it. 492, n.; Sugd. Vend. 487, 488. It signifies the situation of a person who has done some notorious act to divest himself of all his property, as a general assignment, or an application for relief, under bankrupt or insolvent laws. 1 Peters' R. 195; 2 Wheat. R. 396; 7 Toull. n. 45; Domat, liv. 4, t. 5, n. 1 et 2; 2 Bell's Com. 162, 5th ed.

2. When an insolvent delivers or offers to deliver up all his property for the benefit of his creditors, he is entitled to be discharged under the laws of the, several states from all liability to be arrested. Vide 2 Kent, Com. 321 Ingrah. on Insolv. 9; 9 Mass. R. 431; 16 Mass. R. 53.

3. The reader will find the provisions made by the national legislature on this subject, by a reference to the following acts of congress, namely: Act of March 3, 1797, 1 Story, L. U. S. 465; Act of March 2, 1799; 1 Story, L. S. 630; Act of March 2, 1831, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2236; Act of June 7, 1834, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2358; Act of March 2, 1837, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2536. See Bankrupt.

INSPECTION, comm. law. The examination of certain articles made by law subject to such examination, so that they may be declared fit for commerce. The decision of the inspectors is not final; the object' of the law is to protect the community from fraud, and to preserve the character of the merchandise abroad. 8 Cowen, R. 45. See 1 John. 205; 13 John. R. 331; 2 Caines, R. 312; 3 Caines, R. 207.

INSPECTION, practice. Examination. 2. The inspection of all public records is free to all persons who have an interest in them, upon payment of the usual fees. 7 Mod. 129; 1 Str. 304; 2 Str. 260, 954, 1005. But it seems a mere stranger who has no such interest, has no right, at common law. 8 T. R. 390. Vide Trial by insection.

INSPECTOR. The name given to certain officers whose duties are to examine and inspect things over which they have jurisdiction; as, inspector of bark , one who is by law authorized to examine bark for exportation, and to approve or disapprove of its quality. Inspectors of customs are officers appointed by the general government: as to their duties, see Story's L. U. S. vol. 1, 590, 605, 609, 610, 612, 619, 621, 623, 650; ii. 1490, 1516; iii. 1650, 1790.

INSPEXIMUS. We have seen. A word sometimes used in letters-patent, reciting a grant, inspeximus such former grant, and so reciting it verbatim; it then grants such further privileges as are thought convenient. 5 Co. 54.

INSTALLATION or INSTALMENT. The act by which an officer is put in public possession of the place he is to fill. The president of the United States, or a governor, is installed into office, by being sworn agreeably to the requisition of the constitution and laws. Vide Inavguration.

INSTALMENT, contracts. A part of a debt due by contract, and agreed to be paid at a time different from that fixed for the, payment of the other part. For example, if I engage to pay you one thousand dollars, in two payments, one on the first clay of January, and the other on the first day of July, each of these payments or obligations to pay will be an instalment .

2. In such case each instalment is a separate debt so far that it may be tendered at any time, or the first may be sued for although the other shall not be due. Dane's Ab. vol. iii. ch. 93, art. 3, s. 11, page 493, 4; 1 Esp. R. 129; Id. 226; 3 Salk. 6, 18: Esp. R. 235; 1 Maule & Selw. 706. 3. A debtor who by failing to pay three instalments of rent due on a lease would forfeit his estate, may, in order to save it, tender one instalment to prevent the forfeiture, although there may be two due at the time, and he is not bound to tender both. 6 Toull. n. 688.

INSTANCE, civil and French law. It signifies, generally, all sorts of actions and judicial demands. Dig. 44, 7, 58.

INSTANCE COURT, Eng. law. The English court of admiralty is divided into two distinct tribunals; the one having, generally, all the jurisdiction of the admiralty, except in prize cases, is called the instance court; the other, acting under a special commission, distinct from the usual commission given to judges of the admiralty, to enable the judge in time of war to assume the jurisdiction of prizes, and' called Prize court.

2. In the United States, the district courts of the U. S. possess all the powers of courts of admiralty, whether considered as instance or prize courts. 3 Dall. R. 6. Vide 1 Gall. R. 563; Bro. Civ. & Adm. Law, ch. 4 & 5; 1 Kent, Com. 355, 378. Vide Courts of the United States; Prize Court.

INSTANT. An indivisible space of time.

2. Although it cannot be actually divided, yet by intendmeent of law, it may be applied to several purposes; for example, he who lays violent hands upon himself, commits no felony till he is dead, and when he is dead he is not in being so as to be termed a felon; but he is so adjudged in law, eo instante, at the very instant this fact is done. Vin. Ab. Instant, A, pl. 2; Plowd. 258; Co. Litt. 18; Show. 415.

INSTANTER. Immediately; presently. This term, it is said, means that the act to which it applies, shall be done within twenty-four hours but a doubt has been suggested by whom is the account of the hours to be kept, and whether the term instanter as applied to the subject-matter may not be more properly taken to mean "before, the rising of the court," when the act is to be done in court; or, "before the shutting of the office the same night," when the act is to be done there. 1 Taunt. R. 343; 6 East, R. 587, n. e; Tidd's Pr. 3d ed. 508, n.; 3 Chit. Pr. 112. Vide, 3 Burr. 1809; Co. Litt. 157; Styles' Register, 452.

INSTAR. Likeness; resemblance; equivalent as, instar dentium, like teeth; instar omnium, equivalent to all.

INSTIGATION. The act by which one incites another to do something, as to injure a third person, or to commit some crime or misdemeanor, to coramence a suit or to prosecute a criminal. Vide Accomplice.

INSTITOR, civ. law. A clerk in a store an agent.

2. He was so called because he watched over the business with which he was charged; and it is immaterial whether he was employed in making a sale in a store, or whether charged with any other business. Institor appellatus est ex eo, quod negotio gerendo instet; nec multum facit tabernae sit praepositus, an cuilibet alii negotiationi. Dig. lib. 14, tit. 3, l. 3. Mr., Bell says, that the charge given to a clerk to manage a store or shop, is called institorial power. 1 Bell's Com. 479, 6th ed.; Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 3, 46; 1 Stair's Inst. by Brodie, B. 1, tit. 11, 12, 18, 19; Story on Ag. 8.

INSTITUTE, Scotch law. The person first called in the tailzie; the rest, or the heirs of tailzie, are called substitutes. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 3, 8, 8. See Tailzie, Heir of; Substitutes.

2. In the civil law, an inastitute is one who is appointed heir by testament, and is required to give the estate devised to another person, who is called the substitute.

TO INSTITUTE. To name or to make an heir by testament. Dig. 28, 5, 65. To make an accusation; to commence an action.

INSTITUTES. The principles or first elements of jurisprudence.

2. Many books have borne the title of Institutes. Among the most celebrated in the common law, are the Institutes of Lord Coke, which, however, on account of the want of arrangement and the diffusion with which his books are written, bear but little the character of Institutes; in the, civil law the most generally known are those of Caius, Justinian, and Theophilus.

3. The Institutes of Caius are an abridgment of the Roman law, composed by the celebrated lawyer Caius or Gaius, who lived during th e reign of Marcus Aurelius.

4. The Institutes of Justinian, so called, because they are, as it were, masters and instructors to the. ignorant, and show an easy way to the obtaining of the knowledge of the law, are an abridgment of the Code and of the Digest, composed by order of that emperor: his intention in this composition was to give a summary knowledge of the law to those persons not versed in it, and particularly to merchants. The lawyers employed to make this book, were Tribonian, Theophilus, and Dorotheus. The work was first published in the year 533, and received the sanction of statute law, by order of the emperor. The Institutes of Justinian are divided into four books: each book is divided into two titles, and each title into parts. The first part is called principium, because it is the commencement of the title; those which follow are numbered and called paragraphs. The work treats of the rights of persons, of things, and of actions. The first book treats of persons; the second, third, and the first five titles of the fourth book, of things; and the remainder of the fourth book, of actions. This work has been much admired on account of its order and Scientific arrangement, which presents, at a single glance, the whole jurisprudence of the Romans. It is too little known and studied. The late Judge Cooper, of Pennsylvania, published an edition with valuable notes.

5. The Institutes of Theophilus are a paraphrase of those of Justinian, composed in Greek, by a lawyer of that name, by order of the emperor Phocas. Vide 1 Kent, Com. 538; Profession d'Avocat tom. ii. n. 536, page 95; Introd. a l'Etude du Droit Romain, p. 124; Dict. de Jurisp. h. t.; Merl. Rępert. h. t.; Encyclopędie de d'Alembert, h. t.

INSTITUTION, eccl. law. The act by which the ordinary commits the cure of souls to a person presented to a benefice.